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3 kinds of words: Ism: person place thing idea adjective and more Fil: A word confined in a dimension of time-in

present/past/future tense. 7arf: A word that doesnt make sense unless theres another word after it. Ism: 4 properties Status Number Gender Type

1. Forms of status: Raf, nasb, jar. Raf: Doer status Who did the fil? Nasb: Detail status- details of the Fil and answers additional questions related to the Fil like who with?, what?, where?, when?, why?, and how? Jarr: After of status- Dont answer questions related to the fil 2. How to tell status: a. Ending sounds u/un = Raf a/an = Nasb I/in = Jarr b. Ending Combinations: i. Pair combinations: AANI = 2R AYNI = 2N/2J ii. People Plural Combinations OONA= Pl. R EENA = Pl. R/Pl. J iii. Feminine Plural Combinations AATUN= Pl. F. R AATIN = Pl. F. N/J c. Pronouns are weird: they dont care about ending sounds/combinations they have their own rules. Heaviness/Lightness words are heavy when the end has an extra n sound, to make light: replace 2 harakas with one Remove the actual noon at the end that has been added. Words with al at beginning, most of the time we dont ask if heavy or light- it doesnt matter. Words are normally heavy, if light, there is a particular good reason behind it, and there are 4 main reasons for which a word should be light. 1. Partly Flexibles 2. When you call somebody, the name you call by is light 3. Mudaaf


1) Flexible: (Most words.) 2) Non-Flexible: (few words.) Mainly words that end with aa (whether alif maqsoora or alif maftooha) e.g. musa, hadha, huda, yahya. Raf3 Nasb and jar are the same. 3) Partly Flexible: (Special words) HAVE TO BE LIGHT(and dont have I ending), and raf nasb jar (in order) is: u a a a) Names of places b) Non-arab names, Arab prophets: Muhammad, Shuaib, Salih, Hud

1. Singular (ES) 2. Pair (EC) 3. People Plural (EC) 4. Feminine Plural (EC) 5. Human Broken Plurals (ES) 6. Non-human Broken Plurals (ES) People: PP, HBP, Anything: Singular, Pair Other: NHBP(non-human), F (feminine human or non human)

Gender (Masculine unless proven feminine)

Non human broken plurals are spoken of as she (singular and feminine) Something we would call an it in English is given a fake gender in Arabic Rule of thumb: Pretend that all words are masculine unless you find certain clues to make the word feminine- hence we only study feminine as everything else is masculine. two kinds of feminine in Arabic: 1) Real Feminine: actual females 2) Fake Feminine: i. If a word ends with , , or ( taa marboota, alif maksoora, alif mamdooda) chances are its feminine- not always feminine. Taa marboota is most commonly feminine ii. Broken Plurals (human ones sometimes and non-human all the time) iii. Because the arabs said so. Body parts in pairs (eyes, ears, hands, legs etc.) During a Harb, a soldier was daydreaming looking at a Najm in the Sama until the Shams came up. When he snapped out of it, he realized he is the only Nafs left on the battlefield surrounded by Nar, so he used a Dalwa full of water to make a Sabeel all the way to safer Ard. In the hot blowing Reeh he was desperately looking for a Bir to draw water from. In his search, he finds an empty Daar inside which he finds a Kas full of Khamr. He is tempted despite his fear of Jahannam to take a sip but wards off his temptation and uses his Asa to strike the drink.

