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r_f ma fj

(Teaching of Social Science)

ulh ML

ts
Ma f gla g

lhik xU ghtbra
lhik xU bgUFw
lhik kj jikaw bra

jehL
ghl fHf
f rhiy, brid - 600 006.

jehL muR

Kj g - 2009

FGjiyt
lhl v. UZz _
nguha, fa Jiw,
mzhkiy gfiyfHf,
mzhkiy ef, fl khtl

nkyhthsf
a

tuyhW

lhl uh. ghu kndhfu

Uk v. knkfiy,
Kjt,
khtl Ma f, g
Wtd
Utnf, brid -5.

iznguha, tuyhW Jiw


l kho fa
nkghL Wtd
Utnf, brid -5.

yha & xUizghs


Uk. . #aFkh
KJiy iuahs,
khtl Ma f, g Wtd,
U, UtS khtl

yhaf
tuyhW

Uk I. rbgyh Phdn#h,

lhl v. uFehj

KJiy iuahs,
khtl Ma f, g Wtd,
gG-bgug khtl.

iuahs,
khtl Ma f, g Wtd,
bgUJiw, <nuhL khtl.

U. . uhkf

Uk. v. Rju dh,

KJiy iuahs,
khtl Ma f, g Wtd,
bgzh, Utzhkiy khtl

KJiy iuahs,
khtl Ma f, g Wtd,
fhisah nfh, tfif khtl.

U. n#. mU #h{ l
iuahs,
khtl Ma f, g Wtd,
Kgo, Ubent khtl

iy : %. 31.00
ts jah : jehL muRfhf Ma f Muh
g aff, brid - 600 006.
60 .v.v. jh mlgLsJ.
bt Mbr Kiw mnlh :

affUJ...
vbghUs thf brybrh jhwth
EbghU fhgJ j.
khztf wikfis tsgLJtJ Ra fLghil tsgJ wj
fUJfis nfLzu brtJ vij fWbfht Kidig
VgLJtJbkd f gkhzf gythF. fia fiyl
(Curriculum) vD Kiwahd xGfikl mjny f Wtdf jiyaha
gahF.
fiyl fhyF fhy, lF l, NHYF NH, njitnfg,
fgtnfg kh tiuaWfgLwJ. nja Ma f Muh g FGk,
jnghija f mikbfd nja fiyl 2005(NCF 2005)-I
totikJsJ.
1.

gF bt bgw fw mDgt mit g mnthL bjhlgLJj

2. kdghl brtij jJ bghU J fgij cWgLJj


3. ghlfSF mghgL gojj kW br uLj
4. nj Kiwfis nkY beth tFgiw fw braghLfSl
xUizj
5. eho kfsh Kiw kW ehff gghL TWfis fnahL
izj
Kjad jDila tfhL nfhghLfshF. j mogil, murhiz (iy)
v. 82, g f (1) Jiw, eh 05.04.2007go Ma f gla
gofhd fiylK ghllK
jahfgLsd. 2008-2009M
fahL Kj eilKiw cs a fiyl _y khzt Maf
fhQ wfis bgWt.

bjhlJ mit bgUF w

mjtiw bragLJ w

j wikfis mJ mtF Vg thG w; wnuhL xUJ thG w

midJ ghlgFfY mfgr fw mil bgW w

Mftkhd braghLf <LgL w

M kdghik, a fLof Mat brawid nkgL


bjhiynehF ghit F w

nkY fiyl fhQ nehffis bfhLsJ.

khzt Maf gwid nkgL, mtf KG MSikia


btbfhzj

khzt Mafl ebd, ehL xUikghL, kj nea gfis tsj

tss gUt f, cley f, thifw f, kf bjhif f,


RWNH f, kj cik f, rhiy ghJfh f, mik f
nghwtF KaJt mj.

nkfl nehff mil bgw, ulhL Ma f gla goF


vL ghlf kW xgJ brKiw gf (Practicum) cUthfgLsd.
iii

t.
v

KjyhkhL ghlf

ulhkhL ghlf

fF FHij (Learning Child)

a f Kiw
(Indian Education System)

fwiy vjhFjY
nkgLJjY (Facilitating and
Enhancing learning)

fwiy vjhFjY
nkgLJjY (Facilitating and
Enhancing learning)

jbkh fj
(Teaching of Tamil)

jbkh fj
(Teaching of Tamil)

kiyahs bkh fj
(Teaching of Malayalam)

kiyahs bkh fj
(Teaching of Malayalam)

bjYF bkh fj
(Teaching of Telgu)

bjYF bkh fj
(Teaching of Telgu)

cUJ bkh fj
(Teaching of Urdu)

cUJ bkh fj
(Teaching of Urdu)

kHiya guhk kW f

kHiya guhk kW f

(Early Childhood Care and Education)

(Early Childhood Care and Education)

My bkh fj
(Teaching of English)

My bkh fj
(Teaching of English)

fj fj
(Teaching of Mathematics)

fj fj
(Teaching of Mathematics)

10

ma fj
(Teaching of Science)

ma fj
(Teaching of Science)

11

r_f ma fj
(Teaching of Social Science)

r_f ma fj
(Teaching of Social Science)

KjyhkhL ghlf

ulhkhL ghlf

t.
1

FHijia cWnehf kW
jkhzhf M

bra lf

g ghit

fiy f kW gaDgt

fij TWj

f fa

clf, cleyf kW
nahffiy

clf, cleyf kW
nahffiy

Rats gkid

Rats gkid

fw fj bghUf

fw fj bghUf

iv

brid gfiyfHf Kdh fa Jiw jiyt Kidt


.v. ghyRuka mtf jiyik, nfhit ghuah gfiyfHf
Kdh bjhiyt f aFe Kidt v.Rthehjis,
bfhilfhd mid bjurh kf gfiyfHf Kdh Jizntj
Kidt v. yR, brid fa nkghL Wtd Kdh
nguha .fzg, Lf fhuhk uha gfiyfHf Kdh
Jizntj Kidt .gf#, ghonr ehafh gfiyfHf
fa Jiw jiyt Kidt nf. Rgkh, brid gfiyfHf
jnghija fa Jiw jiyt Kidt o.Fku, jgu mzhkiy
gfiyfHf fa nguha Kidt v. UZz_ Ma FG
jiytf gy mkf fyJiuaho, f gy MJ njJ
fUJfis gFJ bjhFJ vikgL tsfis cUthf
tfhosd.
xbthU ts FG, Ma f Muh g aff, khtl
Ma f g Wtdf, fa ff, gfiyfHff,
tlhu ts ika, gf, jdht bjhL Wtdfis rhj
fahsfis

nkyhthsfshf

xUizghsfshf

yhafshf bfhLsJ. nkY, Utdju nfus gfiyfHf


Ma fa f Kjt Kidt .nf., brid MjZ
f Wtdf fa Mnyhrf Kidt v.yjh, UZz
Kdh khtl bjhlf f mYty U nf.ehuhazis, brid
gfiyfHf cUJbkh Jiw jiyt Kidt v.ira r A]ir
Mnahiu FGjiytfshf bfhL

Wghik ghlfSF

tsf cUthfgLsd.
fhiuFo mHfgh gfiyfHf Kdh Mkw cWd Kidt
V.v. _, UZz_ mwflis The School mikig rhj
Uk. Rkuh M. bfsjkh, jdht fahsfshd MKjh khajh
knAhghuh kW Kidt ghyh rg (v-ah), ntjh kf
kdts fiy kw cj nguha U. o.v.mUshdj, Jit
gghL kW bkha Wtd KJiy iuahs Kidt j.guRuhk
Ma fahsfS tsf cUthfF gfJsd.
fj vD Ma ika fUJ jhndfw vD
khzt ika fF khs iwa bjhlf f Kiw, braf
v

t fwiyna mogilahf bfhLsJ. a tsf xnth


aY brafis bfhL bjhl khztf jhkhfnt fUij
mJbfhtjhf flikfgLsd. khzt Maf, yffis
gagLJj, g khztfl fw wid nkgLj jkJ tFgiw
fjiy tYgLJj, cWnehF w, tFgiw nkyhik,
ghlbghUs, Jiz fUf kW fw bghUfis gagLJ w,
jiyikg, FHij csaiy mUj Ma midJ wfis
mila tsf tfhL. tsfis fgj _y g<LghL
(Commitment) j m guj MwY (Competence) bghWzl
khzt kdbfhsjf tif fUJfis vLJiuF kh (Communication) cila eyhaf cUtht.
ts (Source Book) vgJ fgjfhd tsf, Mjhuf Kjad
vbfnf csd vgij fhL tfhona. mUJ fwiy
gL njitahd brfis Mfhnf uo khztfsJ mj,
j, gagLJj, gFj, bjhFj, kl wfis nkgLJtJ
jukhd Ma f bgw ttFgJ tfhLtJ Ma fahsf
flikahF. a tsf TwgLs fUJfis KGikahf cth,
Kiwahf goJ gadiltJ midJ khzt Maf bghWghF.
tsfis

brikahf

cUthf

cja

midJ

fahsfSF ffUF Ma fahsfSF ffs


khzt MafSF vkJ cskhj ghuhLf!

aFe,
Ma f Muh g aff,
brid 600 006.

vi

ghll
r_f ma fj
ulh ML
ghlbghU

brKiw
gF -m ghlbghU
myF I

a Kndw
ntshik - bjh Jiw nghFtuJ-jft
bjhlthg - ma kW jft
bjh Eg - btJiw
(braifnfh) - f- nja
ghJfh- xbthU JiwY cs
bfhiffS, lfS

fUjuf
bral
fyJiuahl
fsgaz

myF II
ah vbfhS uridf
kW nja ey
rkarhik - ehLgWntWik xWik, ghd
rkJt - kf bjhif bgUf
kj cikf, FHij cikfFHij ghJfh - bgfSF
mfhu mj- mir-cyf
mik-uthj - vGjik
- tWik- ntiy thiktFthj

FGntiy
fUjuf
thj
bra l

myF III
tkly
tkly mik - fhyiy
fhufthiy
kW
fhyiy-btg-fhyiy
klyf- mGj-fhW, y
kW fl fhW, Nwht gUtfhWf-kiHbghRH- thiy fUfkiH nrf, nguhf - flfMWf- Vf-f-fl
miyfXjffl
nuhlf- fl tsf-Rdh

btg, mGj kW fhW kiH


Matiw mF gnrhjid
nkbfhSj- thiy _y
TWfis cW neh g rJ
mif jahj, thiy
mifia M brJ, bral
nkbfhSj -thiy Muh
ikaF fsgaz
nkbfhSj - izajs _y
fw xgilf

vii

myF IV
A.. cnfhs
aif
Niy
mikkjDF aif NiyF
cs bjhl-tsf-aif
tsf kW cuw tsfk- fhLf- fkf kW
vbzts-tsf ghJfh
kW nkyhik- ngz jFj
Kndw

bra l
fUjuf
xgilf
JQF jff
fUJbgh
thj

B. Niy khRgLj
y- - fhW- khRgLjefukakhjRWNH
ju
Fiwj- cyf btgkakhj- gRik
y is- my kiH- fhLf
mj-ngl nkyhik

Niy nfLf
ga glbjhF

gF -M fw Kiwf
myF I
iza
t
mQFKiw
tiuaiw kW bghUiza
tiy
Mjhuf
njbjLj-Mjhufis
MuhjxUfikjthj-g brj

izajs _y ff VJthf
cs gywfis njbjLj(v.fh) ml, Na FLg

myF II
fij brhY Kiw
tiuaiw kW bghU- ghlbghUis
fijfshf cUthFj- fijfSF
bjhlghd glfis nrfj-cl
mir-Fu ts- Fu Vw wczfis btgLJ jjidia L nff
vGj-fij Koit nffshf
vGj- fij Koit ghlJl
bjhlgL
KoF w

tuyh l bgw muRf, k


cUthj,VnjD xU ffhd
fij vGJj

gkid

viii

myF III
tiuaiw kW bghU-gkid
goiyf- gkid braKiwgkidfhd ghlbghUis bj
brj-gkid _y fwfj bghUf jahj-g
brj-mif jahj

fw-fj bghUf jahj


- Rt ytiugl jahjKgkhz khf jahj

myF IV
ma jid Lj Kiw
tiuaiw kw bghU - goiyfg brj- mif jahjma jid L Kiwfhd
ghljiyf bj brj

r_f uridf
Niy nfLf

myF V
ehlf Kiw
tiuaiw kW bghU- goiyf
-ghlbghUis ehlfKiw
ciuahlyhf khWj-gafeogjF Vw ghl w
gFfis bj brj

Rjungh - th kW xsuf
-j
thif-VnjD
3
ehlffSF trd vGj

myF VI
dhjh cUthFj, mil
njjhis kL brj, w
mogilyhd KGikahd bjhl
ko Mtzf guhkgilghw f Kiw -myF
nj jh jahj

kL cf
dhjh totik- cUthFjmilnjjh- w
mogilyhd KGikahd bjhl
kL-gUtnj

ix

r_f ma fj
ulh ML

bghUslf
myFf

gf v

gF -m ghlbghU

a Kndw

II

ah vbfhS uridf
kW nja ey

32

III

tkly

67

IV

A. cnfhs

99

B. Niy khRgLj

112

gF -M fw Kiwf

iza t mQFKiw

136

II

fij brhY Kiw

146

III

gkid

165

IV

ma jid Lj Kiw

174

ehlf Kiw

181

VI

kL cf

192

1.

dhjh totik I

218

2.

dhjh totik II

219

3.

kh dhjh - I

220

4.

kh dhjh - II

222

5.

mfkL

224

izf

mKf
r_fma fj vgJ khztfilna xUizfgl
wfis tsF ghlkhf mikwJ. wf ey Fokfid / Fokfis
cUthFtjF, eho KndwF cWJizahf cs wj
rKjhaij cUthFwJ. khztf jh thG rKjhaij, mj
Mwiy, thif mJ, J, mjnfg j thif NHiy
mikJbfhs ghl JizwJ. j mogiljh nja
fiyl -2005- bfhiffS, FnfhfS tFfgLsd.
vdnt, ts, Ka Fnfhfshf
bt cyfnjhL, fw mDgtij bjhlgLJj.
gKfjikaw, jjiknahL sFj.
#dehafij kj.
eho iwahikia ngh ghJfhj.
nghwt mogil wgFf mikfgLsd.
nkY, tsJ tU fbjhEgnfg fj Kiwfshf,
iza t mQFKiw, gkid nghw mQFKiwf tfgLsd.
ts bfhLJs ghlgFfS, fw- fj KiwfS, khzt
MafSF jf KGwid btgLJ Mwiy, bjhlJ mit
bgUF wid mF.
vdnt, nkfl Fnfhf milbgw khzt Maf
ts Mjhufis gagL, brKiw gfis nkbfhL
jukhd fia bfhLg jf wfis nkgL bfhs
ntL.
Ma FG
xi

gF- m (ghlbghU)
myF 1

a Kndw
mKf
cyf ah ygu VHhtJ lij, kf bjhif
ulhtJ lij bfhLsJ. xU eho ts, KndwK
mj bghUshjhu, fk ts, aif tsfsh zfgLwJ.
ah vzw tsfis bfhoUjhY tsJ l ehLf
tir l bgw ayiy. vD ah jdJ bghUshjhu
lfdhY, mua bfhiffdhY gntW eygfis, ts
gfis jid tsU ehLf tir Kiy WsJ.
nkY ah tsj ehLf tir lbgw llgl bghUshjhu
Kndwij, ma kW bjhEg tsia jdJ IjhL
lf KW gy ts gfis nkbfhL tUwJ. jdh
ah ntshikJiw, bjhJiw, nghFtuJ kW jft
bjhlJiw, ahghuJiw, ma bjhEg kW bt Muh
Jiw Mait gklF tsia bgW, ah KndwF
cWJizahf mikJ tUwJ. j my a Kndw
lfS, bfhiffS ts gfS gntW Jiwf vthW
csJ vgij fhngh.
myF TWf
1.1

ntshik ts

1.2

bjh Jiw a Kndw

1.3

a nghFtuJ Jiw ts

1.4

jft bjhl Kndw

1.5

ahghu

1.6

ma bjhEg

1.7

bt Muh kW ts

1.8

f ts

1.9

ghJfh

1.10

Koiu

1.11

ghit f
1

yf

a ghJfh
Jiw mik

Rt gl /
t iugl

ghJfh

5.

muR lf,
iza js

af
Kndw

4.

fUjuf

f t s

3.

izajs,
dr ehjf

xgil

bt
Muh kW
t s

a bt
M FJ
izajs
cjl
xgil
jahj

2.

yf

bra l

bjh Jiw
a Kndw

1.

kw lf

Wt dF
mU cs
VnjD xU
bjhrhiy
ga bral

fsgaz mif

nt shik
t s

t uf nrfF l

t rha giz,
izajs,
yf

myF TWf

t .v

njit gL
jft f
t rha
gizF
fsgaz brW
J rhFgo Kiw
g mif
jahj

t HfgL
brKiw g

fw braf

1.1

ntshik ts
czit cg bratJ, mtWl fheilfis tsgJ ntshik

MF. a ntshik, ghrd, gUt fhiwna e csJ. vdnt


a ntshik gUtfh Njhl vd miHfgLwJ. ntshik
a eho bghUshjhu ts KagF MWwJ. e a eho
bkhj cg 29.4 % ntshik _y ilwJ.

eho kf

b j h i f 6 4% g a h s f t r h a i j e n a t h w d .

gUt

fhiw, mj kiH msit es ntshik Vwjhf


mfkhf csd. a trha Kndw uhk gF kf thif
juij casJ.

xU eho trha whf eilbgwiy vwh

mj eho bghUshjhu f ghfgL.


ntshik ts KaJt
ntshik xU eho bghUshjhu mrh nghwJ. ahit
bghWj tiu mJ a bghUshjhu KJbYghf csJ. ntshik
ca Kiw wghf bragliy vwh eho M ntiuna
mJL.

bjhf Kndw bgw ntshik gy tf

JizwJ.

ah nghw tsU ehLf ntshik vgJ X

mogil bjhyhF.
ntshik KaJtfhd fhuzf
1.

ntshik bghUshjhu tsF mogil.

2.

kf mahtakhd czbghUfis cg brwJ.

3.

eho gzfij jf ntshik cjwJ.

4.

ntshik _y gy bjhf cUthwd.

5.

ma brythia mff ntshik cjwJ.

6.

ntsh _ybghUsh bjh Jiw tswJ.

7.

ntshik bghUshjhu Vw jhfis FiwwJ.

RjuF K a ntshik
bjhlf fhyf czit njo miyj kj r_fkhf thHfW
bfhlh.

kj njitf mff mff ntshikia xU

bjhyhf bra Mujh. bjhlf fhyf MW Xuf, ts


mikj gFf Mugkhd trha, cnyhf gaghLF gy
3

lfY gut MugkhdJ.

jdJ njitF nghf va cz

bghUfis fheilfSF czth gagLdh. ntshik bra


fheilf cjd. fheilfsh gh, iw, njh, nuhk, cu nghw
gntW gafis bgwh.
fhyf bry bry ntzhik ts VglJ. 19 who
gF yfis cGtjF mWtil brtjF, ngh mogjF,
uh auf fLofgld. kua Vgl fLofsh
fyd, a xL ijf cUthfgld.
RjuwF a ntshik
ah Ljiy milj bghGJ ntshik njf iy UjJ.
trhauF mojs mikjt ujk neU Mth.
neU M fhy trhaf, trha Muh, trha
g MatF wl mfglJ. Kj IjhL l
(1952-57) Ka Fnfhf xW cz gwhFiwia nghFj MF.
vdnt ntshik kW ghrd tsF KDik mfglJ.
ulh IjhL l ntshik tsF, trha Muh
KaF KDik juglJ. _whtJ IjhL l fhy cz
cg jiw bgWtjfhd Kaf nkbfhsgld.
IjhL lf trha tsF KDik mjd.
ntshik cg w mf, rhFgo ybgUf, mf KjL,
ghrd lf, fheil ts, cu kW ntshik L bghUf,
ntshik rhj Jiz bjhf thf, TLw is bghU
gid nghw ts gf ts miljd.

trha TLw

rff bjhlfgld.
ah Rju mil K Uj y cik Kiwfshd 1. #jh
Kiw 2. kfth Kiw 3. uaJth Kiw Mait xfgld. Uj
rlf go yghJfh kW y cr tu rl bfhL tugld.
TLw trha giz mtaf czugld. muR cjah gy
K kh TLw lf bragLjgld.

