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2010



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2010

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02.03.2010, 6

2009 ,
12 ,
.

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20092018 .

-
, , 2010
.. , .. , 2010


I.
1 ..
2 ...
3
3.1. ....
3.2. . .
3.3.
3.4.
3.5. ...
4
4.1. ..
4.2. ...
4.3. , ...
4.4. ..
4.5.
5
6 ...
7 ..
7.1. ..
7.2. ..
8 ..
II.
1 .
..
1.1. . .
1.2. ..
1.3. .
.
1.4. .
1.5.
1.6. \ m .
1.7. ,
..
1.8. .
1.9. ...
2 .
..
2.1. ..
2.2. .
3

7
8
9
9
10
10
11
12
14
14
16
18
18
20
27
29
33
33
34
36

40
40
42
45
46
47
47
48
49
52
52
52
53

2.3.
..
2.4. ..
2.5.
3 . e...
3.1. ..
3.2. .
3.3. e...
4 . -.
4.1. ..
4.2. -...
4.3. .
5 ..
5.1.
5.2. ...
6
III.
1 ...
1.1. ..
1.2. .
1.3. ...
1. 4. ...
1.5. ...
1.6. ...
2
2.1. ...
2.2. ...
2.3.
2.4. ...
2.5. .
2.6. ..
3 ...
3.1. , .
3.2.
3.3.
3.4. .
3.5. ...
3.6. ...
3.7. .
....
3.8. .

56
56
58
58
58
59
60
61
61
65
65
68
68
74
77
80
80
80
81
81
82
85
87
88
89
90
91
93
94
95
95
96
96
97
98
98
99
100

4 ..
4.1.
4. 2. ..
4.3.
4.4. .
4.5. ...
5 ..
5.1. .
5.2. ..
5.3.
6 . .
6.1. ..
6.2. ...

101
101
103
104
106
110
112
112
112
122
124
124
126

IV.

1
..
1.1. ..
1.2. ,
1.3. ..
1.4. ...
1.5.
2 . ...
2.1. , , ..
2.2.
2.3.
2.4. ..
2.5. .
2.6. , ..
3
3.1. ..
3.2.
4
4.1. ...
4.2. ..
4.3. ...
4.4.
4.5. ...
5
5.1. ..
5.2. ..
5.3.
-.

129
129
130
131
132
133
134
134
136
137
138
139
140
141
141
143
144
144
145
145
146
149
150
150
151

153

6 .
0
6.1. ...
0

6.2. ..

7 ...
7.1. ..
7.2. ...
7.3. .
7.4. .
7.5. ..
7.6. ..
8 ..
8.1. ..
8.2. ..
8.3. .
..

156
156
157
159
159
161
164
165
169
171
176
176
176
178
180

I.
1
,
, .
. , .
, , .

:
1.
- , , ,
, .
2.
- , ,
, .
, , All Exists .
, x y x + y = 5 :
x y , x + y = 5 .
3.
. ,
: , , , ,
,
, , , .
, x 6 x 2 : x
6, x 2 , x 6, , x 2 , x 2, ,
x 6.
4.
. : ,
, , .
, Pn ( x ) , Pn ( x ) ( x x0 ) x0 Pn ( x )

: , Pn ( x ) x x0 ,
, x0 Pn ( x ) x x0 , x0
.
5.
. , ,
.
.
. ( ) :
7

, ,
( ) :
.
4n 1 :
, n
n 4n 1 , : n, 4n 1 . n
( 2n + 1) 4 : n, 2n + 1 4, n 2n + 1 4.
2
,
, .
n! ( n-) - 1 n. , , 0! = 1 .

( a + b )n = Cn0a n + Cn1a n1b + Cn2a n2b 2 + ... + Cnk a nk b k + ... + Cnnbn ,


a b - , n - ,
Cn0 , Cn1 , Cn2 ,..., Cnk ,..., Cnn n!
Cnk =
.
k !( n k )!
n = 2 n = 3 .
, :
1. Cn0 = Cnn = 1 ;
2. Cn1 = Cnn1 = n ;
3. Cnk = Cnnk ;
4. Cnk + Cnk +1 = Cnk++11 .
. :
n!( k + 1 + n k )
n!
n!
+
=
=
Cnk + Cnk +1 =
k !( n k )! ( k + 1)!( n k 1)! ( k + 1)!( n k )!

( n + 1)!
= Cnk++11.
( k + 1)!( ( n + 1) ( k + 1) )!

.
.
. , ( a + b ) = C10 a + C11b .
.

1

( a + b )m = Cm0 a m + Cm1 a m1b + Cm2 a m2b 2 + ... + Cmk a mk b k + ... + Cmmbm


m . ,

( a + b )m+1 = Cm0 +1a m+1 + Cm1 +1a mb + Cm2 +1a m1b2 + ... + Cmk +1a m+1k bk + ... + Cmm++11bm+1 .
,

( a + b )m+1 =
= (a + b)

( a + b ) = ( Cm0 a m + Cm1 a m1b + Cm2 a m2b 2 + ... + Cmk a mk bk + ... + Cmmb m ) ( a + b ) =

= Cm0 a m+1 + Cm1 a mb


+ Cm0 a mb

Cm2 a m1b 2

+ Cm1 a m1b 2

+ ... + Cmk a mk +1b k

+ ... + Cmm ab m +

+ ... + Cmk 1a mk +1b k + ... + Cmm1ab m + Cmmb m+1 =

1
= Cm0 a m+1 + Cm
+ Cm0 a mb + Cm2 + Cm1 a m1b 2 + ... + Cmk + Cmmk +1 a mk +1b k +

+ ... + Cmm + Cmm1 ab m + Cmmb m+1 =


= Cm0 +1a m+1 + Cm1 +1a mb + Cm2 +1a m1b 2 + ... + Cmk +1a mk +1b k + ... +

Cmm+1ab m

+ Cmm++11b m+1.

, n.

3
3.1.

,
. ,
,
, ,
.
: , ,
, ,
, , .. , , ,
.
, ,
. .
,
. ,
x 2 + 6 x + 10 = 0 . .
,
, a A a a , a A a
a
.
,
, ,
9

A = {1,3,6,10} . ,
.
, B = {1,4,9,16,...} . , . , ,
.
,
, .
. , , , . ,
C = { x | x , x = 4n + 1, n = 0,1,2,3,...} - , 4 1.
3.2. .

A B , B A , , B
A , A
B . : B A .
B , B A A B . , , .
3.3.

( )
.
.
A B C , , .
: C = A B .

1.

A = { x | 2 x < 5} ,
B = { x | 4 < x 7} .

A B = { x | 2 x 7} .
A B
C , , .
C = A B .
1.3.2. A B
. A B = { x | 4 < x < 5} .
, . ,
10

A , ,

A ,

- .

A B C , , A , B .
C = A \ B .
A \ B = { x | 2 x 4} .
, ,
. .
A ( A )
C ,
, A .
, , ( ) .
..
A Ad .
, .
3.4.

,
:
A B = B A;
1.
5. A = A ;
2.
A B = B A;
6. A = ;
d
3.
A ( B C ) = ( A B) ( A C ) ;
7. ( A B ) = Ad B d ;
4.
A ( B C ) = ( A B) ( A C ) ;
d
8. ( A B ) = Ad B d .

. , 3 7.
3.
a A ( B C ) ,

11

a A
a A

a A
a B a A B

a ( A B) ( A C ).
a B C a B
a

C
a

a C
a C

, , a A ( B C ) a ( A B ) ( A C ) , , A ( B C ) ( A B ) ( A C ) .
. a ( A B ) ( A C ) .
a A
a A

a
B

a A
a A B

, ,
. a B

a
B
C

a
A

a A C

a C
a C

, a A ( B C ) ( A B ) ( A C ) A ( B C ) .

, A ( B C ) = ( A B ) ( A C ) .
7.

a A
d
, ,
a ( A B ) , a A B , ..
a B

a Ad
d
a Ad B d , ( A B ) Ad B d .

d
a B
a Ad B d .

d
a A
a A
d
d

a A B a ( A B ) . Ad B d ( A B )

d
a B
a B

, ( A B ) = Ad B d .
d

3.5.

1.3.1. X Y . f , x X y Y ,
X Y .
X , Y f .
, X Y
f

f : X Y X Y . , y Y x X , x y y = f ( x ) .
X .
y , x X , x f ( x ) .

{ f ( x ) | x X } = Y0
12

Y ,

. Y0
. Y0 = Y , , f X
Y , f .
2. X = Y = - ,
x X x 2 . X Y , ,
(),
.
X - Y - , x x 2 , X Y , .. .
3. X -
( ), Y l . M M1 ,
A, M , M1 .
X Y .
X - A Y - l M
M1 ,
A, M , M1 , .
4. X = , Y - .
. .
Y , n
yn . , Y : n yn , n , yn Y .

{ yn }n=1 , , y1, y2 , y3 ,... , .


. ,
{ yn } ,
. ,
. ,
13

1 + ( 1)
, n .
yn =
2
0, 1, 0, 1, 0,..., ,
: {0, 1} .
n

y Y0 . { x | f ( x ) = y} (

) y
f 1 ( y ) . , y Y . ,
y Y0 , - .
X Y , Y
, , X Y
- . X Y
x y f , .
,
. , A X { y | y Y , y = f ( x ) , x A} , B Y

{ x | x X , f ( x ) = y, y B} .

f ( A ) , B - f 1 ( B ) .
4

,
.
, . ,
, , ,
.
4.1.

(
), :
1. a b
a+b=b+a.
.
2. a, b c
( a + b) + c = a + (b + c ) .
.
14

3. ,
( ) 0 ,
a
a+0= a.
4. a , a ,
a + ( a ) = 0 .
.
1.
.
, 0 0 .
0 = ( 3)= 0 + 0 = ( 1)= 0 + 0 = ( 3)= 0 .
2.
, , .
, a b
b ' . , 3, 4, 2, 1, 4, 3,
b = b + 0 = b + ( a + b ) = ( b + a ) + b = 0 + b = b .

3.
a ( a ) = a .
, a a .
, ( a ) + a = a + ( a ) = 0 , , a = ( a ) .
, a b c = a b .
1.4.1.
a b c , c + b = a .
1.4.1. a b
c = a b , c .
c = a + ( b ) , a b . , , c + b = ( a + ( b ) ) + b = a + ( ( b ) + b ) = a + 0 = a .

, a + ( b ) , , .
. c - a b.
c + b = a . ( b ) .

c + b + ( b ) = a + ( b ) c + ( b + ( b ) ) = a + ( b ) c + 0 = a + ( b ) c = a + ( b ) .

, a + ( b ) .
:
1.
a a a = 0 ;
2.
a b
a b = ( a + b ) .
.

15

4.2.

, :
1. a b
a b = ba.
.
2. a, b c
( a b ) c = a (b c ) .
.
3. , ( ) 1 , a
a 1 = a .
4. a 0 , 1
,
a
1
a = 1.
a
:
1.
.
1
2.
a 0 .
a
1
3.
a 0
=a.
1
a
1-3 .
4.
, ,
1 1
1
, =
.
a b a b
.
,
1 1
1 1
( a b ) = a b = 1.
a b
a b
1 1
, - ab , a b
.
.
1.4.2.

a
c = , c b = a .
b
16

a b, b 0
a
.
b
1
c a ,
b
1
1
a b. c b = a b = a b = a 1 = a .
b
b
. , c - 1
a b. c b = a . .
b
1
1
1
1
1
1
c b = a c b = a c 1 = a c = a .
b
b
b
b
b
b
.
a
, = 1 .
a

, .
. , , ,
a
, a - , b - , b
. ,
. ,
.
1.4.2.

, a0 , a1a2 ...an ( 9 ) ,
.. , , , 9 ,
a0 , a1a2 ...( an + 1) , .. , , n - 1 . , 1,3999... = 1,4 12,999... = 13 .
:
1.

ad = bc ;
2.
a ac
=
.
b bc

a c
= , b 0, d 0
b d

a, b 0 c 0

17

4.3. ,

a, b c
( a + b) c = a c + b c .
.
, ,
a0 = 0;
( a ) b = ( a b ) a ( b ) = ( a b ) .
4.4.

, , ,
,
.
1) a- , a - ;
2) a b - , a + b - ;
3) a b - , a b - .
.
1.
1 .
, 1 0 . , , a . , , 1 = 0 ,
a = a 1 = a 0 = 0 , a .
, 1 . , ( 1) - , 3 , , , a - , ( 1) a - .

( 1) a = (1 a ) = a ,

a - , , a - ,
a.
, 1
.
2.
.
1.4.3.
, a b : a > b ,
a b - . ,
, a b a < b .
, a b
:
a = b, a > b, a < b .
a b ( a b ) , : a > b ( a < b ) a = b .

.
:
18

1. a > b , b < a .
2. a > b b > c , a > c . .
3. a > b c - , a + c > b + c .
4. a > b c - , a c > b c
a > b c - , a c < b c .
5. a > b c > d , a + c > b + d .
6. a > b c < d , a c > b d .
7. a, b, c d- a > b , c > d , a c > b d .
1 1
8. a b - a > b , < .
a b
.

.
3.

, a ,
b , b > a c , c < a .
b = a + 1 c = a 1 .
4.
, , .
a+b
, a < b . c =
.
2
: a + a < a + b < b + b , a < c < b .
.

, a > 0 , a - .

,
.
1.4.4.
a , a, , a, a
, a .
a, a > 0
a, a 0

, a = a, a < 0 a =
.
,
0

a
a

0, a = 0
.
1. a 0 , a = 0 , a = 0 ;
2.

a = a ;

3. a a a ;
4.

a = b,
a=b
a = b;
19

C >0 x = C ,
x =C
x = C ;
x < C,
6. x < C
x > C ;
C < x < C .
x > C,
7. x > C
x < C ;
8. ab = a b ;

5.

9.

a a
= ;
b b

10. a + b a + b ;
11. a b a b .
4.5.

A
B , a A b B
a b , , a A , b B a b .
, , ,
.
.
1.4.5.
A B
,
1) A B ;
2) A B ;
3) A B .
, ,
, , a A b B ,
a < b.
A , B -
. A B .
.
-
A = { x x < } , B = { x x } . , , a A b B , a < b , A B
.
,

A ={x x } , B ={x x > } .


20

,
, .
= A B.
, - ,
:
1.
,
, , .
2.
, , .
, , , , :
. ,
.
.
, - A B . , A B , , , a b
a A b B .
A B , a < b
a < b . , ,
.
,
A B , a A b B
a b . B b , a b

{}

b B a A . B B . A , B .
, A B .
, , B ,
B . A , a A ,
a 1 B , , B
a , , a 1 A .
, A B ,
, .
, , a A b B , a b . , -
c c > b , b B , c > a ( a - A ) c B .
, A B , , , , A , B .
, A . , A , a* A , < a* .
21

a , a* . a < a* ,
a A , < a ,
A , . , B a A
a b , .
, , ,
.

.

.
1.4.3. ( )
a, n , a < n .
, , b0 , n b0
n . : B
b , n b n .
, b0 . A
. ,
A . A B
.
a A b B ,
n0 , a < n0 b , , a < b . ,
A B ,
A B , A , B . , A ,
n1 , < n1 .
n1 A , ,
,
B .
, 1 , A . , n2 , 1 < n2 ,
< n2 + 1 . n2 + 1 - ,
, A . .
. a b , 0 < a < b ,
n, na > b .

b
.
a
22

:
, , ,
.

1. , a
t ,
t n = a, n , n 2 .
n-
.
a = 0 , x = 0 , a a > 0 .
, a > 0
. B x, x n > a , A , .
k m ,
1
1
1
< a < k . k 2 k > a 2 < a , .. ,
m
m
m
A .
, A B = x1 A x2 B , x1 < x2 .
, A B . ,
, t . t A , B .
, t A t n < a . h , 0 < h < 1 .

( t + h )n = t n + Cn1t n1h + Cn2t n2h2 + ... + Cnn hn < t n + Cn1t n1h + Cn2t n2h + ... + Cnn h =
n
= t n + h ( Cn1t n1 + Cn2t n2 + ... + Cnn + Cn0t n ) hCn0t n = t n + h ( t + 1) ht n =

= t n + h ( t + 1) t n
n

, h <

a tn

( t + 1)

, ( t + h ) < a . ,
n

t
t + h A , , t A .

23

, , t - B ,
tn a
,
, h , 0 < h < 1 h <
n
n
t
+

t
1
( )
( t h ) = t n Cn1t n1h + Cn2t n2 h 2 ... + ( 1) Cnn h n >
n

> t n Cn1t n1h + Cn2t n2h + ... + Cnn h = t n h ( t + 1) t n > a .


n

, t h B t
B . , t n = a .
, t1 < t2 , t1n < t2n .
2. , , a < b , r
, a < r < b .
a+b
a b - ,
2
. , a b
, , , b . , a 0 , b > 0 . a b
: a = 0 ,1 2 3.... b = 0 , 1 2 3... , . a , , , a - , , , 9.
b > a , 0 0 ; 0 = 0 , 1 1 ; 1 = 1 , 2 2
. ., i , i > i . 0 , 1 2 ...i a b .
a < 0 , a + n
b + n , n - , n a .
.
1.4.6.

{[ an ; bn ]} , an < bn . , n an an+1
bn+1 bn .

[ a1; b1 ] [ a2 ; b2 ] [ a3 ; b3 ] ... [ an ; bn ] ... ,
.
1.4.4.
, .
A = {an } B = {bn } .
n m an < bm . .
24

n m , an < bn bm . n < m , an am < bm .


, A B ,
, , an bn n, ..
[ an ; bn ] .
( 2.1.8) .
, 1.4.4,
, , , .
, , , .
, , , .
, , [4, 1].
, :
1. ;
2. a
b, a + b ;
3. 1.
, 1-3 .
,
, . ,
,
, .
. ,
. , . , .
1.4.7.
,

) , ;
) ;
) .

a M ,
) 0 ;
) OM = a - M
;
25

) a - , , , .
-
.
()
().
: , .
6 7
. x, 6, ( C , C ) , x,
7, ( ,C ) ( C , + ) .
.
, .

, .
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
+,
+,
+ - , , , ;
- .
, ( , + ) .
:
( a, b ) = { x | x R, a < x < b} - ;
[ a, b] = { x | x R, a x b} - ;
( a, b] = { x | x R, a < x b} [ a, b ) = { x | x R, a x < b} - ;
( a, + ) = { x | x R, a < x} ( , b ) = { x | x R, x < b} - ;
[ a, + ) = { x | x R, a x} ( , b] = { x | x R, x b} - .
, , ,
.
a, b .
26

5
1.5.1.
X
, , x M x
X .
1.5.2.
X
, m , x m x
X .
1.5.3.
X ,
.

:
X , M x X : x M ,
, m x X : x m
, m, M x X : m x M .
.
1.5.1. X ,
C , x x C .

X . C = max ( m , M ) - -

m M . ,
, x M M C x m m C , , x C .
, x C , C x C . , M = C m = C .
M , X ,
. M - X ,
M , M , .
,
X . M . , x X M M
x M , , M 0 , x M 0 M . X
X M 0 = sup X .
, , ,
, .
, M 0 = sup X :
1) x X x M 0 , .. M 0 - X ;
27

2) > 0 x X , x > M 0 , .. ().

1
1. X = 1 . , sup X = 1 .
n n=1
1
, -, 1 < 1
n
n ; -, ,
1
n , n > . -

1
> 1 , .. xn n
X , 1 , , 1 .
, , ,
, X inf X .
m0 = inf X :
1) x X x m0 ;
2) > 0 x X , x < m0 + .
X x0 ,
X x0 = max X .
sup X = x0 . , ,
, min X X .
,
, . , .

, , , sup X = + , , inf X = .
.
1.
X - .
X { x | x X } . sup ( X ) = inf X inf ( X ) = sup X .
2.
X - -
. X { x | x X } . 0 ,
sup ( X ) = sup X , inf ( X ) = inf X
,

< 0,

sup ( X ) = inf X , inf ( X ) = sup X .


3.
X1 X 2 - .
X1 + X 2 { x1 + x2 | x1 X 1, x2 X 2 } X1 X 2
1

28

{ x1 x2 | x1 X1, x2 X 2} .
inf ( X1 + X 2 ) = inf X1 + inf X 2 ,
inf ( X1 X 2 ) = inf X1 sup X 2 .

sup ( X 1 + X 2 ) = sup X 1 + sup X 2 ,


sup ( X 1 X 2 ) = sup X 1 inf X 2

4.
X1 X 2 - , .
sup ( X1 X 2 ) = sup X1 sup X 2 , inf ( X1 X 2 ) = inf X 1 inf X 2 .
, , 3.
x1 X1, x2 X 2 x = x1 + x2 . x1 sup X1, x2 sup X 2
x sup X1 + sup X 2 , sup ( X1 + X 2 ) sup X1 + sup X 2 .
,
y < sup X 1 + sup X 2 . x1* X1 x2* X 2 ,

x1* < sup X1

x2* < sup X 2 ,

y < x1* + x2* < sup X1 + sup X 2 .


*

x1*

x2* X1

x = +
+ X2,

sup X1 + sup X 2 = sup ( X1 + X 2 ) .


.
6
1.6.1.
n
n = {1,2,..., n} A . A n , A
.
1.6.2.
A .
A
, A .
1.6.3.
A , , .
, , .
1. , n 2n

.
, . ,
( ),
29

1 2

5.....