Type (Common unless proven proper)

Common= anything/general ( a block) Proper=Specific (hence we only study proper as anything else is common) 1) Specific names (Husna, Dallas, and New York)are names of specific people, places, etc 2) Pronouns (he, she, them, they, it, etc. ) refer to something/someone specific + considered proper in and of themselves. 3) Pointers (This that them)

4) The one being called If you call someone with any name, that name becomes proper because you used it to call someone. When you use yaa the name has to be light. 5) Starts with Al: Al doesnt make a word light. It only gets rid of tanween. The pair and plural combinations remain heavy when used with Al. Al means the, and tanween is the english equivalent of a. No tanween on any words if Al is there. Words can still be heavy (end with noon) 6) Ism mawsool: aladhee= the one who etc 7) Mudaaf ilayh proper= mudaaf proper Now we study how isms come together with other isms- how they make phrases (more than a word) Phrases are of 2 types: 1) Sentences: Complete idea. 2) Fragments: more than a word but less than a sentence. (5 types) a. Idafa: _____ of ______ (e.g. messenger of Allah, car of the teacher, the day of judgment) Some statements can be rearranged with an of like your doll the doll of you etc. 2 parts to an Idafa, the one before the of and the one after the of. Before of= mudaaf After of= mudaaf ilayh Multiple ofs: Musas Mothers Heart = The heart of the mother of musa the word mother is a mudaaf and a mudaaf ilayh, while heart is a mudaaf and musa mudaf ilayh ( English) Mudaaf has 2 rules: Must be light, and have no al. Mudaaf ilayh has to be jarr. (Some combinations are nasb/jarr which =jarr) They are both isms and have a status, number, gender and type. Both words have to fit the criteria to be an idafa, an all or nothing deal. If all these rules are found, then it is an Idafa, if not, perhaps its another fragment. Whenever a pronoun is attached to an ism, ism=mudaaf, pronoun= mudaaf ilayh and hence the mudaaf ilayh(pronoun) is in jarr status automatically. We only call it an Idafa when it is attached to an ism. You will never know if a mudaaf is proper. You always have to ask the mudaaf ilayh, and if not the next mudaaf ilayh to find out if a mudaaf is proper. Special Mudaafs: Some special words are already mudaafs because theyre always used in that content

All dont have al and are light. Usually when used in Arabic, do the job of a mudaaf anyways they can be heavy but usually they arent Some of these words, when you try to figure out its meaning, you dont necessarily get an of for some of them, e.g. under the chairbut its still a mudaaf. Some are raf and some are nasb because generally while reading the quran they come up as details most are nasb. But you might find them as nasb and jarr too. Pronouns: (memorise, meanings, know cousins- attached pronoun versions) Original pronouns are huwa etc. Raf3 Attached pronouns are hu etc. Nasb/Jarr version of the original pronouns. (which one it is- nasb or jarr is determined by what is

before it) Always proper. Special case for ana the nasb version is nee and jarr version is ee Status- Pronouns are weird: they dont care about ending sounds/combinations they have their own rules regarding status. Constructing Idafas with attached pronouns:Rules of Idafa must be followed when constructing idafas, hence when we construct an Idafa using attached pronouns, the attached pronouns are the jarr versions of the actual pronouns hence we follow the rules of constructing an Idafa. How can you tell if an attached pronoun is nasb or jarr? Jarr: If a pronoun is attached to a harf jarr or an ism (which makes it mudaaf ilayh) Nasb: If a pronoun is attached to a harf nasb, it automatically becomes nasb status, or if its attached to a fil. Hence there are 2 reasons for a pronoun to have nasb status, and 2 reasons for it to have jarr status. Summary (Pronouns)

b. Harf Jarr: What is their job? To make the ism after them Jarr. What properties do they have? None (harfs) 2 reasons for something to be jar in Arabic: either its ism majroor, or mudaaf ilayh c. Harf Nasb: Makes the ism after it nasb.

d. Mawsoof Sifah: a or an comes from the tanween, al means the. There may be lots of adjectives for one noun, for example: cold, hard, delicious chocolate Mawsoof and sifah are both isms so both have propertiesproperties must match (for all adj.) Noun comes first, adjective comes second Broken Plurals/Femenine bcs Arabs said so Femenine Sifah also Qaum= Nation Nas=People Qarn= Generation These are plural because the arabs said so (there are more but these for now) Ilah= someone you have to pray to, someone you have to obey. Mawsoof sifah can be different types of plurals as long as they are plurals. e. Pointers (with al makes it a fragment): asmaa al ishara Always proper Make fragments (no is)or sentences (is) Hadha group=This/These Dhalika group= That/Those The hadhihi or tilka could be talking about a br. Plural. Fragment:If the word after a pointer has an al on it.