TLw gizf,

TLw nrit rff, TLw fl rff kW gnehF TLw


rff ah KGtJ Jtfgld.
4

1960-61 mKf bragl u ntshik khtll (Intensive


Agriculture District Programme - IDAP) trhfSF caa ijf,
uhrhaz cuf, ed trha fUf, trha fl tHFj, ca
isrYfhd flikig (Infra Structure) cUth bfhLj kW
isriy bgUF trha Kiw MatF KaJt bfhLjJ.
eltoiff a ntshik tsF Ka gfhd. mbkf
Ph lhl a fnl (Dr. William Gande) j trha rhjidia
gRik u vW tjh.
eho trha cgia mfgjfhf gRik u l 1967-68-
mKf braglJ.
gRiku isf
1.

ntshik nja ms edkakhfglJ.

2.

trhfilna ma ntshik nkbfhs ntL vw Ug


nknyhaJ.

3.

ed bjhEg Kiwfis, braif cuf, bfh kUJf,


ed trha fUf, kgnrhjid, trha g Matiw
MtKl VW bragLd.

4.

gUtkiH bghjhY ghrd tr bgUf mizf kW


fhthf _y VgLjglJ.

5.

trhf tUkhd bgUaJ.

6.

uhkw ntiyth bgUaJ. nkY ts glf tsjd.

7.

isr bgUajh wFk FiwjJ.

8.

thg ts miljJ.

9.

tsU cyf ehLfSF ah KkhahdJ.

10.

ntshik cg ah jiw bgwJ.

11.

gRik u isthf, eho nfhJik cg U klfhf, be


cg 53 rjjK mfjJ.
bra : trha gizF fsgaz brW arhFgo Kiwf ga
mif jah brf.
5

ah isaToa gfis fh myJ nfhilfhy gf,


uh myJ Ffhygf vd Utifahf fyh.
fhgUt
#] kw #]iy khjf ijJ brlg kW mnlhg
khjf mWtil br gf fh gf MF.

be, nrhs,

nftuF, gU, gU tiff kW rz gf gUt


isfgLwd.
uh gUt
mnlhg kW org ijJ Vu kW nk khjf mWtil
br gf uhgf MF. nfhJik, gh glh, fLF, gU
tiff gUt isfgLwd.
III

btiku
gRiku nghnw btiku ah w F

rhjidahF. fheilf, trha ntiyfSF, iwgjF, to


GgjF, bjhG cufSF gagLwd. cyf fheilf 1/5
ah csJ.
btiku gh bgUfK, gh rhj bghUf bgUfK
VgLsJ. 1997 ML Kjny ah gh cg cynyna Kj
ehlhf UjJ.
yu
cyf kf cz f Ka lij bgWwJ. ah
cgia bgUf, o bjhiy tsf muR vLj Ka
is yu MF.
MWf, Fsf, Vf t f tsfgLwd.

vu

oglFf _ykhf Mfl o eilbgWwJ. Kig, bfhfjh,


bfh, JFo, rhfgod Kja lf Mfl o iyaf
csd. klg ka fl Muh iya csJ.
ghrd ts
trha btF, a ijf, jukhd cu, k ts, ngha tr,
ed fUf, vuf, ts Kjait mtakhF. tW jiyahdJ
6

trahF. ghrd ntshikF KJbfY nghwJ. cz guha


beYF.

gzguha fUF, g nghf rhFgoF mf

njitgLwJ.
ghrd KaJt
ah tsKs ehL. F twhj tsef gy ghwd. vD
tsF mogil kiH.

kiHia e cHtf trha bra

ntosJ. bghfhk gUt kiH bghjh, ey isr UF.


ts bfhF. gUtkiH fhyflJ tjhnyh, Vkh lhnyh trha
bgJ ghfgLwJ.
fhuzkhwJ.

eho grK go gut gUt kiH

ekJ eho bgw kiH bgUgF bjnkF

gUtfhwh #]iy Kj brlg tiu ilwJ.

mnj nghW

tlHF gUtfhwh mnlhg kW etg khjf HF flfiu


khyf bgUghyhd kiHia bgWwd.
ghrd njit
ML KGtJ kiH bghahjjhY, vyh gFY xnu uhd kiH
ilfhjjhY fU, be nghw gfSF j Fahf
njitgLtjhY Kiwahd ghrd ekJ eho tsF aikahj
njit MF.
ghrd Kiwf
ah ghrd Kiwf lF l khWgLwd. mtW
Kakhdit _W tifgL.
1. zW ghrd
2. Vghrd
3. fhth ghrd
(1) zW ghrd
it nkkl zWf FHh zWf vd UtifgL.
1 . nkkl zWf
yjo ilgij bghWJ zWfis vF ntLbkwhY
v njho gagLjyh. bl Kj thuzh tiu cs gFf,
grh, Aahdh, Ah, nkF tf, jehL, Muunjr, ka unjr
kW F#uh Ma khyf nkkl zWf mfkhf csd. rhu
7

nkhlhf, Or gf, b# gf myJ Vw _y iwfgLwJ.


fhth t bgW j ms j _y ilgiy. bgUghyhd
zW c jik csJ. kiH ms Fiwjh zWf twL
nghF.
2 . FHh zWf
y MJis L U myJ sho FHhfis bghU,
Or myJ rhu nkhlh _y j iwgJ FHh zW MF.
cuunjr, Ah, grh, Aah, Muunjr kW jeho y
gFf FHh zW ghrd mfkhf csJ. yjo mfkhf cs
lf kL J ga jU.
(2)

Vghrd
jhthd gFf, gsf fiuia gygL kiH iu nj

ghrdF gagLJtJ Vghrd MF. jehL, Muunjr,


fehlf, kfhuhZou, x[h nghw khyf Vghrd mfkhf csJ.
gy Vf nfhil fhyf twL nghf thsJ.
(3)

fhthghrd
MW iu KiwgLjgl thfhf tahf yf ghR Kiw

fhthghrd MF. tl a MW rkbt ghrd Kiw mf


ms gagLjgLwJ. cuunjr, Aahdh, grh kW nkF
tfhs Ma khyf ghrd mf ms csJ. bllh gF
ghrd wghf eilbgWwJ.
IjhL lf _y bga kW a ghrdlf
llgL bgUghyhd yf rhFgoF tJsd. iy cs
Ka mizfLf.

guh ef mizl

jhnkhu egsjhF l

uhF mizl

nfhl

AL mizl

nk^ mizl.
8

1.2

bjh Jiw a Kndw


a ehL ma M bgJ dYwJ. ahit M brj

maf e ehoUJ Vuhskhd frh bghUfis bfhL brwd.


bjhu kW vu kajh a Foir bjhf etiljd.
a ehL maUF rijahf khnghdJ. 1947 ah Rju bgw
wF, 1948 cUthd a bjh bfhif khdfS, mij bjhlJ
cUthd lf _y ah tsailJsJ. flj 50 MLf
ah bjh Jiw fbga Kndw bgWsJ. 1956- bfhL
tugl `bjh bfhif khd bghJJiw, jah Jiw, TLw
Jiwf _y bjh bgUfij CFjJ. 1991 cUthfgl bjh
bfhif, cyfkakhfiy MjjJ. W cyf ehLfnshL ngho nghL
msF ekJ ehL bjh Jiw Kndw milJsJ. Fghf
dQJiwY, f JiwY kfjhd rhjid JsJ. e
a eho bghUshjhu bjh tsia bghWnj mikwJ.
edkakhFj (Medernisation)
edkakhf _ykhf ahit bjh kakhd ehlhf ntL vw
vznjhL, vghnghL bghUshjhu llglJ. edkakhf
vwh
1. bghU cg Jiw - bghJJiw, jah Jiw, TLwJiw
- khwij bfhL tUj.
2. gtifahd bghUshjhu eltoiffis gagLJj
3. bghUshjhu tsfhf ma bjh Egfis gagLJj
4. bjh Wtdf Jikfis FJj
5. b j h

Eg

ma

wik

mogil

kf

kdghikY, bjh elijY mogil khwij VgLJj


6. vyh iyfY Kndw Vgl mgJ bfhSj
bjh kakhFj (Industrialisation)
bjh u Vglhj ah bjh khwij VgLJtnj bjh
kakhFj nehfkhF.

trhaijna ebfhoUj e eho

bjhfis gL, bghUshjhu tsia, tsij mfF


9

nehfJl a bghUshjhu bfhif llglJ. bjh ts


mfkhj, jiu, bghUshjhu fd Mait Vuhskhd ntiy
thfis cUthF, nja tUkhdK, j eg tUkhdK bgUF.
cg wD bgUF. Wtd, nghFtuJ, jft bjhl tsU.
ntshik Kiw brikgL. kf thF r mfF. rij
bghUshjhu gygL, tWik tl RUF, VWk bgUF, efu ts,
f nkghL, nja ghJfh gygL.
bghJJiw Wtdf (Public Sector Undertakings)
ah Ljiy milj nghJ nghjsthlf, u nghFtuJ,
jgh j, JiwKf nghw y bjhf kLnk mu thf
UjJ. bjh uF njitahd fduf bjhfis bghJJiw
munr bjhlaJ.

bghJJiw bjh WtdfSF KDik

ghJfh, CfK bfhLfgljh, it ajF tsailjJ.


ngus bjhf (Large Scale Industries)
1. gU J bjh (Cotton Industry)
2. U v~F bjh (Steel Industry)
3. rz Miy bjh (Jute Industry)
4. rfiu bjh (Sugar Industry)
5. njiy bjh (Tea Industry)
6. bgha bjh (Engineering Industry)
7. nghFtuJ fUf cg bjhrhiy (Transport Industry)
m. u v bjhrhiy
M. fg fL bjhrhiy
. nkhlh cg bjhrhiy
<. khd cg bjhrhiy
W bjhf (Small Scale Industries)
dQ bghUf, EfUf, vu ghff, fhyf, trha
fUf nghwitfis cg brtd W bjhf MF. xbthU
khyY, khtl jiyefufY, bjhngilf WtgL W
bjhf CFfgLwd. munr flDj, bjhEg cj
10

mwJ. bjh isP, uhk kf kW trhfSF j _y


ntiyth ilwJ.
Foir bjh
gL

tsj,

kurhkhf,

kghlbjh,

fj,

ifjbghUf jahj, gh Kilj, nj ts, nfh ts,


giz bjh nghwit Foir bjhf MF. cq ilF
_ybghUfis bfhL L cWdfsh, Lfnyna bragL
bjh Foir bjh MF.
bra : c f W t d F m U c s b j h r h i y F b r W
ifglJl bjhrhiy ga bral jah brf.
a fkf
xU eho bghUshjhu tsF fk ts aikahjjhF.
yf, U khfR, ghi[, ikfh nghw fkf ah mf
ilwd. br, <a, Jjehf, jf kW bgnuh ngha ms
iy.
aa MJiw, a Ruf fHf, ghuj jf Ruff
bl, Jjh br bl, nja mYa fbg, vbz
aif th Wtd Kjad ekJ eho fk ts fLo Wtdf
MF. e eho ma bjh Eg kW braif nfh _ykhf
fkgotf fLofgLwd.
cnyhf tsf
a bjh tsah U v~F, mYa, bk, cutiff
bgUks gaghoYsd. nkyhf tsfis ehFtifahf fyh.
1 . bgUks gagL cnyhff
UjhJ bghU kW ikfh cyf rij bgUks
gid bragLwd.
2 . VWkfhd cnyhff
kf, ghir, r
1950 ahUJ 22 tifahd cnyhff btehLfSF
VWk bragld.

jnghJ 70F nkgl cnyhff VWk

bragLwd.
11

3 . Ra njitfis br cnyhff
nrhoa, nrhoa c, ghir, ghng, yf, fzho
4 . btehLfis rhJs cnyhff
f, bgnuha, Jjehf, ghjur, jfu, shod, jis
vr (Energy)
vr cgnahf eho tsF aikahjjhF. ah
vr, bgnuha vbz, th, yf, rhz, vth, fhW
MatUJ cg bragLwJ.
vrdh VgL eikf
1. v r

cjdh

gyehLf

bjhJiw

bgU

tsailJsd.
2. kfSila thifF gytf cj brwJ. glfis
rikgjF, af, bghUfis ghJfhf vr
cjwJ.
3. vr nghFtuJ JiwY, tjf JiwY bgU KaJt
thjjhf csJ. v r gwhFiwdh nghFtuJJiw
nghFtuJ WjgL iy Vglyh.
4. trhaJiw ed bjh Eg fUfshd ouhl, mWtil
fUf nghwtiw af vr bgJ cjahf csJ.
tjf vr
rhu, bgnuha vbz, yf nghwit.
tjf myhj vr
wF, rhz, itnfh nghwit.
1.3

a nghFtuJ Jiw ts
af (Movement) ehff benfh. af btghnl

nghFtuJ (Transport).

gafis, bghUfis eho gntW

gFF bfhL bry nghFtuJ cjwJ.

kf l bgaJ

brtjh, mtf mahik, _leif, rh rka ga jtwhd


vzf FiwJ guj nja kdghik cUthwJ.
12

bghUf

nghFtujh cg bgU rij tilwJ. _ybghUfis,


cg brj bghUfis, XlUJ kbwhU lF vLJ
brtJ vjhwJ. eho bghUshjhu tsF bjh, trha,
fkts nghnw nghFtuJ aikahjJ. nghFtuJ, xU eho
xUikghil cWbrwJ.

xU eho ntshik, bjhY,

fktsK vY rij vd fUjglh nghFtuJ mj eughF.


e eho nghFtuij jiut, tht, t vd _W tifah
fyh.
1.

jiut nghFtuJ
jiut nghFtuij uL tifahf fyh. mit
1 . rhiy nghFtuJ
a U eho cs rhiyfis nja beLrhiyf, khy

rhiyf, khtlrhiyf, uhk rhiyf, viyw rhiyf vd fyh.


nja beLrhiyf
eho cs khy jiyefufis, Ka efufis,
JiwKffis,

RWyhjyfis,

Ka

efufis,

JiwKffis, ajyfis izF rhiyf nja


beLrhiyfshF. j rhiyfis mikJ guhkF gia ka muR
nkbfhLsJ. eho cs bkhj rhiy s, 2 rjj cs
rhiyf, nghFtu 35 rjj msF gagLwd.
khy rhiyf
it khy jiyefufis, khtl jiyefufis kW
Ka lfis izwd. tiw khy mu beLrhiyJiw
mikJ guhk brwJ. khy rhiyf nja beLrhiyfSl
Mfhnf izwd.
khtlrhiyf
it khtlf cs gntW efufSF, Ka lfSF
brW tu gagL rhiyf. it mjj CuhJiwahY, khtl
thfjhY mikJ guhkfgLwd.
13

uhk rhiyf
it uhkfY, efufY bjhl VgLJwd. khtl
rhiyfSl izwd. uhk grhaJ mikf tiw mikJ
guhkwd.
viywrhiyf
mlj fhLf, caj kiyf, kj elkhl yhj lf
tahf mik rhiyf it. ah tlF, tlHF viy wf
rhiyf mikfgLsd.
kiyrhiyf
RWyh gafis ftu xbthU khyY cs kiyf, nfhil
thlf, kiy njhlf, kiy nfhf, tiw mila mikfgL
rhiyf kiyrhiyf MF.
gdhL beLrhiyf
it cyf t cjl ah Ka rhiyfis mil
ehLfSl izgjhF.
jf ehfu beLrhiyf
ah Ka ehF khefufshd brid, Kig, bl,
bfhfjh Ma efufis izF nja beLrhiyfis ehF
tghijfshf khW l jf ehfu rhiy l MF.
bjhlto nghFtuJ
Mahnyana fbga mik a bjhlto mikghF. J
cyf mu ulhtJ lij bgWwJ. Mnya M 1853-
KigF, jhdhF ilna Kj bjhlto nghFtuJ MugkhdJ.
a bjhlto nghFtuJ, a bghJ Jiwf fbgaJ. mf
ms ntiy thig jU mikghF.
thf
a U ghijf bkhj XLghij s 1,08,513 .. MF. J
mfytghij, l tghij, FWa tghij vd _W tifgL.
2010F midJ l tghijfS mfy tghijfshf ka muR
l osJ. thf trfhf abjhl to nghFtuJ 16
klyfshf fgLsd.

1995- u Kg KGtJ

fkakhfglJ.
14

bjhl to bjhrhiyf
ah, bjhlto vf kW bjhlto bgof jah
jiw bfhLsJ. jur, thuzh Ma lf bjhl to
vf jahfgLwd.

c ghff jahF bjhrhiy

ghoahyh csJ. bjhlto bgof jah bjhrhiyf


bgu, fjyh, bfhfjh kW bgfq Ma lf csd.
t nghFtuJ
xU wj nghFtuJ Clf MF. t nghFtuJ fdkhd,
wikf, iuthd nghFtuJ MF. J U tifgL. 1. e
nghFtuJ, 2. flt nghFtuJ.
1.

et nghFtuJ
ah et nghFtuJ jl s 14,500 .. 3,700 ..

u irglF gagLjgLwJ. ah fif e, ukuh e,


nkF flfiu fhth, rgfuh fhth, cnah kl fhth, gfh
fhth, HF flfiu fhth, nfhjht, UZz ghu kW o...
fhth nghwit e t nghFtuF Vwit.
2.

flt nghFtuJ
_W gf flfis, uL l flnyhufis bfhl

ah flnghFtuJ wghf eilbgWwJ. 7,516 .. flfiuia


bgWs ehL ah. ruF nghFtu cyf mu 17tJ lij
fg nghFtu tsU ehLf tir Kj lij bgWsJ.
ah 13 bgUJiwKffS, 184 a JiwKffS csd.
khd nghFtuJ myJ tht nghFtuJ
1911- Mnyaf M yhF myfhghJF ilna Kj
khd nghFtuJ mKfkhdJ. 1929- a Vnt yhJF,
ahF ilna khd nghFtuij bjhlaJ.

1932-

fuhF, bridF ilna Kig tahf khd nghFtuJ


MugkhdJ.

ah cehL khd nghFtuij a

ViyR, btehL khd nghFtuij V ah elJwd.


J ju cehL nghFtuF th nrit csd. 1997 Vu khj
mfgl a bfhif go 11 jah khd nritf jnghJ
15

eilKiw csd. ah jnghJ VwFiwa 100 khd iyaf


csd.

cy vyh ehLfSF bry, a khd nritf

eilbgWwJ.

1 . 4 jft bjhl Kndw


eh thG j f jft f. jft bjhlf iwa cyf
Kndw KoahJ. jft bjhlfis jgl jft bjhlf, bjh
rhj jft bjhlf, bghJthd jft bjhlf vW _W tifahf
fyh.
jgl jft bjhlf, jgh, j, bjhiyfh _y
eilbgWwJ. bjh rhj bjhlf, rlf, Mtiff, sf
fLiuf _y eilbgWwd. bghJthd jft bjhlf, kf jft
bjhlghd brjhf, jff, miff, thbdh, bjhiyfh
kW izajs _y eilbgWwd.
1.

jgh t bjhl
jgh t bjhl - j jft bjhl MF. Mnya M fhy

bjhlfgl jgh t bjhl fbga tsia bgWsJ. 1852-M


ML Kj, jgh jiy fuh btlglJ. ah VwFiwa 1.5
yr jgh iyaf cd. a jgh iya cynyna fbgaJ.
ah vL klyfshf fgL jgh v (Postal Index Number) PIN
bfhLfgLsJ.

1 9 7 5 - i u j g h K i w ( Sp e e d P o s t ) m K

gLjglJ. 1977- braif nfh _y jft bjhl bfhS nrit


eilKiwF tjJ. 1995- uhkw jgh fhL l bjhlfglJ.
2.

bjhiyng
a

bjhiyng

nrit

eilbgWtjF

Kng

nrit

bjhlfglJ. 1981-82-M ML Kj Kj bfhfjh bjhiyng


nrit

bjhlfglJ.

