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# Air Conditioning Design - Psychrometrics & Coil Load Calculation 1

## Air Conditioning Design

Keith E. Elder, P.E.

Coils
• Coils are the main devices for transferring energy
to/from the airstream in an air-handling system.
• Heat Transfer Media
– Hydronic Fluid (Water)
– Steam
– Direct Expansion
– Apparatus Dew Point
– Bypass Factor

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Air Conditioning Design - Psychrometrics & Coil Load Calculation 2

## Dry Bulb Temperature

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Air Conditioning Design - Psychrometrics & Coil Load Calculation 3

Terminology
• Sensible Cooling
• Latent Cooling
• Space Sensible Cooling
• Space Sensible Heat Ratio (Factor)
• Grand Sensible Heat Ratio (Capacity)
• Apparatus Dew Point
• Bypass Factor

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Air Conditioning Design - Psychrometrics & Coil Load Calculation 4

## The ratio of space sensible cooling to total

cooling is useful for plotting the slope of the
path that supply air travels after introduction
into the space.

SHR

## Apparatus dew point (ADP) is the coil surface

dew point temperature required to accomplish
a cooling/dehumidifying process.

Coil
Coil Entering
Appratus Leaving Air
Dew Point Air

## Dry Bulb Temperature

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Air Conditioning Design - Psychrometrics & Coil Load Calculation 5

## An ADP is essential to any cooling or

dehumidifying process. The chart below
shows an impossible process because there is
Coil
Entering
Coil Air
Leaving
Air

## Apparatus Dew Point

Relationship of ADP to Supply Air and
Chilled Water temperatures

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Air Conditioning Design - Psychrometrics & Coil Load Calculation 6

Bypass Factor
Some of the air flowing through the coil impinges
on the water tubes or the fins and is cooled to the
ADP. Other air passes through unchanged.

Coil
Entering
Air

Fin

## The percentage of air that passes through the coil

unchanged is called the bypass factor.

8-Row Coil
80 fpf /2 fps/44 EWT / WTR = 10
Coil Bypass

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Air Conditioning Design - Psychrometrics & Coil Load Calculation 7

Coil Selection

• Find the intersection of the SHR
with desired room temperature and
supply air temperature
Room
Supply
Air

Room Air
SHR Temperature

## Dry Bulb Temperature

Supply
Air
Temperature

Coil Selection
Determine Outside Air Requirements Using
ASHRAE Standard 62

## Offices 20 CFM per person

Schools 15 CFM per person
Bars 30 CFM per person
Smoking Lounges 60 CFM per person
Corridors 0.05 CFM/ft2

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Air Conditioning Design - Psychrometrics & Coil Load Calculation 8

Outside Air
Coil
Coil Entering

Room Air

Outside Air
Coil

Coil Entering

Room Air
SHR

## Dry Bulb Temperature

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Air Conditioning Design - Psychrometrics & Coil Load Calculation 9

Entering
Air Enthalpy

h

Leaving
Air Enthalpy

## Coil Capacity Requirement

Qcoil = 4.5 x CFM x h

Determine the minimum cooling coil load and required
chilled water flow for a system serving an office space with a
8,500 Btu/h?
Indoor design conditions are 75oF/50% RH, and Outdoor
design conditions are 85oF DB/70oF WB.
The minimum ventilation air is 33% of the total supply air
which is delivered at 55oF. The fan selected is a 70% efficient
"draw-through" arrangement, and delivers air at 4.0 inches
total pressure.
No manufacturer’s coil data is available. Assume 10°F
chilled water temperature rise through the coil.

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Air Conditioning Design - Psychrometrics & Coil Load Calculation10

CFM = 30,800 = 1400
1.10 (75 - 55)
30,800 = 0.80
SHR = 30,800 + 8,500

0.7

## • Plot Space Conditions of 75°F/50% RH

• Find the intersection of the SHR line with
space temperature and supply air
temperature
55°F

Room Air
SHR=0.70 75°F / 50% RH

## Dry Bulb Temperature

Supply
Air
Temperature

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Air Conditioning Design - Psychrometrics & Coil Load Calculation11

• Plot Outdoor Conditions of 85°F/ 70°F WB
• Locate Mixed Air Condition (33% OA)
• Account for Fan t
Outside Air
85°F / 70°F WB

55°F
53°F
Mixed Air

## Room Air Design

SHR=0.80 75°F / 50% RH

tfan

## Dry Bulb Temperature

Supply
Air
Temperature

• Determine enthalpy for coil entering and
leaving conditions

## hEA = 29.8 Btu/lb

Outside Air
hLA = 21.5 Btu/lb 85°F / 70°F WB

Mixed Air

## Room Air Design

SHR=0.80 75°F / 50% RH

## Dry Bulb Temperature

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Air Conditioning Design - Psychrometrics & Coil Load Calculation12

• qcoil = 4.5 x CFM x h
= 4.5 x 1400 x (29.8 - 21.5)
= 52,290 Btu/hr
hEA = 29.8 Btu/lb

Outside Air
hLA = 21.5 Btu/lb 85°F / 70°F WB

Mixed Air

## Room Air Design

SHR=0.80 75°F / 50% RH

## Dry Bulb Temperature

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Air Conditioning Design - Psychrometrics & Coil Load Calculation13

## Determine Chilled Water Flow

qtotal = mCpT
For water at  = 62.34 lbm/ft3 and Cp = 1.0
qtotal = 500 x GPM x T

## GPM= qcoil = 52,290

(500 x T) (500 x F)

= 10.5 GPM

## Homework – Not Required

• What is the coil load for the following?
– Indoor 76 oF/45% RH - Outdoor 82/66oF
– Load (Btu/h) 100,000 Sensible - 40,000 Latent
– Supply air 55oF through draw-through fan
– Fan Total Pressure = 3 in w.c.
– Fan Efficiency = 60%
– Outside air = 50% of total supply
• Show your work on the psychrometric chart

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