Sentence: translated with an is. (no al after pointer) All non flexible, except the pairs.

Fil Based Ism Based If we can find the invisible is we can translate the sentence correctly. Tips to find is The part before the is is called Mubtada The part after is called Khabar. 1. Proper followed by common (Allahu is Akbar) 2. Harf Nasb + its victim is __ The victim of a harf of nasb can be far away from the harf but we still translate them together, e.g. anna lahum jannaat Anna cant affect the jaar majroor. The anna has to beat up the jannaat. So where does the is go? You bunch up the harf nasb with its victim and translate them together, after which the is comes. That gardens are for them. 3. Raf pronouns:huwa isnt just he but he is 4. Pointers + no AL 5. Break In the Chain: when you cant connect a bunch of isms together by applying what you learned of the 5 fragments, you will find the invisible is where the connection is lost.(line) Along a line of words, if you find a break, there is no need to find more breaks. Tip: Harf of jar is never connected to anything before it. Most likely a break goes there.

Fil Past Tense

1. With fil there are 2 kinds of pronouns: Hidden-inside the word e.g. nasara (always raf) and Attached e.g. kum(Always nasb)Hence this should be accounted for during translation (doers and details) Original pronouns are always raf, and attached pronouns are nasb/jarr. If attached to a fil its nasb (remember?) E.g. Nasarakum: First we identify the attached pronoun and ignore it. (kum) Then translate the original verb nasara he helped. Then translate the attached pronoun: all of you. Together it translates as he helped all of you 2. 2 kinds of doers (raf): inside and outside : Why do we use an outside doer? He helped is like using an inside doer but Waleed helped is an example of using an outside doer, a doer that is not a pronoun. We use an outside doer because we cant stuff waleed into the word like a pronoun. Inside doers are always pronouns, if your doer is not a pronoun it must be outside. When should we look for an outside doer? When the hidden pronoun is huwa or hea. (Outside doers only work with verbs that have hidden pronouns) maybe you

wont find, maybe you will, but thats when you should look. How do we find an outside doer? 1. Must be in raf status (remember when we first learned about isms we said in ism in raf is the doer) 2. Must be after the fil (doesnt have to be right after, can come later) even if the outside doer is a pair or a plural, the fil stays in the huwa or hea form. Here the fil is plural, but still it fires the inside doer (pronoun) and its translated as All the mumins take. Remember there are only 2 criteria and number (pair/plural) isnt one of them.

Fil Present Tense

Dameer mutakallim:

Dameer ghaaib: 4 kinds of yaa we see in present tense:

If its taa, it could be:

YA Beginning = Someone Whos Not Here (3rd Person, i.e. he, she, they etc.) The Present Tense for She and You (m) is the same. OONA was used in Ism study to show plural. It does the same thing here. AANI was used in Ism study to show pair. It does the same thing here.

The light Harf:

Make the present tense light if they are before it. Everything ending with a n remove the noon. Everything ending with a damma and no noon change to a fatha. NOTE: kay can be likay and also said as just li which is the cousin of likay. Should not be confused with the lightest harf li, it can be distinguished which one it is by seeing if the last letter has a sukoon(lightest) or fatha (light) Light versions:

antunna and hunna dont change when light Oona and auna are the same thing. Just the waow is silent.

The lightest Harf: (now we know 2 harfs that beat up a fil and 2 harfs that beat up an ism)

The only difference between light and lightest is the first bulletpoint, instead of fatha we change it to sukoon. The result:

*NOTE: the letter laam can make a fil light OR lightest. We know according to the last harakah and according to light or lightest we translate it.