1990-

bjhiyng

nrit

untF

gLjglJ.
1984- cUthfgl bjhiyiy af nkghL ika xU UKid
MF. j isthf bjhiyu I v o ISD (International Subscriber Dialing) v v o NSD ( National Subcriber Dialing) X PCO (Public Call Office)
nghwit vzw ms gaghoYsd.
16

jah Jiw CFfgld. mj isthf miyng (Cell Phone)


bgUks cUthd. J dQ bjhiy bjhl Vgl mRu ts
MF.
3.

thbdh jft bjhl


fyhj j thbdh Kndho. Kj cyf ngh nghJ

thbdh uhQt ufa jft njitfhf gagLjglJ.


a thbdh jah KaahF. 1936 #] khj a thbdh
nrit my a thbdh vd bga khw braglJ.
thbdh ffis 1. nja ff, 2. khy ff, 3. cq
ff vd _whf fyh.

it brf, gh iy, ir,

ehlff, ngRf, a ff, trha ff, bjhyhsf,


bgf - FHijf - bjhlghd brf, fUJf, FLg ey, Rfhjhu,
njr g ghlf, kh ghlf nghw ffshf xgugLwd. J
xU wj jft bjhl rhjd MF.
ggiy tir xgu
ggiy tir KjKj 1977 brid JtfglJ. Jiw
jahUF mDk mfglJ. mj _y gy jah ggiy tirf
W wghf bragL tUwd. it bgUghY bghGJ nghF mr
bfhlitahf csd.
4.

bjhiyfh
thbdh vgJ x tot kL MF. bjhiyfh vgJ x,

x nrj tot MF. 1959 brlg 15 nj bl bjhiyfh ika


bjhlfglJ. 1965 MfL khj Kj bghGJnghF kW jft bjhl
ff mKfkhd. 1976 Kj J jr (Doordarshan) vw bga
bragL tUwJ.
jr

mwhl

brf,

ma,

fiy

ff,

sfiuglf, bjhlf, ir, ehoa, ehlf, iuglf, nghw


ff xgughwd. it ju zf ciuf, fyJiuahl,
ntshik, uhk ts, cley, FLg ey, RW NH, Efnth cik
ga jftfS xgughwd.
17

f rhj ff, Kiwrhuh f ff, gfiyfHf


khaFG tHF tFgiw ff, rlkw, ehlhSkw, w
ff Mait w l bgWwd.
nf o.. tuth bjhiyfh tuyh Ka Ug VgLsJ.
ah Kig mLFkho folf cs Lf, tjf
Wtdf kW XlfSF Kj nf iz bfhLfglJ. W
.o.. (Zee TV Network) lh o. . (Star TV) r o. . FGk (Sun TV Nework)
uh{ o, b#ah o, jH o, o nghw 100F nkgl ytr kW
flz nrdf csd.
5.

LF neuo bjhiyfh (Direct-to-Home Television. (DTH))


jah Jiw nf bjhiyfh tiyafis elJnth kW

iljuff Vf nghf fLghLfUJ Lgl LF neuo


bjhiyfh bjhEg gagLwJ. xbthU oY w Mbldh
itJ midJ nrdfis ghf Ko.
bjhiyfhah gy vkiw isf csd.

btehL

bjhiyfh ff a gghLF izahf iy. ghYz,


tKiw ff mfkhf l bgWwd. jdh isPf, Wtf
tjtw th csJ. bjhiyfh bjhlf, _leiffis, ngh
gHf tHffis, FLg rilfis bgJgLJwd. ff
ilna sguf Ka l bgWwd. j tuth iuglJiw,
gif Jiw bgUks ghfgLsd. kJghd, fbu, ghkrhyh
it ga sguf jr jil bragLsd. Mdh nf
bjhiyfhf jil bragliy.

vdnt vkiw isf

mfkhf csd.
6.

gif jft bjhl


Mnya M a giff wghf bragld. 1868

mj g#h gif (Amrita Bazar Patrika) MufglUJ, Kj


a gif tuyhW MugkhdJ. LjiyF ghLgl jiytf
gif thyhfnt kfl ngd. Rju czfis jo vGd.
a muayik rl - -19, gif Rju ghJfh
mwJ.

giff Rjukhf braglh kL nghjhJ.


18

mJ

bghWl elJ bfhs ntL. muRF Mjuhfnth, vngh ,


eLiynahL bragl ntL. W gy giff kf Fuyhf
xwd. etilnjhUF ilf, tWik, ntiyik, rJz,
ahghu, tUkhd ca, bghGJnghF kW isahL brf
nghwtF KDik mwd.
W ah 101 bkhf (nja kW tlhu is bkhf)
ehjfS, thu khj, fhyhL, miuahL, KG ML jfS
btlgLwd. jft bjh Eg bgUl fhy midJ
giffS, blbe _y f FWa fhy cyf KGtJ ty
tUwd.
7. iuglf _y jft bjhl
iugl fhyF K, ehlfJiw brthF bgUjJ,
ehlffis nghW iuglf fiy totfshf iy, ehlf xU
kthd kf bghGJ nghF mr MF. 1896-M ML #]iy khj
7nj nah rnfhjuf Kig iugl ffh eld. 1896- F
1930-F ilgl fhy Mu Cikglf tjd. 1931- ngR
iul rfhj bjhlaJ. W iuglJiw ma bjhEg
bfhL wghf bragLwJ. Fghf uh, 3D mnk t
_y gy ju fhf _y iuglf cUthfgLwd.
iuglf mgj Mw, kfis etF miHJ bry ntL.
J xU wj jftbjhl rhjd MF.

1.5. ahghu
xU eho bghUshjhu ts, mj ehL w ehLfSl brJ bfhS
tj mogil csJ. vyh bghUfS vyh fhyfY, vyh
lfY ilgiy. njitia nghFt tjf Ka lij
twJ, e a ehL gila fhy Kj w ehLfSl tjf brJ
tJsJ. cy fl t fLogjfhd njitia Inuha ehLf,
bgwj fhuznk, mit a ehLl bfhoUj tjf MF.
tjf uL tifgL.
1.

c ehL tjf

2.

bt ehL tjf
19

cehL tjf
ceho xU l isfgL bghUf, fk tsf njit
mogil eho w gFfSF bfhL brygLwd. bjhJiw
ts _y bghUf cg frkhd ms caJsJ. tiw
midJ gF kfSF ilgjfhd l vik gLjgLsJ.
cehL tjf wghf eilbgw, if tof, yhf nghwit cjwd.
bghJJiw Wtdf tsF fuhf jah Jiwf bgUks
ts milJsd.

jah Wtdf ehLeyid fUjhk yhg

nehnfhL braglikah bjh bfhif tFfglJ, ll


bghUshjhu _y rkjk rKjhaij cUthf Ka nkbfhsgL
tUwJ.
btehL tjf
cehL tjf nghW cy gy ehLfSF, e eho is
cz bghU, cg bghUf, #, ug, U, kW gntW bghUf
VWk bragLwd.
ij nghW njitahd bghUf wFk bragLwd. jdh
ma bryth ilwJ, cyf mu a bghUshjhuij caj,
maehL tjf mtakhwJ.
1.6 ma bjhEg
xU eho KndwF ed nfhf vd miHfgL
Muh Tlf, bjh Eg iyaf, gfiyfHff, f
mta vd e eho Kj ujk #tAyh neU Tdh.
vdnt e eho mQa Jiw Kndwij fhz 1958-
ma bfhif khd awglJ, j khd _y ey
f

bfhiffis

bfhl

ma

tsia

JjgL,

bjhiynehFghitl midJ JiwfY ts mila ntL


vw bfhif tiuaWfglJ,
bjh Eg bfhif kW nkyhik
(Science and Technology Policy and Management)
ah Ljiy miljnghJ mjF Kng cUthfl ma
mojs J ma - bjhEg jft bjhl bjhEg Kaf
nkbfhsgld. 1971 - ma bjhEgJiw njhWfglJ.
20

ma bjhEg ts gntW lf fl Jiwf _y


wghf bragLjgL tUwd.
1. ma kW bjhEg
2. ma kW bjhJiw Muh
3. EQa bjh Eg
4. bgUfl tsJiw
5. bt MuhJiw
6. mQa. dQa
7. RWw kW tda Jiw
it

ju,

gntW

mikrffis

rhj

JiwfS

<LgLjgLsd. a kUJt MuhfHf, a ntshik


ts fHf, ghrd kW r nghw JiwfS mlF.
bfhif

cyf

bjhEg

nghoia

vbfhstjfhf

cUthfgld.
2003- bfhL tugl ma bjh Eg bfhif ahit
KakhdbjhU m rahf cUthFtjhF. fhy ma
UJf tHfgLwJ. bghJJiw kW jah Jiw TL
Ka isthf 50-F nkgl jah WtdfS, 120 muR cj
bgW WtdfS ed vr ikaf, ca, jft bghU, ut
goff nghwt Muhf <LgL a bjh Egfis
fljd.
Muh kW ts lf
1.

KDik Muh ts (Priority Research)


ma, bjh Eg, bgha nghw KDik Muh kW

ts gFfis flJ tsJ tUwJ. l ma kW


bgha Muh kw _y bragLjgLwJ.
2.

c fLkhd trf
ma, bjhEg lfis wikahf tsf cfLkhd

trf (Infrastructure) f mtakhwJ, jiywj Phfis


ikagL, trf brJ bfhLj, Muh - ts M
TlfSF, gfiy fHffSF, Muh ts lij
21

bragLjJj, bjhrhiy c fLkhd trfis, m ed


cgfuzfis mfkhFj nghwit mlF.
3.

wik njl l
s khzt Phfilna kiwJ lF mgj Mwfis

btbfhzu mtfsJ f tsF, gF gy cjlf


eilKiwgLjgLsd.
4.

bjh Eg bjhiynehF 2020


bjhEg bfhifia eilKiwgLtjfhf, (Technology Policy imple-

mentation Committee) jFG mikfgLsJ. FG bjh Eg


jft FGit (Technology information System) cUthaJ,
5.

thiy Kd nritf
1875- WtgL a LjiyF wF edgLjgl a

thiy M ika (Indias Meteorological Department) thiy, yeLf,


a fhW, fdkiH, tid Kd brJ tUwd. j isf
eho gntW gF mikJsd.
6.

a y msthJiw
J ah mf, w viyfis tiuaWj, y msth f

mj, y M bjhEg Kiwfis tsj. a nja y mik


ga njrglij btLj Ma gfis brJ tUwJ. it ju
efw l, ts nkyhik, c flik ts, RW NH guhk,
trha, ghrd, kts ghJfh, u, khd, t nghFtuJ,
fk ts njit MatF cjwd.
7.

etilnjh lf
rKjha etilj dUF gy ma bjhEg lf

eilKiwYsd. Fghf bgfSfhd bjhEg fh, Rfhjhu


trfnshL flgL Lf, xUizj y, Jiw nkyhik, bjh
g, ed ntshik Kiwfis gagLJj, ifid bjh Eg
nghw lf bragLjgL tUwd.
mQ Mw Muh (Atomic Research)
mQ Mwiy gagL ah cg jiw bgwyh
vW 1944- u fUij btlt nAh #Ah ghgh Mth.
22

mQ Mw Miza
1948- mQ Mw rl awglJ. mjgo mikfgl mQ Mw
Miza jiyt nAh ghgh Mth. j nehf uL. mit (1) mQ
Mwiy cgF gagLJj (2) mQ Mwiy ntshik, ca,
bjh kW kUJt KndwF gagLJtjhF. mikF mQ
(Atom for peace) vw cWahd bfhif mogil a mQ Miza
bragL tUwJ.
jnghJ ah IJ mQ Muh ikaf csd. mit
1. Kig cs ghgh mQ Mw Muh ika (BARC)
2. jehL fghf cs uhfh mQ Muh ika (IGCAR)
3. cs mQ Muh iya (CAT)
4. bfhfjh cs mQ Muh iya (VECCC)
5. IjuhghYs mQ Muh iya (AMD)
j Muh Wtdf JizbfhL jehL TlFs 200 MW w
bfhl mQ Mw cg l (Atomic Power Project) uZah
cjl flgL tUwJ. brid mU fghf mQ Mwiy
bfhL fl iu FouhF l bragL tUwJ.
1.7

bt Muh kW ts (Space Research and Development)


e a ehL mQ Mw tsF Kjik mgJ nghy bt

MF KDik mJ tUwJ. 1962- a nja bt FG


cUthfglJ. 1963- nf mghnr (Nicke Apache) vw fy
brYjglJ. 1972- bt Miza (Space Commission)
kW btJiw (Department of space) bjhlfgld. xUizj,
beghL Vfiz nkghL bral mogil, U, N, MfhZ,
eh Ma Vfizf cUthfgLsd.
a bt Muh Wtd
(Indian Space Research Organisation - ISRO)
j jiyikaf bgfq csJ. j Ka nehf bt
bjhEgij Fghf bjhiyng bjhl, bjhiyfh xgu,
thiy, aif tsfis flj, t gaghil tsgjF
23

braifnfhfis cUthFjY (Satellite) mtiw bfhL


brtjfhd fyfis (Launch Vehicle) jahgJ MF. a
bt Muh Wtd (ISRO) nja bjhiyz mik (National
Remote sensing Agency) aa Muh M Tl (Physical Research
Laboratory) Matiw eilKiwgLJwJ.
u rhuhgh bt ika (Vikram Sarabai Space Centre)
a bt l jij vW miHfgl nAh ghgh.
fyfis cUthFt z. tuJ illhj Ka
isthfnt u rhuhgh bt ika cUthaJ. J nfush khy
Utdju Jgh csJ. F Vfiz brYJ js (Rocket Launching Station) csJ.
$ Anfhlh (Sriharikota)
$ Anfhlh Muh cs bt JiwKf (space Port) MF.
170 . gugss j Mu flfiu jh fy brYJ
fskhF, Fs h (Shar) ikaUJ 1971- Kj nuh
braifnfh brYjglJ. flj MLf v.v. (SLV) V.v.v..
(ASLV) .v.v.. (PSLV) nghw Vfizf brYjgLsd.
a nja braif nfh mik (Indian National Satellite Systems
1983, INSAT)
1983 INSAT brYjglJ.
1991 INSAT-1D brYjglJ.
1993, 1999, 2000 MLf

Insat - 2B, 2C, 2D, 2DD QF

mDggld.
jnghJ 450-F nkgl a braif nfhf ia R
tUwd. t _y bjhiy bjhl, bjhiyfh xgu, thiy
Kd, ngu vrif, jft gkhw, thbdh xgu, f kW
bjh g ga ff UJ kF mDggLwd.
braif nfhf (Satellites)
Maglh (1975)
a Phfsh totikfgl Kj braifnfh 1975 Vu 19-M
nj nrha ehoUJ F mUfhikYs RW tF
mDgglJ. j af $ A nfhlh ikUJ afglJ. j
_y ah bt f EiHJ rhjid giljJ.
24

ghfuh -1
1979 #& 7-M nj nfh uZahUJ btF mDgglJ.
bjhiyfh ifglfU bghUjgl nfh a M (Hydrolic),
fla (Oceanography) kW thiy ga jftfis mDaJ.
1981 etg 20 nj ghfuh - 11 QF brYjglJ.
n uh - 1980
1980 #]iy khj 18 n
nuh

braifnfh

KjKjyhf a bt
Phfsh totikf
gL

jahfglJ.

braifnfh fy - 3
(SLV -3) _y btF
mDglJ. 1983 Vu 17-M
nj III nuh QF
mDgglJ.
M 1981

1987

ah Kj nkh br
braifnfh brYjglJ.

1990 INSAT - 1- D brYjglJ.


1991

IRS-I-B RWghij brYjglJ.

1992

cehL jah INSAT - 2 B


brYjglJ.

1993 PSLV- D-1 brYjglJ


1995

Insat - 2C braif nfh


brYjglJ.

1981 #]iy khj 18 nj

PSLV D-3 RWghij


b r a i f n f h 1996 brYjglJ.
buR
fahdhUJ
f nrit braif nfh EDUSAT
Inuha
b t 2004 brYjglJ.
ika Vah fy
fhnlhrh -1, Arh braifnfhS
_ y b r Y j g l J . J 2005 PSLV-C-6 brYjgld.
ah Kj jft
fhnlhrh -2. LRE -1, PSLV - C7
2006
RWghij brYjgld.
bjhl
braifnfh.
M

mbkfh, uZah, uh,

ah fhnlhrh 2A, AIMS -1


nghwt Wl vL maehL braif
2008
nfhf brY ah
braifnfh btF
rhjid gilJsJ.
mDa ehL ah vgJ
ruha - 1 vD braifnfh
bgUikFa
brayhF.
PSLV-C11 _y brYjglJ.
1984- a Ph
mJ ru
kly EiHJ, ruid g M
uhnfZ rkh btF
brJ t UwJ.
brW tjh.
fdlhit mLj jifa

25

bra : a bt M FJ izajs cjl xgil


jah brf.

1.8 f ts
xU eho ts vgJ mj f nkghL mogil mikJsJ.
a f Mnya fhy M njitfis

brtjfhf

cUthfgljhF. Mnya Mia gLa fhy fl f


vgJ bkhia gtjhfnt UjJ.

f Kiwia Rju

ah ts njitfSF Vg kW uik bra ntoajhJ.


f vgJ njr r_f, bghUshjhu, mua khwid VgLJ fU
vd fUjglJ. njr xUikghL, r_f , rka rhik, rkjk
bghUshjhu, kj tsfis gagLJj, cz cg jiw,
bjh kakhf, ma bjh Eg ts, midtUF jukhd f
nghw caj Fnfhf cUthfgld. vdnt f Kiw gntW
khwfis bfhL tUtjfhf f FGf mikfgld.
jgo 1948 lhl uhjhUZz f mikfglJ. 1952-
A . byRkzRth Kjah jiyik xU FG mikfglJ. 1964-
C . S . nfhjh vgt jiyik f mikfglJ. 1968- nja
fbfhif cUthfglJ.
1. midtUF Mugf
a muayik rl _y 14 taJF cgl midtUF
flha ytrf mf yF zfglJ. 1950 Kj 1985 tiu
Vuhskhf gf bjhlfgld. 14 taJF cgl midtU
g nrfgL ilWj fia bjhlu jukhd f l
cUthfglJ.
2. fUgyif l
bjhlfg mogil njitfis fU bfhL xbthU
gF uL bga tFf, fUgyiff, bghikf kW
isahL bghUf, njrglf, ya glf kW w fj
bghUf bfhLfgld. tnwhL Kiwrhu ffhd a lK,
mij

bfhL

brtjfhd

mfgld.
26

tfhLjY

kL

Kiw

3. iliy f
1983 caiy, iliy, Jtfg 1:2:5 vw j UjJ.
vdnt njitahd lf Jtf kW iliygf bjhlfgld.
enthjah gf ehblF vyh khtlY Wtgl ntLbkd
nehf cUthdJ. jnghJ jehL ju 28 khyf 446 gf a
tUwd. uhkw FHijf jF Ll Toa gf it. F
U ghyU gwd. bg FHijfSF _ xU gF l
xJfgLwJ. eho midJ khtlfY cs uhku, w F
khztfis d fL mtfSF caj f tHFtJ j
nehfkhF.
nja f Muh kW g Wtd (NCERT)
1961-brlg 1- Wtgl Wtd f mikrfJF cjt,
gJiu bra VgLjglJ. g - ghllf, Ma g
tiw MuhJ njitnfg khwf brJ nkghLF t tFgnj
j ya.
kly f ff
nja f Muh kW f iya, fhZ, tndt, nghgh
kW ikN Ma lf ffis WsJ. Ma nritF
K g kW gfis it elJwd. nfhilfhy g, kW
mr t _y, g bgwhk g UF MaUF g mgJ
j Ka nehfkhF.
ka iliy f tha (CBSE)
1952- a mu f khd cUthdJ.

j _y

mffgl gf, ka iliy f tha ghllij


mKgLsd. nghjid, ff tr csJ.
nfa ahyah myJ ka gf
ghJfhJiw cgl ka mu gntW Jiwf g
mYtyf ehblF vj lF gkhw bragL iy csjh
mtfSila FHijf vj gh yhk iliy fia bjhlu
gf VgLjgld. W ekJ eho 874 nfa ahyf
csd.
27

wj bt g (Open School)
ka

iliy

thajh

(CBSE)

1979-

eho

bjhiylf cnsh eyDfhf J bjhlfglJ. J bjhiy


uf Kiwia g iliy f mwJ. F ghlfis
jgh _y mDj, neuo tFf. bjhiyfh tFf _y g
mfgL

ghllgo

CBSE

nj

el

rhjf

tHfgLwd.
gfiyfHff (Universities)
f iygfiyfHff kW nja KaJt thj
Wtdf cgl 259 gfiyfHff csd.

it ju f

iygfiyfHf jFl 49 Wtdf csd. ah 11089


ffS, 74.18 yr khztfS, 3.42 yr gfiy fHf MafS
csd. 1953 ehlhSkw rljh gfiyfHf khaFG WtglJ.
gy jdh ff gfiyfHf kha FGth mffgLsJ.
mr t f
gy gfiyfHff 1962-M ML Kj mr tfia el
tUwd.