..... ,

0 1 1 2 2.....

1 2

5.....

..... ,

0 1 2 1 2.....
.
, ,
, .

1.
.
A - B A . B - ,
. , B - .
A a1, a2 , a3 ,... . n1 - , B .
b1 = an1 . , n2 - , n > n1 an2 B b2 = an2 . B a1, a2 , a3 ,... ,
B ,
B . , B .
2.

.
{ An } , .
, n-
An :
x11 x12 x13 x14 ...
x21 x22 x23 x24 ...
x31 x32 x33 x34 ...
x41 x42 x43 x44 ...
.............................
, ,
. , , ,
30

: x11 x21 x12 x31 x22 x13 ... . , , , .


( ,
- , , .)
, .
, , . .
3.
A - .
n Bn = {( a1, a2 ,..., an ) | ak A, k = 1,2,..., n} . Bn .
n.
. B1 = {a | a A} = A , B1 .
. m Bm
. , Bm+1 .
Bm+1 ( b, am+1 ) , b Bm am+1 A .
b Bm , ,
Bmb +1 = {( b, am+1 ) | am+1 A} A , ,

. Bm+1

Bmb +1 .

bBm

.
4.
.
m
,
n
m , n . ,
. ,
{( m, n ) | m , n } ,
n = 2 . , .
, .
1.6.4.
A - , , A .
1.6.1. [ a, b ] .
, .
x1, x2 , x3 ,... .
, x1 .

31

[ a1, b1 ]

( ), x2 . (
, ). , ,
. , , x1, x2 , x3 ,... , , ,
. , .
1.6.2. ( a, b ) .
,
[ a, b ] -

: ( a, b ) , , {a, b} , .
[ a, b ] , 1.
1.6.3. .
2.
( 1, 1) .
, ,
2t
, t ( 1, 1) . ( .) , x=
1 t2
.

1. , .
2. , .
3. , n .
4. ,
.
5. , , 0 1, .
6. , .

32

7
7.1.

-
a1, a2 , a3 ,..., an b1, b2 , b3 ,..., bn
n

aibi

i =1

i =1
n

ai2

bi2 .
i =1

( t ) = ( ait + bi ) . ,
2

i =1

t .
n 2 2
n
n 2
t : ai t + 2 aibi t + bi
i =1
i =1
i =1
2
t . , 2

n
n 2 n 2
, aibi ai bi 0 ,
i =1
i =1 i =1
.
,
, , , , . ( t ) ,
,
( t ) , b
t , i i = t . ai
, ,
a1, a2 , a3 ,..., an b1, b2 , b3 ,..., bn : bi = tai i .
.

aibi
i =1

aibi ,
i =1

aibi
i =1

ai2
i =1

33

bi2 .
i =1


a1, a2 , a3 ,..., an b1, b2 , b3 ,..., bn
n

( ai + bi )

ai2 +

i =1

i =1

bi2 .
i =1

-,
n

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

2
( ai + bi ) = ai2 + bi2 + 2 aibi ai2 + bi2 + 2 ai2 bi2 =
2

n
n

2
2

= ai + bi
i =1

i =1

, . , ,
bi = tai i .

7.2.

1.7.1.
X , x y ( x, y ) , :
1. ( x, y ) = 0 , x = y ; ( )

2. x, y X ( x, y ) = ( y, x ) ;
( )
3.

x, y , z X

( x, y ) ( x, z ) + ( z , y ) ( ).

: ( x, y ) ( x, y ) , 1 3, ,

X ( x, y ) x y.

1. X = ( , + ) . ( x, y ) = x y . , X .
1 3 , . x, y
z, x z = a z y = b . x y = a + b .

34

:
a + b a + b a b.
x y xz + z y .
1 .
X , .
x y
2. X = ( , + ) , ( x, y ) =
.
1+ x y
.
, ( x, y ) .
t
1
=1
, g ( t ) =
, t 0 .
1+ t
1+ t
, a b
a+b
a+b

. :
1+ a + b 1+ a + b
a+b
a+b
a
b
a
b

=
+

+
.
1+ a + b 1+ a + b 1+ a + b 1+ a + b 1+ a 1+ b
a = x z b = z y , .

3. X = a = ( a1, a2 ,..., am ) | ai

, i = 1,2,..., m , .. -

X ,
a .
x = ( x1, x2 ,..., xm ) y = ( y1, y2 ,..., ym ) - X . ( x , y ) =

( xi yi )

i =1

, ai = xi zi , bi = zi yi , ( z1, z2 ,..., zm ) = z .
, , ,
m- 2- 3-
. m . ,
1 m . ( .)
.

. .
35

X - . , .
1.8.1.
X
x X ,
( x, a ) < r , a - ,
, r - , .
r a Br ( a ) , -

, - B ( a ) , B .
1.8.2.

x X , ( x, a ) r ,
a r , 1.
Br ( a ) .
, 1
a: ( a r , a + r ) , [ a r , a + r ] .
2

- , , ..
1.8.3.
a
a. .
U r ( a ) , U ( a ) , U .
a
. ( a , a + ) ,
- a.
1.8.4.
U r ( a ) \ {a}
o

a U r ( a ) .
1.8.5.
a - X E X . a E ,
o

U r ( a ) a x E , x U r ( a ) .
1. ,
.
- . U r ( ) - . 4.5 2 ( r , ) .

36

1.8.6.

a E o

E , U r ( a ) ,
E .
1.8.7.
a E E , , E .
,
, , . , X = 1 E = ( a, b ) ,
E , E .
a b , .
1.8.8.
E ,
.
. X .
1.8.9.
E , .
1.8.10. E E int E .
1.8.11. E E .
E E . ,
.
1.8.12. a,
, E , , E , E .
E
E .
.
1.8.13. E , Br ( a ) , E .
.
, , E R m , Br ( O ) O ( 0,0,...,0 ) , E Br ( O ) .
1.8.1. .
Br ( a ) = { x | ( x , a ) < r} .

x0 , , ..
( x0 ), .
d = ( x0 , a ) - x0
a Br1 ( x0 ) - x0 r1 = r d .

37

x1

( x1, a ) ( x1, x0 ) + ( x0 , a ) < r1 + d = r d + d = r , ,

x1 Br ( a ) , .

1.8.2. E ,
E d .
E , a
E d . ,
E d , E , ,
E . a , E d ,
, a - .
, E d - , E
E d . ,
E , ,
E d , .. E , ,
E .
1.
E ,
d
E .
2.
X .
3.
.
.
X .
1.8.3. . .
-
G , . ,
G = G .

a G . a
G , , a, G , , , G . , a G .
.

k =n
Gk k =1 .

{ }

, G = Gk .
k =1

a G . a Gk k = 1,..., n . Gk , k U rk ( a ) ,
Gk . r1, r2 ,..., rn
. r . , , U r ( a ) U rk ( a ) Gk
38

k = 1,..., n , , U r ( a ) G a - .
. .
.
d

1.8.2 : G = Gd

G = Gd .


. ,
,
1
1
. ,
1 , 2 + = [1,2]
n
n
n =1
1
1

,1 = ( 0,1) .
n
n =1 n
1.8.4. a E
, , E .
. , ,
a ,
.
a : U r ( a ) , a, E .
x1 . r1 = ( x1, a ) U r1 ( a ) . -

, r1 < r , U r1 ( a ) U r ( a ) . U r1 ( a ) -

x2 , a E . ,
U r ( a ) .

x1, x2 , x3 , E .
.
.
1.8.5. E - , sup E = b . b E .
b = sup E , , > 0 ,
x E , b < x b . , x = b E ,
( b , b] , , b E .
> 0 x , b , , b E b E
E .
39

II.
1 .

1.1.

. 3.5 .1,
Y .
Y = , .
,
n,
an .
( n, an ) .
.
1. an .
n 1

1. an = n( ) . ,
.
1 1
, 1, ,3, ,5,... . 2 4
.
1

2. ,
1.
0,1,0,1,... . :

1 + ( 1)
an =
. 2
n

2.
.
,
.
3. . d , .
an+1 = an + d . 40

, .
an = a1 + d ( n 1) .
4. . q , , -

. an+1 = an q . an = a1q n1 .
5. . : an+ 2 = an+1 + an .
. bn ,

bn = n , 0 , . bn , n+ 2 = n+1 + n . 0 ,
1+ 5
1 5
.
, 2 =
2
2
,

2 = + 1, 1 =

1+ 5
1 5
bn =
bn =
.
2
2

,
n

1+ 5
1 5
C1
+ C2

2
2

C1 C2 . an
n

1+ 5
1 5
an = C1
+ C2
,
2
2

C1 C2 , a1 a2
. C1 C2

1+ 5
1 5
+ C2
,
a1 = C1
2
2

2
2

1
5
1
5
a = C
+ C2
,
1
2
4
2

,
3 5
1 5
1+ 5
3+ 5
C1 =
a1
a2 C2 =
a2
a1 .
2 5
2 5
2 5
2 5
41

,
. , .
6. Y = 2 n
1
1 n
n
xn = cos +
, yn = sin +
.
n
n 4 2
4 2
, :

1.2.

2.1.1.
n =

{ xn }n=1 . A

, > 0
n0 , n n0 ( xn , A ) < .
( xn , A ) < A , :
2.1.1(a). A

,
{ xn }nn=
=1

> 0

n0 ,
n n0 U ( A ) - - A.
- , .. , , , , :
42

2.1.1(). A n=

{ xn }n=1 , > 0 n0 ,

xn A < .
, A { xn } , :
lim xn = A xn A .
n

, , ,
- .

:
def

A = lim xn > 0 n0 : n n0 ( xn , A ) < .


n

( xn , A ) < ,
xn , , ( A , A + ) . A , , ,
( A , A + ) .
1.
( A , A + ) xn , -
.
2.
, .
7. xn = C . , lim xn = C .
n

- . ,
C C < , , xn A <
n 1 ,
n0 = 1.
3.
, , . , .
1
8. xn = . , lim xn = 0 .
n
n
- . , n0 , 43

1
< . n
1
n : n > . , ,
xn A < , ..

1
n0 = + 1 ( [ x ] x ),

n, n n0 , 1
xn 0 < , ,
xn =
n
0 .
2n + 3
2
9. xn =
. , lim xn = .
n
3n 5
3
- . n0 , 2n + 3 2

< , ,
3n 5 3
19
19
< . ( , n 2 ,
- ,
3 ( 3n 5 )
3 ( 3n 5 )
.) , ,
19 5
19 5
n>
+ n0 + + 1 .
9 3
9 3
10. xn = a n , a < 1 . , lim xn = 0 .
n

- . n0 , a n < . ,

a <

n lg a < lg ,

n>

lg
lg a

( lg a < 0 ).

lg
n0 =
+ 1 , .
lg a
2 + ( 1) 3
. , lim xn = 0 .
11. xn =
n
n
- . n0 , n

2 + ( 1) 3

< . n
n

.
2 + ( 1) 3
n0 ,
<
n
n

44

n n0 .

2 + ( 1) 3 5
, n0 , n n0 n
n
n

5
5
< . , n0 = + 1 . , n n0 ,
n

2 + ( 1) 3
5
< , , ,
< .
n
n
n

2 + ( 1) 3
12. xn =
. , .
2
, .
A , 0 > 0 , n0 , n n0 , ( xn , A ) 0 .
, A , .
1
5
: n

2
2
. a ,

1
5
, 0 = min A + , A
2
2

. , A 1
. A = 0 = 1 ( , 2
1
5
- ),
2 2
, , ,
, , 5
. , A = .
2
n

1.3. .

2.1.2. X - .
, , .
,
{ n } , > 0 n0 ,
n < .
45

, xn =

xn = a n ( a < 1) - .

, A { xn } :
2.1.1. A
{ xn } , -

xn = A + n , { n } - .
xn A = n . ( xn = A + n ).
, A = lim xn , , , n

n < , , { n } - .

, { n } - , , -

, n < xn A < , , A { xn } .
2n + 1
13. lim
.
n
n

xn = 2 +

1.4.

1
.
n

1
- , lim xn = 2 .
n
n

2.1.2. , .
. .
n=

{ xn }n=1 lim xn = A

lim xn = B .

1) > 0 n1 , , n n1 ,
( xn , A ) <

2) > 0 n2 , , n n2 ,
( A, B )
( xn , B ) < . =
n0 = max ( n1, n2 ) .
2
n n0 ( xn , A ) <
( xn , B ) < , , n
( A, B ) ( A, xn ) + ( xn , B ) < 2 = ( A, B ) .
.
46

1.5.

2.1.3. , .
.. ,
M : xn M , n .
2.1.4. , , ..
m : xn m, n .
2.1.5. , , ..
M , m : m xn M , n .
,
(. 8 . 1).
2.1.3. , .
lim xn = A . > 0
n

n0 , , ( xn , A ) < . , , = 1 , xn n n0
A 1.
x1, x2 ,..., xn0 1 . . -

max ( xi , A ) = 0 . 1i n0 1

( xn , A ) R , R = max (1, 0 ) , .. R .
. , , .
n
14. xn = ( 1) , .
( ).
1.6.

n
n
n
2.1.4. xn = x1( ) , x2( ) ,..., xm( )

A = ( A1, A2 ,... Am ) , -

{ }

n
xi( )

n=1

Ai i 1 m.

, R m .
xn A . ,
> 0 n0 , n n0 ,

(
m

i =1

n
xi( ) Ai

47

< .

( n)

n n0 xi

Ai

( xi( n ) Ai )
m

< , i = 1,2,...m ,

i =1

n
.. i lim xi( ) = Ai .
n

. i 1 m

n
lim xi( ) = Ai . , > 0 i

n
.
ni , xi( ) Ai <
m
n0 = max ( n1, n2 ,...nm ) ,
n n0 i . n

( xi
m

i =1

( n)

Ai


<
= .
m

1
m

1.7. ,

2.1.5. xn yn ,
lim xn = A lim yn = B , B > A . n0 , n

,
yn > xn .
BA
=
. n1 ,
2
A+ B
n n1 A < xn < A + =
n2 ,
2
A+ B
= B < yn < B + . n n2
2
n0 = max ( n1, n2 ) , n n0
, , n xn < yn .
1. lim xn = A A < B ( A > B ), , n

, xn < B
( xn > B ) .
2.1.5 yn = B .
2. lim xn = A A > 0 ( A < 0 ), , n

, ().
48

. ,
:
lim xn = A A > 0 ( A < 0 ), , n

, ()
() r.
.


.
2.1.6. ( )
lim xn = A lim yn = B , n
n

xn yn . A B .
, : A > B .
1, ,
xn > yn , .

1. 2.1.6 xn yn , - .
2. 2.1.6 xn < yn , 1
. , xn = 2 ,
n
1
yn = . n 2 xn < yn ,
n
1
1
lim 2 = lim = 0 .
n n
n n
1.8.

,
A .
2.1.7.

{ zn }

{ xn } , { yn }

, n xn yn zn .

{ xn } { zn } ,
{ yn }

,
lim xn = lim zn = A .

lim yn = A .

. n1 , A < xn < A +
49

n2 , A < zn < A + . ,
n0 = max ( n1, n2 ) , n n0 , , A < xn yn zn < A + , yn A < .
.
, .
15. { n } - ,

n n 1 . , lim k 1 + n = 1 .
n

, 1 n k 1 + n 1 + n .
n 0 , ,
1 n 1 k 1 + n . ,
: ,

. (1 + n

1 + n .

n < 0 , k 1 + n < 1 < 1 + n


, :
, -

. 1 n = 1 + n , (1 n ) < 1 + n .
,
( 2.1.1). { n } - ,
k

{ n } - . nlim
(1 n ) = nlim
(1 + n ) = 1 ,


. , lim k 1 + n = 1 .
n

16. , a > 1 , lim n a = 1 .


n

a > 1 , a > 1 . n = n a 1, n a = 1 + n ,
n > 0 . , n - ,
.
n

, a = (1 + n ) n n , a
0 < n . , n - ,
n
.
, lim n a = 1 0 < a < 1 .
n

50

17. , lim n n = 1 .
n

n > 1, , n ( n 1) 2
n
n = n n 1 , n > 0 n = (1 + n )
n (
2
2
.
). 0 < n2
n 1
, n - , n n = 1 + n , .
nm
18. , a > 1 m , lim n = 0 .
n a
a > 1 , a = 1 + x , x > 0 ( x n). , n > m ,
( n m )( n m + 1)...n x m+1 ,
n
a n = (1 + x ) Cnm+1x m+1 =
( m + 1)!
,

nm
n
n
n 1 ( m + 1)!
0< n

...

.

n m n m +1
n 1 n x m+1
a
, n 2m .
n
k
m
=1+
1 + = 2, k = 1,2,..., m
nk
nk
m
m
m
n
1 2 ( m + 1)!
.
0< n

n
a
x m+1
2m ( m + 1)!

,
x m+1
M
M . , > 0 , n n0 = + 1

nm
nm
0 < n < , , lim n = 0 .
n a
a

1. , lim k a + n = k a , { n } - .
n

2. , lim n a + n = 1 , { n } - a > 0 .
n

3. , lim n an + b + n = 1 , { n } -

a > 0.

51

1.9.

, 4 1 (
1.4.4).
2.1.8. {[ an , bn ]}
, n
n- , ..
lim ( bn an ) = 0 . , , .
n

, , : c
c . 0 = c c > 0 . n
,

an c bn
an c bn ,
( bn an ) c c bn an , , bn an c c = 0 . , lim ( bn an ) = 0 .
n

2
2.1.

1.3.
, .
.
2.2.1. .
lim n = lim n = 0 . , lim ( n + n ) = 0 .
n

> 0 n1 , n <
n <

n2 , -

.
2
n,
n0 = max ( n1, n2 ) , ,

n + n n + n < , .
,
() .
, ,
n - .
1.
1
1
1
.
xn =
+
+ ... +
2
2
2
n +1
n +2
n +n
52

,
, n, , . .

1
1
1
n
n
<
+
+ ... +
<
< 1.
2
2
2
2
2
n +n
n +1
n +2
n +n
n +1
:
n
1
1
1
=
> 1 >1 ,
n
n
1
n2 + n
1+
n
1
: 1 < xn < 1 .
n
, lim xn = 1 .
n

2.2.2. .
lim n = 0 xn C n . , lim ( n xn ) = 0 .
n

> 0 n0 ,

n xn <

n <

. , n n0 ,

C = , .
C
. { xn } - , { yn } - , { xn yn } - .
sin n
2. lim
.
n n
1
. - , sin n n
1
. , sin n n
.
2.2.

, .
2.2.1. { xn }
, M
n0 , xn > M .
53

{ xn } ,
, lim xn = .
n

.
2.2.2. , { xn } + , M n0 ,
xn > M .
2.2.3. , { xn } , M n0 ,
xn < M .
xn > M , xn n n0 [ M , M ] .

( , M ) ( M , + )
, lim xn = , n

n0 ,
. .
, lim xn = + , , n

, ( M , + ) , lim xn =
n

, ,
( , M ) .

3. lim ( 1) n 2 = .
n

M > 0 n0 ,

( 1)n n2

> M . ,

n 2 > M n > M . ,
n
n0 = M + 1 , n n0 ( 1) n 2 > M

lim ( 1) n 2 = .
n

54

4. lim n 2 + 3n = .
n

M > 0 n0 , n 2 + 3n < M .
, .
n0 , , xn < M
n, n0 , , n0 , . : n 2 + 3n < ( n 3) ( ,
2

n > 3 ), n0 , ( n 3) < M .
2

, n > M + 3 , ,
n0 = M + 4 . n 2 + 3n < M ,
.
n2 5
= + .
5. lim
n 2n
M > 0 n0 , n2 5

> M . ,
2n
n 2 5 n 2 5n n 5

:
2n
2n
2
n5
n0 ,
> M .
2
, n > 2 M + 5 . n0 = [ 2 M ] + 6 , n n0
n5
> M , ,

2
n2 5

> M .
2n
. (), .
, .
n + ( 1) n
.
6. xn =
2
, M
, n , xn > M . n - , xn = n
n, , M . , M
.
n

55

, M 0 , n0 , n , n n0 xn < M .
n - , xn = 0 . , .

1. lim xn = + lim yn = + . ,
n

a) lim ( xn + yn ) = + ; ) lim ( xn yn ) = + .
n

2. lim xn = yn - . , lim ( xn + yn ) = .
n

2.3.

2.2.3. { xn } - ( xn
1
n) , yn =
xn
.
xn - , .. lim xn = 0 . n

1
, yn =
- . M > 0 n0 ,
xn
1
. n n0 yn > M ,
xn <
M
, yn - .
, yn - . ,
1
- . > 0 n0 ,
xn =
yn
1
yn > . n

xn < , , xn - .

2.4.

