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Distributed/Onsite Generation

Options Identification and

Consultation Services

Tom Rooney, Scott Albert

GDS Associates, Inc.
1181 Elm Street, Suite 205
   Manchester, New Hampshire 03101
(603) 656-0336
Distributed Generation – An

Distributed Generation (DG) is not a new

concept but is receiving increased attention as
the electric power industry begins to consider
fundamental changes to its business practices
to meet the new era of competition. What is
now considered distributed generation has
taken on many names in the past, including
back-up or stand-by generation, cogeneration,
combined heat and power, renewable
generation, and remote power.
Distributed Generation – An
Overview – cont’d

A broader definition of Distributed

Generation is referred to as Distributed
Energy Resources (DER) and encompasses
not only generation but also tools for reducing
energy usage on the customer’s side of the
meter such as storage technologies, end-use
technologies and Demand Side Management
(DSM) concepts.
Distributed Generation – An
Overview – cont’d

Distributed Energy Resources, unlike

traditional large-scale central generation
sources, are small, modular, and are
typically located on-site or near large
energy end users. There are a number of
technologies, both renewable and fossil
fueled, that make up the current, and near
future, portfolio of distributed generation
What Can GDS Associates,
Inc. Do For You?

• Characterization of Clientele's Customer


• Spreadsheet Modeling to Visualize the

Systematic Analysis of Data

• Calculation of Market Potential for

Identification and

• Researching to Establish a
Comprehensive List
of Potential Customers
• Researching and Providing Up to Date
Technological and Advancement
for Application of DG Technology

• Create Distributed Generation

Technology Profiles for Review

• Provide Detailed Factual Information

Distinguish Customer Types
• Characterization of Costs Associated
Each Customer Type
Potential Geothermal Heat
Pump Installation Candidates
Customer Facility Square
Class Building Type Footage

Residential • Residential Home – Electric Heat • 2,500

• Residential Home – Gas Heat • 2,500
• Hotel • 100,000
Commercial • Fast Food (3 Meals) • 1,950
• Grocery • 32,000
• Non – Refrigerated Warehouse • 15,000
Industrial • Refrigerated Warehouse • 25,000
• Dairy Farm – Large (Elec DHW) • N/A
Agricultural • Dairy Farm – Medium (Gas DHW) • N/A

This table identifies the customer categories and building types that
were considered for potential geothermal heat pump installation
candidates. For modeling purposes, each building type was broken
into sub-groups and facility square footages were identified.
Mock Technology Availability and
Target Customer Sectors Chart
Commercially Target Customer Sectors
Technology Available* (for mature technologies)

Reciprocating Engines Yes Small and Large Commercial,

Industrial, Agricultural

Microturbines Yes Small and Large Commercial,

Fuel Cells Yes Small and Large Commercial,
Wind Turbines Yes Residential, Small and Large
Commercial, Industrial,
Photovoltaic Modules Yes Residential, Small and Large
This table identifies the different technologies Agricultural
available and matches
them to their targeted customer sectors.

• Evaluate Each Possibility Through

Feasibility, Cost Comparisons,
Reliability, and Efficiency Studies

• Prioritized Ranking of Separate

Scenarios to
Assess All Unique Combinations of
Customer/Technology Type Applications
• Generate Customer/Technology-Specific
Simple Payback Charts
Mock Simple-Payback Chart
Customer Payback
Type/Sub-Group Technology (yrs)

C/I Wholesale Trade – Recip/D – 68 kw,

Medium 90%CF/50%WH 3
C/I Wholesale Trade – Recip/D – 11 kw,
Medium 90%CF/50%WH 5
C/I Warehouse – Wind Turbines –
Large 660 kw, 20% CF 14
Restaurant (1 Meal) *Ground Source –
Horizontal Closed Loop 4

*Using Geothermal Heat Pump Technology

Calculation of Market

• Market Potential Derived From

Calculated Payback Period and
Estimated Market Participation Rates

• Financial Analysis, Forecasting, and

Marketing Costs Calculations
Mock Geothermal Heat Pump
Technology Market Potential
Estimated Market
Company X Service Potential @ 10%
Territory Participation
Territory 1
• 200 GHP Systems
Commercial/Agricultural 42,500 GHP Systems
• Residential

Territory 2
• 20 GHP Systems
Outstanding DG-Related
Issues for Utilities
• Design of Innovative Electric Utility Pricing and
Rate Structures

• Interconnection Regulations, Including a Full

Assessment of Associated Costs and Risks

• Opportunities for Utilities as DG Owners/Operators

• Rate Base Erosion Impacts and Compensation for

Stranded Costs Associated with DG Installation
Outstanding DG-Related
Issues for Customers
• Accurate/Unbiased Equipment Selection and
Determination of the Economic Viability of the DG
• Is the Technology Capable of Providing the Required
• Risk Associated With Substantial Initial Investment
• Lack of Standardized Interconnection Requirements
• Equipment Certification Requirements
• Status of Net Metering – Not Necessarily Paying
Market Price
• Siting and Permitting of Equipment
• Who Should Own and Operate the DG Plant (Not Part
of Customer’s Core Business)?
Methodology of Recent
Geothermal Heat Pump Project

1. Secondary Research

2. Customer Group and Technology


3. Market Potential Assessment

Secondary Research

• Research Was Done to Identify Various Applicable

Geothermal Heat Pump (GHP) Technologies and Key
Performance/Cost Input Information for Use in the
Screening/Prioritization Task.
Customer Group and
• Determining Which Geothermal Heat Pump
Technologies Had Potential for Application Within
Various Customer Groups.

• Using Spreadsheet Models to Calculate a Simple

Payback for Each Technology Selected for
Installation at Specific Customer Type Locations.

• Ranking, Prioritizing, and Summarizing Each

Technology Modeled to Show Those Most Likely
to be Viable Within Specific Customer
Market Potential

• The Estimation of Market Potential for

Geothermal Heat Pumps Individually
Within Each Service Territory
Who are We?

“GDS Associates, Inc. is dedicated to providing

comprehensive, expert utility services, enhanced by
state-of-the-art resources. In the evolving utility
industry, GDS provides a solid foundation in its
commitment to clients and employees, its dedication to
value, and its professional approach.”

GDS’s Engineers, Statisticians, Analysts, and

Management are Fully Capable of Matching the
Right Distributed Generation Technology With
For More Information:

• Visit http://www.gdsassociates.com
• Contact us at:

1850 Parkway Place, Suite 800 15 Constitution

Drive Marietta, Georgia 30067 Bedford, NH
Voice 770-425-8100 Voice 603-471-
Fax 770-426-0303 Fax 603-471-0376