60-F

nkgl

gfiyfHffsh

it

eljgLwd. it wjbt gfiyfHffshf bragLwd.


a bjh Eg Wtdf (IIT)
bgha kW gghL Phd wJ sF Wtdf I.I.T.
vdgL a bjh Eg Wtdf MF. it nfhu, Kig,
brid, fh, bgfq kW o mikJsJ.
f rYiff
vyh khyfY Mug f Kj nkiyf tiu ytrkhf
tHfgLwJ. nkiyf tiu ngUJ kW if to gF
ytrkhf brW tu mDk tHFwJ. nkiyf tiu gnlh,
jhjgnlh, gHFo FHijfSF cz, Ul, f ytrkhf
tHFwJ. mJl muR khaK tHFwJ.

ij ju bjhlf,

iliy, caiy, nkiy f tiu jF cstfSF cj rgs


tHfgLwJ. tsJ tU ehLf f Jiw ah iuJ
KndW ehlhf csJ.
28

bra :

a f Kndw rhj fUjuf mikJ khztfis


gnff brf

1.9. ghJfh
a ghJfh bfhif vgJ
1.

a Jizfl mikia iyehLj

2. ma gilbaL Vglhk ghJfhj


3. K g i l f e d u f M j f i s n r J g h J f h i g
tYgLJj MF
ekJ FoauR jiytnu Kgilf ujk jsgahth. eehL ghJfh
rhghd bjfis ghuhSkw bjf ntoaJ ghJfh mikr
bghW MF.
jiugil ((ARMY)
j jiyikaf bl csJ. jiyik mfhF xU Jiz
mfh, 7 Ka mfhfS cj wd. HF, nkF, tlF,
bjF kW ka vd 5 kly fS csd.

xbthU

kly 14 f csd.
ekJ uhQt gy MjfS, nritfS csd. itju
Mnr, Mtz mYtyf, gkidf, njbjL ikaf, g
iyaf csd. #h, kj, d ntWghL ilahJ. vnyhUF
kjrhgw #dehaf, r_f bfhiff mogil rYiffS,
cikfS tHfgLwd.
flgil (NAVY)
j jiyikl bl csJ. jiyik mfhf 4 Jiz
mfhf bragLwd.

ekJ fg gil _W klyfshf

fgLsJ. mit HF, nkF, bjF MF. rhfgod, Kig,


bfh Ma lf kly mYtyff csd. nkF kW HF
klyf ngh eltoiffis, bj kly g mgij
ftJ tUwd.
F khd jhf, ehrfhf, _f jf itF fgf,
g fgf, glFfis csla fgf vd gytif csd. nfhth
kW munfhz gil khd jsf csd.
29

flnyhu fhtgil (COAST GUARD)


1977 M ML ut Kj eh flnyhu fhtgil (Coast Guard) a
eho j uhQtkhf cUthaJ. flnyhu gFf nkF, HF, mjkh,
nfhg f vd 3 ffh fshf csd. jiyikaff Kig,
brid, nghnsa csd. ffh uhaf 11 ffh
khtlfshf fgLsJ.
flnyhu viy fht, tsfis ghJfhj, flt fljfis
jLj, fl atfis MgUJ fhghWj nghw gfis
brJ tUwJ.
khdgil (AIR FORCE)
jiyikaf bl csJ. 5 a fshf fgLsJ.
mit nkF, bjnkF, ka HF, bjF klyf MF. it ju
g xW csJ. bl jiyik mfhF 6 Jiz mfhf
cjwd. gy ed uf khdf gil csd.
viygil (Border Security Force)
J 1949- bjhlfglJ. J gF neu cehL kf jdht
gil MF. muR CafS, bghJ kfS jhkhf tJ nrJ
uhQt g bgW ehLF cjwd.
bra : a ghJfh Jiw rhj Rtgl/tiugl jah brf.
1.10. Koiu
guj ygu, aif tsfS ahit cyf mu bga
gfig, vghig cUthsJ.

gila fhy Kjny

ah vyh JiwY jdJ gfig bgUks tHsJ.


ah ntshikY, bjh JiwY, ed fhy nghFtuY,
mtakhd jft bjhlfY, ts bfhF tjfY,
MuhJ cUthF ma bjhEgY, ijahd bt
tsY, frlw ff ntoa f, ghJfhY, tskhd,
cathd iyia, cyf mu iyeho tUwJ.

ah

tsF, caF, bgUikF, fGF ekh aw cjia


bra ntL.
30

1.11. ghit f
1.

Aggarwal, Teacher and Eduction in Developing Society, New Delhi, Vikas


Publishing House, 1995.

2. Sharma, S.P., Teacher Education, Meerut, R. Lull Book Depot, 2005


3. lhl f. btfnlr, rk fhy a tuyhW, .. gnf,

uh#ghisa
4. lhl. nfhyh jfrh, f JikfS EgaY, kJiu.
5. Kidt nguha m. dhRju, Ma f, fhakhyh
g, dhsgo.
6. lhl P.A. kiwFkh, a bghUshjhu ts, khna
gnf, ghisanfhil.
7. lhl kh.gh. FUrh, a bghUshjhu ts, jhagf,
Lf.
8. T.C. Sharma & O.Countinho - Economic and Commercial Geography of
India, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi.
9. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Handbook of Agriculture,
New Delhi.
10. Indian Agriculture Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture, Directorate of
Economics & Statistics, New Delhi.
11. Sharma T.K and Chauhan S.D.S - Indian Industries, Shivlal Publishers,
Agra.
12. Bhatnagar L.P. Transport in Modern India, Kishore Publishing House,
Kanpur.
13. Dagli, Vadilal, Indias Foreign Trade, Vora and Co., Mumbai.

31

myF 2

ah vbfhS uridf
kW nja ey
mKf
tsJ tU ehlhd ah jdJ Kndwij gy JiwfY
ugJ bfhoUwJ. vD ekJ nja ey ghF tif
Mfhnf gy uridf elJ bfhLjh Uwd.

ij

vbfhS tif ah, kf eyid ngfhg mf mfiw


brYtUwJ. kf eylf gy eilKiwgLj gLwd.
j my e a ehL vbfhLs uridf g, ekJ nja
eyfhf muR gW bfhiffis thf fhngh.
myF TWf
2.1

rka rhik

2.2

ehLgW

2.3

ntWik xWik

2.4

ghd rkJt

2.5

kf bjhif bgUf

2.6

kj cikf
2.6.1

FHij cikf

2.6.2 FHij ghJfh


2.7

bgfSF mfhu mj

2.8

mir bfhif

2.9

cyf mik

2.10

uthj

2.11

vGjik

2.12

tWik

2.13

ntiy thik

2.14

tF thj

2.15

Koiu

2.16

ghit f
32

fw braf
t HfgL
t .- myFTW f brKiw
v
g

njit gL
jft f

rkarhik,
ehLgW ,
ffh
1
nt W ik
xW ik

rkarhik,
ehLgW ,
nt W ik
xW ik t sF
t Kiwf

yf

kf
b
j
h
i
fbgU- bral
2
f

'kf bjhif
bt o'

yf,
izajs

FHij
ghJfh

cyf mik

kw lf

FHij
FG t hj
cikfS,
FHij ghJfh

yf

mikghij
cy Kndw

yf, br
jhf

bgfSF F
mfhu
mUgJ
gokw
rKjhayh ?
muayh ?
bghUshjhuyh?

yf, br
jhf

a muR
vGjikia
vGjik goaLj
nghf vLJs
eilKiw lf

yf, br
jhf kW
izajs

bgfSF
mfhu

t ufis nrfF l

fUjuf

2.1. rkarhik (Secularism)


vj kjij rhuk midJ kfSF KG Rju mJ vj
ilWfS Vglhk kf kj Rjuij ngfhF w
nehf cila bfhifna rka rhikahF. rkarhik vgJ rka
eL iyikahF. ekJ a ehL xU rka rhik ehL. mua, f
kW

cs

midJ

JiwfY

filofgLwJ.
33

rkarhik

nfhghL

a eho J, Jt, yh, j, rkz, gh rkaf csd.


a ehL ghFgho midJ rkafis VW bfhwJ. a
kf mogil cikf go a vtU jdJ Ugnfg vj
rkaij gwyh. rka Tlfis eljyh. rka fUJfis
brhbghthwyh. rka mogil midtUF rk cikf
csJ.

2.2. ehLgW (Patriotism)


a viyF cgl vj gFY a Fokfdhf wj ahU
njr J, jdJ jhehL J bfhLs g, ghr, k, iz
Maitna ehLgW vdgL.
a xbthUtU jhF <lhf bfhlhLtJ ah vD ekJ
jhU ehlhF. 1947 M ML Mf f 15 M eh eh bgw
Rju, ehLgW bfhl Rju nghuhl jiytf, ahf kW
vzw bghJkf ahfjhjh v ifahfhJ. ghLgL tsj
Rju giu afsha eh ngz ntL.
ehLg Ka mrf :
a eho mua rlfis gWj
Rju nghuhl jiytf, uf cdj nehffis
bragLJj.
d, rka, rh, bkh, uha
rnfhjuJtij gWj.

ntWghLfis

fisJ

eho ghuga, fyhrhuij kJ elj.


nja df, nja bfho, njaghl MatF k
mj.
bghJ brhJfis ghJfhj.
eho aif tsfis ngfhj.
RWw Rfhjhu ngz cjj.
cley, cl Rj g zl bragLj.
eho uhjd df, bjhbghU Muh ikaf
Matiw ghJfhJ cjj
ma kdghikl bragLj.
34

FHijf, bgf Mnah cikf kj.


eho Rjuij ghJfhf vbghGJ nrit bra jah iy
Uj.
gaDs ey Fokfdhf / Fokfshf fj
eho ghJfh, mik, xGF, fLghlhd thif ga
z tHFj.
kj th nkgl f KaJtij wUF vLJ TWj.
njr cs jhtuf, uhf, yFfis fhj, jfhf
awgl rlfis kj.
Kiwahf thFikia gagLJj.
mu eylfSF jhD gfhw.
bfhoeh, u tzfeh MatF kgj. viy
gahW uf gia ngh kj.
Cfht gil, khzt nja gil, Mat gfhw.
a, bts, kiH kW cs aif wfdh ghF nghJ
nritahWj.
viy brf, viy ngh brf, uhQt eltoiff,
tKiw, nghuhlf, mff tUif, ma CLUt Mad g
mwhl brf tahf mJ zl bragLj.
Kdh FoauR jiyt A.P.J. mJ fyh mtf isPDF vGa
ghl, isa Fokfdha eh, ey m, bjh Eg tsl vW
a njr gW bfhl eh, a nehffis bfhoUgJ fLikahd
FwkhF vgij cznw. thdY, thdF G, F nkY,
G cs tsfis gagL ehL ts ghij bry, tsj
ahit cUthf m vD Rliu, mizahk xf Rluhf
ufhf vW Kant! vw fUij TWwh.

2.3 ntWik xWik (Unity in Diversity)


ekJ jhU ehlh ah jdJ aif mik, fhyiy, kf
cz, cil, ciwl, gHf tHff, d, bkh, rka, d
Mat ntWgL UD, af midtU ekJ ehL xnu ah,
tgtf midtU af vw xWik czl
thwd. j xWik czna ehLgiw el tswJ.
35

mua kw a mogil xnu ehlhf fG ah


midtUF xnu nja bfho, bghJthd nja df, xnu nja j,
xnu muayik rl, mogil cik rlf, ts lf, ey
th lf, f, ntiy thf, 18 taJ a Fokf/Fokf
midtUF thFik Mait cz tkhf eh midtU a
vw czit cz, e eho y ntWikf xWik kW
xUikghL czit VgLJwJ. a midtU nja
xUikghLl thH ttif brwJ.
ah

uueh,

fhjhr

nghnwh

yaf,

rhza mua , UtSt vGa UFw, Ruka ghuah


nghnwh fijf, RUj, nghf nghnwh kUJt f, bgsj,
rkz, uhz fhr f, ntjf, g f, Jt kW yh
rka bkhbga f Mait midJ, afsh vbwW
nghwgLgit.
a uhQt jiytf kW uf midtU a
xbthUt brhjhF.
a irfshd fehlf, Jjh, ehoa fiyfshd gujehoa,
Fo, k, fjf nghw eldf, gfiy, Xa fiy, fol
fiyf, eho uhjd df nghwit ah KGikF
bghJthdjhF.
bj a a jyfshd uhnktu, Ubr, kJiu, gH,
fhu, jrh, ntshf, ehT, FUth, Ug kW tl
ah cs fh, Jthuif, geh, mkeh, mjru bghnfh
kW tl ah cs fbgw kNf, njthyaf, j, rkz, ghuf
nfhf nghwit a midtuhY U bryToa lfshF.
kf gagLJ cz, cil, bjhYF njitahd bghUf
ah gntW gFfUJ bgwgL, a kf njitf
iwntWwd. ah gntW d kfis, a vw cz
ugF xU fzhoahf fwJ.
khztfilna nja xUikghil tsF t tiff
tiff:
dK g xUikghL cW bkh TWj.
nja bfhoia thu xU eh V bfho tzfghl ghoJ
brj.
36

nja jij ca irl, czl ghLj.


nja Hhfis bfhlhLj.
Rju, FoauR d ehf Ml, ghl, w fiy ff, nghof
elJj.
a gghL, fyhrhuij sF bghkyhl, ffh
mikj.
a u fijfis eoj.
Ljiy nghuhl jiytf, uf ngh gfh (Role play) eoj.
kf eylf, cl ey, Rfhjhu, eho ghJfh, kf
flikf, ga z ghlf, YghL, FW ehlff
elJj.
a ehLgiw czJ ghlfis a iraikj.
bra :

rkarhik, ehLgW, ntWik xWik fUJfis


csla tFgiw ffhia mikf.

2.4 ghd rkJt (Gender Equality)


ghd rkJt rkkw jik, mtfilna rKjha fhL
ntWikf Matiw rKjha kh mikf ntoaJ mta kW
fhy flha MF. Ia ehLf btl kj cik ufld
FngL M/bg d ntWikia fistJ g TWwJ.
ah bgfSfhd 30 rjj xJL, grhaJ njjf
nghoLtjF th mJsJ. J ciknyna ghuhlToa khw
MF.

uhg frh vw mP, Rju jhfij bgw

midalUJ tU bg jiyKiwd j ehoF ilF tiu,


f caj jidfis bfhl khkjfS ilgJ fod vW
TWwh.
a bgf jikfis fhaof bgJ ghuhodh. bgf
jFawtf vW TWgtfjh bgfSF m iHwd vW
mt Tdh.
ah cs fbga gjfSF bgfis mkj ntL vw
fUJ jbghGJ ywJ. ekJ FoauR jiyt, kFa Uk.
ugh ghO mtfis idJ eh bgUik bfhs ntL.
37

bgfis nf brj, moikgLJj, FHij Ukz brj,


KnahUF FHijia Ukz brj, tujriz bfhLik, bgfis
khdgf brj, gha gyhfhu brj, o tbfhLik brj,
thijfsh kdfhagLJj, xJ itj, iw gyhfhu brj
Ma bfhLikfSF jbghGJ muR rl _y fLtUwJ.
bgQik rlf
1. f fF cik
2. bgf thif fhik
3. Ukz rlf
4. FHij Ukz rl
5. tujriz jL rl
6. thfuJ br cik
7. fy Ukz cik
8. rh x rl
9. grhu jL rl
10. tbfhLik jL rl
11. brhJik rl
12. kf Foik ghJfh rl
13. ntiyth kW g nkghL cik
14. bg bjhyhf cik rl
bra :

iwa bgf rKjha VgLs Kndw g


fyJiuahLf.

MQF bgF isiy fh vgjnfg uh yFgh


1857 M ML Kj a Rju ngh gF bfhlh.
goj ukhgh rhujhrj vw mik _y ifbgfSF
thtjh. uhdnl, gjf nghnwh jF cj brjd.
jhT FLg wj RtzFkh nj (1855-1932) bgf bjhlghf
r_f df giljh.
Rth

ntfhdj

bgf

bgwh

mtfns

jf

uridfSF Ko fhghf vwh. mtf f bgw fF


fuhdtfshf Ughf vW Tdh. bgf d xbthU tUlK
38

kh 8 M nj bfhlhlgLwJ. rKjha gy khwfis fLtUwJ.


bgf fY, gjY Knd tUwd. Mdh d ngjf
xjh jh bgQik kyU. kiwj ujk uhfh kW rnuh
ehL, #abyR go, nfl yR Mnah bg dF bgUik
nrgtf Mt.

2.5 kf bjhif bgUf


d ehoF mLJ kf bgUf iwj ehL ah MF. xU eho
kf bgUf, mj eho FHijf w vifia, kf
w vifia bghWJ mikwJ. ekJ eho w, w w
ehLfnshL xLif Fahf UwJ. ntfkhd kf bjhif
bgUfdh eho tsf gwhFiw VgLwJ. xbthUtUF
ntiy, f, cley nghw mogil njitfis mg

muRF Rik

VgLwJ. j fhuzkhf kf thif ju f ghfgLwJ.


uhkfUJ kf efufis neh l bgatjh uhkwf kj
Mw ts FiwJ tUwJ. mnj neu efw kf thif
beriy, beUfofis, ukij VgLJwJ.
ah kf bjhif bgUf - jnghija iy
kh 2001 kf bjhif fzbfLgo 102.7 a kf ah
csd. cyf bkhj ygu 2.4 GfhL ah csJ. Mdh kf
bjhif 16.7 GfhL ah csJ. nj iy ojh 2050 dhit
l mf kf bjhif bfhl ehlhf ah UF.
fia ghF kf bjhif
ah bgUtU kf bjhif, fia ghwJ. a kf
bjhif 43 GfhL ng 15 taJFgl FHijf, xbthU ML 13
a ng mfwhf. VwjhH 56 a g taJila FHijf
a kf bjhif To tUwd.
jdh xbthU MLF VwjhH 2 yr gf TLjyhf
njitgLwJ. VwjhH 6 yr Maf TLjyhf njitgLwhf.
midtUF bjhlf f vw W rj vGj vD nja yif
mila ayhikF kf bjhif bgUfnk fhuzkhF.
kf bjhif bgUf - fhuzf
1.

ekJ eho jg btg Niy mf FHijf wwd.


sikUkz fG btgkhd ehLf, F ehLfis l w j
mfkhf csJ vd bgUghY TwgLwJ.
39

2.

uhkwf s tanyna Ukz brJ bfhwd. 13 taJ


Kj

18

taJF

Ukz

eilbgWtjh

mf

isf

bgbwLwd.
3.

kf rka nehF FHijf bgUfF Mf jUwJ. rka


eiff

go

kWikga

jUw

rlFf

iwntw

MFHijf mta vd fU, MFHij bgW tiu gy


bgnwhf jf bghUshjhuh tuid flJ FHijfis bgW
bfhwd.
4.

vGjikah FHijf wig FLg ey fU


fLgLj ntLbkw cz cUthfiy.

w j - mkhf fhuzf
cyf ehLfnshL xLif ah w j mfkhf csJ.
jfhf fhuzf
1.

kf bjhif bgUfF Vg nghJkhd kUJt trik,


mahik, f s tany Ukzij elJtjhY FHijf
w, ngW fhy jhkhf w mfwJ.

2.

kf bjhif bgUfF Vg nghJkhd kUJt trik.

3.

kflKs f _ogHf tHffsh kuz j mfkhwJ.


mik, fhyuh, fhr nghw nehfSF Rfhjhu ngha ftd
brYjhjjh nehf gu w FahwJ.

4.

tWik fhuzkhf bgUghyhd bgwnwhf jf FHijfSF


rjhz czit mf ayiy. jFahd ms kUJt tr
tHFtiy.

5.

efuf tr Fiwthd Lf thtJ, uhkwf fhzgL


Rfhjhu FiwghLfS nehf bgU w mfkhf fhuzkhwJ.
bra :

kf bjhif bto - bral jah brf.

kf bjhif bgUfij fLgLj vLfgLs eltoiff


ah Rju miljUJ, ka muR, khy muR kf
bjhif bgUfij fLgLJt gy Ka eltoiffis vLJ
tJsd. mit,
40

FLgfLghL l. (Family Planning) cynyna ah jh


Kjyhtjhf nja bfhifahf mfglJ.
FLg fLghL sgfhf, Fiwj fUjil rhjdf
cgfh ika muR bgUbjhif brytJ tUwJ. t Knfhz,
eh Ut ekF Ut nghw sguf uhkJ Rtf vyh l
oJsd.
FLg fLghL af bgU vifyhd kUJtf
(kUJt ikafS) <LgLjgLsd.
Ukz taJ MQF 21, bgQF 18 vd ca mJ
rlkhfgLsJ.
bgfF, Kiwrhuh fF KaJt jugLsd.
bgf TLtjh FHij w j FiwwJ.
g ghl lf bjhlfgfUJ gfiyfHf f
tiuY - kf bjhif f, ghdf ga ghlfUJf
FjgLsd.
fiyf, YghLf, fjhfhyhnrg, bghkyhl, ghitTJ,
ehlff nghwit kf bjhif uridfis sFtfhf, thbdh,
bjhiyfh, braifnfh ffshf (SITE-Satellite Instructional Television Experiment) gagLjgLwd.
fUj fLghL (Fertility Control) MuhF, muR Cf mJ
tUwJ.
a F L g e y l f H f ( F PA I ) , b r Y i t r f n g h w
jdht bjhL Wtdf FLg ey l gf <LgL tUwd.
ah

ifahd

kfbjhif

bgUf

tsij,

Kndwij DF j LwJ. kf bjhif bgUf caj


msF ah cg w cauiy. jdh ah Vik
csJ. mogil njitfshd cz, cil, ciwl, f, bghGJnghF
midtUF ill kfbjhifia fLgLj ntoa flha
iy cnsh.