2.2.4. lim xn = A , lim yn = B .


n

1)
2)
3)

lim ( xn + yn ) = A + B ;

lim ( xn yn ) = AB ;

xn A
= , yn 0, n b 0 .
n yn
B
lim

56

lim xn = A lim yn = B , xn yn
n

xn = A + n yn = B + n , n n -
.
1) xn + yn = ( A + B ) + ( n + n ) , n + n - ,
. , xn + yn A + B , , , A + B = lim ( xn + yn ) .
n

2) , xn yn = AB + ( A n + B n + n n ) . A n , B n
n n - , ( A B n n - , , ). ,
( A n + B n + n n ) - AB = lim ( xn yn ) .
n

xn A
- .
yn B
x
A A + n A B n A n
=
.
, n =
yn B B + n B B ( B + n )
, , .
, n B 2 > 0 . ,
, ,
1
2
B2
B ( B + n ) >
.
< 2 , ..
B ( B + n ) B
2
1
B n A n

- . ,
- ,
B ( B + n )
B ( B + n )
x
A
= lim n .
B n yn

1. , ( ) .
2. 16 .1.8 , , a > 1 , lim n a = 1 .
3) ,

0 < a < 1 ( a = 1 ).
1
1
1
0 < a < 1 . a =
lim n a = lim
=
= 1 ,
1
n
n n 1
1
n
lim
a
a n a

1
> 1 .
a
57

2.5.

. , ,
.
,
2
n
2
2

n 2 2 5n lim 2 + n 2 5 lim 2 + lim n lim 2 5



2 + n n n
3n
7 n n
n 3n
n

7 = 2 = 2.
3
7
=
=
lim
n

1
1

1
1
n n+
lim n n +
lim n n +

n
n
n
n
n

, .
3n3 + 2n + 5
, xn =
. n
6 n3 + 7
3n3 + 2n + 5
.
,
6n3 + 7

n ,
.

0
, 0 , , 1 , 0 , 00 .
0
3 . e
3.1.

2.3.1. , xn ,
n xn+1 xn .
2.3.2. , xn , n xn+1 xn .
2.3.3. ,
.
.
xn+1 > xn xn+1 < xn . ,
.
(
) .
58

1.

x0 = 1,

xn = 2 + xn1 .

x1 : x1 = 2 + x0 = 3 > x0 .
, ,
.
, k xk > xk 1 .
xk xk 1
> 0 . xk +1 xk = 2 + xk 2 + xk 1 =
2 + xk + 2 + xk 1
xn > xn1, n .
2.
3 5
2n + 1
.
xn = ...
5 8
3n + 2
x
3 5
2n 1
2n + 1
xn1 = ...
n =
.
5 8
3n 1
xn1 3n + 2
xn

< 1, n , xn < xn1 xn1
.

3.2.

2.3.1 (). ,
.
{ xn } .
n xn xn+1 xn C .
, : M = sup xn . , M = lim xn .
n

> 0 . , , n0 , M < xn0 M . { xn } ,


n , n n0 xn0 xn M ,
, -
M , , M = lim xn .
n


lim xn = m = inf xn .

1. , .
2. , , .
59

an
3. lim
( a > 0) .
n n!
, ,
. n0 , a < n0 . a < n
a
n n0 < 1 . ,
n
a n+1
an a
an
n xn+1 =
=
<
= x , .. ( n + 1)! n! (n + 1) n! n
. , , , . . l .

a
xn+1 = xn
. , l = l 0 , ..
n +1
l = 0 .
3.3.

e
n

1
xn = 1 + ,
n
.
:
n
n ( n 1) ...( n k + 1) 1
1 n ( n 1) 1
n! 1
1
+ ... +
+ ... +
=
1 + = 1 + n +
k
2
n
2! n
k!
n! n n
n
n
1 1
1 1 2 k 1
1 1 2 n 1
= 2 + 1 + ... + 1 1 ... 1
+ ... + 1 1 ... 1

2! n
k ! n n
n
n! n n
n
m
n 1 , ,
n
. , . , xn+1 > xn , ..
m
{ xn } . , . 1 < 1 ,
n
1 1
1 1 2 k 1
1 1 2 n 1
2 + 1 + ... + 1 1 ...1
+ ... + 1 1 ... 1
<
k ! n n
n
n! n n
n
2! n
1
1 n1
1 1 1
1
1 1
1
1
1 2
< 2 + + + + ... + < 2 + + 2 + 3 + ... + n1 < 2 +
=
n!
2! 3! 4!
2 2
2 1 1
2
2
2

60

= 2 +1

< 3 . , .
2
e. , , 2 < e < 3 . , .
n ,
. { xn } .
, e
. :
e 2,71828182845904592... .
1 1 1
1
yn = 1 + + + + ... + . ,
1! 2! 3!
n!
lim yn = e .
n1

, yn .
, . l .
1 1 1
1
xn < 2 + + + + ... + , , ,
2! 3! 4!
n!
xn < yn , e l .
, m n > m
1 1
1 1 2 k 1
xn,m = 2 + 1 + ... + 1 1 ... 1
+ ... +
2! n
k ! n n
n
1 1 2 m 1
+ 1 1 ...1
.
m! n n
n
, ym < xn,m < xn . ,
m ym < e , ,
l e.
, l = e .
4 . -
4.1.

2.4.1.

{nk }k =1 ,

{ xn }

{ yk }k =1 ,

yk = xnk

{ }k =1 .

{ xn } xnk

61

{ } -

2.4.2. xnk

{ xn }

lim xnk = A ( ), A k

{ xn } .
. , A { xn } , A

{ xn } .
2.4.3. E { xn } . sup E -

{ xn } , inf E -

lim xn lim xn .
n

n
n

1. xn = 1 + ( 1) . , : x2 k = 1 x2 k 1 = 0 , E 0

1. lim xn = 1 lim xn = 0 .
n

2. xn = 1 + ( 1) n . n

x2 k = 2k x2 k 1 = 0 . E
0 + . lim xn = + lim xn = 0 .
n

3. { xn } - . (.1 8), , ,
, .. E = . lim xn = + , lim xn = .
n

, lim xn = A ,
n

A, , .
2.4.1. k

lim (1 + k )

- ,

=e.

, n > 0 ( , n < 1),

1
1
1
1
+ . nk = , nk
< nk + 1
k >
.
+
n

n
n
1
k
k
k
k

1

1
1 +
nk

nk +1

(1 + k )
62

1
> 1 +
.
1
+
n
k


1
sk = 1 +
nk

nk

1
tk = 1 +

nk + 1

nk +1

1
xn = 1 + ,
n
e , , lim sk = lim tk = e .
k

k
nk +1

1
lim 1 +
k
nk

1
= lim sk lim 1 + = e
k
k
nk
nk
lim tk

1
k
lim 1 +
=
=e.

k
nk + 1

1
lim 1 +

k
nk + 1

, , lim (1 + k )

=e.

, k < 0 , ( , k > 1 ).

k

1 k

k = k .

. ,
1 k

k
lim 1 +

k
1 k
lim (1 + k )

= e.

= lim (1 k )

k
1 k

1 k

k k
k
= lim
=
+
+
lim
1
1

= e.
k 1 k
k
1 k
1 k
, k , km kl . ,

(
m

lim 1 + km
lim (1 + k )

km

(
l

= lim 1 + kl

kl

= e . ,

=e.

2.4.2. E .
, E E ,
.. { xn } . - E . , > 0 ,
o

A E , A U 2 ( c ) 0 < ( A, c ) <
63

A - { xn } , A -
, ..
xn0 ,

0 < xn0 , A < ( A, c ) <

xn0 c

2
xn0 , c < xn0 , A + ( A, c ) < , .. c

) (

{ xn } .

2.4.3. { xn } - , E -

A* = lim xn .
n

a) A E ;
) A* - > 0 , n0 ,
n n0 xn < A* + ;
) A* - , a) b).
A* = + , { xn }
, ,
+ .
A* - , a)
2.4.2 1.8.5.
A* = , E ( )
. ,
lim xn = .
n

). > 0 ,
nk , xnk A* + . -

{ } , -

xnk

l , l A* + , , A*
E .
, , a) ) . , A* A , ,
A* < A . - y , : A* < y < A .
, ), n0 , xn < y . A
E , ).
. n
xn yn . ,
1. lim xn lim yn ;
n

2. lim xn lim yn .
n

64

4.2.

2.4.4 (-).
.
{ xn } - , .. -

[ a, b ] . . ,
. [ a1, b1 ] .
[ a1, b1 ] , . [ a2 , b2 ] . , , ba
lim ( bn an ) = lim n = 0 . , c , n
n 2
[ an , bn ] .
{ xn } ,
c . xn1 - - , [ a1, b1 ] , xn2 - - -

, [ a2 , b2 ] , n2 > n1 ..

{xn } ,
k

{ xn } , xnk [ ak , bk ] .
, c . > 0 k0 , k k0 ba
k < . k
2
ba
xnk c < k < , , c = lim xnk .
k
2
4.3.

2.4.4. { xn } ,
> 0 n0 , -

p xn , xn+ p < .
, .
, . xn , xn+ p < xn+ p xn < .

65

2.4.5. , .
lim xn = A . > 0 n0 ,
n

n n0 ( xn , A ) <
n p

. -

xn+ p , A <

,
xn , xn+ p ( xn , A ) + A, xn+ p < , .

.
4. X - , ,

( x, y ) = x y . { xn }1 - - , , 2 . 4.1, 3. ,
.
2.4.5. , , .
.
,
2.4.6. ( ) ,
.
{ xn } . ,
. = 1 n0 , n n0

p
p

xn+ p xn < 1 .

xn0 + p xn0 < 1 , ,

xn0 1 < xm < 1 + xn0 m > n0 . , n=n

{ xn }n=n

0 +1

. { xn }n=1 0

(, ). , 1 n n0

L xn K . , m = min L, xn0 1 M = max K , xn0 + 1 ,

m xn M , n , .. .

66

- : xnk A . ,
k

A = lim xn .
n

> 0 k0 , -

xnk A <

. n1 , -

n m, n1 , xn xm <

.
2
n n0 = max nk0 , n1 , -

n xn A xn xnk + xnk A < .


, , :
2.4.7. { xn } , > 0
n0 , n n0 p -

xn+ p xn < .
5. , n 1 1
?
xn = xn1 +
n + 1 3n
, n > m
n 1 1
,
xn xn1 =
n + 1 3n
n2 1

xn1 xn2 =
,
n 3n1
n3 1

xn2 xn3 =
,
n 1 3n2
.....

xm+1 xm =

m
1
m+1 .
m+2 3

,
n 1 1 n 2 1
n3 1
m
1
xn xm =
n+
n1 +
n2 + ... +
m+1 ,
n +1 3
n 3
n 1 3
m+2 3
n 1 1 n 2 1
n3 1
m
1

xn xm =
n+
n1 +
n2 + ... +
m+1
n +1 3
n 3
n 1 3
m+2 3

67

1
1
1
n + n1 + ... + m+1 =
3
3
3

3n

(1 13 ) 13
mn+ 2

1 1

1
.
2 3n1

2
3
3
, > 0 n0 , 1

< , , 2 3n1
.
6.
1
1
1
1
?
xn =
+
+
+ ... +
1
2
3
n
n = 2m .
1
1
1
m
m
.
xn xm =
+
+ ... +
>
=
m +1
m+2
2m
2m
2
, n0 ,
m n0 n > n0 , xn xm > 0 ( 0 ,
, ). , .

1. , lim xn = A ,
n

{ xn } A.
2. , :
p , > 0 n0 n n0 xn+ p xn < ,
{ xn } .
.
1
1
1
1
. xn =
+
+
+ ... +
.
1
2
3
n
5
5.1.

.
2.5.1. {an } .

a1 + a2 + a3 + ... .
, ,
, . . 68

, , ,
.
,
,
, T . ,
, 5 .
T , . ,
T
T
,
,
5
5
, , T
2 .
5
, , , , .
,
, . ,

T T T
t = T + + 2 + 3 + ... .
5 5
5
, , , (. 2 ). .
2.5.2. a1 + a2 + a3 + ... . S n
n ,
.
n . ( )
, S , S = lim S n .
n

lim S n , , ,
n

, .
{an } , ,
.

n=1

n=1

an , , , an = S .
. .

, .

69

1.

n ( n + 1) .
n=1

1
1
1
1
.
+
+
+ ... +
1 2 2 3 3 4
n ( n + 1)
,
Sn ,
.
1
1
1
1
2 1 3 2 4 3
( n + 1) n =
Sn =
+
+
+ ... +
=
+
+
+ ... +
1 2 2 3 3 4
n ( n + 1) 1 2 2 3 3 4
n ( n + 1)
: S n =

=1

1 1 1 1 1
1
1
1
+ + + ... +
= 1
.
2 2 3 3 4
n n +1
n +1
1

, S = lim 1
= 1 .
n
n +1

2.

aq n

n =0

, .
n (
, q 1 ): S n =

a 1 qn
1 q

)=

a
aq n

. q < 1 , q n 0
1 q 1 q

a
, q > 1 , q n - (n
1 q
) .
q = 1 Sn = n lim Sn = , .. .

lim S n =

t
, ,
5
T .
4
3.

( 1)

n=1

:
S0 = 1
S1 = 1 1 = 0
S2 = 1 1 + 1 = 1
S3 = 1 1 + 1 1 = 0
, . , . .
70

.
2.5.1. (),
.

Sn Sn( ) , 1

S n( ) = Sn + const , const n n.
, ,
, .
1

an

2.5.2.

- ,

n=1

( an ),

, S .

n=1

(1)

S n

an
n=1

S n

S n = S n( ) , , -

( an ) .

n=1

.
2.5.3.

an
n=1

bn = S ( 2) ,

bn
n=1

( an + bn )

n=1

an = S (1)

n=1

n=1

( an + bn ) = S (1) + S ( 2) .
n=1

S n( )
1


(1)

bn
n =1

Sn

( 2)

an ,
n=1

2
S n( )

( an + bn ) . , ,
n=1

S n = S n + S n . , .
. , , , , . , .

71


1
1
1
bn =
4. an =
+ . an (. 7
n
n 2n
n=1
4), , .

bn > an , n

bn

n=1

, , .
, an + bn > an , n .
1
1
1
5. an =
bn =
+ n . bn
n
n 2

1
n
n=1 2

1
n . ,
n=1

an

bn

n=1

n =1

1
.
n
2
n =1

( an + bn ) =
n=1

2.5.4.

an

n=1

bn

1
2
S ( ) S ( ) -

n=1

an > 0, bn > 0, an bn , S ( ) S ( ) .

.
- n :
1

an , > 0 n=1

n0 , n n0
S Sn < .
,

Rn =

k = n+1

S Sn =

k = n +1

ak = Rn

S = Sn + Rn .

ak . , ,

, , , ,
, lim Rn = 0 .
n

, , n,
. e
72

1
1 1 1
3.3 , e = lim 1 + + + + ... + , ,
n
n!
1! 2! 3!

1
e e = .
n =0 n !

Rn =

1
1
1
1
1
+
+ ... =
+
+ ... <
1 +
( n + 1)! ( n + 2 )!
( n + 1)! n + 2 ( n + 2 )( n + 3)

1
1
1
1
1
1
1 +

+
+
=
=
...
.
( n + 1)! n + 1 ( n + 1)2 ( n + 1)! 1 1 n!n
n +1
1

, : 0 < Rn <
, Rn =
,
n !n
n !n
0 < < 1. ( n).
1 1
1

e = 1 + + + ... + +
. 1! 2!
n ! n !n
e , .
e.
<

2.5.5. e .
, e - , .. ,
k
e , m 2 .
m
k
1 1
1

= 1 + + + ... +
+
. m!,
m
1! 2!
m ! m !m

k ( m 1)! = m!+ m!+ 3 4 ... m + ... + 1 +


, , 0 <

< 1 . ,

.
.
, .

.
2.5.6.

an

n=1

, > 0 n0 ,
n n0 p

n+ p

k =n +1

73

ak < .

: S n
, > 0 n0
, n n0 p

Sn+ p S n < . S n+ p S n =

n+ p

k = n+1

ak , .

( )
, .

an

. p = 1 ,

n=1

.. > 0 n0 , n n0 Sn Sn1 = an < .


. , .
,
.

1
6. . n =1 n
n p = n .
1
1
1
1
1
S 2 n S n1 = +
+ ... +
>
n = .
2n 2n
2
n n +1
, n ,
S n+ p S n p .
.
.
, ,
. , , . , , ,

( 1)

, .

n=1

5.2.

an , an 0 n.
n=1

, . , , , , 74

, .
.
2.5.7. ( )

an
n=1

bn ,
n=1

an 0 , bn 0 n

an bn . ,

an

n=1

n=1

. , ,

bn
n=1

bn ,

n=1

an , bn .

1
2
S n( ) S n( )

n=1

an

n=1
1
S n( )

bn

n =1
2
Sn( ) .

2
2
2
, S ( ) S n( ) S ( ) . , -

an
n=1

1
2
: S n( ) S ( ) , ,

.
,

an

n=1

, ,

bn

n =1

2.5.8. ( )

an
n=1

bn ,
n=1

an 0 , bn > 0 .

an
= l , l 0 . , .
n bn
l
, l > 0 = .
2

n0 ,
l
3l
bn ( l ) < an < bn ( l + ) bn < an < bn . ,
2
2
lim

75

an , bn 2 < an
n=1

l
bn , ,
2
,

bn ,

bn .
n =1

n=1

3l
3l
bn , , an < bn

2
2

an .
n=1

. , , l = 0 ,
. l = , .

,
. .
2.5.9. ( )
{an }

an

, -

n=1

2k a2

k =0

Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 + ... + an S k = a1 + 2a2 + 4a4 + ... + 2k a2k -

. 2k n < 2k +1
S n = a1 + ( a2 + a3 ) + ( a4 + ... + a7 ) + ... + a2k + ... + an a1 + 2a2 + 4a4 + ... + 2k a2k = S k

, , ,

2k a2k ,

k =0

an

n=1

, n k
1
1
S n a1 + a2 + ( a3 + a4 ) + ... + a2k 1 +1 + ... + a2k a1 + a2 + 2a4 + ...2k 1 a2k = S2 k .
2
2

an

n=1

2k a2

, , .

k =0

76

1
1
k 1
s . 2 ks = k ( s 1) ,
2
k =0
k =0 2
n =1 n
1
q = s 1 . 2
, q < 1 , .. s > 1 , q 1 , ..
s 1.
,

1
s , .
n=1 n
6
2.6.1. E -
X {G } - -

. {G } E , E G .

2.6.2. E ,
.
.
1. .
.
2. .
, E d E X
. - y E d x E 1
U x ( y ) V ( x )
( x, y ) .
2
U x ( x ) V ( x ) = . , {V ( x )} E .
V ( x1 ) , V ( x2 ) , ...,V ( xn ) , E V ( x1 ) V ( x2 ) ... V ( xn ) , -

U = U x1 ( y ) U x2 ( y ) ... U xn ( y ) y ,
V ( xi ) , i = 1,2,..., n , ,
E . E d - .

3. .
, E - , F E . {G } F .
F d , E ,
77

. , F .
4. .
r > 0
U r ( x ) r , E . ,
E .
U ( x1 ) , U ( x2 ) ,...U ( xn ) - y E . -

R = max ( ( y, x1 ) , ( y, x2 ) ,... ( y, xn ) ) . -

x E . U ( xk ) ,
x. ( x, y ) ( x, xk ) + ( xk , y ) r + R , , x
r + R y E .

.
2.6.1. ( )
E , .
, . ( 2
4).
E . ,
. E , [ a, b ] -

, E [ a, b ] . 3 ,
[ a, b ] .
- [ a, b ]
, .
. , . [ a1, b1 ] .
, [ an , bn ] , . ,
: [ an1, bn1 ] [ an , bn ] , n

ba
lim ( bn an ) = lim n = 0 . , , n
n 2
. c: c = lim an = lim bn . n

, .
, , , ,
an bn . [ an , bn ]
78

, .. , .
,
, .
2.6.2. E , ,
, E .
E
- , 2.6.1
. - E , E .
, E
, E ,
E . ,
E , , .
, E . y - E . xn E , ,
lim xn = y . { xn }
n

E , , y E E .
:

:
1) E - ;
2) E - ;
3) E
, E .

79

III.
1
1.1.

3.1.1. X . X
.
, .
X , , f,
D ( f ) dom f
( domus - , ). x, , .
x D ( f ) ,

f ( D ( f ) ) -
. E ( f ) im f ( imago - , ).
, , .

1. y = x 2 y = x , ,
, y = x , D ( f ) = [ 0, + ) y = x, D ( f ) =
1.2.

3.1.2. f ( t ) , D ( f ) = G1, E ( f ) = G2

g ( x ) , D ( g ) = G3 , E ( g ) = G4 , G1 G4 . E = g 1 ( G1 G4 ) G1 G4 . , E G3 . ,
x E , t = g ( x ) G1 -

t y = f ( t ) = f ( g ( x ) ) . , ,

x E y G2 , , .
2. sin ( 2 x 1) f ( t ) = sin t
g ( x ) = 2x 1.

3.

f ( x) = 1 x 2

f ( t ) = t , t [ 0; + ) g ( x ) = 1 x 2 , x [ 1;1] .

80

1.3.

3.1.3. ,
y = f ( x ) , .
, ,
, ,
.
1. 4.

3.1.4. f ( x ) D ( f )

E ( f ) . , , s E ( f ) t D ( f ) , f ( t ) = s , f ( x ) .
, f ( x ) , f 1 . ,

( )

( )

D f 1 = E ( f ) E f 1 = D ( f ) .
4. f ( x ) = 5 2 x, D ( f ) = [ 0;2,5] .

[0;5] . f 1
x [ 0;2,5] , 5 2 x = y . ,

y [ 0;5]
y = 5 2 x . 5 y
, x . x =
. 2
x y y x , 5 x
5 x
f 1 ( x ) =
.
y =
2
2
, . , . , f ( x ) = x 2 ,
, , s > 0 t , t 2 = s , , s t .
, , f ( x ) = x 2 , D ( f ) = [ 0, + ) ,

( )

f 1 ( x ) = x , D f 1 = [ 0, + ) .