Fil Forbidding
Forbidding preconditions: 1. Present tense as they have to be doing it at the moment. 2. Talking Directly to them so only you (mukhatab) versions of pronouns can be used. Forbidding fils: 1. Start with laa 2. Fils are in their lightest forms.

Fil Commanding (2 steps, sometimes 3 steps)

Commanding preconditions: 1) Present tense as they have to be doing it at the moment. 2) Talking Directly to them so only you (mukhatab) versions of pronouns can be used.

Adding an alif:

We never add an alif if the word can be read If the second to last letter is a we add an on the alif; with everything else we add a New things learnt from cumulative review of surah kahf Alladhee is mawsoof sifa to Allah hence it is jarr despite being non flexible Detail=Mafool (e.g. alkitaaba) Qayyiman is a continuation of the same sentence, it is a detail because nasb can only be because of harf nasb or detail, no harf nasb hence its a detail which was describing al kitab. If one of the light harfs are there before and then you say wa it can carry on the same effect on other fils. li made yundhira light and so it also makes yubashira light because its connected via a wa even if it is far apart. Because yubashira is light that means its also being beat up by the same letter li hence it should be translated as if its connected to the li. Thought process for yubashira al mumineena: Al mumineena is nasb/jarr. An ism can only be jarr by a harf jarr or if its a mudaaf ilayh. Yubashira is a fil (mudaafs are isms) and there is no harf jarr before it either so it must be nasb. Why is it nasb? Because it is a detail. Aladheena has same 4 properties as al mumineena and is a mawsoof sifah because they are talking about the same thing- aladheena ______ is a description of almumineena. Why is makitheena nasb? Must be because its a detail of the ajran hasana. Yundhirah in ayah 3 is still affected by the l before which makes it a light verb conjugation as there is a waw before it. When the word Allah comes up we say lafdh ul jalalah instead of the word Allah Pointing Fragment: Ismul ishara, and if the next word has no laam that is the musharun ilayh. When you see a waw and alif at the end of a word its always a fil. When explaining a detail (mafool) of a fil the last word is nasb e.g. linabluahum ayuhum ahasanu amalaa madha nabluahum? Kanoo(fil) min ayatina ajabaa madha kanoo? When rabba is nasb that means its a dua. Active Fils: Fils where the doer is known. Passive Fils: Fils where the doer is unknown.

Past tense Passives

(Past tense) Active Passive: Translation: add was ___ The idea is to leave the last letter alone. All you have to do is make sure that the second-last letter is e, and the rest should all be u. You can have as many us as you need, but you need one e. e.g. (Present tense)

Translation: add is being ___ if there are multiple letters in the present tense fil, you just need one u, and can have as many as as you need. Past = more u Present= less u Both start with u mostly.

Sarf families
How to distinguish which family a fil is from? 1) What type of word is it? Madee/mudaari/masdar etc. Ism Fail, Ism Mafool, Masdar, Dharf are all isms. 6 fils, 4 isms. First figure out if its a fil or an ism ( if it has al it cant be a fil) then narrow it down to which type of word is it exactly. 2) Which family? take it to the first word in the chart and compare. If its light/proper/plural you must convert it to normal before comparing which family it belongs to. If its not from one of these 8 families its from the 6 small families. Sarf Sagheer/Kabeer + Tips on memo saved in another folder

Irregular: Base root letters include a long vowel. Base root letters are 1) Problem in middle letter: Past tense: Get rid of it by adding a instead. doesnt sound nice. Present tense: ( sukoon on q) doesnt flow properly ( yuqeemu) Masdar: doesnt sound nice


still part of family even though looks different. Hamzah and total 4 letters only needed. remove the alif (main change

2) Last 2 letters of root are the same: Adada doesnt sound right.

Past tense: main prob is you cant have sukoon and shaddah on same letter so you separate the daals sometimes. TIP: for ALL past tense the first 5 conjugations are weird and the normal conj. start from the hunna women in form of aslamna