2.6. kj cikf
cikf kj cl wjit. kj tf cz njit. mt
thH cik mta. cikaw thif cuw clYF xghF. kj
41

Rjukhf, Ra kahijlD, thH kj cikf aikahjit.


kjl kiwJ lF MSik Mwfis bt bfhztjfhd
thf kj cikf MF.

kj cikf ekJ kdghik

mfkh lJ. kj cikf mikahd mgGfw mogilah lJ


vW Tdh lhl .M. mngfh.
Kj, ulh cyf ngh nghJ cyf r_f iwa fW bfhlJ.
1929 Ia ehL rig kj cikia ufldgLaJ. Mdh 1945 jh
J eilKiwF tjJ. ulh cyfnghUF Ia ehLf rig
(UNO) 1948 org 11 nj kj cik ufldij (Declaration of Human
Rights) btlJ. J mogil kj cikfY, kj khY,
ekY, M, bg, rk cikfY MHkhd eif bfhlJ. rKjha
KndwF Cf mj, KG RjunjhL thif juij
nkgLJj nghw Kjik nehffis J cW brjJ.
2.6.1. FHij cikf :
FHijf cikf KaJtij ahU kWf ayhJ.
FHijf cikf kfgLtJ, kWfgLtJ, xJfgLtJ
W rhjhuzkhf vF fhzgLwJ.
FHijfSF fcik, kahf isahl, egfSl
bghGJ nghFf <Lgl, cz, cil, ciwl Matiw bgW thH
cik cL.
murhf jh nr eyfhf gy eylfis mJsJ. FHij
fhgff xU jh guhkig FHijF mwJ. I.eh. 1948
FHijfis ghJfhF l bfhL tjJ. FHijf tU
fhuzfsh iflgLwd.
1. bgnwh Vik cHj.
2. bgnwh neh thgoUj.
3. bgnwh ikahd gHftHff <LgoUj.
4. ntiyik.
5. mahik.
6. fbga FLg.
7. FHijfS rghf ntL vd bgnwh Uj.
42

8. f nk gik.
9. a egfSl nrUj.
10.jh myJ jijyhj FLg.
11. ghJfhghs nkhrkhd eltoif.
12.gha bjhiyF cshFj.
13.moik ntiyF W Lj.
14.brhg tUkhdF MirgLj.
15.bjhygf, Wtdf, brhg rgs FHijfis ntiyF
mkJj.
FHijfSfhf muR gy rlfis a, mtf cafhf
lfis o, bjhL Wtdf _y cj, rt mah
vw f fhW l, bgf, kiyth kf f,
CdKnwhUfhd f lf itUD, mahik fhuzkhf
FHijf ntiy mkjgL, bjhrhiyf ntiy brJ
FHijfhy k, f, isahL Matiw Hwd.
2.6.2. FHij ghJfh
FHijf

khDl

tf

iykf

bgwh

brtf.

brtf mj jgl iynfg, ftd, elij Kiw, ghJfh f


Mait Kiwahf tHF nghJjh r_f ts KGik milwJ.
FHij wF KD, wj wF rahd ft, nghJkhd
ClrJ, Ul, bghGJnghF, kUJt nrit Mait tHfgl
ntL.
jdJ MSik KGikahd xUizj ts, m, J
bfhSjY FHijF mtakhF.
FHijF f bgw cikL. mf Mug iy ytrkhf,
flhakhf Uf ntL.

vj NiyY, ghJfh, thuz

eltoiffS bgW Kj eg FHijahf Uf ntL. fsfkw


jikila FHij vyh jkhd mril (mya, m#huij) bfh^u,
RulfUJ fhghwgl ntL. kj, d myJ ntW vj jkhd
ghFghil tsF gHf tHffUJ FHijf ghJfhfgl
ntL.
43

1989 Ia ehL mif KDiu TwgLs FHij


cikf
1. rlgF (Article of Child Right)
1.

FHij vgj sf (tiuaiw) 14 taF gl vnyhU.

2. ghFghoik.
3. FHij nk f wj mfiw.
4. cikfis eilKiwgLJj.
5. bgnwhf tfhLjY, FHij gzF rfS
(wikfS)
6. rhfhk thjY, KndwK (aghd / cshj cik)
7. bgaU ehLik.
8. jdJ milahsij ghJfhJ bfhs.
9. bgnwhflUJ fglhik (mtfSl thG cik)
10. FLg L xizj.
11. FHij fUJ.
12. jdJ fUJfis btgLJ, mF cik.
13. F cik.
14. TL nrU cik.
15. njitahd jftiy mila / bgw th.
16. bgnwh bghWf: FHij ts bgnwh mogilahd
TL bghWghF. ehL bgnwhfis j fodkhd bghW
Mjutf ntL.
17. mtkahij / gLJj /mya / mril tUJ
ghJfh
18. FLgfsw FHijf ghJfh
19. jbjLj.
20. mfahd FHijf.
21. CdKw FHijf.
44

22. cl eyK, cl ey rhj nritfS.


23. mtfsJ iyikia mtnghJ kLj / kj.
24. r_fghJfh.
25. thif ju.
26. f.
27. f Fnfhf.
28. Wghikd FHijf myJ xU Fl lYs kf
bjhif.
29. bghGJ nghF, fyhrhu braghLf.
30. FHijg.
31. kUJ bghUfis jtwhf gagLJj. (nghij gHf)
(fij L, tik FiwF, kd isfis
VgLJ kUJfis gagLJj, kW mt cg,
nahf t bfhtUJ mtfis ghJfhj)
32. jtwhd gha gagLJj (bfhLikf) bjhahf, Mghrjd
cl jtwhd gha gagLjgLjUJ mtfis
fhghW cik.
33. gJ, ahghu brtJ, flJtJ.
34. ntWjkhd bfhLikf.
35. utij, Rjuij kWj.
36. Mj jha nghfUJ ghjfhj.
37. thuz ftd.
38. isP ia eilKiwgLJj.
2. f (Education)
ekJ mua mik rl 45 MtJ , 14 taJ tiu
FHijfSF ytr flha f mf tWJwJ.
I.eh. mik 23 tJ CdKw / FiwghLs FHijf
jnjitfis

fLzJ

FHij

VwK,

KGik

bgw

xUizig, tsia cWgLJtJ eho bghW vd


TWwJ.
45

3. Mnuhakhd ts, ClrjF cik (Rights of Healthy


Growth and Nutrition)
kahd FHij, njr bgUik vd, 1989 M ML rtnjr
FHijf Moid KL ufldgLjglJ. IjhL lf,
Rfhjhu, bjhlff, ka cz lf, r_f ey, xUizj
FHij ts nritf, kf bjhif, FLg ey, gu ahf
fLghL, cz, ClrJ, ghJfh KjatF KDik mwJ.
4. KndWtjF cik (Right of Development)
ah, ghjh, tfhsnjr, neghs, yif, lh, Ma
ehLfis csla bjfha ehLf Tlik (SAARC) 2001-2010 Ma
10 MLfis FHij cikfSfhd ML vd 2010 M Mo
FHij bjhyhs Kiwia Lj vd Ko brJsJ.
5. FHij bjhf bjhlghd rlf (Laws relating to Child Labour)
1. FHijf (ciHig mlkhd itj) rl 1933.
2. FHijf gakJ rl (1938)
3. bjhrhiyf rl - 1948
4. Trl 1948
5. njhl bjhyhs rl 1951
6. Ruff rl 1952
7. ruF fg rl 1958
8. nkhlh nghFtuJ bjhyhs rl (1961)
9. muo rl 1962
10.mQr rl 1962
11. o, RUL bjhyhs (gakj gjidf) rl 1996
12.filf kW Wtdf rl
13.FHij bjhyhs jL kW KiwgLJ rl 1986

2.7. bgfSF mfhu mj


cyf kf bjhif, bgf Rkh 50 Gfhoid bgWsd.
l fhykhfnt bgf bghJthf MfSF mLj lij tJ
46

tUwd. jdh kj rKjha bgfsh ca kl bgw


ayiy. Rju ah bgfSF muayik rkcik
tHsJ. j KfiuY, kj mogil cikf kW
flikfY kW nja bfhifY bgfSF rkJt tHfgLwJ.
j ghl gF bgfSF mfhu mg nehff,
mfhukj, mfhu mgj fhuzf, bgf mfhu bgW
ttiff, mfhu bgWt mua, r_f, bghUshjhu bgf gF
kW bgf mfhu bgw VJthd fhuf g thf fhngh.
bgfSF mfhu mgj nehff
1. bgf mua, bghUshjhu gFbgW KGts bgWj.
2. bgfSF vd Kiwahd mik njhWj, tYgLJj kW
tsj.
3. muR tHF cikfis ngghJfhj.
4. bgf cakl ms juf bgWj, Rfhjhu ngz, cz,
ciwl, Rfhjhu ngQj, NH ghJfh, r_f ghJfh bgWj.
5. bjh kW ntiyth Mnyhrid bgWj, t cj _y bjh
ey ngQj, tWik fisj nghw bghUshjhu nkgho Mf
bgWj.
6. dnjhw tsia brj, bgfSF vuhf CWisgij
Fiwj.
7. cyf ms bgf wikia nkgl brj.
bra : bgfSF mfhu mgj njitf FJ FG thj
brf.
bgfSF mfhu mj
mfhu mj vgJ mfhu rltkhf tHFjiy, mfhu
cik tHFjiy FF.
bgfSF mfhukj vgJ bgfSF mfhu myJ
cikia tHFtij FF.
mfhu bgw bgf rkth, rkcik kW bghW ftf
Mt. tf gh ntWghL Rjukhf bragLthf.
w fLghL jilUJ y thif RafLghil
nkbfhL brhjkhf Ko vLgtf mfhu bgw bgfsht.
47

bgfSF mfhu mf fhuzf


bgf l fhykhfnt MfSF mLj lij tgtf.
vdnt rKjha bgf cak bgw ntL.
FLg ngQt bgf Rjukhf bragLj.
bgf FHij bgW jU fU kLnk vw iyia khl
ntL.
jFf, w, UJ ntiy th Mfisl Fiw iyia
bgUjiy r brj.
bgf mfhu mgJ vgJ rhjhuz rl kW mua
uJf l bgwh kL nghjhJ.

jgl Kiw

bgfSF cikahd Ljiy o, gf, w lf


njitgLwJ.
bgfSF mfhu tHFj _y rKjha, njr kW cyf
ms bgf ts cau taikwJ.
bgf mfhu bgW ttiff

48

bgfSF mfhu mg lh mP (1993) mj, csa,


bghUa, (gFj, z, jiy khw) mua (njitf, ts
braf, khwf) Ma 4 gzhkfS Ea mogil ftJ
vwh.
bgf mfhu bgw vjhF fhuf
bg cik rKjha mffglJ.
f ts - ntiy th.
KobtLg Rju - Ugij bghUjJ.
Ukz brj / brahik - Rjukhf KobtLj
kfngW - kdfLghil bghUjJ.
mua gF - th bghUjJ.
mfhu bgw bgf mua r_f bghUshjhu gF
mua mfhu mj. IjhtJ IjhL l (1974 - 78)
bgf cikf, eyf ah r_f eyJiwna tHaJ. jnghJ ika
muR gia nkbfhL bgfSF mfhu tHFtij (1980)
mfhu brjJ. xgjhtJ IjhL l bgfSF mfhu
mj F fhzgLwJ.
1975 M Mil cyf bgf Mlhf Ia ehL rig btlJ.
1985 _whtJ cyf bgf khehL bfahYs benuh
eilbgwJ. kheho bgfSF mua gF bgw, l xJo
35 GfhL bgfSF, y uhkf bgfSF vd xJL
tHaJ.
1990 mua rl bgfSF ghJfh kW rltkhd cikia
tHaJ. nkY bgf FGit njhWjJ.
1993 mua Uj rl (73 kW 74) uhkf grhaJ uh{a
Kiwia efuhfY, grhaJ mikfY bgf gnfW
khd iwntw Ko vLF iyF cajgld.
1993 rl Ujjh bgfl xU a v Tl bra rl
tiy vd nlh kW b# mPf TWwd.
49

rKjha mfhu mj
f :
xU bg f fwh mt FLg kW rjdUF ngh nrwJ
vd 1948 - 49 gfiyfHf FG TWwJ. cynyna f m bgw
bgf ykhf ah fwJ.
bgf mfhu bgUt Ka fUahf bragLwJ. ah
bgf vGj iy 2001 54.36 caJsJ.
Rfhjhu, cz, Ul kW RWw NH :
knyah, fhr, , y, fhW t gu nehf vI v nghw
clYwdh gu nehfUJ jid j FLgij ghJfhJ
bfhS wik bgW Ugtf goj bgfns Mt. w w g
brj flhakhfgLsJ. 2000 nja kf bjhif bfhifgo
UghyUF ghJfh cw mtakhfgLsJ. FLg ghJfh, cz
tiff ghJfh, ghJfh kW ff mfw, ghJfh yf
thj, RWw ikahf itUj nghwt bgf gF Ka
lij twJ.
bgfSF vuhd ilWf
kd kW cl ahd, y kW r_f ms njhW ilWfis
bgf Fiwl jF bgUj, jid ghJfhJ bfhS fiy
mUj mtakhF.
bghUshjhu mfhu mj
bghUshjhu mfhu bgw bgf j fhny jdF Jiz vd
eif bgUg. muR gy bghUshjhu lfis bgfSF
tHsJ. (c.jh.) xUizj uhk ts l, #tA nuh# kW
uhk isPfSF g kW Ra ntiyth nghwitahF.
bgf t _y fl cj bgW Rantiy thig jhnk njo
bfhwd.
IjhL l _y tWikia mfw gy bjhf mKfgLjgL,
bgf wikahf m gnfW tUwd.
y TFWa iy kh J F iy bgfl
cUthsJ.
50

bgf rkJt xU rthyhf cyf kakhj fwJ. a fis


bgf g thyhf bgW bghUshjhu tsF cWJizahf csd.
Mfis l wikahf trha, f, bjh, muR gf, ehil
Mt bgf tik bgW tUtJ fTnl MF. vdnt muR 2001 M
Mil bgfSF mfhukj Mlhf btLsJ.
mfhu bgw bgf MtKl brathf. iknf nghfh
vw uhR mP FLif bgf vbghGJ MfSF
fLgltf. UghdfS cy vbghGJ rk MfhJ. Mf
iwoUJ yFtJ bgfSF mfhu mgjhF vwh.
MQF bg rk vgJ mfhu mgjhwJ. vdnt iz vgnj
bghUjkhdjhF. xU a nfhoF nH xU bga nfhL LtJ bgf
mfhu bgw iyia FgjhF. bgf vj j lghLfSF kd
jsulhJ, wik, w, Mt nghwtiw ngQtjh jhnd j brhj
fh W vL lfis fisa VJthF.
bra : b g f S F

mfhu

mUgJ

muayh?

r K j h a y h ? b g h U s h j h u y h? v w j i y g o k w
mikJ khztfis thl brf.

2.8. mir bfhif


kj tf aifahf mikj mir bfhif njitia
nghWnth vd ekJ njr jij kfhkh fh TWwh. cy cs
midJ kj JwfS, PhfS cfl m brYJj, miria
gWj rhj nghjidia kfl gusd. a tuyh .K.
6 who ctij brjiy jil bra njha kjnk jkj kW
rkz kjkhF. uL kjfS cfSF Jg bra TlhJ,
cfl m brYJj ntL vw mir bfhif tW
TWwJ. mnrhfU ffnghUF d mik kW mir tf
braglh.

FUehd j a kj rlkhf miria

FLwh. kfhkh fh rahuuf af mir mogil


bfhifahF.
mir vgJ xU jJt thif thtjhF. miria g g
brt cyf ehLf eifl VW bfhLsJ. mir vgJ
cfl mghf Ujiy tWJ, dr thif mir
gwjfJ.
51

mir xU tYthd MjkhF. mJ tYtw nfhiHjd


bfhljy vd fhaof TWwh.

mir g jJtPhf,

mPf, kf nghnwh khWgl gy sffis jUwd. bghJthf


mir vgJ wUF F myJ CW brahik vd bghUgL. fUJf
mogil mir vgJ mogil egfis bfhl kjiu FF.
mir t kj bghWikia filojh th wj
nehffis v milayh. jid ija kW Ra ahf vW
miHfyh.
bra : mikghij cy Kndw vw jiy fUjuf
mikf.
mir bfhif gu
bfhif jk jid fJ. J vj cfSF, jhtufSF,
Ea cfSF theh KGtJ F isfhj iyia
njhWgjhF. nkY J tilJ eh RthF nghJ, elFnghJ
t

mQf,

Uf

kW

fzyhj

fQF

yglhj

cbghUfSF m nehutz ghJfhfgLtij nehfkhf


bfhLsJ. j F cl tifia rhjJ. JkL kdjsny,
kd vG mogilny cfSF F brahikia FF.
kfhkh fh mir bfhif
kfhkh fh mir t ahF Rju bgW jjh.
mir tahdJ ahakhd nghuhlkhF. mir t Ra g brj
d njr KGikF mKfgLdh. cyf ms mir bfhif
fh kig caaJ. ber knlyh kW Arh Rfh
nghwtuh fh jiytuhf nghwglh. cyf gayhk mir
Kiw m, rnfhjuJt kW mik t brW bfhoUwJ. khl
d JgUJ Lgl, cy mikia iy ehl, bjj
mid kfSF tHf mir cy jid mgJsJ.
bra : m i r t m t v w j i y e h l f t F g i w
munfw brf.

2.9. cyf mik


ah 1950 M ML #dt 26 M eh FoauR MdJ.

maYw bfhif cyf rkhjhdij mogilahf bfhlJ. ah cyf


52

ehLfilna rkhjhdJl thH UwJ. my cyf kfl


miklD e kdghikl mQFwJ. vdnt xU rhuhUl TL
nrJ kbwhU rhuhiu V giff ntL vd neU a ghuhSkw
1948 M ML kh khj 8 M eh eilbgw Tl ngdh. ah
rkarhgw bghJilik FoauR ehlhF. gilafhy Kj af
mikia tW mir t eljtf. jid a tuyhW
bkwJ. a tuyh j kj kW rkz kj miria
tW cyf mikF ijJ. mnrhfU mikia Una
ffnghUF d ngh brtij iflh. mz fhaof
mir bfhif mikahd Kiw ah Rju bgw ttif brjJ.
#tAyh neU mtf gry bfhifah ah cyf mikF
cWJizahf fwJ. cyf mikF ah MtU gid F
thf fhngh.
cyf mik vgJ cyf ehLfSilna rnfhju kdghik tsj,
cyf Fokf vw caj cz bgw brj, L bfhLF
kdghikia tsj, rjik ngQj, kW Rjukhf thj
nghw TWfis cslsJ.
ehLfSilna cs Vwjhfis , cgia bgU,
tWikid FiwJ bghUshjhu jiw bgW Fokf midtU
tskhd thifju bgW rkhjhd Rfth thtj _y cy
mikahd Niyia nkgLjyh.
a maYw bfhif mik wl
a maYw bfhif neU mtfsh tiuaWfglJ. cy vG
gntW uidF rkhjhd Kiw fhz ntL. mik Kiw
mQdh ra ey ilF vd neU Tsh.
ah jiyaha nehf cyf kfl gifia xJ ewit
tYgLJjY kW ca ghJfh mjY MF.
cyf ehLfis J bfhL gdhL rkhjhdij nkgLj ntL.
xbthU eho mikia cWgLJj _y cyf mikia eh
cWgLjyh.
kfis moikoUJ LgJ dntWikia mfWtJ d,
w, rka ghFghL yhj rKjha cUthFj ntL.
ah tyuR ehLfSl TLnruhJ eLiy bfhifia
gWwJ.
53

ah gry bfhif
tKiw, Mu, dntWik, mr, rnjf nghw ngh gifF
tnfhY fhufis fisa cyf mik nkgl goj #tAyh
neU _y bfhL tugl bfhif gry MF. J 1995 M ML
njhndah ghL kheho 29 Ma, Mf ehLfS To
KGkdjhf VW bfhlJ.
I.eh. cyf mik
ulh cyf nghUF 1945 M ML mnlhg khj 24 eh
Ia ehLf Wtd njhaJ.
cyf ehLfSilna VgL nghid KoF bfhL tJ mikia
ngz brwJ. (c.) fhnfh, bfhah, $yfh kW w.
cyf ehLf tWikia nghf, ehLfilna eYw ngz
ttif brwJ.
cyf tjf Wtd _y gdhL rijia VgLsJ. cyf
bghUshjhuij nkgLj gjhL lfis o bragLJwJ.
tsU ehLfSF t _y cj kW flDj jJ
Mnyhrid tHFwJ.
cyf ehLf xiwbahW rhJ KG xJiH jUtj _y
cyfkakhjiy njhWwJ.
ah cyf mik
cyf mikF ghLgL ehLf ah Kj lij twJ.
vj ehL mil ehLfSl mikahd NHiy Uwnjh mj
eho KndwF ah cj kW cuthj mF vd
btLsJ.
TL nruh bfhif, gry bfhif, MjFiw brj, mik
ngR elJj nghwtiw jdfnj bgW, gyhfhu kW gafuthj
nghwtiw vwJ.
cyf mikF xWikF cWJizahf fG Ia ehLf
rigF ah j xJiHig eFwJ.
Mfh, Ma khehL, rh khehL nghwt Ka gF twJ.
Ia ehLf rhj w mffshd bdnfh, br kW cyf
bjhyhs mik nghwtF ah KG xJiH jUwJ.
54

cyf mikF, e ehL M tU bjho fhuzkhf f ma


gghL Wtd, cyf Rfhjhu Wtd, cyf cz Wtd, trha
Wtd nghwt is mYtyffis Ia ehL rig ah
WsJ.
bra : cyf mikF I.eh. mit kW ah gF vw jiy
xgil jah brf.