1. y E ( f ) , f f 1 ( y ) = y x D ( f ) ,

81

f 1 ( f ( x ) ) = x .

2. y = f ( x )

y = f 1 ( x ) .
,

x = f 1 ( y ) . .
1.5.

1.

,
, , .
5. y = [ x ] - x.

D ( f ) = . x n ,
n x < n + 1 (
?). y = [ x ] = n .
. , 0 x < 1 ,
y = 0 . , 1 x < 2 , y = 1 ,
2 x < 3 , y = 2 .., , 1 x < 0 , y = 1 ,
2 x < 1 , y = 2 .. .
E ( f ) = - .

6. y = sign x - x.
y = 1 , x < 0 , y = 1 ,
x > 0 y = 0 , x = 0 .
,
D ( f ) = , E ( f ) = {1,0,1} .
.

82

7.

1, x ,
d ( x) =
0, x .

, D ( f ) = R, E ( f ) = {0,1} . .
2.
, . ,
2
2 x 2 3x
, y = 1 + 2ln x , y = 23arcsin x .
y=
x +1
,
, .. , . ,
y = 1 + 2ln x x , 1

1 + 2ln x 0 , .. x e 2 .

.
x 2 + 2 x + 2, x 1

8. f ( x ) = 2 x +1,
1 < x 1.
5 x,
x >1

.
3.

. , - . .
4.
,
. . , , , ,
.
5.
F ( x, y ) = 0 . , ( x0 , y0 ) -

, .. F ( x0 , y0 ) = 0 83

P = {( x, y ) | x0 < x < x0 + , y0 < y < y0 + }


x ( x0 , x0 + ) y ( x ) ( y0 , y0 + )

, F ( x, y ( x ) ) = 0 . ,

F ( x, y ) = 0 ( x0 , y0 )
y = y ( x ) , . ( F ( x, y ) ,
, .)
9. x 2 + y 2 = 2 ( x0 , y0 ) = (1,1) . ,

(1,1)

x2 + y 2 = 2

{( x, y ) | 2 2 < x < 2,2 2 < y < 2} x ( 2 2, 2 ) y


( 2 2, 2 ) . , ,
P=

, y x 2 + y 2 = 2 : y = 2 x 2 .

1.
y , , F ( x, y ) = 0

. , x 2 + y 2 = 2 x 2, 2 y = 2 x 2 , , y

2 x 2 x 2 x 2 .
y = y ( x ) ( x0 , y0 ) , 2.
F ( x, y ) = 0 . ,

2,0 y = y ( x ) ,

84

x2 + y 2 = 2 .
P=

{( x, y ) | 0 < x < 2

2, 2 < y < 2 , y 2, 2

x = x ( y ) 0,2 2

x2 ( y ) + y 2 = 2 .
6.
E x = ( t )

y = ( t ) , x = ( t ) .

f ( x ) = 1 ( x ) , , x = ( t )
y = ( t ) f ( x ) , .
10. x = R cos t , y = R sin t , t [ 0, ] .
t = arccos

x
x
x
x2
y = R sin arccos = R 1 cos 2 arccos = R 1 2 = R 2 x 2 . R
R
R
R

, f ( x ) = R 2 x 2 .

x = ( t ) ,
1.
y = ( t ) , ,

x = 1 ( y ) .
2.
x = ( t ) y = ( t ) ,
. E ,
f ( x ) g ( y ) . ,
.
1.6.

-
3.1.5. y = f ( x ) ,

1. x D ( f )

(x) D( f ) ,
x D ( f ) f ( x ) = f ( x ) .

2.
,
D ( f ) - , .
,
85

, M1 ( x, y ) , M 2 ( x, y )
, ,
OY .
3.1.6. y = f ( x ) ,
1. x D ( f ) ( x ) D ( f ) ,
2. x D ( f ) f ( x ) = f ( x ) .

, M1 ( x, y )
, M 2 ( x, y ) . ,
.
, , .

3.1.7. , y = f ( x )
E , x1, x2 E , x1 > x2 , f ( x1 ) > f ( x2 ) .

3.1.8. , y = f ( x ) E , x1, x2 E , x1 > x2 ,


f ( x1 ) < f ( x2 ) .
E .
3.1.7 3.1.8
f ( x1 ) f ( x2 ) f ( x1 ) f ( x2 ) . , , , .
. ,
,
D ( f ) E ( f ) , .

3.1.9. y = f ( x ) , T 0 ,
x D ( f ) x T D ( f ) ,
1.

2.

x D ( f ) f ( x + T ) = f ( x ) .
86

T , , . .
T , kT
k , k 0 .

3.1.10. y = f ( x ) E , E .
, f ( x ) - E ,

) C x E : f ( x ) C

) m, M x E : m f ( x ) M .
m M , , E .
, ,
E .

1) x E f ( x ) m
m = inf f ( x )
xE
2) > 0 x E f ( x ) < m +

1) x E f ( x ) M
M = sup f ( x )
.
2) > 0 x E f ( x ) > M
xE
E x0 , f ( x0 ) f ( x )

x E , f ( x0 )

E . , f ( x0 ) f ( x ) x E , f ( x0 ) E .
f ( x0 ) = max f ( x )

xE

f ( x0 ) = min f ( x ) .

, -

xE

, , E , inf f ( x ) = min f ( x ) sup f ( x ) = max f ( x ) .


xE

xE

xE

xE

2
, x0
.
.

87

2.1.

3.2.1. A f ( x ) x,
x0 ( x0 ), > 0
> 0 , x D ( f ) , -

0 < x x0 < , f ( x ) A < .

, A x0 ,
: lim f ( x ) = A f ( x ) A .
x x0

x x0

, t t0 < r t0 r , 0 < t t0 <


. :
3.2.1(). A f ( x ) x,
x0 , - A
> 0 , x
- x0 ,
- A .
.
4x2 1
1. , lim1
= 2.
x 2 x 1
2

1
x0 = , A = 2 . > 0 x , 2
1
4 x2 1
2 < . , x ,

2
2x 1

,
1

1
( 2 x + 1) 2 < x < . , = x < ,
2 2
2
2
x

1
4 x2 1
,
2 < ,
2
2x 1

.. - 2.
2. lim x 2 = 4 .
x 2

> 0 x, x 2 4 < . , < 4 . , , 4 < x < 4 + . ,


x0 = 2 , -

. = min 2 4 , 4 + 2 . - 88

x0 = 2
x 2 4 < , , lim x 2 = 4 .
x 2

,
, f ( x ) A <
0 < x x0 < , -

f ( x ) A < .
, ,
. x 2 4 < x 2 x + 2 < . , ,
x,
(1,3) . x 2 x + 2 < 5 x 2 , , , 5 x 2 < ,
x x 2 4 < . , ,

= min 1, , x - 2,
5

x 2 4 < , , 4

x 2 x, 2.
2.2.

3.2.2. A f ( x ) x,

x0 , { xn } ,
, x0 ,
f ( xn ) A .
,
,
{ xn } ,
, , x x0 .
1
3. , sin x 0 .
x

89

xn =
, lim sin
n

1
1
. sin = sin n = 0 , xn
n

1
= 0.
xn

xn =

2
.
( 4n + 1)

( 4n + 1)
1
1
= sin
= 1 lim sin = 1.
n
xn
2
xn
, 0 .
. { xn } ,
sin

xn D ( f ) xn x0 f ( xn )
n

A , A x0 .
3.2.1. x0 ,

{ f ( xn )} ,

xn D ( f ) , xn x0 lim xn = x0 n

.
,
xn D ( f ) , xn x0 lim xn = x0
n

{ xn }

{ f ( xn )}

. -

{ xn } { xn } , , ,

{ f ( xn )}

{ f ( xn )}

. -

f ( x1 ) , f ( x1) , f ( x2 ) , f ( x2 ) , ...
,

x1 , x1, x2 , x2 , x3 , x3,... x0 ,
, . .
.
2.3.

3.2.2. .
, A
x0 , . xn x
xn D ( f ) , xn x0 xn x0 .
n

, > 0 > 0 , x,
0 < x x0 < ,
90

f ( x ) A < . n0 ,
0 < xn x0 < , ..
xn - x0 . ,

: f ( xn ) A < , , A -

f ( xn ) .

, A f ( x )
x0 ,
. , 0 > 0
, > 0 , x D ( f ) , 0 < x x0 < ,
f ( x ) A 0 .

1
n n
xn . , 1
xn x0 < , xn x0 , ,
n
n
f ( xn ) A 0 , ,
n =

A .
2.4.

3.2.3. , f ( x ) x, x0 , M > 0
>0
,
,

:
x D ( f ) , 0 < x x0 < , f ( x ) > M .
, .
: lim f ( x ) = .
x x0

f ( x ) > M -

, f ( x ) ( , M ) ( M , + ) .

( , M ) ( M , + ) ,
3.2.1()
A=.
91

( , M ) ( M , + ) . , ,
, M > 0 > 0 , , x
: x D ( f ) , 0 < x x0 < , f ( x ) ( , M ) , + , M > 0
> 0 , , x :
x D ( f ) , 0 < x x0 < , f ( x ) ( M , + ) . .

,
,
:

lim f ( x ) =
x x0

lim f ( x ) = + .

x x0

1
= .
x1 x 2 1
M > 0 x0 = 1 ,
x
1
> M . , 0 < x < 2 .
x2 1
1
1
1
1
min
=
>
,

=
1,
,
x2 1 x + 1 x 1 3 x 1
3M
x, x 1 <
4. , lim

1
1
> M , , 2
> M .
3 x 1
x 1
1
5. , lim
= + .
x1 ( x 1) 2
M > 0 x0 = 1 , x
1
1
>
.

<
, x
1
2
M
( x 1)

92

, =
f ( x ) ( M , + ) .

1
, x U (1)
M

6. , lim

x1

( x + 1)2 ( x 2 )

= .

M > 0 x0 = 1 ,
x
1
< M .
,

2 < x < 0 .

2
( x + 1) ( x 2 )
1

( x + 1)2 ( x 2 )

<

1
4 ( x + 1)

, = min 1,
2 M

x, x + 1 <
1
1
<

,
,

M
< M .
2
2
4 ( x + 1)
( x + 1) ( x 2 )
2.5.

3.2.4. , A
f ( x ) x, , > 0

> 0 , x D ( f ) , x > , f ( x ) A < .

, - A - U ( A )
, ,

, ,
U ( A ) .


( , ) ( , + ) ,

x, ( ) , ,
+ ( ).
x2 + 1 1
7. , lim 2
= .
x 2 x 3
2

93

> 0 ,
x
x2 + 1 1
< .
2 x2 3 2
, :
2
5
3
x +1 1
x
>
.

2
2x2 3 2 2 2x2 3

5
x2 + 1 1
<
<
2
2x 3 2
2 2x2 3

5 3
5 3
+ . , =
+ ,
4 2
4 2

x>

x2 + 1 1
x U ( )
< .
2 x2 3 2
. :
b) lim f ( x ) = + ;
c) lim f ( x ) = ;
a) lim f ( x ) = ;
x

d) lim f ( x ) = + ;
x+

2.6.

e) lim f ( x ) = .

x+

3.2.5. , x0 f ( x ) , x0 , ..

x < x0 . , A f ( x ) x,
x0 , > 0 > 0
, x D ( f ) ,
x0 < x < x0 , f ( x ) A < .
3.2.6. , , x0
f ( x ) ,
x0 , .. x > x0 . , A
f ( x ) x, x0 , > 0
> 0 , x D ( f ) , x0 < x < x0 + , f ( x ) A < .
, A x0 ,
: lim f ( x ) = A lim f ( x ) = A .
x x0 0

lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 0 ) lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 + 0 ) .

x x0 0

x x0 + 0

94

x x0 + 0

8. , lim sign x = 1
x00

lim sign x = 1 .

x0+ 0

, > 0 - > 0 . , x
< x < 0 , sign x + 1 = 0 < , x
0 < x < , sign x 1 = 0 < .
3.2.3. x0 ,
.
( ).

1.
x, + ,
.
2.

: lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = .
x x0 0

x x0 + 0

3.
( )
( ).
4.
( 2) , n + .
3
3.1.

3.3.1. x0 , .
- , , = 1 . U ( x0 ) x0 ,
o

x D ( f ) U ( x0 ) A 1 < f ( x ) < A + 1 ,
A = lim f ( x ) . f ( x0 ) , x x0

min ( A 1, f ( x0 ) ) max ( A + 1, f ( x0 ) ) .

1.
, ,
, , .. . ,
.

95

2.

x0 = .
1.

x 1
f ( x) =
.
( x 1)( x 2 )
x +1
,
x 1 , f ( x ) =
x2
x = 1 .
x = 1 , , , [ 1,3] .
.

3.2.

3.3.2. f ( x ) g ( x ) o

U ( x0 ) x0 , x f ( x ) g ( x ) . ,
lim f ( x ) = A lim g ( x ) = B . A B .
x x0

x x0

{ xn }

xn U ( x0 ) lim xn = x0 . ,
n

lim f ( xn ) = A

lim g ( xn ) = B .

f ( xn ) g ( xn ) , n ,
, A B .
3.3.

3.3.3. U ( x0 ) x0

f ( x ) , g ( x ) h ( x ) , x
f ( x ) h ( x ) g ( x ) . ,
lim f ( x ) = A
lim g ( x ) = A .

x x0

lim h ( x ) = A .

x x0

x x0

{ xn }

xn U ( x0 ) lim xn = x0 . ,
n

96

: lim f ( xn ) = lim g ( xn ) = A . f ( xn ) h ( xn ) g ( xn ) , n
n


lim h ( xn ) = A .

3.4.

3.3.4. x0 lim f ( x ) = A , A > 0 . x x0

U ( x0 ) x0 , x U ( x0 ) D ( f )
f ( x ) > 0 .
A
= . ,
2
U ( x0 ) , x,
o

U ( x0 ) D ( f ) ,

A
A
A < f ( x ) < A + . ,
2
2
x f ( x ) > 0 .

1.
A < 0 , x

f ( x) < 0 .
2.
,
lim f ( x ) 0 , x x0

x0 ,
,
c > 0 , f ( x ) > c .

1
.
f ( x)
3.
, :
x0 lim f ( x ) = A , A > B . g ( x ) =

x x0

U ( x0 ) x0 , x U ( x0 ) D ( f ) f ( x ) > B .
f1 ( x ) = f ( x ) B .

97

3.5.

3.3.5. lim f ( x ) lim g ( x ) .


x x0

x x0

, , ,

1. lim ( f ( x ) + g ( x ) ) = lim f ( x ) + lim g ( x ) ;


x x0

x x0

x x0

2. lim ( f ( x ) g ( x ) ) = lim f ( x ) lim g ( x ) ;


x x0

x x0

x x0

lim f x
f ( x ) x x0 ( )
3. lim
=
.
x x0 g ( x )
lim g ( x )
x x0

lim g ( x ) 0 .
x x0

{ xn } , x0 ,
.
. 3 x0 = .
3.6.

3.3.6. f ( x )

a, b , . x0
: lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 0 ) lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 + 0 ) , x x0 0

x x0 0

f ( x0 0 ) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 + 0 ) .

( a, x0 ) .

, x ( a, x0 ) f ( x ) f ( x0 ) .
,

M = lim f ( x ) .

M = sup f ( x ) .
x( a , x0 )

x x0 0


1) f ( x ) M , x ( a, x0 ) ,
2)

> 0

x ( a, x0 )

f ( x ) > M .

x, ( x , x0 ) , -

M < f ( x ) f ( x ) M . , > 0
= x0 x , , x - x0 x < x0 ,
- M .
, M = f ( x0 0 ) , , f ( x0 0 ) f ( x0 ) .
98

, f ( x0 + 0 ) = inf

x( x0 ,b )

f ( x0 ) f ( x0 + 0 ) .

f ( x ) -

, f ( x ) 1.

. f ( x0 0 ) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 + 0 ) .

2.
[ a, b ] ,
a , b - .
3.
,
. , ,
,
,
+ . ,
,
.
.
3.7.

3.3.1. ( x ) x0 ,
lim ( x ) = 0 .
x x0

, , .
1. x0
.
2. x0 ,

.
3. ( x ) 0 x0 .

( x ) x0 ,

1
.
( x)
,
, A x0 :
3.3.7. A f ( x )
x0 , x0
f ( x ) = A + ( x ) , ( x ) - x0 .

.
( x ) =

99

3.8.

3.3.8. f ( x )
x0 , > 0
o

> 0 , x x U ( x0 ) D ( f )
f ( x ) f ( x ) < .

. , f ( x ) x0
, A . , > 0 , > 0 , ,
o

x U ( x0 ) D ( f ) , f ( x ) A <

x x U ( x0 ) D ( f ) .
f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( x ) A + f ( x ) A <

= .
2 2
. , ,
, .. > 0 > 0 , x
x

f ( x ) f ( x ) < .

U ( x0 ) D ( f )

{ xn }

, x0 ( xn x0 ) . > 0
n0 ,

{ xn }

U ( x0 ) D ( f ) , , n n0 p

f xn+ p f ( xn ) < . ,

{ f ( xn )}

- (

).
,
{ xn } , x0 ( xn x0 ), . 3.2.1 x0
.
. , x0 = , x0 -
, .

100

4
-

.
4.1.

3.4.1. x0 D ( f ) -

f ( x ) . , f ( x ) x0 ,
lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) .
x x0

, f ( x ) x0 ,
1) f ( x0 ) ;
2) lim f ( x ) ;
x x0

3) x0 :
lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) .

x x0

, ( " " ) :
1. f ( x ) x0 D ( f ) , -

U ( f ( x0 ) ) f ( x0 ) U ( x0 )

x0

f ( x ) U ( f ( x0 ) ) .

x U ( x0 ) D ( f )

2. f ( x ) x0 D ( f ) , { xn } , xn D ( f ) lim xn = x0 , n

lim f ( xn ) = f ( x0 ) .
n

lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 )

x x0 +0

lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) , x0 , ,

x x0 0

.
.
1. x0 , .
2. f ( x ) g ( x )

x0 f ( x ) g ( x )
x0 , f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) .
3. f ( x ) x0 f ( x0 ) > 0 , , ,
101

, f ( x ) > 0 . (, f ( x0 ) < 0 , ,
x0 , f ( x ) < 0 ).
4. f ( x ) g ( x ) x0 ,

) f ( x ) + g ( x ) ;

b) f ( x ) g ( x ) ;

c) g ( x0 ) 0 ,

f ( x)
.
g ( x)

.
.
5. f ( x )

x0 D ( f ) ,
f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) + ( x ) , ( x ) - x0 .
1-5 .

6. ( x )

x0 , f ( t ) t0 = ( x0 ) , x0 f ( ( x ) ) , x0 .

> 0 > 0 , U ( t0 ) D ( f )

t U ( t0 ) , f ( t ) U ( f ( t0 ) ) .

> 0 , x U ( x0 ) , ( x ) U ( t0 ) .
,

x U ( x0 ) ,

f ( ( x ) )

f ( ( x ) ) U ( f ( t0 ) ) , f ( t0 ) = f ( ( x0 ) ) ,

f ( ( x ) ) x0 .

. 6 f ( t )

lim ( x ) = t0 , ( x ) x x0

, , lim f ( ( x ) ) = f lim ( x ) .
x x0
x x0

102

4. 2.

3.4.2. x0 D ( f ) ,
, x0
f ( x ) .

, ,
. 3.4.2 :
3.4.1(). f ( x ) x0 ,

1)
2)

f ( x0 ) ;
lim f ( x ) lim f ( x ) ;

3)

lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) .

x x0 0

x x0 0

x x0 +0

x x0 + 0

1) 3), x0 f ( x ) .

a) x0 ,
, f ( x0 ) lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) ,
x x0 0

x x0 + 0

x0 .
4 x2 1
1
, x0 = .
1. f ( x ) =
2x 1
2
1
,
2
4 x2 1
1
1 2, lim
= 2 . x0 = - .
x 1 2 x 1
2
2
x0 =

f ( x ) , x 2 ,
f1 ( x ) =

1
2,
x= ,

2
1
x0 = .
2
1
2. f ( x ) = x sin , x0 = 0 .
x

103

x0 = 0 , lim x sin = 0 ,
x0
x
1

1
x sin , x 0,
x sin x . , f1 =
.
x
x
0,
x=0

) ,
, x0 , .
3. f ( x ) = sign x, x0 = 0 .
8 2, lim sign x = 1 lim sign x = 1 .
x00

x0+0

, x0 = 0 f ( x ) = sign x . ,

f ( x0 + 0 ) f ( x0 0 ) = 2 .
) x0 ,
.
1
4. f ( x ) = sin , x0 = 0 .
x
1
3 2, lim sin ( x0
x
, ). .
1
5. f ( x ) = 2 , x0 = 1 .
x 1
1
4 2 , lim 2
= . , x1 x 1
x0 = 1 . ,
.
4.3.

x0 D ( f ) , -

D ( f ) x , ,

, x = x0 + x D ( f ) .

f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) ,
x0 ,
x .
104

4.4.1 ( )
f ( x ) x0 , ,
.
f ( x ) x0 . x0 f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) + 1 ( x ) , 1 ( x )

- x0 . x = x x0 ( x ) = 1 ( x ) .
,
f ( x0 + x ) = f ( x0 ) + ( x ) ,

f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) = = ( x ) - x ,
.
. lim f ( x0 ) = 0 . x0

f ( x0 ) = ( x ) , ,

f ( x0 + x ) = f ( x0 ) + ( x ) . x0 + x = x ( x ) = 1 ( x ) , -

f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) + 1 ( x ) , 1 ( x ) - -

x , x0 , , lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) ,
x x0

.. x0 .
6. f ( x ) = c - .
: f ( x ) = c c = 0 . , -

, , f ( x ) = c - .

7. f ( x ) = x .


x 0 , f ( x ) 0 .

f ( x ) = ( x + x ) x = x .

8. f ( x ) = x n , n .

.
4.4.2. , a, b ,
a < b + .
, , ,
, f ( x0 0 ) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 + 0 ) .
105

, , x0 ,
,
. , f ( x0 0 ) < f ( x0 ) , -

( f ( x0 0 ) ; f ( x0 ) ) . -

, , , . , . , .
4.4.

3.4.3. , f ( x ) G D ( f ) , .

G = [ a, b ] - ,
a b .
4.4.3. f ( x ) G ,
G , f ( G ) - .

, f ( G ) - , .. -

. y0 - f ( G ) . -

{ yn } n
yn f ( G ) ,
yn y0 lim yn = y0 .
f

({ yn }) ,

xn G . -

1
xnk , x0 G ( G - ). ,

{ }

( )
lim f ( xn ) = lim yn
k
k

lim f xnk = f ( x0 ) , f ( x ) , k


y0 f ( G ) .

y0

= y0 ,

{ yn }
k

. ,

y0 = f ( x0 ) , ..

f ( G ) .

f ( x ) G ,
, .
{U ( x ) , x G} . ,
G , G . U ( x1 ) , U ( x2 ) ,...U ( xm ) ,
x U ( xi ) , i = 1,2,...m mi f ( x ) M i . 106

M = max M i m = min mi . G
1i m

1i m

m f ( x ) M .
:
4.4.4 ( )
, .
4.4.5 ( )
,

.
,
f ( G ) .
. 4.4.3 ,
. :

4.4.6 ( )
f ( x ) [ a, b ] . ,
, , f ( x ) = 0 .
, .
x [ a, b ] f ( x ) 0 , , , .
[ a, b ]
, ..
U ( x1 ) , U ( x2 ) ,...U ( xm ) , x1 x2 xm , ,
.
, f ( a ) > 0 , , f ( x ) > 0 U ( x1 ) ,

U ( x1 ) U ( x2 ) , f ( x ) > 0 U ( x2 ) . ,

107

U ( xm ) , b , f ( x ) > 0 ,

, b f ( b ) < 0 .
1 ( )
f ( x ) [ a, b ] A = max f ( x ) ,
x[ a ,b ]

B = min f ( x ) . C , A < C < B x[ a ,b ]

[ a, b ] x0 , f ( x0 ) = C .

f ( x ) C
.
. f ( x ) = 0
f ( x) = C .

9. x3 3 x + 1 = 0 .
x3 3 x + 1 = f ( x ) . f ( 0 ) = 1 > 0 , f (1) = 1 < 0 ,

, [ 0,1] .
2. [ a, b ] , f ([ a, b ]) - .
.
3 ( )
f ( x ) , [ a, b ] , f ( a ) = c f ( b ) = d . f 1 ( y ) , -

f ( x ) , [ c, d ] , .
f ( x ) , min f ( x ) = c = f ( a ) < f ( b ) = d = max f ( x ) .
[ a ,b]

[ a ,b]

,
, [ c, d ] , ..

y [ c, d ] f ( x ) = y . , ,
.
, x1 x2 , x1 < x2 .
f ( x1 ) < f ( x2 ) , , f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 ) = y . , -

, f ( x ) = y , [ c, d ] x = f 1 ( y ) , .
108

, f 1 ( y ) . ,

.. , y1, y2 [ c, d ] , y1 < y2 ,
x1 = f 1 ( y1 ) f 1 ( y2 ) = x2 .

, f ( x ) ,

f ( x1 ) = y1 y2 = f ( x2 ) , y1 < y2 . , .
. , [ a, b ] .
, y0 [ c, d ] -

f 1 ( y0 0 ) f 1 ( y0 ) f 1 ( y0 + 0 ) ,
y0 , .
. , , f 1 ( y0 0 ) < f 1 ( y0 ) .

(f

( y0 0 ) ; f 1 ( y0 ) ) ( a, b )

, , [ a, b ] . .

, f ( x ) .
1.

f 1 ( y ) .
2.

, , ( ).
10. f ( x ) = x n .
n , , - . ,
n y , .

n , x n [ 0, + )

[0, + ) .

( )

( ,0] ,

( )

f +1 ( y ) = n y , D f +1 = [ 0, + ) ,

( )

( )

E f +1 = [ 0, + ) f 1 ( y ) = n y , D f 1 = [ 0, + ) , E f 1 = ( ,0] .
, , .

109

4.5.

f ( x ) , x G X , X
.
4.4.4. , f ( x ) -

G D ( f ) , > 0
> 0 , x x ,
G , ( x, x ) <

( f ( x ) , f ( x ) ) < .

G , > 0
> 0 , x x < , f ( x ) f ( x ) < x x ,
G .

, ,
, .
1
11. f ( x ) =
[ 0, + ) . 1 + x2
, .
> 0 [ 0, + )

f ( x ) f ( x ) =

1
1
( x x)( x + x) .
x2 x2

=
=
1 + x2 1 + x2 1 + x2 1 + x2
1 + x2 1 + x2

)(

) (

)(

,
1 + x2
x
:
2

x
x
1 1
+
x x + x x = x x .
f ( x ) f ( x )
2
2
1 + x 1 + x
2 2
, , = , x x < f ( x ) f ( x ) < , .
12. f ( x ) = x 2 G = [ 0, + ) . , . , G.
1
x = n + x = n n , n
.
110

1
1
f ( x ) f ( x ) = x2 x2 = 2n + > 2 .
n
n
, 0 = 2 , , > 0 ,
1
n , x x = < ,
n
f ( x ) f ( x ) > 0 . ,
.
4.4.7 (). G D ( f ) ,
.
> 0 ,
G , x U x ( x ) ,

x U x ( x ) D ( f ) , f ( x ) U

( f ( x ) ) . ,

U x ( x ) D ( f ) ,

( f ( x ) , f ( x ) ) ( f ( x ) , f ( x ) ) + ( f ( x ) , f ( x ) ) <

= .

U x ( x )
2

.
2
U1 ( x1 ) , U 2 ( x2 ) ,...,U m ( xm ) x1, x2 ,..., xm .
2

= min 1 , 2 ,..., m
2
2
2

x x G , ( x, x ) < . U k

( xk ) ,

x , .. ( x, xk ) <

( x, xk ) ( x, x ) + ( x, xk ) < +

k
2

k . , x x 2
xk k . , , ( f ( x ) , f ( x ) ) < .
, f ( x ) = x 2 [ 0, a ] , , , [ 0, + ) .

111

5
, .
5.1.

3.5.1.
:
1. f ( x ) = c
9. f ( x ) = th x

2. f ( x ) = x ,

10. f ( x ) = cth x

3. f ( x ) = sin x

11. f ( x ) = a x , a > 0, a 1

4. f ( x ) = cos x

12. f ( x ) = log a x, a > 0, a 1

5. f ( x ) = tg x

13. f ( x ) = arcsin x

6.

f ( x ) = ctg x

14. f ( x ) = arccos x

7.

f ( x ) = sh x

15. f ( x ) = arctg x

8. f ( x ) = ch x
16. f ( x ) = arcctg x
. . .
3.5.2. ,
.
,
, , .
5.2.

1) f ( x ) = c
( 6 4).
2) f ( x ) = x .
f ( x ) = x n f ( x ) = n x ,
n ( 8 10 4). -
1
, x = n ,
x
n = . \ {0} .
112

, x = x

= n xm , m , n , n 2 .

, f ( x ) = x ,
, . (
x, y > 0 ):

1. x1 x 2 = x1 + 2 ;

( )

1 2

2. x

1 2

=x

x
( x) ;
3. =
y
( y )

4. x > 1, > 0 , x > 1 ;

5. x > 1 1 > 2 , x1 > x 2 > 0 , 0 < x < 1 1 > 2 ,

0 < x1 < x 2 .

.
.
3) f ( x ) = a x , a > 0, a 1 .
,
x . .
1. f ( x ) = a x , D ( f ) = 0.
,
, rn , rn 0 , a rn 1 .
n

16 1 2 2 , lim n a = 1 .
n

, , a > 1 . > 0 .

k0
0 <1 a

,
1

k0

0<a

k0

1 <

< . , -

, 1 < a

113

k0

<a

k0

<1+ .

rn 0 n , n0 ,
1
rn < . k0
{rn } 1 < a

k0

< a rn < a

k0

< 1 + , -

, lim a rn = 1 .
n

, 0 < a < 1 , ,
, .
2. {rn } ,

{ }

a rn .
. > 0 , a rn .

a rn a rm = a rm a rn rm 1 .
, , a > 1 .
{rn } , . ,
c rn d .
a c a rn a d .
lim a r = 1, r , > 0 ,
r 0

r < a r 1 <

. rn
ad
, ,
n0 , n n0 m n0 , rn rm < , ,

a rn rm 1 <

ad

. -

a rn a rm = a rm a rn rm 1 < a d

= .
ad
0 < a < 1 .
a, a > 0, a 1
.
3.5.3. x - {rn } - , x .
a x = lim a rn .
n

1.
,
x , ,
.
114

2.

{ } , -

a rn

x {rn } , lim a rn {rn } ( 3.2.1) .

, f ( x ) = a x , a > 0, a 1 , x .
.

1. x1 x2

a x1 a x2 = a x1 + x2 .
{rn } {rn} - ,
n : rn x1 rn x2 . rn + rn x1 + x2
lim a rn = a x1 , lim a rn = a x2 , lim a rn +rn = a x1 + x2 .

,
a a = a r1+r2 .
. x1 x2
r1

r2

a x1
= a x1 x2 .
x2
a
2. x a x > 0 .
, a > 1 r - , x > r .
{rn } - , x . , , rn > r , , a rn > a r . , a x a r > 0 .
0 < a < 1 , 1
, .
a
3. f ( x ) = a x , a > 1
f ( x ) = a x , 0 < a < 1 .
, a > 1 , x1 x2 ,
x1 < x2 . - r1 r2 , x1 < r1 < r2 < x2 -

{ }

{ }

1
2
rn( ) , x1 , rn( ) , x2 . -

1
, rn( ) < r1
2
r2 < rn( ) . (1)

( 2)

n a rn < a r1 < a r2 < a rn .


115

, ,
a a r1 < a r2 a x2 , .
0 < a < 1 1
.
a
4. f ( x ) = a x , a > 0, a 1 .
, , a > 1 .
, a x . { xn } , .
x1

n rn( ) rn( ) ,
1
1
1
2
1
2
xn < rn( ) < xn < rn( ) < xn + . rn( ) rn( )
n
n
, , ,
1

{ } { }

(1)

( 2)

lim a rn = lim a rn = 1 .
n

, (1)

( 2)

a rn < a xn < a rn ,
lim a xn = 1. .
n

x0 , a x . :

f ( x0 ) = a x0 +x a x0 = a x0 a x 1 . lim a x = 1 , a x0 - ( x0

x ),
lim f ( x0 ) = 0 , ..
x0

x0 .
5. x1 x2

(a )

x1 x2

= a x1x2 .

. ,
x2 = r - . {rn } -

( ) = a a n . , s = a a ( s ) ( a ) . , ( a ) = a .
, x1 . a rn
n

rn

x1

rn r

x1r

x1 r

x1 r

x1r

x1 x2 .
{ n } - , x2 . ,
116

( )

, a x1

( )

: lim a x1
n

( )

= a x1

x2

= a x1n . -

( )

lim a x1n = a x1x2 . a x1


n

x2

= a x1x2 .

6. a > 1 , lim a x = + lim a x = 0 , 0 < a < 1 ,


x+

lim a = 0 lim a = + .

x+

, a > 1 x + .
n = [ x ] - x . ( 18
1 2) ,
n
n < 1 , . . a n > n . , a x a n +
a
x + .
.
.
( 0,+ ) .
4)
f ( x ) = a x , a > 0, a 1 . , , log a x . ( 0,+ ) ,
, a > 1 , 0 < a < 1 . .
a = e ,
ln x .

117

5) ( )
- . x = e ln x .
( 0,+ ) , , , > 0 , , < 0 .
6) -

( u ( x ) )

v( x )

v x ln u x
= e ( ) ( ) , , u ( x ) > 0 ,

- . u ( x ) v ( x ) , , .
7)

e x + e x
e x e x
ch x =
sh x =

2
2
, ,
. ,
, .

:
ch 2 x sh 2 x = 1,

ch 2 x = 1 + 2sh 2 x = 2ch 2 x 1,
sh 2 x = 2sh x ch x.
:
sh x
ch x
th x =
cth x =

.
ch x
sh x
th x , cth x x , x = 0 .
.

118


,
y = f ( x ) x .
e x e x
. y = sh x y =
2
e2 x 2 ye x 1 = 0 , e x = y y 2 + 1 .
, ,
, -

(-

x = ln y + y 2 + 1 . -

, arsh x = ln x + x 2 + 1 , x

-) sh x .
y = ch x
e x + e x
. , y 1.
y =
2
e 2 x 2 ye x + 1 = 0
e x = y y 2 1 . , . ,
:

(
x = ln ( x

)
x 1 ) , x 1 , ch x, arch

arch + x = ln x + x 2 1 , x 1 , ch x, arch + x 0
arch

x 0.

th x cth x ,
, th x - ( 1,1) ,
cth x - ( , 1) (1, + ) .
e x e x
y= x
,

e + e x
1 1+ y
e x + e x
x = ln
, y = x x
2 1 y
e e
1 1+ y
,
x = ln
2 y 1

119

1 1+ x
arth x = ln
, x <1
2 1 x
1 1+ x
arcth x = ln
, x > 1.
2 x 1
8) , , . .


1. sin x < x < tg x 0 < x < , sin x x tg x x ,
2
2 2
sin x x x.
x ,
( ). O1M x .
N , O1N = tg x .
OMO1 , ONO1 OMO1 . ,

:
S OMO1 < ScekmOMO1 < S ONO1 .
, :
1
1
S OMO1 = R 2 sin x = sin x ;
2
2
1
1
ScekmOMO1 = R 2 x = x
2
2
1
1
S ONO1 = OO1 O1N = tg x , 2
2

sin x < x < tg x, 0 < x <

.
(*)
2
sin x
tg x ,

sin x < x < tg x

< x < 0 ,
2
sin x < x < tg x . , , ,


x , ,
2 2
sin x x tg x
x sin x x .

(**)

2. .
sin x :
x
x

f ( x ) = sin ( x + x ) sin x = 2sin cos x +


.
2
2

120

(**)

cos x +
1,
2

x
= x . , , x 0 , f ( x ) 0 .
2

x
x
cos ( x + x ) cos x = 2sin sin x +
x ,
2
2

cos x .
tg x ctg x , , .
f ( x ) 2

3 ( )
sin x
lim
= 1.
x0 x
, x 0 , (**) sin x

x
1
sin x
<
1 >
> cos x , x , , x 0 .
2 2
sin x cos x
x
,
sin x
> cos x . x , cos x 1 >
x
1 ( cos x ). ,
sin x
lim
= 1 , x0 x
.
1 <

9)
f ( x ) = sin x ,

x , . , 2 2
, , ,

arcsin x, x [ 1,1] .
, arccos x ,
x [ 1,1] , cos x, x [ 0, ] . .
121

arctg x, x

tg x, x , , arcctg x, x - ,
2 2
ctg x, x ( 0, ) . .
.

1. arcsin x + arccos x =
2. arctg x + arcctg x =

. ,

arccos x = arcsin x . -

, sin arccos x = cos ( arccos x ) = x arccos x .


2 2
2
2

arccos x = arcsin x .

5.3.

sin x
= 1 .
x0 x

, lim

.
1).
lim (1 + x )
x0

= e.

2.4.1. , { xn } lim (1 + xn )
n

xn

= e . -

.
ln (1 + x )
lim
= 1.
2).
x0
x
122

ln (1 + x )
x = 0 , x
, f ( t ) :

lim f ( g ( x ) ) = f lim g ( x ) .
x x0
x x0

,
1
1
ln (1 + x )
= lim ln (1 + x ) x = ln lim (1 + x ) x = ln e = 1 .
lim
x0
x0
x 0

log a (1 + x )
1
.
=
x0
x
ln a
log a (1 + x )
ln (1 + x )
ln (1 + x )
1
1
lim
= lim
=
lim
=
.
x0
x0 x ln a
ln a x0
ln a
x
x

. lim

3).

ex 1
lim
= 1.
x0
x
e x 1 = y . x = ln (1 + y ) . ,

ex 1
y
= lim
= 1.
x 0 y 0 . lim
x0
y 0 ln (1 + y )
x

ax 1
= ln a, a > 0, a 1 .
x0
x
e x ln a 1

ax 1
ey 1
= lim
ln a = ln a lim
= ln a .
lim
x0
x0
y 0
x
x
ln
a
y

. lim

y = x ln a 0 .
x 0

s
1 + x) 1
(
= s.
lim

4).

x0

s
s ln 1+ x
e s ln(1+ x ) 1 s ln (1 + x )
1 + x) 1
ln (1 + x )
e ( ) 1
(
= lim

lim
= s.
lim
= s lim

x0
x0 s ln (1 + x )
x0 s ln (1 + x ) x0
x
x
x

123

6 .
6.1.

3.6.1. f ( x ) g ( x ) o

U ( x0 ) x0 . ,

f ( x ) = O ( g ( x ) ) (: f ( x ) g ( x ) )

x , x0 , h ( x ) ,
o

x0 , x U ( x0 )
f ( x) = h( x) g ( x) h( x) C .

1.

( x ) x 0 .
x (1 + 2 x )

x + 2x = O

x + 2x =

h( x) = 1 + 2 x

.
2. x + 2 x = O ( x ) x .
1
1

x + 2x = x 2 +
.
x

2
+

x
x

1
3. x sin = O ( x ) x 0 .
x
1
h ( x ) = sin .
x
. f ( x ) = O (1) x x0 , f ( x )
x0 .
f ( x ) = O ( g ( x ) ) g ( x ) = O ( f ( x ) ) x x0 , ,
f ( x ) g ( x ) .

3.6.1. , lim

x x0

f ( x ) g ( x ) x x0 .
h ( x ) =

f ( x)
,
g ( x)

f ( x)
.
g ( x)

f ( x)
, x0 h ( x ) x x0 g ( x )
.
3.6.2. f ( x ) g ( x ) lim

U ( x0 ) x0 . , f ( x )
124

g ( x ) x x0 , h ( x ) , x0 ,
o

x U ( x0 ) f ( x ) = h ( x ) g ( x ) lim h ( x ) = 0 .
x x0

, : f ( x ) = o ( g ( x ) ) , x x0

(: f ( x ) g ( x ) x , x0 ).
g ( x ) , f ( x ) ,
f ( x ) , g ( x ) .

( )

4. x 2 + 2 x = o x3 , x .
5. x 2 = o ( x ) , x 0 .
1
6. sin 2 x sin = o ( x ) , x 0 .
x
. O ( g ( x ) ) o ( g ( x ) ) x x0

, f ( x ) = o ( g ( x ) ) ,

f ( x ) . , x 2 = o ( x ) , x 2 x 0
, x .
f ( x ) = o ( g ( x ) ) , .
7. o ( f ( x ) ) = O ( f ( x ) ) - , O ( f ( x ) ) = o ( f ( x ) ) - .
O o .
o ( ,
x x0 ).
1. o ( Cf ) = o ( f )
2. C o ( f ) = o ( f )
3. o ( f ) + o ( f ) = o ( f )
4. o ( o ( f ) ) = o ( f )

( ) ( ) ( )
7. f o ( f ) = o ( f ) ,
k
8. ( o ( f ) ) = o ( f ) ,
k
o( f )
9.
= o( f ),
k
f

6. o f k o f m = o f k + m , k , m
k +1

k 1

5. o ( f + o ( f ) ) = o ( f )

, , .

125

- g ( x ) = o ( o ( f ) ) - -

g1 ( x ) = o ( f ) . , x0 g ( x ) = ( x ) g1 ( x ) g1 ( x ) = ( x ) f ( x ) ,
lim ( x ) = lim ( x ) = 0 .

x x0

g ( x ) = ( ( x ) ( x ) ) f ( x ) ,

x x0

h ( x ) = ( x ) ( x ) 0 , , g ( x ) = o ( f ) .
.
6.2.

3.6.3. f ( x ) g ( x ) o

U ( x0 ) x0 . , f ( x )
g ( x ) x x0 , h ( x ) , o

x0 , x U ( x0 ) f ( x ) = h ( x ) g ( x ) lim h ( x ) = 1.
x x0

f g x x0 .