2.10. uthj
uthj uidia flj UgJ MLfshf ah vneh
tUwJ. tl HF ah fyffhufshY, e[iyLfshY,
ehfyhJ, nrhuh kW tfhs ah uidia rjJ. jnghJ
uthfsh ilWf ehoY nkY cyf msY gusJ. Kjyh
who ghydij kj rhj uthf tjd. gndhuh
who bfhiy br bfhisafshf uthj bjhljJ. mua
gafuthj buR u nghJ Mjfis gagLaJ. u gil
bt bgwJ. Mdh buR uF d 1921 M ML tiu vj
FL goahd bt bgwiy. uthj y neuf Obud
Fgyhf TojhF tKiwia gWwJ. uthf w
thifia mj, eho bghUshjhu, r_f, muaiy Fiyj
eho iwahikF CWisj, tsia jLj Mat
<LgLwhf. uthf jkJ nehf iwntw iffis, ituha
kd cstfis, bfh^u jik bgwtfis, kW gilfyf
bfhLJ cjgtfis braYF gagL bfhwd.
uthj
fyf brj, cehL ril, bfhyh ngh, Fgyhf To jhFj,
iHj, rthfhujik nghwt TL fyitna uthj
MF. mua nehffSfhf rKjhaij m MJ tKiw
elij totnk uthjkhF. xGfikfgl FG jkJ yif
neh Kiwahf mo vLJ itF tKiwahd braghnl uthjkhF.
(r_f ma virnshoah)
yFf
u af yFfshf gh mP tUkhW FLwh.
ghku kf Mjuid uLj.
uhQtij mRWJj, mj.
55

cehL fLkhdij cilbjj.


nkY mj tsF jilahf Uj Kjad.
uthj jikf
ehL myJ rKjhaij vgJ.
mua nehf cilaJ.
rl nuhjkhf Kiwnflhf elgJ.
gaKW gaitgJ.
mr kW iy njhWgJ.
gyhfhu, kj cfis mj brhJfis nrjgLJj
nghw brafis cslaJ.
ghkukf xJiH
uthj isPfis ftJ tUwJ. Fghf ntiy th
yhjtf, jtwhd tfhl bgw isPf Mt.
Iayh I.M.V., sh brlg (n#hlh) ghlbk nAh
(b#k) t gil (#gh) Kjad, ghkukf xJiHl aF y
uthj mikf MF.
xJiH mojs
mua kW r_f Mju , Mjf jUjY kW g
mjY, uthfis tswd.

uthf ebfhilbgWj

thyhf, tfis bfhisLj _yK, flj kW nghij


bghUf gid _yK, iw itJ gz gj _yK Mjhuhfis
bgWwd. Jgh, njhlhf, FLf nghwtiw mnuah, dh,
nrha alUJ bgWwd.
ah uthj af
ah 4 tifahd uthj aff csd.
1. fhjh uthj af - grh
2. l uthj af - fhZ
3. eiy uthj af - tfhs, fh, Mu.
4. cgh uthj af - mrh.
56

uthjjh ghfgl khyf kW a unjrf


1. ehfyhJ (1951)

2. n[hu (1966)

3. k (1976)

4. uh (1980)

5. tfhs cs nfhny (1986)


ed uthfS bjhEgK
uthfSF

gaDilaitfshf

ed

bjhEg

mikJsJ. kj btoFLf gagLJj, Fo uhrhad kUJ


fyj, fhW t Ufis guj nghwt ifnjjtfshf
jfhy tf m Tik ftfshf cik f cyf ms
mjtfshf fwd.
cyf ms uthj braf
1972 tUl nu ehil nrj guL x FGit nrj
clg ufis brW Ufjdkhf bfhiy brJsd.
1983 tUl mbkf ehL 241 flgil ghfis jbfhiy jhFj
_y wf brjd.
1984 tUl mnlhg khj ghuj ujk uh fh 1991 tUl nk
khj 21 eh uh fh uf RL bfhygld.
2001 tUl brlg khj 11 nj ah cs cyf thg ika
m jhFjYF yfhd. m 3000 kf bfhygld.
uZahYs brrah eho cs g gy mgh FHijf
bfhygld.
2005 ML mnlhg khj ghuhSkw uthfsh mQFL
itfgoUjij btofhk bra Hf brjd.
k, mrh khy rhjhuz kjf uhj nehF uthfsh
Mshdhf.
bra : uthj brafis dr ehjf _y nrfJ
mjfhd fis flJ xgil jah brf.

2.11. vGjik
kfsh ah vGj bgWtJ kj mogil njitahF.
xUizj KG ts bgWtjF K, kfilna vGj ikah
57

eho tsF mJnt jilahf mikwJ. vGj ikah


kfilna mahik, ntiythik, Vik, ja iy VgLwJ.
f kfsh cU ujK nghwJ. vGjikfhd fhuzf,
vGj tsF mu braghLf g F fhngh.
vGj sf
thif dnjhW xU rhjhuz thaij vGj gof
kj mUgJ vGj bgw kj vgij Ro fhLwJ. vGj,
gof ayhikiana vGj ik vdyh vd bdnfh sFwJ.
1991 ML a kf bjhif fzbfL vGj g
TWif rhjhuzkhf gof vGj kL nghjhJ. vGj bgwtDF
vGj gof Tlnt J bfhS wD njitahF vwJ.
vGjikF fhuzf
mf ms kf bjhif ts
bjhlf gf gaghL ik
mf FHijf FLg Uj Mjhu jU vw giHik
thj kfilna CUj.
ja tWik.
xU yilna mF f midJ kfSF brwil vw
fhy Mf bfhif.
e eho 5 ML lf fF vd xJL bragLwJ.
m 1 Kj 7 IJ ML lf tiu Fiwj na xJL brJsJ.
(cjh) Kj IjhL l kW ulh IjhL l 5 nfho, 3 tJ
l 6 nfho, 4tJ IjhL 8 nfho, 5 tJ l 18 nfho, 6 tJ IjhL
l 128 nfho, 7 tJ l 160 nfho, 8 tJ l 1807 nfho vd
vGjikia f xJfglJ.
vGjik nghF tf
ah Rju bgw d 14 taJ tiu midJ FHijfSF
ytr flha f tHfgLwJ.
midtUF bjhlf mj .. 2010 F 15 taJ Kj 35 taJ
tiu cs midtUF vGjik Fj t KiwahF.
f rKjha gF kW fUgyif l mKfgLjglJ.
1968 nja Kj f bfhif nja xUikghofhf f
kWuikig gJiu brjJ.
58

ah cs midJ khyfY ytr bjhlf f mj


Fghf jeho ytr f nk iy f tiu tHFwJ.
Knah f ika, wj bt gfiyfHf Mait a
tUwJ.
vGjik nghf ytr gz mDk, ClrJ, lf,
nghwtiw mbth af _y bragLaJ.
vGjik nghf nja f bfhif 1986 gJiu brjJ.
w mogil ghll tF thahf tHaJ. r_f, ggho
xUikghoid tWJj, kL Kiw gLJj,
midtUF bjhlf, taJ tnjh f, ma bjh Eg
M, ebd kW r_f kid brj, f thfis
bjhlJ bgWj nghw gJiufis jjJ.
khtl bjhlf f l (1993) kW rt mah (2004) nghw
lf ah vGjik nghf t brJsJ.
2000 - 01 jHf muR kW a muR vGj j tUkhW:

ah

jehL

1991

2001

64.13

75.85

bg

32.39

54.36

bkhj

52.21

65.38

73.75

82.33

bg

57.33

64.55

bkhj

62.66

73.47

{Mjhu : a kf bjhif fzbfL - 2001 (g. 14)}


bra : a muR vLJs vGjikia nghF eilKiw
lfis goaLf.

2.12 tWik
tWik uid f iwj ja bfhLikia VgLj
ToajhF. cldoahf fgl ntoa uidahF. ah Rju
bgw d tWikia nghFtJ r_f bghWghf lJ. W gndhwhtJ
IjhL l mo vLJ itF eh cyf ms Vik ehlhfnt
59

UJ tUnwh. wehLf ahitl ajhf Uj nghY


mitf tWikUJ LjiybgW tUwJ. cy cs tWik
kf, _ xUt auhf Uwd. tWiknfhL vw brh
a mik KjKiwahf 1962- ML sf mfglJ.
tWik sf, tWikF fhuz, tWikia xgJ vgo? vgJ
ga sffis j jiy fhngh.
tWik gkhdf
N

thifF njitahd wfis gwhik.

ngha Mjhuf yhik.

r_f cwit tsgY guhkgY wikik.

thtjF mahtakhd bghUf kW thif ju Fiwj gr

viyial nHUj.
kj j thif ju cau ca tf gwhk cl kW
kdjs Fiwthd wD UgJ jkj tWikia FgjhF. j
iy ngha tUth ikia FF. xU kj Fiwj gr njitia
jh bra ayhJ myJ mahtakhd j njitia jh
thif rf ayhj iyna eho tWik vdyh.

mogil

njitia brahjtf tWik nfhoF cstf Mt.


tWik msLf
1. ClrJ Fiw

2. f mik

3. Fiwj tUth

4. cley Fiw

5. jF gj

6. ntiyik

7. nja tUth Fiw

8. Rfhjhukw y

9. jkj tUth Kiw


IaehL kjts fhL mFf
1. thif vgh iwntwhik
2. f mil bgwhik
3. thF tik yhik
tWiknfhL sf
cthH Fiwjgr 240 fnyh cz Tlbgw Kowahj iy
cstf tWik nfho thgtf Mt.
60

ah kf bjhif bto
a kf bjhif 2000 Mo nk khj 11 nj 100 nfhoia
jhoaJ. a kf bjhif xU tUlF 15.33 a cawJ.
xbthU ML xU Mnuahit ah cg brwJ. (kf
bjhif ts) uL dhoF xU FHij ah wwJ.
nja tUth
a nja tUth 1935-56 5.1% csJ. J tsJ tU w
ehLfis fhoY FiwthdJ.
tWikF fhuzf
nl vgt tWikF fhuzfshf, TW fUJf
1. j eg bt njhf rhj braf (c.jh.) nrhng jd,
ayhik, wikik.
2. gghL tWik kut tUtJ. kf, ju, eiff, th
wfah gwhFiwahf UgJ.
3. r_f mik beikahf Uj. r_f Wtdf, bghUshjhu
iy, Fiwj f iy gwikik, l fhykhf ntiyik
jFF g brj nghw mik cilajhf UjyhF.
tWikia xgJ vgo?
tWikia nghf muR ntiy thid mfj etilj
bjhfSF cjj, kj tsij nkgLJj, xUidj FHijf
ts l, bgfSfhd w lf Matiw bragLJwJ.
N

gwhFiwia ka kW khy muRf nghFj ntL.

wFkia, fl cjia fLgLj ntL.

ma fl cjia fLgLj ntL.

tfis mfj.

mDk jilia Fj.

tf trhfhd flDjF Kjl jUj.

gnehF lfis muR Fahf mKfgLJj.

bghUshjhu ts uhkfSF Kjl jUj nghwitf

wghf bragLJtj _y ah tWik mfW tsj ehLfSF


izahf khW.
61

bra : ah tWikfis , tsj ahit gilngh vw


jiy fUjuf mikj.

2.13 ntiy thik


kf g bra Uwhf. Mdh ntiy kL ilgiy.
xbthU ML kfbjhif tsF Vg ntiy thgnwh
bgUFwd. efuij fhoY uhkf ntiy njLnth kW ntiy
thgnwh Fahf csd. ah Rkh 41 a ntiy njLnth
938 ntiy th mYtyf g brJsd. g bragl ntiy
njLnth 72% KgJ taJuatf Mthf. muR _y ntiy th
mif 5 MLF xU Kiw a kf bjhif fzbfL 10
MLf xU Kiw btlgLwJ. ntiy th kj kig
t Mjhuij jUtjh theh 3 1 gF ntiy njLtnyna ff
ntosJ.
ntiythik - nghF y tKiwf
ntiy thgf g brj dU cago jF bgw Mt
bfhSj
N

ntiy njotU go jid bjh nkgL bfhSj.

Rabjhiy VW elJ kdghik bgWj.

mfntiy ths ghlfis njbjLJ fw.

kfbjhif bgUfnk ntiythikF fhuz vd mj.

ntiythik bghU
1. jFF Vg ntiy ilfiy v mJ ntiy thik MF.
2. x U t f j F F , c l j F F j k d k i w J s
UgfSF Vg g yhikah ntWtW Tg brjY
xUtifahd ntiy th ikna MF.
3. cag br f jF bgUJ kl g gtJ
kl ntiy thghF.
rKjha KGntiy th gf
N

xU jkj fFiwj neu wik kW j jFF Vg


ntiyF Ca bgWj.

jDila wiknfw g ghJfh mj.


N nghJkhd Ca g fhUj.
N

62

ntiy thik tiff


ntiythik tifghL jiugl _y sfgLsJ.
ntiy th ik

uhk ntiy thik

efu ntiy thik

gUtfhy
trha ntiy l fhy ntiy bjh Egntiy
f
bjh
ntiythik thik
thik
ntiy ntiy thik
thik
SUE (Seasonal) AUE (Agricultural) CUE (Cyclical)
TUE (Technical) thik IUE (Industrial)
EUE
(Educational)

ntiythikF fhuzf
N

bghUshjhu mik ilWf

ja kfbjhif ts

Wbjhf, Foir bjhf kW uha bjhf kiwj

ntiyth Fiwthd f ghlKiw

aif tsf gwhFiw

gUtfhy ntiyth

gF ntiy Ughik nghwitahF.

cyf ntiy th mif 1998 - 99


N

ntiyth cyfkakhj kW ntiyth ik NH g


FLwJ.

1997M ML 6 a kf bjhifF ntiy thF kL


braglJ. m 3 a kf bjhyhs gylF.

ntiy thyhk Ugtf 160 a vd klglJ.

25 Kj 30 bjhyhs ggtf kl ntiythid


rhjtf.

1997 tUl 15 taUJ 24 taF cs isPf Rkh 60


a ngf ntiy njobfhLshf.

ah ntiythik
N

1995 tUl ntiythgf g brjtf 381 yrkhF.

uhk gFial efu kl ntiyth Fahf csJ.


63

Mfis

bgf

mfkhf

ntiy

thik

ghfgLwd.
N

ntiy th ts MLF 2 rjj TLwJ.

1972 - 73 ML ghuj ujkdh ehfhtJ 5 ML l ghuj


uk l VgLjglJ.

kfhuhZou khy ntiyth cuthj l, T ntiy


thl, xUizj uhk ts l, Rantiy th l
VgLjglJ.

(1993-94) ghuj ujk nuh# nah#dh l, bgf kW Wtf


ts l VgLjglJ.

ntiy thgf gLJj, Ra ntiy thF t fl cjLj,


uha bjh ts nghwt ah Ka gF twJ.

2 . 1 4 tF thj
ah cy bga ehLf 7tJ lij kf bjhif ulh
lij bgW tUwJ. ah gy kjjtf thwd. 1995
a kjf fzbfL mif ah Jf 82.4%,
Kfkaf 12.1%, WJtf 2.4%, af 1.9%, j kjjtf 0.7%,
rkzf 0.4% kW w vd TwgLsJ.
Raeyfhf

gagLJgtf

kj, d Matiw

ghJfhghw

cz

fhuzkhf

kfilna tF thjij cUthFwhf. ah 1984 Kj 1997 tiu


fhZ, grh, cuunjr, Mu unjr, fh, F#uh, mrh kW
bl nghw khyf tFthj U gy totf kfis
ghjfhd Mjhuf csd. tFthj fyfdh Fahd Lf,
Wtdf, folf nghwit vJ rhgyhwd. nkY bghJkf
gLfhafSF wF cshFwd. Mifdh Hig jLJ
mik VgLj, eho xUikghL VgLj tFthj kW tKiw
kdghikia M brtJ mtakhwJ.
tF thj
N

bkh, d, tF, rh, kj mogil uL myJ mfkhd


rKjha fshf tJ tFthjkhF.

xU

rKjha

kw

rKjhanjhL

nuhjkhf

rilLtjF tF thj bfhiff tnfhYwd.


N

tFthj vgJ idia FF.


FiywJ.
64

J njr xWikia

tFthj fyfF fhuzf


1. xU r_f y cWdf tUjjf elijah w r_fF
Jg njhWgJ.
2. Kayhj ff, tjf, tF fyff VgLJj, kj,
id kdghik tF thjF mogilahF.
3. jtwhd kdghik, Tl kW ts tF thj fyffis
njhWF.
4. tF thjfyf bghUshjhu, r_f kW mua NH fhuzkhf
rKjha VgLwd.
ah tF thj
ah xU fhy gtif rKjha xWikahf UjJ.
Mnyaf jhS bfhifdh tF fytu njhaJ vdyh.
Mnyaf nja af fit mlFtjF j tF idia
gagL bfhld (c.jh.) 1991 cgh uhQt 14 muR mYtyfis flaJ.
1996 ML ukuh iu ifto btoF mQFL _y nghnlh
uhQt mrh btof brjJ. 32 egf wjd kW 49 egf fha
miljd.
tFthj fLgLJj
1. tFthj Fiwa f tsia mfj.
2. rKjha cs kfl xWik xUikghL kd czfis
tYgLJj.
3. rnfhju eYz njhWj, L bfhLF kdghik tsj,
wUF k mj kW w.
4. nja xUikghil tYbgw brj, ff, fiy ff,
ehlff thyhf kfilna z njhWj.
bra : tFthj id midtU rk vw rl nknyhf
ttiff g fyJiuahl brf.

2 . 1 5 Koiu
ah vbfhS uridf, ah Kndw vjj
ghig VgLjh tz e rKjhaij khaikF g xbthU
Fokf/Fokf ifY csJ. vdnt e a muR uridfSF
fhd nkbfhS xbthU lij, eltoiffis a
Fokfdha / Fokfsha xbthUtU czJ g ah eyid
ghJfhj mta.
65

2 . 1 6 ghit f
1. Arya P.P.

Human Resource Development (1998) Deep & Deep

Publishers, New Delhi


2. NCERT

Human Rights (1996) New Delhi

3. Tandan T.K.

Women, Nature, Education, Teaching and Rights (1996) Common

Wealth Publishers, New Delhi.


4. ah r_f btghL, neu{Ah, fnuhf jf, bl (2004)
5. fLiu jf, fgdh uh#huh - gu jf iunt bl,
bl(1933)
6. ah r_f btghL - v.v.o#h, fnuhf jf,
bl 2004)
7. ah r_f uidf - uhk #h, uth gnf, b# (1997)
8. bgfSF mfhu mj f - b#ah nur, nfhdh
gnf iunt bl, bl (1002)
9. a tuyhW, nf. Mnlh nehth, . nghfh, uhfu gnf,
khnfh (1973)
10. ed a tuyhW, nkhyh ghfth mg, ah g A
iunt bl, yndh (1970)
11. rkfhy a tuyhW, lhl R.btfnlr, ..gnf,
uh#ghisa
12. a rKjha rhj r_fa - rhjh gnfr
13. gafuthj mua - r gh, khy fbg, yl (1974)
14. brdh N.. - gafuthj - md gnfr, bl (1985)
15. Jjh il, b# .. j, nk khj (1995)
16. a Knah f, h - Knah f af, bl 1993
17. tWik kl ts . a ryhf mlhr, bf g
A, bl (1987)
18. 7tJ IjhL l tWik xF l, gfh, ggh (1987)
19. ah uhk ts bfhif, f , bghJ thf rhj a
urhu, bl (1990)
20. y KuLjd, o blu, Ag nuh, ah (1974)
66

myF 3

tkly
mKf
guj y thG cdf midF fhW f aikahjJ.
ia R vF gus thfsh Md fhW klyij t kly
vd miHnwh. ia RY mj nkgu Rkh 10000 . cau tiu
tkly gusJ. tkly RHlnd R tUwJ.
tkly cs thf ieu# (78.08%), M# (20.94%) Ma
thf Fahf, fhg-il-Mi[L, Mfh, Xnrh nghw thf
Fiwthf csd. Jl ia xoa tkly gF uh
mikJsJ. uh lF l, fhyF fhy ntWgLwJ. eh
mwhl mDgJ czu Toa thiy fhufshd btgiy, mGj,
fhW, kW kiH bgh VgL khwfSF tkly Ka
fhuzkhwJ. vdnt, tkly jik, mik, thiy kW fhyiy
fhufis g thf fhngh.
myF TWf
3.1

tkly jik

3.2

tkly mik

3.3

thiy TWf

3.3.1

thiy fhyiy

3.3.2.

btgiy

3.3.4

btggut

3.3.5

btgklyf

3.3.6

mGjK fhW

3.3.7

mGj ms

3.3.8

mGj gut

3.3.9

mGj klyf

3.3.10

fhW

3.3.11

kiHbgh

3.4

RH

3.5

thiy fUf
67

3.6

kiH nrf gagLJjY

3.7

nguha

3.7.1

MWf

3.7.2

Vf

3.7.3

3.7.4

miyf

3.7.5

Xjf

3.7.6

nuhlf

3.8

fl tsf

3.9

Rdh

3.10

Koiu

3.11

ghit f

fw braf

t.
v

myF
TWf

t HfgL
brKiw g

njit gL
jft f
t kly
mik kW
KaJt

xgil
t kly
t kly
mik
mik

t hiy mif bral


bt giy
t hiy
t hiy mif ( mf,Fiw ),
fhyiy
- X M
fh <ugj ( 3
khjfSFaJ)

t ufis nrfF
l
g

kw lf

yf

dr ehj

t hiy
fUf

Kgkhz
aF
khf 2

VnjD uL
t hiy fUf

yf,
izajs

kiH
nrf
ga
gLJjY

xgil

kiH nrf
KaJt kW
bragL j

iya,
izajs

jft fsa

2004, org, 26
Rdh jft f
kW ngl
nkyhik
muR lf

yf,
izajs

Rdh

68

3.1. tkly jik


tkly gus fhwhdJ fF yglhj gntW
thfsh Md fyitahF.
it ntfkhf RU, jik bfhlJ.
ilah, brFjhf jF jil aF Mw bgwJ.
< rah tkly ika gFia neh
<fgLJ.

jdh

fhWF

vil

VgLwJ.

vdnt

tkly fhW vill Toa jikia bgWwJ.


x miyf XlUJ knwh lF bfhL bry
tkly fh afnk fhuzkhwJ.

3.2. tkly mik :


ia R mikJs tkly nkguUJ Rkh 10000
. cau tiu gusJ. jF nk btnahL fyJ LwJ.
tkly cs bkhj fh 97% mss fhW
nkguUJ 29. cauFnsna ml LwJ. tklyij
g eF mJ bfhs mj mLFf gf g mj mta.
tklyYs fh btgiyia mogilahf bfhL, mij
fl mjid 5 Ka mLFfshf fyh. mitahtd MF.
1.

HLF

3. ilaLF

2.

gLifaLF

4. btgmLF

5. bt mLF
bra :

tkly mik - xgil vGJf

3.3. thiy TWf


thiy lF l, ehSF eh khWgL fhzgLwJ.
khWghLfSF tkly cs thiy TWfns fhuz MF.
mitahtd,
1.

btg

3. fhW

2 mGj
4. <ugj

5. kiHbghG
69

3.3.1. thiy fhyiy


xU Fl l, xU Fl gF y tkly
fh btgiy, mGj, fh <ugj kW kiHbgh ms
nghwtiw g FLtJ thiy vdgL. 35 MLf xU Fl
l xbthU ehS y thiy bjhFig fhyiy vnwh.
thiy TWfns fhyiy TWfshf bragLwd. fhyiy
TWfis g xbthwhf Muhnth.
3.3.2. btgiy :
eh thG l VgL mwhl thiy khwfSF _y fhuzkhf
sFtJ tkly btgkhF. NalUJ btgij bgWwJ.
jh bgw btgij btgflj, btgryd, btg fr, kW
uhahj cSiw btg Ma ehF tf tklyij
btggLJwJ. jifa tkly btgiyna cdf midJ
thtjF cWJiz wJ.
3.3.3. btgiy ms :
btgiy, cr, r btgkh vw fUah msfgLwJ. msLj
uL tifahd msfisna bgUghY gagLjgLwd. mit,
1.

ghu msKiw

2. bra msKiw vgtdthF.


1. ghu msKiw :
jid 1714 mbkfhit nrj fhna ghu vgt fljh.
Kiw Fiwjgr btgiy 320 F vd mfgr btgiy 2120 F vd
FfgLwJ.
2. bra msKiw :
jid lid nrj M% bra vgt 1742 j msL
Kiwia fljh. Kiw Fiwjgr btgiy 00c vd, mfgr
btgiy 1000c vd FfgLwJ.
bghJthf xU eh mfgr btgiy gf 2.00 kF, Fiwjgr
btgiy fhiy 6.00 kF FfgLwJ. Xl btgiy vgJ
ml cs tkly fh btgij FgjhF. xU Fl
l xU eh y, f mfkhd btgiyia mfgr btgiy vW,
70

mj l Fiwthd btgiyia Fiwjgr btgiy vW FLt.


xU Fl l y xU eh mfgr btgiyF, Fiwjgr
btgiyF cs ruhrna meh ruhr btgiy MF. (c) mfgr
btgiy 320c kW Fiwjgr btgiy 280c v, ruhr btgiy 300c
vd fzlgLwJ. J nghy xU Fl l y X Mo ruhr
btgiy vgJ ml xbthU eh ruhr btgid mj Mo
bkhj ehfsh tFjh ilf bgWtJ MF.
bra : thiy mif ga tufis3 khjfSF nrfJ
MuhJ tiuglfSl bral jah brf.
3.3.4. btggut :
NalUJ ilF btg ia, _ykhf tklyK
btg mila brwJ. tkly
1.

ilgut

2. brFJgut
Ma U Kiwf btgkilwJ.
btg ilgut :
nkgu X l btgiy knwh l fhzgLtiy.
(c) etg khj 6 nj brid fhzgL btgiy mnjeh bl
fhzgLtiy. jF fhuz vd? vgij mj ntL. mjfhd
fhuzf tUkhW,
1.

xU Fl l mikJs mrnuif

2. fl klUJ ml mikJs cau


3. ml flUJ mikJs u.
4. ml R fhW
5. ml gh fl nuhlf
6. ml mikJs kiyf r
1. xU Fl l mikJs mrnuif :
btgiy il nfhoUJ JUtfis neh bry bry FiwJ
bfhnl brwJ. jF fhuz Na ne btg ff il
nfhL gF Fiwj unk flJ tJ btggLJwd. Fiwj guig
71

brFJ btg ff jhFtjh btgiy f mfkhf fhzgLwJ.


Mdh JUtfis neh bry bry Na rhthd btgffns mf
uij flJ tJ JUtgFf mf lfis btggLJwJ. jdh
btg ms Fiwthf fhzgLwJ. vdnt, il gFUJ
JUtij neh bry bry btgiy FiwJ bfhnl brwJ.
2. fl klUJ ml mikJs cau :
Xl btgiy mj l flklUJ vts cau
mikJsnjh, mijbghWJ mik. fl klUJ canu bry bry
xbthU 1000 lUF 6.50c j btg FiwJ bfhnl brwJ. (c)
cjfkly
3. flUJ mikJs u :
flYF mU cs ygFf jkhd btg iyid, bjhiy
cs gFf mfkhd btg iyid bgWsd. flnyhu gFf
flfhW Rtjh nfhil jbtgK, F fhy j FU ywJ.
nkY ygu, guig l iu btgkiltjh gf neu guUJ,
FfhW yguid neh, u neu jF vkiwahf RwJ.
jifa y kW flfhWf flfSF mUfhik Rtjh
ygFf jkhd jgbtg ywJ. Mdh flUJ btFbjhiy
cs lfSF fl fhWf rhjjh mf btg fhzgLwJ.
flYfU (c.) Kig
flYFbjhiy (c.) bl
4. R fhWf :
Xl

btgiy,

mlid

neh

fhdh

zfgLwJ. btgfhW mJ Rw gFYs lf btgij


mfgLJwJ. mnj nghW Fj fhW mJ Rw gFf cs
lf btgij FiwwJ.
5. fl nuhlf :
flfiunahugFf

btgiy

mgFia

xos

fl

nuhlfdh ghfgLwJ. flfiunahu gFf btg nuhljh


btgij, Fj nuhljh Fia bgWwd. cjhuzkhf oZ
f flfiu gFf, btg nuhldh btgkilwd. t btg
mUYs kw lf btgij fhoY mfkhfnt csJ.
72

6. kiyf r ;
tl miu nfhsYs kiyf tlF neh rid bfhl
kiyfS, bj miunfhsYs kiyf bjF neh rid bfhl
kiyfS Na xia mf bgWtiy. vdnt, F btg Fiw. khwhf tl
miunfhs bjF rid, bj miunfhs tlF rid
bfhl kiygFf Na x eF gLtjh F btg rW mfkhf
fhzgLwJ.
btg brFJgut :
btg ilgut lF l, fhyF fhy khWgLtJ nghW,
nkguUJ tklyij neh canu bry bry btgiy
khbfhnl brwJ. j X l btgiy tkly canu
gujiy btg brFJ gut vnwh. ruhrahf btg Fiw j
xbthU 1000 lUF 6.50c ms FiwwJ. ruhr Fiw jij ny
j (Normal Lapse rate) vW miHg.
y lf aghf ny jgo FiwtjF g btgiy
mff brayh. jid btgiy uk khWif (Inversion of Temperature) vg.
rk btg nfhLf (Isotherms)
rk btg nfhLf cy btgiy gutiy bjthf sf
gagLwd. xnu ms btgiy bfhl gntW lfis izf
tiuagL fgid nfhoF rkbtg nfhL vW bga. btgiy cyf
ehLf

vj

gusJ

gagLjgLwd.

vgij

rkbtg

ma

nfhLf

rkbtg
njr

nfhLf

tiuglf

tiuagoUgij fhzyh. rkbtg nfhLf cy y gutiy rhJ


mik. tl miu nfhs yK U mLjLJ fhzgLtjh, btg
gut ntWghL mfkhf fhzgLwJ. btg ntWghLfSF Vg
rkbtgnfhL nghF fhzgLwd. bjmiunfhs gu mf
fhzgLtjh btg ntWghLfS uhfnt ywd. jdh rkbtg
nfhLfS uhf mikJsd.
3.3.5. btgkly
Na btg F ilF msid bghWJ nfhsij MW
btgklyfshf fyh.
73

kanuif kly
J kanuifF FWfhf 10 0 tl mr Kj 10 0 bj mr tiu
gusJ. j kly ML KGtJ Na fR brFjhf
GwJ. vdnt kly mf btgij cila kly MF.
mad klyf
RH mrhdJ brFJ jsUJ 230 rhJsJ. vdnt
VnjD xU eh Na brFJ ffis bgW lf midJ tl
mad nfhoF (230 t), bj mad nfhoF (230 bj) ilgl gF
mikwd. gF madkly vdgLwJ. gF ML KGtJ
btg ms mf.
Jiz mad klyf
it mad klyisbaho mad klyfUJ JUtfis neha
gff (tlmiu nfhs) mad klyF tlY, bjmiu
nfhs mad klyF bjY mikJsd. VwjhH it 250 - 350 tl,
bj mrf bghUJwd.
jbtg klyf
it 35 0 Kj 55 0tiuyhd tl, bj mrfSil gusd.
nfhilfhy j btgK, Ffhy j FU ywd.
F klyf
it 66 0 tl, bj mrf Mo, mlho tlf J
mikwd. gf, u fhy bgUj khWghLf gF
fhzgLwd.
JUt klyf
, tl miunfhs 660 Mo tl Kj. 900 tlJUt tiu cs
gF, bj miunfhs 660 mlho tl Kj 900 bj JUt tiu
cs gF Kiwna tl, bj JUt klyf vW miHfgLwd. Na
tl madnfho brFjhf untF bghGJ tlJUt kly Na
rh ff Gtjh bjhlJ 3 khjf jkhd nfhilia bgWwd.
mthnw bj JUt kly Na bj madnfho brFjhf
untF bghGJ bj JUt kly bjhlJ 3 khjf jkhd nfhilia
bgWwJ. jKs 9 khjfS fLikahd FfhyK, fFiwj Na
btrij kLnk bgWwJ.
74

bra : fhy klyf - xil jahbrf :


3.3.6. mGjK fhW
fhyiy wTWfis ekh cztJ nghW, tklyYs
fh mGjid czu ayhJ. eik NJs tkly fhW
J VgLJ mGjnk (thrust) tkly mGj vdgL. fhWF
vil cL vgij eh mnth. j fh vilna J xU
mGjij VgLJwJ. jidna tkly mGj vwd. fhW
RtjF tkly mGj ntWghLfns fhuz v mGj
KaJtij mnwh myth?
3.3.7. mGj msLf
ia Rs fh vil KGtJ nkguig mG
bfhoUwJ. j mGjijna eh fhwGj vnwh. fh
mGj ghukh vw fUah msfgLwJ. fhwGj gh vw
my _y FfgLwJ. 1 rJu brol gus nkgu
canu cs bkhj fh vil 1 nyh uh MF. fl kl fh
mGj ms ruhrahf 1013 ghfshf csJ. thiy tiugl
mGj gut rk mGj nfhLf _y fhfgLwJ. rk mGj
nfhLf vgJ J rkkhd fhW mGjKs gntW lfis
izF fgid nfhLfshF.
mGj tiff
tkly mGj y lf Fiwthf, y lf Fahf
csJ.

tGj

ntWghil

mogilahf

bfhL

mGjij

Utiffshf fyh. mitahtd,


1.

mf mGj (High pressure)

2. Fiwj mGj (Low pressure)


U tif mGjf njhw tkly btgK, RHnk
fhuzkhF.
3.3.8. mGj gut
Xl fh mGj mj l cauij bghWJ, btgiyia
bghWJ khWgLwJ. jid mogilahf bfhL,
75

nkgu mGj Utiff guwJ. mit,


1. brFJgut

2. ilkl gut MF.

mGj brFJgut :
tkly mGj nkguUJ tklyij neh canu
bry bry FiwwJ. J 1000 l cauF Rkh 100 gh j
FiwJ bfhnl brwJ. jdhjh caukhd kiyf VWgtf
fh ms FiwUgjh, m jkF njitahd M# Fiw neL
vgjh M# lfis vLJ brwd.
mGj ilgut :
nkgu btg rkkhf gu fhzgLtiy. jF fhuz
ygut kW mR 23 0 rhJsnj MF. btg
rkuW gusjh mGjK rkkhf ytiy.
3.3.9. mGj klyf
fhzgL fhwGj ntWghLfis mogilahf bfhL ia
ehF bgU fhwGj klfshf fyh. mit,
1.

kanuif Fiwj mGjkly

2. Jiz btg mf mGjkly


3. Jiz JUt Fiwj mGjkly
4. JUt mf mGj kly
1. kanuif Fiwj mGj kly :
ka nuif Fiwj mGj kly 0 0 Kj 5 0 tl kW bj mr
tiu gusJ. gF ML KGtJ NaDila xff
brFjhfnt Gwd. brFJ ff rhthd ffis l mf
btgij mF. jdh kanuif gF mf btgkhf csJ.
vdnt kanuif gF cs fhW mf btgkilJ tilwJ.
vdnt ml FiwJ, Fiwj mGj VgLwJ.
2. Jiz btg mf mGj kly
Jiz

btg

mf

mGj

kly

tl

miunfhsf 30 0 mrUJ 35 0 tiu fhzgLwJ.


76

kW

bj

kanuif gF mf btgjh fhW tilJ, nyrh canu


brwJ. thwhf nkbyG fhW, kanuif tlw tlfhf,
bjw bjfhf RH fhuzkhf ir UggL RwJ.
fhW cathd gFfis miljl FtilJ, RU, 30 0 tl kW
bj mrf wFwJ. gFf fh ml mfwJ.
vdnt gFf mf mGj VgLwJ.
3. Jiz JUt Fiwj mGj kly
Jiz JUt Fiwj mGj kly tl kW bj miunfhs 60 0
Kj 65 0 tiu mikJsJ. Jiz btg klyY, JUt klyY
mf fhwGj fhzgLwJ. jdh Jiz btg mf mGj
klyF JUt mf mGj klyF ilna cs Jiz JUt
kly Fiwj mGj fhzgLwJ.
4. JUt mf mGj kly
tl kW bj JUt gFf f Fiwj btg fhuzkhf, mFs
fhW Fahf ml FJ fhzgLtjh, tl kW bj JUtf
mf mGj VgLwJ.
thiy tiuglf mGjgutiy bjJ bfhtjF rk mGj
nfhLf (Isobar) _y tiuJ fhLwd. rkkhd mGjKs gntW
lfis izF fgid nfhoF rk mGj nfhL vW bga.
3.3.10. f
h W
fh
nkgu ilahf efU tia fhW vnwh. brFjhf
efU tia FJtnahl (Air current) vW TWt. mGjf
ntWghLf VgLnghJ fhW njhWwJ. fhW mf mGjKs
lfUJ

Fiwj

mGjKs

lfis

neh

RwJ.

virUJ fhW Rwnjh, miria itJ mfhF bgaLt


(v,fh) bjUJ tlF neh R fhiw bjFfhW vW miHg.
thW brY fhW RHah tl nfhs tygfkhf,
bjnfhs lgfkhf ir UggLwJ. fh ntf lF
jfthW, gUtF jfthW mikwJ.
R fhWfis ehF tiffshf fyh. mitahtd,
1. nfhfhWf,

2. gUtfhWf, 3. jyfhWf, 4. khW fhWf


77

1. nfhfhWf (Planetory Winds)


fhWf KGtY RwJ. fhWf ML KGtJ bjhlJ
xU Fl irUJ xU Fl iria neh mf mGj
gFUJ FiwtGj gFia neh Rwd. (c) HF fhWf
myJ ahghu fhWf, nkF fhWf kW JUt fhWf MF.
2. gUtfhWf
bks vw muha brhUJ bgwglnj khN vw brhyhF.
bks vgjF gUt (Season) vgJ bghUshF. xU eh xU gF
myJ xU Mo xU gF, xU Fl irUJ R fhWfS,
meh myJ Mo kW gF vir R fhWfS
gUtfhWf vdgL.

fl kW fl Mat VgL btg

Vw ntWghnl, gUtfhWf cUthf fhuzkhf mikwd.


nfhil y iu Fahf btggLjgLtjh Fiwj
mGjjij bgWwJ. Fiwj mGj flUJ fhiw <wJ.
Ffhy y iuthf Fahf FJ Ltjh ca mGjij
bgWwJ. a mGjUJ fhW nfhil a irF ne v
iria neh RwJ. nfhil flUJ, F fhy yUJ
R fhnw gUtfhwhF. gUt fhWf btgkly eF
mikJsJ. Mahjh tif fhW j btgkly tiu RwJ.
ah, tlF Mnuah, yif, ghjh, gfshnjr, ahk, dh,
#gh Kja ehLf tif fhW wghf mikJsJ.
(a) a gUt fhWf
nk kW #& khjf tl a gFf Na brFJ
ffdh btgiy mfkh jh mGj cUthwJ. jdh mf
mGjkhd flgF UJ (a bgUfl) fhwhdJ a
yguid neh RwJ. nfhil gUt fhwhdJ (bj nkF
gUtfhW) gfshnjZ tahf nkfhyhahit milJ u, bks uh
Ma lfSF mf kiH, bj kygh flfiu - Kig, nfush
gFfSF mf kiH tla rkbt gFfSF jkhd kiH
bghit bfhLwJ.

78

FgUt fhW mnlhg khj bjhl etg khj tiu RwJ. a


ygFUJ tl HUJ Rtjh jid tl HFgUt fhW vd
miHg. fhW Rtjh jehL, Muh nghw HF flfiu khyf
mf kiHia bgWwd.
(b) flfhW (Sea breeze)
ygFahdJ iul iu Nlh iu FU jik bfhlJ.
jdh gf ygF Fiwthd mGjK, gu mfkhd mGjK
ywJ. j mGj ntWgho fhuzkhf fhwhdJ mf mGjKs
flUJ, mGj Fiwthd ygFia neh RwJ. thW fhW
flUJ yij neh Rtjh flfhW vd miHfgLwJ.