1.
.
2.

a) f f ();
) f g g f ();
) f g , g h f h ().
, 5, , . t 0
sin t t
et 1 t
arcsin t t

a t 1 t ln a

tg t t

ln (1 + t ) t

arctg t t

log a (1 + t )

t
ln a

t2
(1 + t )s 1 st
2
.
1 cos t

3.6.2. x x0 f f1 g g1 ,
1) lim ( f1 g1 ) , lim ( f g ) = lim ( f1 g1 )
x x0

x x0

126

x x0

f1
f
f
, lim = lim 1 .
x x0 g1
x x0 g
x x0 g1
x0 f ( x ) = f1 ( x ) h1 ( x ) g ( x ) = g1 ( x ) h2 ( x ) , lim h1 ( x ) = lim h2 ( x ) = 1 .
2) lim

x x0

x x0

lim ( f g ) = lim ( f1 h1 g1 h2 ) = lim ( f1 g1 ) lim ( h1 h2 ) = lim ( f1 g1 )

x x0

lim

x x0

x x0

x x0

x x0

x x0

f
f h
f
h
f
= lim 1 1 = lim 1 lim 1 = lim 1 .
g x x0 g1 h2 x x0 g1 x x0 h2 x x0 g1

3.6.3 ( )
f ( x ) g ( x ) x x0 -

, x x0 f ( x ) = g ( x ) + o ( g ( x ) ) .

f g x x0 . x0
f ( x ) = g ( x ) h ( x ) , lim h ( x ) = 1.
x x0

f ( x ) g ( x ) = g ( x ) (1 h ( x ) ) . lim (1 h ( x ) ) = 0 , f g = o ( g ) .
x x0

, f ( x ) = g ( x ) + o ( g ( x ) ) x x0 . -

x0 f ( x ) g ( x ) = g ( x ) ( x ) , lim ( x ) = 0 .
x x0

f ( x ) = g ( x ) (1 + ( x ) ) f ( x ) = g ( x ) h ( x ) , h ( x ) = 1 + ( x ) lim h ( x ) = 1.
x x0

, f g .
, :
sin t = t + o ( t )
et 1 = t + o ( t )
arcsin t = t + o ( t )

a t 1 = t ln a + o ( t )

tg t = t + o ( t )

ln (1 + t ) = t + o ( t )

arctg t = t + o ( t )

log a (1 + t ) =

t2
cos t = 1 + o t 2
2

( )

t
+ o (t )
ln a

(1 + t )s 1 = st + o ( t )

, .

127

x
cos x sin 2 x ln 1 1
2 .
8. lim
2
x0
ex 1
o x k ,
3

( )

cos6 x =

3 1

36 x 2

36 x 2
1 36 x 2
2
2
+ o x =1
+ o x + o
+ o x2 =
2
3 2

( )

( )

( )

( )

= 1 6 x2 + o x2 ,

( )

( )

2
x
x

sin 2 x ln 1 = ( 2 x + o ( x ) ) + o ( x ) = x 2 + o x 2 , e x 1 = x 2 + o x 2 .
2
2

, , lim

( ) = 0 ,

o x2

x2
x
3
cos x sin 2 x ln 1 1
1 6x2 + x2 + o x2 1
2

lim
= lim
=
2
x0
x 0
x2 + o x2
ex 1
x0

= lim

x0

( )
( ) = lim 5 +
x
o( x )
+ o( x )
1+
o x2

5 x 2 + o x 2
x2

( )
( )

x 0

x2

128

= 5 .

IV.

1
1.1.

4.1.1. y = f ( x ) x0 . ,
, f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
: lim
.
x0
x
x0 .
y = f ( x ) x0 f ( x0 ) , f x ( x0 ) ,

df ( x0 )
, y ( x0 ) .
dx

f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
= lim
.
x0
x0
x
x

.
1. f ( x ) = ax 2 a) x0 = 1; )
x .
a) ax 2 x0 = 1:
, f ( x0 ) = lim

f (1) = a (1 + x ) a 12 = a 2x + ( x ) .
2

a 2x + ( x )
f (1)
= lim
= lim a ( 2 + x ) = 2a .
lim
x0 x
x0
x0
x
) x :
2

f ( x ) = a ( x + x ) ax 2 = a 2 xx + ( x ) .
2

a 2 xx + ( x )
f ( x )
lim
= lim
= lim a ( 2 x + x ) = 2ax .

x0 x
x0
x0
x
. , , . ,
, . ,
2ax . , x = 1 2ax |x=1 = 2a .
2. f ( t ) = 3sin ( 2t + 1) t .
2

129

f = 3sin ( 2 ( t + t ) + 1) 3sin ( 2t + 1) = 6sin ( t ) cos ( 2t + 1 + t ) .

6sin ( t ) cos ( 2t + 1 + t )
sin ( t )
= 6 lim
lim cos ( 2t + 1 + t ) =
t 0
t 0
t 0
t
t
= 6cos ( 2t + 1) .

f ( t ) = lim

1.2.

a)
, t , S ( t ) . ,

t0 t0 + t , S ( t0 + t ) S ( t0 )

v =

S ( t0 + t ) S ( t0 )
.
t

t0 ( ) ,
S ( t 0 + t ) S ( t 0 )
t0 t0 + t , t 0 , .. v ( t0 ) = lim
.
t 0
t
, v ( t0 ) = S ( t0 ) . , ,
, .
3. OX : x ( t ) = 3sin ( 2t + 1) .
( ) ,
.
x ( t ) = 6cos ( 2t + 1) .
x ( t ) x ( t ) ,
t , , 1
1
, , t1 = t2 =
. x1 ( t ) = x2 ( t ) = 6 .
2
2
) .
y = f ( x ) . , x0 . f ( x0 ) = y0 , f ( x0 + x ) = y1 -

M 0 ( x0 , y0 ) M ( x0 + x, y1 ) .

f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )
y y
, :
k = 1 0 =
=
x
x
x
f ( x0 )
y y0 =
( x x0 ) .
x
130

, , x , M ( x0 + x, y1 )

M 0 ( x0 , y0 ) . ,

M 0 ( x0 , y0 ) .

f ( x0 )
, , x0
x
,
y y0 = f ( x0 )( x x0 ) , ..
k = f ( x0 ) .
,
, :
x0
, M 0 ( x0 , y0 ) ,
.
4. y = 2 x 2 lim

45o ? .
1, y ( x ) = 4 x . 450 , y ( x ) = tg 45o = 1 .
2 1
4 x0 = 1 , x0 = 1 . y0 = 2 = 4
8
4
y 1 = 1 x 1 , , y = x 1 .
8
4
8

1.3.

4.1.2. f ( x ) x0 ,

A , f ( x0 ) = Ax + o ( x ) x 0 .

4.1.1. f ( x ) x0
, .
f ( x ) x0 .

f ( x0 )
Ax + o ( x )

o ( x )
= lim
= lim A +
= A , .. x0
x0
x 0
x
x
x
A .
, x0 , f ( x0 )
= f ( x0 ) + ( x ) ,
,
x
( x ) 0 , x 0 .
lim

131

f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) x + ( x ) x = Ax + o ( x ) , A = f ( x0 ) .
. , , , A , , .
,
.
4.1.2. ,
.
x0 , f ( x0 ) = Ax + o ( x ) x 0 , ,

lim f ( x0 ) = 0 . , x0 .

x0

. .
, ,
. , f ( x ) = x x = 0 ,
, , .
4.1.3. ( a, b ) , a < b + , , ( a, b ) .

1.4.

4.1.4. , f ( x )
x0 . f ( x0 ) x -

x0 df ( x0 ) df .
, f ( x0 ) = df ( x0 ) + o ( x ) . ,
, .

M ( x0 , y0 ) ,
x . ,
df ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) x , x .
.

f ( x0 ) df ( x0 ) = o ( x )
x .
.
132

f ( x ) = x .

( x + x ) x = lim x = lim 1 = 1.
: ( x ) = lim
x0
x0 x
x 0
x
dx = 1 x df ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) x

f ( x ) = x :
df ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) dx ,
.
. , df ( x )
.
f ( x ) =
:
dx
1.5.

4.1.5. ,
f ( x0 )
. [ x0 , x0 + ) xlim
x0 + 0
x
f ( x ) f + ( x0 ) .

, ( x0 , x0 ] -

f ( x0 )
, x x0 0
x

f ( x ) f ( x0 ) .
,
M 0 ( x0 , y0 ) , y0 = f ( x0 ) f + ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) .
4.1.3. f ( x0 ) x0
,
f ( x0 ) = f + ( x0 ) .
.
f ( x0 )
= . ,
, lim
x0
x
x0 .
x

( y y0 ) = x x0 . ,
f ( x0 )
x
lim
= 0 ,
x0 f ( x0 )

lim

133

x = x0 . ,
.
, , .

f ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
= . = + lim
x0
x0
x
x
, , f ( x0 ) = + , , f ( x0 ) = .
x = x0 .

1. , lim

2. . , , f ( x0 ) = .
.

2 .
2.1.

, ,

4.2.1. f ( x ) g ( x ) x0 . -

f ( x ) + g ( x ) ,
f ( x ) g ( x ) , , g ( x0 ) 0 ,

( f ( x ) + g ( x ) ) |x= x = f ( x0 ) + g ( x0 ) ,
( f ( x ) g ( x ) ) |x= x = f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) + f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) ,
)

f ( x)
,
g ( x)

f ( x )
f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) g ( x0 )
)
.
|x= x0 =
2
g
x
g
x
(
)
(
)
0

134

f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) = g ( x0 + x ) g ( x0 ) ,
f ( x0 + x ) = f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 ) g ( x0 + x ) = g ( x0 ) + g ( x0 ) .

f ( x0 )
g ( x0 )
= f ( x0 ) lim
= g ( x0 ) ,
x0
x0
x
x
( f ( x0 + x ) + g ( x0 + x ) ) ( f ( x0 ) + g ( x0 ) ) =
a) ( f ( x ) + g ( x ) ) |x= x0 = lim
x0
x
f ( x0 ) + g ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
g ( x0 )
= lim
= lim
+ lim
= f ( x0 ) + g ( x0 ) .
x0
x0
x 0
x
x
x
( f ( x0 + x ) g ( x0 + x ) ) ( f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) ) =
) ( f ( x ) g ( x ) ) |x= x0 = lim
x0
x
( f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 ) ) ( g ( x0 ) + g ( x0 ) ) f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) =
= lim
x0
x
f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) + f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) + f ( x0 ) g ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
= lim
= lim g ( x0 )
+
x0
x0
x
x
g ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
+ lim f ( x0 )
+ lim g ( x0 )
= f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) + f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) .
x0
x0
x
x
, g ( x0 ) x0 , , f ( x0 )
.
,
x
) :
f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) g ( x0 )
f
=

=
g g ( x0 + x ) g ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) + g ( x0 ) g ( x0 )
g ( x0 ) ( g ( x0 ) + g ( x0 ) )
, lim

f
f ( x0 )
g ( x0 )

g
x
f
x
(
)
(
)
0
0
f ( x)
g
x =

= lim x
|x = x0 = lim
x0 x
x0
g ( x0 ) ( g ( x0 ) + g ( x0 ) )
g ( x)
f ( x0 ) g ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) g ( x0 )
.
=
g 2 ( x0 )
1. ( C f ( x ) ) = C f ( x ) .
:
C C
= lim 0 = 0 .
( C ) = lim
x0 x
x0
, ,
( C f ( x ) ) = ( C ) f ( x ) + Cf ( x ) = Cf ( x ) .
135

2.
:
) d ( f + g ) = df + dg ,

) d ( f g ) = g df + f dg ,

f g df f dg
.
) d =
2
g
g

.

:
( f + f + ... + f ) = f + f + ... f ,
1

( f1 f 2 ... f n ) =
2.2.

f1 f 2 ... f n + f1 f 2 ... f n + ... f1 f 2 ... f n .

4.2.2. f ( x ) [ a, b ] x0 ( a, b ) , f ( x0 ) 0 .

f 1 ( y ) ,

y0 = f ( x0 ) f 1 ( y ) | y = y0 =

f ( x ) ,

1
.
f ( x0 )

, f ( x ) .

x0 - [ a, b ] ,

[ x0 , x0 + ] [ a, b] ,

f ( x ) , -

, . y0 = f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) , f ( x0 + ) , f ( x )
f ( x0 ) < f ( x0 ) < f ( x0 + ) .

y , y0 + y f ( x0 ) , f ( x0 + ) .

x = f 1 ( y0 + y ) f 1 ( y0 ) 0 , ,

f 1 ( y ) f 1 ( y0 + y ) f 1 ( y0 ) . , x 0

y 0 , f 1 ( y ) y0 .
x
1

,
=
y y
x
y
x
1
lim
=
.
= f ( x0 ) 0 , lim
x0 x
y 0 y
f ( x0 )
.
1
.
f ( x0 ) =

1
f ( y ) | y= f ( x )

136

2.3.

4.2.3. f ( t ) t0

( x ) x0 , ( x0 ) = t0 .
f ( ( x ) ) x0 ,

( f ( ( x ) ) ) |x= x = ft( t0 ) x ( x0 ) = ft( ( x0 ) ) x ( x0 ) .


0

f ( t )

t0 . , ( x )
x0 .
34 , x0 -

f ( ( x ) ) . x ,
x0 + x . t = ( x0 + x ) ( x0 )

, , ( x ) x0 , t 0
x 0 .
, f ( t ) ,
f ( t0 ) = ft( t0 ) t + o ( t ) , o ( t ) = ( t ) t , ( t ) 0 .
t 0

x ,
f ( x0 )

t
t o ( t )
lim
=
lim
= lim ft( t0 )
+
= ft( t0 ) x ( x0 ) ,

x0 x
x0
x0
x
x
x
= lim

( x0 + x ) ( x0 )

x0

o ( t )
t

= lim ( t ) = 0 .
x0 x
x0
x

= x ( x0 ) lim

.
df = f ( t ) dt , t
- .
t = ( x ) .

df = f ( ( x ) ) dx = ft( ( x ) ) ( x ) dx .

( x ) dx = dt , ( x ) = t , df = f ( t ) dt .
. , df = f ( t ) dt , , t - , dt , , t - , dt -
.

137

2.4.


.
1
,
cos 2 x
1
12. ( ctg x ) = 2 ,
sin x
1
13. ( arcsin x ) =
,
2
1 x
11. ( tg x ) =

1. ( C ) = 0 ,

( ) = x ,
1

,
3. ( x ) =
2 x
2. x

1
1
4. = 2 ,
x
x

14. ( arccos x ) =

( )

6. ( e ) = e ,

5. a x = a x ln a ,
x

1 x

1
,
1 + x2
1
16. ( arcctg x ) =
,
1 + x2
17. ( sh x ) = ch x ,

15. ( arctg x ) =

7. ( log a x ) =

1
,
x ln a

1
8. ( ln x ) = ,
x
9. ( sin x ) = cos x ,

18. ( ch x ) = sh x ,

1
,
ch 2 x
1
10. ( cos x ) = sin x ,
20. ( cth x ) = 2 .
sh x
1 4.2.1.
, , 5.3
3.
x

1 +

x + x ) x
(
x

= x lim x = x 1 .
lim x
x = lim

x0
x0
x0 xx
x
x

3 4 2.
, , .
19. ( th x ) =

( )

a x a x 1
a x +x a x
a x x ln a
= lim
= lim
= e x ln a .
a = lim
x0
x0
x0
x
x
x
x
log a 1 +

log a ( x + x ) log a x
x
1
x

= lim
= lim
=
.
( log a x ) = lim
x0
x0
x0 x ln a x
x
x
x ln a

( )
x

138

6 8 5 7 a = e .
9 10.
x
x

2sin cos x +

sin ( x + x ) sin x
2
2

= lim
=
( sin x ) = lim
x 0
x0
x
x
x

x cos x +

= lim
= cos x.
x0
x
x
x
2sin sin x +

cos ( x + x ) cos x
2
2

= lim
=
( cos x ) = lim
x 0
x0
x
x
x

x sin x +

= lim
= sin x.
x0
x
11 12 :
sin x ) cos x ( cos x ) sin x cos 2 x + sin 2 x
1
(

=
=
.
( tg x ) =
2
2
cos x
cos x
cos 2 x
sin x ( sin x ) cos x cos 2 x + sin 2 x
cos
x
1
(
)
=
= 2 .
( ctg x ) =
2
2
sin x
sin x
sin x
13-16
.
y = arcsin x . 1
1
1

x = sin y, y , . ( arcsin x ) x =
=
=
.
2
cos
y

2 2
1 x
( sin y )

, .. x 1 .
2
14-16 , .
17-20 .

, y

2.5.

, - ( u ( x ) )
y = ( u ( x ) )

v( x )

v( x )

. ,

u ( x ) > 0 , ln y : ln y = v ( x ) ln ( u ( x ) ) .
x .

139

y
, :
y
u
y
u

v ( x ) ln ( u ( x ) ) = v ln u + v .
= v ln u + v ,
u
y
u
u
u

y = y v ln u + v = u v v ln u + v .
u
u

( ln y ) x =

1. ( sin x )

ln x

. ln y = ln x ln ( sin x ) .
y 1
cos x
,
,
= ln ( sin x ) + ln x
y x
sin x
cos x
ln x 1
y = ( sin x ) ln ( sin x ) + ln x
.
sin x
x
y = ( sin x )

2.6.

ln x

4.2.4. x = x ( t ) y = y ( t ) -

[t0 , t0 + ] , x ( t ) ,
t = t ( x ) ,
. , x ( t ) y ( t ) t0 , x ( t0 ) 0 . y = y ( t ( x ) ) -

yt ( t0 )
.
xt ( t0 )
,
x0 y ( t ( x ) ) = yt t x . -

x x0 = x ( t0 ) , yx ( x0 ) =

t x =

)x

y
1
, y ( t ( x ) ) = t .
x
xt
xt
2. ,

x = 3cos t , y = 2sin t , t [ 0,2 ] ,


.
,
k = 0 .
y ( t ( x ) ) x :

140

yt 2cos t
2
=
= ctg t . t , yx = 0 . 3
xt 3sin t

3
[ 0,2 ] : t1 =
t2 =
. ,
2
2
M1 ( 0,2 ) M 2 ( 0, 2 ) .
. x = 3cos t , y = 2sin t , t [ 0,2 ]
y = y ( x ) : t [ 0, ] - t [ ,2 ] .
x ( t ) , , . 4.2.4 .
yx =

3
3.1.

f ( x ) ( a, b ) ,
f ( x ) . , x .
x0 ( a, b ) , ( )

x0

:
f ( x0 ) ,

d 2 f ( x0 )
dx

2
, f ( ) ( x0 ) , f xx ( x0 ) .

f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
.
x0
x
, . x = x ( t ) y = y ( t )
4.2.4 , yx . , t0 xtt ytt .
y ( t )
= (t )
t0 x = x ( t ) yx = t
xt ( t )

, f ( x0 ) = lim

yx ( t ( x ) ) , -

y ( t ( x ) ) x .

ytt xt yt xtt
yt

2
xt )
(
y x y x
t xt t

yxx = ( t ( x ) ) = =
=
= tt t 3 t tt .
x
xt
xt
xt
( x )

141

, , -

f ( ) ( x ) ,
..
f ( x ) ( a, b ) 3

f ( x ) , f ( x ) ,..., f (

n1)

( x ) ( n 1) - .
n1
x0 ( a, b ) f ( ) ( x ) , n- f ( x ) x0
d n f ( x0 )
(n)
.
f ( x0 )
n
dx

n
n 1
f ( ) ( x0 ) = f ( ) ( x ) |x = x0 .

, , f ( x ) g ( x ) n- ( n)

, ( C1 f ( x ) + C2 g ( x ) ) = C1 f ( ) ( x ) + C2 g ( ) ( x ) .
n-
:

( )

1. x

( n)

( )

(n)

( )

= ( 1) ...( n + 1) x n .

, = m , x m

2. e x

m ( m 1) ...( m n + 1) x nm , n < m,
(n)
= m!,
n = m,
0,
n > m.

= ex .

n1
1) ( n 1)!
(
.
3. ( ln ( a + x ) ) =
( a + x )n

( n)

, 1
1
= ( a + x ) , ( ln ( a + x ) ) =
a+x
.
n
n

( n)
( n)
4. ( sin x ) = sin x +
, ( cos x ) = cos x +
.
2
2

142

4.3.1. ( )
u ( x ) v ( x ) x n - .
n - ,
n

( u v )( n ) = Cnk u ( k )v( nk ) .
k =0

1. Cnk - .
2. , ..
0
0
u ( ) ( x ) = u ( x ) v( ) ( x ) = v ( x ) .
.
n = 1 C10 = C11 = 1

( uv ) = uv + uv , .
,

n = m,
..

( uv )( m ) = Cm0 uv( m ) + Cm1 uv( m1) + ... + Cmmu ( m )v .

, n = m + 1 .

( uv )( m+1) = ( uv )( m ) = Cm0 uv( m ) + Cm1 uv( m1) + ... + Cmmu ( m )v =

) (

m
m+1
m 1
m
m+1
m
= Cm0 uv( ) + Cm0 uv( ) + Cm1 uv( ) + Cm1 uv( ) + ... + Cmmu ( )v + Cmmu ( )v =

= Cm0 uv(

m+1)

m
m
m+1
+ Cm0 + Cm1 uv( ) + ... + Cmm1 + Cmm u ( )v + Cmmu ( )v =

m+1
m
m
m+1
= Cm0 +1uv( ) + Cm1 +1uv( ) + ... + Cmm+1u ( )v + Cmm++11u ( )v.
.
.

3.2.

f ( x )
( a, b ) . df = f ( x ) dx ,
, x dx = x . dx , x .
2
x , d 2 f ( x ) = d ( df ) = ( f ( x ) dx ) dx = f ( x )( dx ) ,
f ( x ) . , ,
.
143

( dx )2 = dx 2 ,
= f ( x ) dx 2 .


d 2 f

, d n f = d d n1 f .
d n f = f ( ) ( x ) dx n , dx n = ( dx ) .
, x . x ,
dx , . ,
d 2 f = d ( df ) = d ( f ( x ) dx ) = d ( f ( x ) ) dx + f ( x ) d 2 x = f ( x ) dx 2 + f ( x ) d 2 x .
, x , f ( x ) d 2 x , d 2 x - n

x = x ( t ) , .. d 2 x = x ( t ) dt 2

x ( t ) = at + b ( 3 4.4.3 ()). , d 2 f = f ( x ) dx 2 , x = at + b .

4
4.1.

4.4.1. f ( x ) x0

U ( x0 ) , x U ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) f ( x ) . x0
.
, f ( x ) x0

U ( x0 ) x U ( x0 )
f ( x0 ) f ( x ) , x0 .
.
o

. U ( x0 )

f ( x0 ) > f ( x ) f ( x0 ) < f ( x ) , , x0
, , .
x1 , x3
, x2 - .
144

4.2.

4.4.1 (). f ( x ) x0 , . f ( x0 ) = 0 .

f ( x ) U ( x0 ) x0 -

, .. x U ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) f ( x ) . ,

x, x0 U ( x0 )

x < x0 ,

f ( x ) f ( x0 )
0 , ,
x x0

f ( x ) f ( x0 )
0 , x0
x x0 0
x x0
f ( x ) f ( x0 )
0.
, f ( x0 ) = lim
x x0 0
x x0
, x, x0 U ( x0 ) , x > x0 , lim

f ( x ) f ( x0 )
0 ,
x x0

x x0 + 0 ,

f ( x ) f ( x0 )
0.
f ( x0 ) = lim
x x0 + 0
x x0
f ( x0 ) 0 f ( x0 ) 0 , f ( x0 ) = 0 .
.

4.3.

4.4.2 (). f ( x )

a) [ a, b ] ;

) ( a, b ) ;

) , .. f ( a ) = f ( b ) .

( a, b ) c ,
f ( c ) = 0 .
( 4.4.5)

. M m , . :
1) M = m . f ( x ) = const f ( x ) = 0 ( a, b ) .
2) M m . , ,
,
145

[ a, b ] . c .
f ( c ) = 0 .

1. ,
, ,

,
,
.
2. . , , , , f ( x ) = 0 .
:

3. f ( a ) = f ( b ) = 0 , : , , .
4. , , ,
.
4.4.

4.4.3 (). f ( x )

) [ a, b ] ;

) ( a, b ) .

( a, b ) , , c , f (b ) f ( a )
.
ba
( x ) = f ( x ) x . -

f ( c ) =

[ a, b ] ( a, b ) .

146

, ( a ) = ( b ) . f ( a ) a = f ( b ) b ,

f (b) f ( a )
.
ba
( x ) ( 4.4.2) c , ( c ) = 0 .

.. =

( x ) = f ( x ) , f ( c ) = =

f (b) f ( a )
.
ba

1. ,
. ,
A ( a, f ( a ) ) B ( b, f ( b ) ) .

f (b) f ( a )
, f ( c )
ba
, M ( c, f ( c ) ) .
, , .
2. . f (b ) f ( a )
.
f ( c ) =
ba
ca
f ( b ) f ( a ) = f ( c )( b a ) . =
. a < c < b ,
ba
0 < < 1. c = a + ( b a ) , 0 < < 1
f (b ) f ( a ) = f ( a + (b a ))(b a ) .

.
a = x, b = x + x ,
f ( x + x ) f ( x ) = f ( x + x ) x, 0 < < 1 .

1. f ( x ) ( a, b )
f ( x ) = 0 , f ( x ) = const , x ( a, b ) .

x0 , x ( a, b ) x = x x0 , .. x = x0 + x .

f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 + x ) x, 0 < < 1 , f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) = 0 .

f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) = const .

147

x ( a, b )

2. f ( x ) g ( x )
( a, b ) f ( x ) = g ( x ) , f ( x ) = g ( x ) + C .
,
f ( x ) g ( x ) .

3. f ( x ) [ a, b ] , ( a, b ) f ( x ) = k , k -

, f ( x ) = kx + d , x [ a, b ] .

x ( a, b ) .

f ( x ) f ( a ) = k ( x a ) . f ( x ) = kx + d , d = f ( a ) ka .
, , f ( x ) = 0, x ( a, b ) , :
f ( x ) = kx + d .

4. f ( x ) ( a, b ) , ,
x0 ( a, b ) . ,
lim f ( x ) = A , x0
x x0 0

f ( x0 ) = A . , lim f ( x ) = B , x x0 +0

f + ( x0 ) = B .
a < x < x0
f ( x ) f ( x0 )
[ x, x0 ] :
= f ( x0 + ( x x0 ) ) . x x0 , x x0

lim f ( x0 + ( x x0 ) ) = A .

x x0 0

f ( x ) f ( x0 )
, x x0 0
x x0
x0 , A . ,
lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) .
lim

x x0 0

.
, , x0 f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) = f + ( x0 ) lim f ( x ) lim f ( x ) ,
x x0 0

x x0 +0

lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) , ,

x x0 0

x x0 + 0

f ( x ) x0 . , , ,
.
148

1
2
x sin , x 0,
. , f ( x ) =
x
0,
x=0
, .
5. f ( x ) g ( x ) x x0 f ( x0 ) = g ( x0 ) , f ( x ) > g ( x ) x > x0 , f ( x ) > g ( x )
x > x0 .
( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) . ( x0 ) = 0

( x ) > 0 x > x0 . ( x ) = ( x ) ( x0 ) = ( x0 + ( x x0 ) ) ( x x0 ) > 0

x > x0 .
1. , ln (1 + x ) < x, x > 0 .

x0 = 0 . f ( x ) = x |x=0 = 0 g ( x ) = ln (1 + x ) |x=0 = 0 .
1
= g ( x ) x > 0 , .
, f ( x ) = 1 >
1+ x

4.5.

4.4.4 (). f ( x ) g ( x )
[ a, b] ( a, b ) , g ( x ) 0

. ( a, b ) c ,
f (b) f ( a ) f ( c )
.
=

g (b ) g ( a ) g( c )
( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) , -

, ( a ) = ( b ) , .. f ( a ) g ( a ) = f ( b ) g ( b ) . -

f ( b ) f ( a ) = ( g ( b ) g ( a ) ) . g ( b ) = g ( a ) , 4.4.2
() ( a, b ) , g ( ) = 0 ,
. g ( b ) g ( a ) 0 =

f (b) f ( a )
.
g (b) g ( a )

, ( x )
c ( a, b ) , ( c ) = 0 .
f (b ) f ( a )
g ( c ) .
g (b ) g ( a )
f (b) f ( a ) f ( c )
g ( c ) ,
=
.
g (b ) g ( a ) g( c )

( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) , f ( c ) = g ( c ) =

149


1. ,
, .
.
2. ,
.
3. .
5
5.1.

f ( x ) x0
n - .
n
f ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
f ( ) ( x0 )
2
Pn ( x ) = f ( x0 ) +
( x x0 ) +
( x x0 ) + ... +
( x x0 )n .
1!
2!
n!
n -
f ( x ) x0 .
, :
n
n
Pn ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) , Pn ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) , ...., Pn( ) ( x0 ) = f ( ) ( x0 ) ,

x0 .

4.5.1.
Pn ( x ) = a0 + a1 ( x x0 ) + a2 ( x x0 ) + ... + an ( x x0 )

n
n
Pn ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) , Pn ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) , ...., Pn( ) ( x0 ) = f ( ) ( x0 ) ,

2

k
f ( ) ( x0 )
, k = 0,1,2,..., n .
ak =
k!
:

Pn ( x ) = a1 + 2a2 ( x x0 ) + 3a3 ( x x0 ) + ... + nan ( x x0 )


2

Pn ( x ) = 2a2 + 3 2a3 ( x x0 ) + ... + n ( n 1) an ( x x0 )

n2

n 1

nk
k
Pn( ) ( x ) = k !ak + ( k + 1) k ... 2ak +1 ( x x0 ) + ... + n ( n 1) ...( n k + 1) an ( x x0 ) ,

Pn( ) ( x ) = n!an .

Pn ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) = a0 ,

Pn ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) = a1 ,

k
k
n
n
Pn( ) ( x0 ) = f ( ) ( x0 ) = k !ak , Pn( ) ( x0 ) = f ( ) ( x0 ) = n!an , .

150

5.2.

Pn ( x ) - n - f ( x )

x0 . Rn ( x ) = f ( x ) Pn ( x ) .
f ( x ) = Pn ( x ) + Rn ( x )

, Rn ( x ) -
.
.
4.5.2. U ( x0 ) x0

f ( x ) ( n + 1) - .

x U ( x0 ) , x

f ( ) ( )
x0 , f ( x ) = Pn ( x ) + Rn ( x ) , Rn ( x ) =
( x x0 )n+1 .
( n + 1)!
, ,
n
Rn ( x0 ) = Rn ( x0 ) = ... = Rn( ) ( x0 ) = 0 .
n +1

g ( x ) = ( x x0 )

n
g ( x0 ) = g ( x0 ) = ... = g ( ) ( x0 ) = 0 .

n +1

Rn ( x )

g ( x)

[ x0 , x0 + ] ,

x0 + U ( x0 ) . 4.4.4(),
Rn ( x ) Rn ( x ) Rn ( x0 ) Rn (1 )
=
=
, x0 < 1 < x . g ( x)
g ( x ) g ( x0 )
g (1 )
R ( ) R ( ) Rn ( x0 ) Rn ( 2 )
Rn (1 )
, n 1 = n 1
=
,
g (1 )
g (1 ) g ( x0 ) g ( 2 )
g (1 )
x0 < 2 < 1 . , ,

Rn ( x ) Rn (1 ) Rn ( 2 )
=
=
= ... =
g ( x)
g (1 ) g ( 2 )
x0 < < n < ... < 2 < 1 < x .
Rn(

n+1)

( x) =

f(

n+1)

( x)

g(

n+1)

n
Rn( ) ( n )
n
g ( ) ( n )

Rn(

n +1)

( )

= ( n+1)
,
g

( )

( x ) = ( n + 1)!,
n +1
n +1
Rn( ) ( )
f ( ) ( )
Rn ( x ) = ( n+1)
g ( x) =
( x x0 )n+1 .
( n + 1)!
g
( )
, x [ x0 , x0 ] .
151

f ( ) ( )
. Rn ( x ) =
( x x0 )n+1 ( n + 1)!
.
n+1

n
4.5.3. f ( ) ( x0 ) .

f ( x ) = Pn ( x ) + o ( x x0 )

) x x .
0

4.4.4 () Rn ( x ) g ( x ) = ( x x0 )
[ x0 , x0 + ] , ,
n

n1
n1
Rn ( x ) Rn( ) ( n1 ) Rn( ) ( x0 )
, x0 < n1 < ... < 1 < x . 4.5.2,
=
g ( x)
n!( n1 x0 )

lim

x x0 +0

Rn ( x )

( x x0 )

= lim

Rn(

n1)

x x0 +0

(n1 ) Rn( n1) ( x0 ) = 1 R( n ) x = 0 ,


n ( 0)
n!( n1 x0 )
n!

n1 x0 x x0 . , Rn ( x ) = o ( x x0 ) .
n

.
.
n
4.5.4. f ( ) ( x0 ) x x0 -

f ( x ) = a0 + a1 ( x x0 ) + a2 ( x x0 ) + ... + an ( x x0 ) + o ( x x0 )
n

).

k
f ( ) ( x0 )
ak =
, k = 0,1,2,..., n .
k!

n
f ( ) ( x0 ) ,

a0 + a1 ( x x0 ) + a2 ( x x0 ) + ... + an ( x x0 ) + o ( x x0 )
n

)=

f ( x0 )
f ( ) ( x0 )
= f ( x0 ) +
( x x0 ) + ... +
( x x0 )n + o ( x x0 )n .
1!
n!
x x0 ,
a0 = f ( x0 ) . x x0 , n

a1 + a2 ( x x0 ) + ... + an ( x x0 )

n
f ( x0 )
f ( ) ( x0 )
=
+ ... +
( x x0 )n1 + o ( x x0 )n1 .
n!
1!

152

n1

+ o ( x x0 )

n 1

)=

x x0 , a1 =

f ( x0 )
, 1!

k
f ( ) ( x0 )
, ak =
, k = 0,1,2,..., n .
k!
. ,

f ( x ) = a0 + a1 ( x x0 ) + a2 ( x x0 ) + ... + an ( x x0 ) + o ( x x0 )
2

) .

. , f ( x ) , -

x0 = 0 , f ( x ) - ,
.

5.3. -

x0 = 0 , .

n
f ( ) ( 0 ) ,

k
f ( ) (0) k
f ( x) =
x + o xn , x 0 .
k!
k =0
.
n

( )

1) f ( x ) = e x .
,
(n)

( )

n - e x

n
= e x . f ( 0 ) = f ( 0 ) = ... = f ( ) ( 0 ) = 1 -


x x2
xn
e =1+ +
+ ... +
+ Rn ( x ) ,
n!
1! 2!
x

e x
x n+1,
Rn ( x ) =
( n + 1)!

0 < < 1.

2) f ( x ) = sh x .

ch x, n ,
( sh x )( n ) =
sh x, n .
2k
2 k 1
f ( 0 ) = f ( ) ( 0 ) = 0 f ( ) ( 0 ) = 1, k ,

x x3
x 2 m1
sh x = + + ... +
+R
( x) ,
1! 3!
( 2m 1)! 2m1
153

e x e x 2 m sh ( x ) 2 m
R2 m1 ( x ) =
x =
x .
2 ( 2 m )!
( 2m )!

3) f ( x ) = ch x .

ch ( x ) 2 m+1
x2
x2m
.
+ ... +
+
ch x = 1 +
x
2!
( 2m )! ( 2m + 1)!
4) f ( x ) = sin x .


f ( 0) = f

( 2k )

(0) = 0

( 2 k 1)

( sin x )( n ) = sin x +

3.1,

( 0 ) = ( 1)

k 1

, k

,
2

2 m1
sin ( x + m ) 2 m
x x3
m 1 x
sin x = + ... + ( 1)
+
x .
1! 3!
( 2 m )!
( 2m 1)!

5) f ( x ) = cos x .

( 2m + 1)
cos
x
+

2m
2
x2
m x

x 2 m+1 .
+ ... + ( 1)
+
cos x = 1
2!
( 2m + 1)!
( 2 m )!
6) f ( x ) = ln (1 + x ) .
n1
1) ( n 1)!
(
, f ( 0 ) = 0,
( ln (1 + x ) ) =
(1 + x )n

( n)

n1
n
f ( ) ( 0 ) = ( 1) ( n 1)!

n
x 2 x3
x n+1
n 1 x
n
ln (1 + x ) = x
+ ... + ( 1)
+ ( 1)
.
n+1
n
2
3
( n + 1)(1 + x )

7) f ( x ) = (1 + x ) .

(1 + x )

(n)

= ( 1) ...( n + 1)(1 + x )

k
f ( ) ( 0 ) = ( 1) ...( k + 1)

(1 + x ) = 1 +

1!

x+

( 1)
2!

x 2 + ... +

( 1) ...( n + 1)
n!
n 1

( 1) ...( n )(1 + x )

( n + 1)!
154

f ( 0 ) = 1, f ( 0 ) = ,

x n+1.

xn +

(1 + x ) . ,
.
:
) = 1 ,
1
n
= 1 x + x 2 ... + ( 1) x n + Rn ( x ) .
1+ x
) x x ,
1
= 1 + x + x 2 + ... + x n + Rn ( x ) .
1 x

1. ,
, ,
1
n
= 1 x + x 2 ... + ( 1) x n + o x n , x 0 .
1+ x
2. x
1. ,
x x3
x 2 m1
e x + e x 2 m+1
+
x
.
sh x = + + ... +
1! 3!
( 2m 1)! 2 ( 2m + 1)!
,
, , x 2m
.

( )

155

6
,
.
0
6.1.
0
4.6.1. f ( x ) g ( x )

1) [ a, b ] ;
2) f ( a ) = g ( a ) = 0 ;
3) f ( a ) g ( a ) ,
g( a ) 0 .
f ( x) f ( a )
lim
=
.
x a + 0 g ( x )
g( a )

f ( x )
g ( x ) x = a , x > a n = 1 , :
f ( x ) = f ( a )( x a ) + o ( x a ) , g ( x ) = g ( a )( x a ) + o ( x a ) .

o( x a)

+
f
a
(
)

f ( x)
f ( a )( x a ) + o ( x a )
x a = f ( a ) .
= lim
= lim
lim
o ( x a ) g( a )
x a + 0 g ( x )
xa + 0 g ( a )( x a ) + o ( x a )
x a + 0
g( a ) +
xa

. , , f ( x ) g ( x )

g ( a ) = g ( a ) = ... = g

( n1)

(a) = 0

(n)

x = a,

n1
f ( a ) = f ( a ) = ... = f ( ) ( a ) = 0 ,

f ( x) f ( ) (a)
= (n)
.
( a ) 0 , xlim
a +0 g ( x )
g (a)
n

4.6.2. f ( x ) g ( x )

1) ( a, b ) ;
2) lim f ( x ) = lim g ( x ) = 0 ;
x a + 0

x a + 0

3) ( a, b ) f ( x ) g ( x ) , g ( x ) 0 ;
f ( x )
4) lim
= A ( ).
x a + 0 g ( x )
f ( x)
= A.
x a + 0 g ( x )

lim

156

f ( x ) g ( x ) , f ( a ) = g ( a ) = 0 , x ( a, b ) . [ a, x ]

4.4.4
()

f ( x ) f ( x) f ( a ) f (c )
=
=
, a < c < x .
g ( x ) g ( x ) g ( a ) g( c )
f ( x)
f ( c )
= lim
= A.
x a + 0 , c a + 0 , lim
x a + 0 g ( x )
c a + 0 g ( c )

1. , f ( x ) f ( a )
f ( x ) f ( a )
=
lim
=
, 4.6. 1 lim
x a 0 g ( x )
x a g ( x )
g( a )
g( a )

f ( x)
f ( x)
= A lim
= A.
x a 0 g ( x )
x a g ( x )
2. 4.6.2 , a = + a = . 1
x = .
t
4.6.2 lim

4.6.3. f ( x ) g ( x )
( a, + ) , g ( x ) 0 .
f ( x )
, lim f ( x ) = lim g ( x ) = lim
= A.
x+
x+
x+ g ( x )
6.2.

f ( x)
= A.
x+ g ( x )
1 > a , x > 1

lim

f ( x ) > 1 g ( x ) > 1 . x > 1 f ( x ) 0 g ( x ) 0 .


> 0 2 > a ,
f ( x )

< A+ .
x > 2 A <
2 g( x )
2

x > = max ( 1, 2 ) .

157

x0 > x > x0 . [ x0 , x ] 4.4.4 (). f ( x ) f ( x0 ) f ( c )


, c ( x0 , x ) ,
=
.
g ( x ) g ( x0 ) g ( c )
:
f ( x0 )
1
f ( x ) f ( x0 ) f ( x )
f ( x)
=

. x0 , g ( x0 )
g ( x ) g ( x0 ) g ( x )
1
g ( x)
f ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
g ( x0 )
f ( x)
= 1 , = lim
= 0 , , lim
lim
x+
x+ f ( x )
x+ g ( x )
g ( x0 )
1
g ( x)
1

g ( x0 )
g ( x)

= 1 + ( x ) , ( x ) 0 x + . f ( x0 )
1
f ( x)
1

0 > x0 , x > 0 , ( x ) <


f ( x)
.
g ( x)

2
A +

. 2

f ( c ) (1 + ( x ) )
f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( x0 )
=
(1 + ( x ) ) =
.
g ( x ) g ( x ) g ( x0 )
g( c )
x > 0 :
f ( c ) (1 + ( x ) )

< A + (1 + ( x ) ) A + + A + ( x ) < A + + = A +
2
2
g( c )
2
2
2

:
f ( c ) (1 + ( x ) )

> A (1 + ( x ) ) > A A ( x )
g( c )
2
2
2

A + ( x) > A .
2
2

158

, > 0 0 , x > 0 , f ( x)
f ( x)
A <
< A + , , lim
= A.
x+ g ( x )
g ( x)

1. 4.6.3 , x .
2. 4.6.3 , x a , a -
A = + A = .
3. 4.6.3 lim g ( x ) = , x+

f ( x ) . , f ( x )
= A ,
lim
x+ g ( x )
f ( x)
= A.
x+ g ( x )
lim

f ( x )
. x a g ( x )

4. 6 lim

x sin x
,
x x + sin x
x sin x )
(
1 cos x
= lim
lim
. x
x 1 + cos x

( x + sin x )

, lim

sin x
x sin x
x = 1.
: lim
= lim
sin x
x x + sin x
x
1+
x
1

7
7.1.

4.7.1. f ( x ) ( a, b ) .

, f ( x ) ,
, f ( x ) 0, x ( a, b ) , ,
( a, b ) , , f ( x ) 0, x ( a, b ) .
. ( a, b ) .

x0 ( a, b ) x , x0 + x ( a, b ) . , x > 0 ,

f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
0 , x
159

f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
0 , x
. ,
f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
f ( x0 ) = lim
= lim
0.
x0+ 0
x00
x
x
. f ( x ) 0 ( a, b ) . -

, , x < 0 ,

x1, x2 ( a, b ) , x1 < x2 . [ x1, x2 ]


4.4.3 () f ( x2 ) f ( x1 ) = f ( c )( x2 x1 ) ,
x1 < c < x2 . f ( c ) 0 f ( x2 ) f ( x1 ) 0 , , -

( a, b ) f ( x ) .
.

1. f ( x ) [ a, b ] ,

( a, b )

x ( a, b ) f ( x ) 0

() [ a, b ] .

( f ( x ) 0 ) ,

2. ( a, b ) f ( x ) > 0

( f ( x ) < 0) ,

() ( a, b ) .
, , f ( x ) = x3 ,
x = 0 .
3. 4.7.1 ,
( a, b ) , ,
. , f ( x ) = 3 x ,
x = 0 .
, ,
, , ().
. ,
, .
, .

160

1. f ( x ) =

( x 3)2

.
x2 4
D ( f ) = { x | x 2} . -

f ( x ) =

4 x 2 + 18 x 8

33 x 3 x2 4

4 ( x 4 ) x 1

33 x 3 x2 4

2 .
2

1
-
2
, .. , , x = 3 - ,
. x = 2 , .
. , . .

x = 4, x =

: ( , 2 ) , 2, 1 , [3,4]
2
1 , 2 , ( 2,3] , [ 4, + ) .
2

7.2.

4.
4.4.1 (), :
, .
, .
f ( x ) = x3 , x = 0 ,
.
4.7.2 ( )
x = x0
( x0 , x0 + ) ( x0 , x0 ] -

[ x0 , x0 + ) , x = x0 .
, ( x0 , x0 ] [ x0 , x0 + ) , x = x0 .
, ( x0 , x0 ] [ x0 , x0 + ) .
161

, x ( x0 , x0 ] , f ( x0 ) f ( x ) , , x [ x0 , x0 + ) ,
f ( x0 ) f ( x ) , .. x ( x0 , x0 + )
f ( x0 ) f ( x ) . , x = x0 .
.
o

. x0 U ( x0 )
- x0 , f ( x ) 0

( x0 , x0 )

f ( x ) 0 ( x0 , x0 + ) , x0
.
, x0
o

U ( x0 ) , x0 , f ( x ) 0 ( x0 , x0 )
f ( x ) 0 ( x0 , x0 + ) .
4.7.2 .

1. 4.7.2 ,
.
2.
x0 ,
. .
3. , (), ,
.
2.
, x0
(), .

3.

1
2
x 2 + cos , x 0,
f ( x ) =

x

x=0
0,

x = 0,

f ( x) 0 ,

162

1
1

2 x 2 + cos + sin ,
x
x

1
sin , , .
x
4. f ( x ) 0 ( x0 , x0 ) f ( x ) 0
( x0 , x0 + ) , , x0 f ( x )
+ - , f ( x ) 0 ( x0 , x0 )
f ( x ) 0 ( x0 , x0 + ) , , x0 - +.
, , ,
,
, .
1.
1
x =
2
+ -, ,
. ,
, .. ,
. .
x = 3
- +,
,
, ..
. .
(.. ,
) .
4.7.3 ( )
x0 - f ( x )
f ( x0 ) .

a) f ( x0 ) > 0 , x0 - , ,
) f ( x0 ) < 0 , x0 - .
163

x0 f ( x0 ) ,

f ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
( x x0 ) +
( x x0 )2 + o ( x x0 )2 , x x0 .
1!
2!
f ( x0 ) = 0 , f ( x0 ) 0 ,
f ( x0 )
f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) +
( x x0 )2 (1 + ( x ) ) , ( x ) 0 x x0 . 2!
> 0 , x U ( x0 )
1
( x ) < , x 1 + ( x ) > 0 , 2
, f ( x ) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) . , f ( x0 ) > 0 , f ( x ) > f ( x0 ) , x0 - , ,

f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) +

f ( x0 ) < 0 , f ( x ) < f ( x0 ) , x0 - .

n
. , , f ( ) ( x0 )
n 1
n
f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 ) = ... = f ( ) ( x0 ) = 0 , f ( ) ( x0 ) 0 , ,
a) n - , x0 , ,
b) n - , x0 , , -

n
n
f ( ) ( x0 ) > 0 , , , f ( ) ( x0 ) < 0 , .

7.3.

[ a, b ] . ,
( 4.4.5), . ,
.
, .. .
, ()
. , ,
, , : ,
.
, .

164

4. a h
, ,
.
.
PQ = x, MP = y . S = xy .
ABC MBN AC BE
a
h
=

,
=
MN BF
x h y
a(h y)
.
x : x =
h

,
y:
a
S ( y ) = ( h y ) y ,
h
a
y [ 0, h ] . S ( y ) = ( h 2 y ) .
h
[ 0,h ]
h
ah
y = ,
.
2
4
S ( 0 ) = S ( h ) = 0 . ,
ah
h
, y = ,

4
2
a
x= .
2
7.4.

4.7.1. f ( x ) ( a, b ) .
, () ,
x +x 1
x1, x2 ( a, b ) f 1 2 ( f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 ) )
2 2
(), x1, x2 ( a, b ) -

x +x 1
f 1 2 ( f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 ) ) .
2 2

165

f ( x )
( a, b ) .
x1 x2 .
x +x
f 1 2 -
2
x +x
x = 1 2 , 2
1
[ x1, x2 ] , ( f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 ) ) -
2
, M1 ( x1, f ( x1 ) ) M 2 ( x2 , f ( x2 ) ) . , ,
M1 M 2 ,
, M1M 2
x +x
x + x
M 0 1 2 , f 1 2 , ,
2
2
M 0 .
, .
4.7.4 ( )
( a, b ) f ( x ) . , f ( x ) 0, x ( a, b ) ,
, , f ( x ) 0, x ( a, b ) ,
.
f ( x ) 0, x ( a, b ) . x1, x2 ( a, b ) ,
x +x
x1 < x2 . x0 = 1 2 h = x0 x1 = x2 x0 .
2
f ( x0 )
f ( c1 ) 2
f ( x1 ) = f ( x0 )
h+
h , c1 ( x1, x0 )
1!
2!
f ( x0 )
f ( c2 ) 2
f ( x2 ) = f ( x0 ) +
h+
h , c2 ( x0 , x2 ) .
1!
2!

2
h
f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 ) = 2 f ( x0 ) + ( f ( c1 ) + f ( c2 ) ) .
2
f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 )
,
f ( x0 ) ,
2
, .
166

. f ( x ) > 0

( f ( x ) < 0 )

( a, b ) , .
.
4.7.2. x0 ( ). ,
, x0 .
4.7.5. x0 ( ),
. x0 - .
4.7.4.
. ,
, .
5. f ( x ) = ( x 2 )
.

33

x 2

f ( x )

f ( x ) =

( x 2 ) (88 x 2 64 x 8)
3

9 x

2
x 2 ) (11x 4 )
(
=
,

33 x

. , -

: x1 = 0, x2 = 2, x3,4 =
.

43 3
11

43 3 4+3 3
,2
,
,
11
11

43 3 4+3 3
43 3
,0 , 0,
.

, ( 2, + ) . x = 2 x =
11
11
11

167

, .
4.7.6. ( a, b ) f ( x ) 0 .

,
.
x0 - ,
. y = f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 )( x x0 ) .

f ( c )
f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 )( x x0 ) +
( x x0 )2 , c
2
x

x0 .

f ( x ) ( f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 )( x x0 ) ) = f ( x ) y =

f ( c )
( x x0 )2 0 . ,
2
.
, f ( x ) 0 ,
.
=

1. , , , , ,
168

( ). , , . ( .
[1], .1)
2. ,

.
7.5.

4.7.3. f ( x ) x > .

y = kx + b f ( x ) ,
f ( x ) = kx + b + o (1) , x .
4.7.4. x = x0
f ( x ) , lim f ( x ) = .
x x0

6. f ( x ) =

x2 + x
.
x2


6
.
, f ( x ) = x + 3 +
x2
6

0 x ,
x2
y = x + 3
.
x2 + x
, lim
= ,
x 2 x 2
x = 2
.
k b
. f ( x ) = kx + b + o (1)
x x .
f ( x)
k = lim
.
x x
f ( x ) kx = b + o (1) .
b = lim ( f ( x ) kx ) .
x

, . + ,
.
169

7. f ( x ) = xe x .

. ,

1
1
1
f ( x ) = xe x = x 1 + + o = x + 1 + o (1) .
x
x

, y = x + 1 .
, , ..
x = 0 .
1
x 1
1
e
2
e x
1x
x = lim e 1 x = +, x 0 + 0,

= lim
lim xe = lim

x0
x 0
x0
x0 1
1 2
0, x 0 0.
x
x
, x = 0
.
8.

f ( x ) = x2 + x + 2 + x2 x + 2 .

. .
:
1 2
1 2
f ( x) = x 1 + + 2 + x 1 + 2 =
x x
x x
1 1 2

1 1 1 2
1
1
= x 1 + + 2 + o + 1 + + 2 + o = x 2 + o =
x 2 x x
x
x

2 x x
= 2 x + o (1) . ,
y = 2 x , x + y = 2 x , x .
, , . b = lim f ( x ) ,
x

.
, , 1, f ( x ) =
y = 0 , k = lim

170

( x 3)2

x x2 4

=0

( x 3)2
x2 4

b = lim

( x 3) 2

= 0.
x2 4
, :
M ( xM , yM ) ,
, x

, ..
7.6.

2
2
xM
+ yM
.


:
1. .
2. , , , (
).
3. , .
4. .
.
5. .
6. , , , .
7. .
x3
9. f ( x ) =
.
( x 1)2

1) D ( f ) = ( ,1) (1, + ) .
x = 1 - .
2) , .
3) . x 2 ( x 3)
.
: f ( x ) =
( x 1)3

( ,1) [3,+ ) ,
(1,3] . x = 3 ,
27
f ( 3) =
.
8
171

4) . :
6x
f ( x ) =
.
4
( x 1)

( ,0 ) ( 0,1) (1,+ ) . x = 0 -
f ( 0) = 0 .
5) . x , :
x3
lim
= + , , x = 1 x1 ( x 1) 2
.
x3
3x + 2
= x+2+
.
f ( x ) =
2
2
x

1
x

1
( )
( )
3x + 2
lim
= 0 , y = x + 2
x ( x 1) 2
.
6)
.
x2
.
10. f ( x ) =
x+2
1) D ( f ) = ( , 2 ) ( 2, + ) .
x = 2 .
2) , .
3

3) . :
x+4
.
f ( x ) =
4
3
3 x ( x + 2)

( , 4] [ 0, + ) ,
[ 4, 2 ) ( 2,0] . x = 4 -
172

, f ( 4 ) = 2 , x = 0 - .
f ( 0) = 0 .
4) . .
f ( x ) =

)(

2 x + 4 2 3 x + 4 + 2 3
9 3 x4 ( x + 2)

, 4 2 3

( 2, 4 + 2 3 ) ,
( 4 2 3, 2) , ( 4 + 2 3,0 ) ( 0,+ ) . x = 4 2 3
. f ( 4 + 2 3 ) 0,6 f ( 4 2 3 ) 2,1 .
5) x = 2

x2
lim
= .
x2 x + 2
, :
3

x2
x2
3
lim
= lim
= + .
x20 x + 2
x2+0 x + 2
,
f ( x ) 3 x x .
6) ( ).
11. , :
t2
t2 t + 9
x (t ) =
, y (t ) =
.
t +1
t 1
1) t 1, .. :
t ( , 1) , t ( 1,1) t (1, + ) .
2) .
x , y 5,5 t 1 0 , x + , y 5,5 t 1 + 0 , , y = 5,5 .
1
1
, t 1 0 , x , y , , t 1 + 0 , x ,
2
2
1
y + , , x = .
2
3

173

x y t .

t :

t 2 t + 9 ( t + 1)
y (t )
k = lim
= lim
=1
t x ( t )
t
( t 1) t 2
t2 t + 9 t2
t 2 + 8t + 9
b = lim ( y ( t ) kx ( t ) ) = lim
lim

2
= 1 . , t
t
t
t
1
t
1

+
t
1

y = x + 1 - .
3) x ( t ) y ( t ) t :

( t 4 )( t + 2 ) ,
( t + 1)2
( t 1)2
2
3
t 4 )( t + 1)
t + 1) (16t 4 )
(
(
, t 2 yxx =
.
yx =
2
3
3
t ( t 1)
t ( t + 2 )( t 1)
x ( t ) y ( t ) .
x ( t ) =

t (t + 2)

y ( t ) =

y x :

x ( t ) y ( t ) y ( x )
t , x ( t ) , ,
y1 ( x )

t [ 2, 1) ( 1,0] y3 ( x ) t [ 0, + ) .

,
M1 ( x ( 2 ) = 4, y ( 2 ) = 5 ) ;

t ( , 2] ,

y2 ( x )

:
M 2 ( x ( 0 ) = 0, y ( 0 ) = 9 ) ,

1 1
11
16
1

M 3 x = , y = , M 4 x ( 4) = , y ( 4) = 7 .
4
5

4 20 4

t
x (t )
y (t )

( , 2 )
( 2, 1)
( 1,0 )
( 0,1)
(1,4 )
( 4,+ )

x ( t ) 4

y ( t ) 5

x ( t ) + 0

y ( t ) 5,5 9

x ( t ) 4
x ( t ) 0 1

2
x ( t ) 1 16
2
5
x ( t ) 16 +
5
174

y ( t ) 5 5,5
y ( t ) 9
y ( t ) + 7

y ( t ) 7 +

t = 4 yx = 0 - +, .
t = 0 yx = , xy =

t ( t 1)

( t 4 )( t + 1)

, t 2 .

t = 0 - +,
, x = x ( y ) , .
t = 2 yx ,
, 1 .
3
4). yxx :

( , 2 ) , ( 1,0 ) 1 ,1 , 4
( 2, 1) , 0, 1
(1,+ ) . t = 1
4
4
yxx , ,
. .

175

8
8.1.

4.8.1. t G , G , r ( t ) , ,

G r ( t ) t
- r ( t ) .
,
r ( t )

x ( t ) , y ( t ) z ( t ) . r ( t ) = ( x ( t ) , y ( t ) , z ( t ) ) , -

, r ( t ) = x ( t ) i + y ( t ) j + z ( t ) k .
z ( t ) = 0, t G , r ( t ) .
, r ( t ) ,
.. r ( t ) -.
-.
r ( t ) r ( t ) , ..
r (t ) = x2 (t ) + y2 (t ) + z 2 (t ) .
8.2.

4.8.2. a - r ( t )

t t0 , lim r ( t ) a = 0 .
t t0

a = lim r ( t ) .
t t0

4.8.1. a = ( a1, a2 , a3 )

r (t )

t t0 ,

x ( t )
a1, y ( t )
a2 , z ( t )
a3 .
t t
t t
t t
0

a = lim r ( t ) , ..
t t0

lim r ( t ) a = 0 .

t t0

y ( t )
a2 , z ( t )
a3
t t
t t
0

x ( t ) a1
y ( t ) a2
z ( t ) a3

( x ( t ) a1 ) + ( y ( t ) a2 ) + ( z ( t ) a3 ) ,
2
2
2
( x ( t ) a1 ) + ( y ( t ) a2 ) + ( z ( t ) a3 ) ,
2
2
2
( x ( t ) a1 ) + ( y ( t ) a2 ) + ( z ( t ) a3 ) .
2

176

x ( t )
a1 ,
t t
0

r (t ) a =

x ( t )
a1, y ( t )
a2 , z ( t )
a3 ,
t t
t t
t t

( x ( t ) a1 ) + ( y ( t ) a2 ) + ( z ( t ) a3 )
2

0.

t t0

, :
a - r ( t ) t t0

, -
r ( t ) = a + ( t ) , ( t ) 0 .
t t0

-
1. lim r ( t ) = a , lim r ( t ) = a .
t t0

t t0

r ( t ) a r ( t ) a .
2. lim r ( t ) = 0 lim r ( t ) = 0 .
t t0

t t0

1, -.
3. r ( t ) - , f ( t ) - -

t G , lim r ( t ) = a lim f ( t ) = A , lim ( f ( t ) r ( t ) ) = A a .


t t0

t t0

t t0

, A f ( t ) , -

f ( t ) = A + ( t ) , ( t ) 0 t t0 .

, r ( t ) = a + ( t ) , lim ( t ) = 0 .

t t0

f ( t ) r ( t ) = ( A + ( t ) ) a + ( t ) = A a + ( ( t ) a + A ( t ) + ( t ) ( t ) ) ,

( t ) a + A ( t ) + ( t ) ( t ) ( t ) a + A ( t ) + ( t ) ( t ) ,
,
( t ) a + A ( t ) + ( t ) ( t ) 0 , , A a = lim ( f ( t ) r ( t ) ) .
4. lim r1 ( t ) = a1 lim r2 ( t ) = a2 ,
t t0

t t0

t t0

a) lim ( r1 ( t ) + r2 ( t ) ) = a1 + a2 ;
t t0

) lim ( r1 ( t ) r2 ( t ) ) = a1 a2 ;
t t0

) lim ( r1 ( t ) r2 ( t ) ) = a1 a2 .
t t0

a) ,
r1 ( t ) = a1 + 1 ( t ) r 2 ( t ) = a 2 + 2 ( t ) , lim 1 ( t ) = lim 2 ( t ) = 0 .
t t0

t t0

) :
177

r1 ( t ) r2 ( t ) a1 a2 = ( a1 + 1 ( t ) ) ( a2 + 2 ( t ) ) a1 a2 =
= a1 2 ( t ) + a2 1 ( t ) + 1 ( t ) 2 ( t )

( a b ) a b ,

) , a b a b .
4.8.3. - r ( t )

t = t0 , lim r ( t ) = r ( t0 ) .
t t0

- r ( t ) ,

t = t0 . r ( t0 ) = r ( t0 + t ) r ( t0 )

- r ( t ) t = t0 .
, - t = t0

, lim r ( t0 ) = 0 .
t 0

, t = t0

x (t ) , y (t ) , z (t ) .
8.3.

r ( t0 )
, ,
t 0
t
i
dr ( t0 )
- r ( t ) t = t0 r ( t0 ) , r ( t0 ) ,
.
dt
r ( t0 + t ) r ( t0 )
, r ( t0 ) = lim
.
t 0
t
, r ( t0 ) = ( x ( t0 ) , y ( t0 ) , z ( t0 ) ) .
4.8.4. lim

r ( t0 ) = r ( t0 ) t + ( t ) t ,

lim ( t ) = 0 .

t 0

, .
r ( t0 ) t
, , , - .
.
r ( t ) , t = t0 ,
r ( t0 ) 0 . r ( t ) M 0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 )

M1 ( x1, y1, z1 ) , x0 = x ( t0 ) , y0 = y ( t0 ) , z0 = z ( t0 ) x1 = x ( t0 + t ) , y1 = y ( t0 + t ) ,
z1 = z ( t0 + t ) .

M 0 M1
178

r ( t0 ) = r ( t0 + t ) r ( t0 ) = M 0 M1

. r ( t0 ) 0 , -

t = t0 r ( t0 ) 0 r ( t0 )

0 .
t

r ( t0 )
r ( ) = r ( t0 ) +
, .
t
t 0 M1 M 0 .
,
. ,
r ( t0 ) 0 , , , r ( ) = r ( t0 ) + r ( t0 ) ,
x x0 y y0 z z0
=
=
.
x ( t0 ) y ( t0 ) z ( t0 )
, , r ( t0 ) - -

r ( t ) M 0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) , ,

r ( t0 ) 0 .
.
. , , ( x ), , ,
, .
4.8.2. r1 ( t ) , r2 ( t ) f ( t ) t ,

a) ( r1 + r2 ) = r1 + r2 ;

) ( f r ) = f r + f r ;
) ( r1 r2 ) = r1 r2 + r1 r2 ;
) ( r1 r2 ) = r1 r2 + r1 r2 .

, .

179


[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]

.., ,
. 1-3, , 2009.
..-, .., ,
, 2003.
.., , .1-3, , 2006.
.., , .1-3, .: , 1989.
. , , , 2004.
.., , . 1, , 2003.
., ,, , , 2007.
.., .. .
, .1-2, , 2004.
.., .. .
, . 1-3, 2003.
..,
, , 2009.

180

2009 , 12 , .
- , 20092018 .

() 1931 . .. . 1936
.. ,
. 1944 .. (1901-1973),
.
.
.
,
.
, ..
.
Hapoca
.
, . . ..
. ..
.
.. ,
- .. , . .. , .
.. , . .. , . .. , . .. . 1979 ,
181

.. , . 1997 o , .. ,
, , .


.
.
. 8 19 .
, - , , . 5 300
. ..
, . ..
. .. . .. . .. .
.. . .. .

182



- I
( )

..

.. , ..
- -
,

.
..
00408 05.11.99
18.03.2010
2207
100

-
-
,

197101, -, ., 49