Na

gf

jh mGj

wF
F fhW

fl fhW
ca mGj
fl

(c) yfhW (Land breeze)


u neu ygF mf mGjK, gu Fiwthd mGjK
ywJ. jdh fhnwhlkhdJ ygFUJ guig neh RwJ.
jid yfhW vg. mjhtJ, u ygu flguig l ntfkhf F
milwJ. Mifah flgu btgkhd (ml Fiwthd) fhW nkny brwJ.
j lij milf, ygu cs Fj fhW (ml mfkhd)
flgFia neh RwJ. jF y fhW vW bga.
79

ru

ca mGj

nk vG
btgfhW

yfhW
jh mGj
fl

3. jyfhWf
jyfhWf vgJ xU a gF R iyahd fhWfSF khW
ir R fhWfshF. fhW vj l UJ Rwnjh mj l
btgkhdjhf Ujh btgfhwhf, Fahf Ujh Fj
fhwhf R. (c)
btgfhW -

~ngh, , }, uhnfh.

FfhW

u, nghuh.

4. khW fhWf
gUtfhWfis nghy xU Fl irUnjh, xU Fl
gFnyh rhk, iria, mj lij kh bfhL Rtjh mit
khW fhWf vd miHfgLwJ. a fhW (Cyclones) kW v afhW
myJ khtU afhW (Anti Cyclones) Mait jFj vLJfhLf MF.
(a) afhW :
f Fiwj fhwGj bfhl ika gFia neh midJ
irfUJ fhW RHW RtJ a fhwhF. afhW mf kiHia
mfToa jik bfhljhF. mJl mf ntf fhW Rtjh,
kf cilikfSF, cdfSF mf nrjij clhF.
bghJthf tf fl a brlg, mnlhg kW etg khjf
cUthwJ. a HF flfiu Xukhf efJ, mf kiHia bfhLwJ.
y neuf kfSF cilikfSF bgUj nrjij iswJ.
80

afhWf cy gntW gFf btntW bgafis bfhL


miHfgLwd. tl mbkfhY, nkF a fY Anf
vW, irdh kW #gh ehLf il vW, a vW ahY
Mnuah

vW,

mnuah

rKd

vW

miHfgLwJ.
(b) v afhW
va fhW f mf fhwGj ika gFUJ midJ
irfSF fhW RtJ v a fhwhF. v a fhW RnghJ thd
nkf_l bjthf UF, kiH bgahJ.
3.3.11. kiH bgh
fhyiy TWf xW kiHbghthF. mogil tkly cs
uhna MF. Mahjdh nkny brY uhahdJ FJ tkly
gFia mil nghJ mit Ea tiyfshf khWwd. j
tiyf bjhFF nkf vW bga. nkf _y _W jkhd kiH
bgwgLwJ. mit,
1. btgryd kiH,

2. kiy jL kiH,

3. a kiH

MF.

3.4. RH (Water cycle)


ekF njitahd kiH bgh _y ilwJ. tkly
xnw l, ut, th Ma _W iyfY fhzgLwJ. fl ms
vyh fhyfY xnu khahf UwJ. jF fhuz RHna
MF. RH vgJ fl Na btgjh Mah uhahf
khWwJ. uh fhWl fyJ canu brW nkfkhf khWwJ. uh ms
tkly btgiyia bghWJ gjfkh kiH bghit VgLJwJ.
kiHbgh _y fliy tJ milwJ. flUJ MahjYfhf
vLfgl kiH bghthf L fliyna tJ nrUwJ. Mahj,
RUFj, kW kiH bgh vw _W bra Kiwf _y RH
eilbgWwJ.
3.5. thiy fUf
tkly btgiy, mGj, <ugj, fhnwhl, kiH ms
nghwit thiy cTWfshF. itf VgL mwhl khwfis
mtj _y thiyia eF mJ Kdf Ko.
81

thiy Kd, gntW thiy iyafUJ Kiwahf


thiy cTWfis xbthU 6 k neu ilbt msfgL
mfgLwd.
btgiy (Temperature)
ghjur btgkhia H itJ, btgiy mslgLwJ. Otr
iu vw mik ghjurkh itfgL btgkhia H itJ,
btgiy mslgLwJ. 24k neu caj gr btgiyia ghjur
btgkhia

bfhL

Fiwjgr

btgiyia,

MfAh

btgkhia bfhL thiy Mthsf mswd.

btgkhfis csla Otr iu (Stevenson Screen)


mGj (Pressure)
ghukhia bfhL mGj mslgLwJ. ghnuhuh _y bjhlahf
fhwGj tiugljh g bragLwJ. thiy tiugl gh
Kiw FfgL flkl ruhr fhwGj 1013 gh MF.
82

btl

fhwGj

fhwGj

ghjur

ghuhkh (Barometer)
fhnwhl (Wind)
fhW ntfkhia (Anemometer) bfhL, fh ntfij mslyh.
_W cnyhf zf, brFjhf RHyToa jo gl
fhoatz bghUjgLsJ. fhW R nghJ zf RHwd.
mj RHf vif mogil, fh ntf fzlgL.
ngh msl (Beaufort scale) _y fh ntf ga tiugl
jahfgLsJ. j _y fh jikia mJ bfhsyh.

fhW ntfkh (Anemometer)


83

fhW, fhW irkh (Wind Vane) _y magLwJ. vj irUJ


fhW Rwnjh, mJjh fhnwhl irahF. guig xo Rw,
fhnwhl iria, fhnwhl jfil gagL mayh.

fhW irkh ( Wind Vane)


kiH
kiHas, kiHkh (Rain Gauge) _y msfgLwJ. jDila nk
kl cs xU d kiH GwJ. jd xU cUis totkhd
msL FHh bghWjgLsJ. kiH uhdJ dUJ msL
FHhF brwJ. msL FHh FWF btL gu, d thgu
g xU ghf Mifah d G xU br.. kiH msL FHh 10 br.
caukhUF. xbthU 24 k neuF cs kiH uhdJ
mslgLwJ.
Na x g fU (Sunshine Recorder)
xU fzho nfhs tot mikfgL, xU byR nghW
bragL. j _y Na ff FfgLwd. itf yw
czila mil J g bragLwd. UJ xU eh
vjid k neu Na x UjJ vgij bjJ bfhsyh.
bra : VnjD 2 thiy fUf Kgkhz aF khfis
jah brf.
84

kiHkh (Rain Gauge)

Na x g fU (Sunshine Recorder)
85

3.6. kiH nrf, gagLJjY.


kiHfhy ilF kiH Tiuf kW folfUJ F
brW zhfk FHhf tahf bjhof nrffgL d gagLJ
braKiwna kiH nrf (Rain Water Harvesting) vW TWnwh. thW
nrffgL kiHiu L kW bjhrhiyf njitfSnfg
gagL bfhnwh. kiHiu nrfJ gagLJ Kiw cy gntW
ehLfSF W gusJ. cjhuzkhf, Mnuah xU twl flkhF.
jdh Fs kf bgUghnyh kiHiu nrJ jf njitfis
brJ bfhwhf. Mnua ehL kf kiH nrf
mtaij l fhyF Kng mJ mij gagLJwd.
ghiytdkhf UF nu ehL W ntshik u brJ cy
cdj ehlhf fhagjF fhuz, mtf kiHiu zhfhk nrJ
gagLJtjhjh.
kiH Rjkhd uhf Ugjh mjid eh ekJ mwhl njitfis
bra gagLbfhnwh.
mizf

kW

Fsf

nrffgl

kiHiu

mgona

gagLJtiy. mYs Ufis mgjF Fnsh nghw urhad


bghUfis fyf ntosJ. Mdh, kiH Rjkhd uhf Ugjh
kiH nrf _y ilF uhdJ ghJfhghdjhf, jukhdjhf, bry
Fiwthdjhf UwJ.
nkY kiHiu bjhofnyh, ghufnyh nrfhk folF mU
a gs njho m kz, THhffis nghL u kiHiu
nrfyh. jdh z kl catJl tw fhyY
ilF. mUJ nkhlh _y eh iu vLJ gagLjyh.
kiHiu zhfhk mizf, Fs, Figf nrfJ itJ Fo,
trha MatWF gagLJtJ kiH nrfjh.
bra : kiH nrf KaJt kW bragLj g xgil
jahf.
3 . 7 nguha
gu y 29%, 71% gusJ. 71% gu gus gu
nfhs (hydrosphere) vdgL. j nfhsij nguhfshf (oceans)
wd. xbthU nguh fl (sea), Flh (Bay), tisFlh (Gulf),
86

#yr (strait) vd gy fshf fgLwJ. MHf bgUgu


mikJ lF bgUflny nguhahF. vjid nguhf csd
vg fUJ ntWghLf UD g nguh, myho nguh, a
nguh, Mo nguh Ma ehF nguhf csd vd eh bfhnth.
nguhf f bgaJ g nguhna. g vw brhYF mik
vgJ bghU. mthUD mnguh Rdh miyfSF bga bgwJ
ntoifna MF. bkfy j flgaz g mik gFia
fL, m nguhF g vW bgalh. J Knfhz nghw mikig
cilajhF.
myho ulhtJ bgU nguhahF. nguh S nghw mikl
sFwJ.
a nguh _whtJ bgU nguh MF. xU eho bgaiu itJ
bgalgl xnu nguh Jnt MF.
nguhf f aJ Mo nguhna. nguh tlJUtij R
mikJsJ.
fl cjik bfhlJ. flUF btgK, mGjK, ml
cL.
nguhfis ju fl fl y guF W tisFlh _y
cflfshf mikJsd. cjhuz fUfl, brfl, fha fl, fa
fl nghwit.
bra : cflf, Iyr, tisFlh nghwt miklfis
myUJ fLoJ goaLf.
fl _Wj mirfis bfhlJ. mitahtd 1. miyf 2. Xjf
3. nuhlf
3.7.1
MWf
3.7.1M
fif,fh. jhugu nghw MWfis eh mnth. UwK fiuaikJ
eLYs gsjh tah kiyUJ fliy neh xo brY kiHnu
MW vdgL. xU M ntf, mJ XL ghij yr, kiHbgh,
gsjh mik mJ RkJ tU Rik Kjatiw bghWJsJ.
kiyUJ xotU MW rkbtia miljl y r Fiwtjh
ntf FiwJ bfhnlbrwJ. M ms vnghJ xnu ms
fhzgLtiy. kiHfhy FJ, twl fhy FiwJ xLwJ.
87

MWf mit cg MF l kW XL fhy msit bghWJ tW


MWf, twhj MWf vd bgalgLwd. g_oa kiyfUJ bjhlF
MWf vnghJ twhJ ML KGtJ ujukhf Xobfhnl UF.
gUtfhy kiHid mogilahf bfhl MWf y fhyf kLnk iu bgW
XobfhoUF. tiw tW MWf vg.
ah cs Ka twhj kW tW MWf bgaf tUkhW.
twhj ef

tW ef

tl a MWfshd fif,
J, ukuh kW mj is
MWf midJ twhj MWfSF
vLJfhlhF.

bja MWfshd fhnt,


kfhe, nfhjht, itif, jhugu,
tlbgiz, bjbgiz, ghyhW
nghwit
tW
MWfSF
vLJfhLfshF.

cynyna f skhd MW ie eahF. mfykhd MW mnkrh MF.


cy cs y Kakhd skhd MWf tUkhW TwgLsd.

M bga

flf

MW f
( skhd)
( s nyh
lf)

ie

Mfh

6695

mnkrh

bj
mbkfh

6570

ah

Mah

6380

,
brs

t l mbkfh

6020

Knu lh

Mnuah

3750

Mah

3180

MWf jh XotU ghij cs ghiwfis mJ, mj bghUfis


fl, fljgl bghUfis knwhl goa itwd. jdh
gyntW ynjhwf cUthwd. j ynjhwf MWf
ms.

mit flJ tU ghiwf jik, nghwtiw bghUJ


88

mikwd. cjhuzkhf, xU MW caj kiyUJ nH XotUnghJ


fis cUthFwJ.
MWf mit njha kiygFUJ flYl fyF tiu M
ghijia 3 tiffshf fyh. mitahtd :
1. nkgF, 2. eLgF,

3. gF

M nkgF m, eLgF m gojY rkkhf,


_wh gF gojY wghf fhzgL. mj fhuzkhf MWf
V tot gsjhF, mU, Fil fhuzkhf gsjhF nghwit,
mjY gojY rkkhf cs fhuzdh ahlfS, Fs tot V,
goj fhuzkhf bts rky, bllh nghw ynjhwfis
cUthFwd.
MWf gaf :
tsK, y tsK bgWtjF Ka fhuz MWf jh.
RHF MWf Ka gF twd. nuhilf, fhlhWf _y
MWfSF tuJ tUtjhY, MWfUJ fhthf _y, gJ
brtjhY F tuJ vnghJ UJ bfhnl csJ. nkY mj
gafshtd :
1. cs jhtufSF, yFfSF, kjDF c
Mjhukhf sFwJ.
2. MW rkbtf brghd ktsij bfhlit. tw Fj
lfSF ghrd Kiw _y MW

iu trhaF

gagLJwd.
3. bghGJnghF mrF, t nghFtuF MWf
gagLwd.
4. Mw tsF MWf Ka Mjhukhf sFwd. Mug
fhy bjhrhiyf, tjf Wtdf MW nghF Fj
lf mikfgld. tWF njitahd Mw bgw r
thj aufis MW gagLd. jnghJ d
lf bjhlfgL mj _y MW Mw bgw gLwJ.
89

MWf rhj brhf :


JizahW (Tributary)

W nuhilahdJ bga MW Ul izJ


brY .

isahW (Distributary)

bga MWf gy isfshf J tsf


bllhgFfSF brwilj.

nknyhl (Upstream)

nuhlF vuhf bry Toa MW

nHhl (Down Stream)

KfJthuij

neh

nuhl

ngh

bryToa .
bllh (Delta)

MW Kf Jthu tl gof mla


Knfhz tot ynjhw

MW tisf (Meander) -

tisf mla MW

M XL
ms (Discharge)

M XL ms, kiH fhy


mfkhf. tw fhy Fiwthf
UF.

mizfUJ

ghrdF

wfgL nghJ Fl msthf UF.


kiy njh r ntfKl ghJ. ntf FiwJ rkbt
js eilL flnyhL fygjh MW thif xiw bgWsJ vg.
3.7.2 Vf
gu cs gsf iwUgjh mtiw Vf vg.
e Vf kW c Vf
Vf MW fyFkh V vbghGJ euhfnt
fhzgL. (c.) fhZ V, lh V
jF khwhf MW EiHtjfhd tf iyba, VDs
cf Mahj _y gowd. it c Vf vd miHfgLwd.
(c) rhfl, Vu fl.
Mdh cy fhzgL bgUghyhd Vf e Vf MF.
nkgu kiy Fj gFfY, gahWf XL yguY
Vf vif mf.
90

Vf tiff
1. aff _y VgL kof kW sf _ykhf Vf
cUthdh mjF (Tectonic Lakes) bllh V vW bga.
kof isthf ghiw kofshfnth myJ gsfshfnth
khwToa th csJ. mgo VgL bghGJ mgsf
iwU Vf cUthwd. (c.) oofhfh V.
2. xU y rkaf ghiw sf VgL bghGJ gsf
cUthfgLwd. mgsf iwUF bghGJ Vf
njhWwd. (v.fh) rhfl, eahrh V, vtL V MF. it s
gsjhF Vf vW miHfgLwd.
3. gahWf efU bghGJ, mj tghij m fhuzkhf r
gsfis VgLJwd. mgsf g cU iwj Vf
njhWwd. mit lh V vW miHfgLwd.
4. y neuf MWf gLiff ahl M tisgF
JofgL iwJ fhzgLwJ. ahlf Fs to
fhzgLtjh VfS Fs tot V vW miHfgLwJ.
5. ghiytd gF fhzgL Vfis nsah (Playas) vW
miHwd. jifa Vf iyahdit my. ghiytd fhW
k iu gsfis milJ Ltjh, VfS kiwJ Lwd.
6. vkiy btoF VgL vkiy thgF gs VgL
iwJ LwJ. mjifa Vfis nul V vg.
Vf KaJt :
1. MW nghid KiwgLj Vf cjwd. mf kiHbgh
fhyf Vf kiHiuid cuJ bts bgUid jLgJl,
twahd fhyf MWf tuid VgLj cjwd.
ghrdF cjwd. fhthfSF Mjhukhf sFwd.
2. t nghFtuF Vf gagLwd. fdkhd bghUfshd
kufilf, yff nghwtiw vLJ brtjF Vf
gagLwd.
3. bjhrhiyf

njitfSF

gagLjgLwd.
91

vLgjF

4. Ka czthd - e Vf fhzgL lf bgU ms


ilwd.
5. Vf mls gF, RWyh ikakhf fwJ. (c.) fhZ V
kW ielh V (ah).
3.7.3
MWf cUthF ynjhwf f Kakhd ynjhw
ahF. M ngh bkghiwfS, fodghiwfS mLjLJ
fhzgo,

fodghiwf

Fiwthf

bkghiwf

mfkhf

mfgLwd. jdh kiyr o gF gofL nghw


xU y mik VgLwJ. njhWtnj vdgL.
3.7.4 miyf
fh irah fl nkgu XahJ mirJ bfhoUF
mirf miyf vdgL. fl mirf eh ghJ uf ty
mir miyna MF.
miy mik : miys
miy s

KfL
miy
cau

gs

gl fhosgo miy cagFia KfL vW, jhgFia


gs vW miHg. mLjLJs UKfLfSF ilna cs uK,
mLjLJs U gsfSF ilna uK rkkhF. uij miy
s (Wave length) vg. KfLF gsF cs brFJ cau miy
cau (Wave height) vW, xU dho xU miy vts u efnjh
mJnt miy ntf (Wave velocity) vW miHfgLwJ. xnu l
mLjLJ tU UKfLf njhw vLJ bfhS neu miyfhy
vdgL.
fh irah miyf njhWwd. fhW gu J cuh
nghJ fh ir UF brW miyfis vGwJ.
92

miyf tiff :
miy sij itJ miyfis wiyf (Short waves) siyf (Long
waves) vd U fshf gh. siyf y njhwfis mikf
tyit vgjh mit Mf miyf vW (constructive waves) wiyf
mF wDilad vgjh mit mj miyf (Destructive waves)
vW miHfgLwd.
3.7.5

Xjf

Na, y Mat < irfdh jh cs fl


kl caJ jhwJ. jfl kl ca jhfisna Xjf
(Tides) vW miHg.
XjK Ka flyirthF. ca Xj jhyf bts bgUif VgL
ngHig VgLJwJ. Xjfis r jahf gagLJwd.
fl miyf kL myhJ fl klY ca jhf
VgLwd. xU eh fl kl UKiw caJ UKiw jhJ
fhzgL. tiw Xjf (Tides) vnwh. thW fl kl caJ
jhJ hzgLtjF fhuz ru < ir MF.
Na FLg cs F Jiznfhshd ru jh F f
mU csJ. mj < ir nk cs bghUfis jid
neh <wJ. ygu lbghUshf Ugjh ru < irdh
vj khwK mF VgLtiy. Mdh gu ru <
irah ghfgLwJ. jdh fl kl xU gF caJ xU
gF jhJ fhzgLwJ. fl kl catij ca Xj vW
jhtij jh Xj vW FLnwh. J vthW VgLwJ vgij
fl gl sFwJ.
fl
jh

ca

ruDF

Xjf
Xjf
93

ru

ca Xj (High Tide) :
ruid nehs gF cs fl ru < irah
<fgLwJ. ruid nehs gF fl kl catjh mnghJ
VgL rkkw iyia <Lfl kWgfYs gFY fl kl
cawJ. thW ruid nehs gFY mjF kWw cs
gFY gl csJ nghy fl kl caJ fhzgL. vdnt xnu
rka U wY ca Xj VgL.
jh Xj (Low Tide) :
U ca XjfSF ilgl gFfYs fl ca XjgFfSF
brWLwJ. vdnt U ca XjfSF ilgl gFf fl kl
jhJ fhzgL.
RHtjh ru HUJ nkfhf eftJ nghy njhWwJ.
ruid g fl XjfSfS efwd.
xU eh xU Kiw RHYtjh Ys vyh gFY fl
kl xU eh UKiw caJ UKiw jhJ fhzgL. xU gF
ruDF neuhf tUnghJ xU Kiw, mjF kWw tUnghJ xUKiw
mgF fl kl caU. U ca XjfSF ilgl neu kl
jhJ fhzgL.
NaDF < ir cL. ruid l Na ms 400 klF bgaJ.
Mdh UJ ruidl 400 klF bjhiy csJ. mjdh J
bragL Na < ir, ru < iria l 2 klF Fiw.
ru < irl, Na < ir nrJ bragLnghJ
mfkhd iu <wJ. vdnt Na < ir ru < ir
nrJ bragL nghJ fl kl rW mfkhf caJ, jhJ
fhzgLwJ. tiwna eh m j Xj vnwh.
fl xU eh U ca XjfS U jh XjfS VgLwd.
nthjf ehU Xjf vdgL.
3.7.6 nuhlf
ygu XL MWf nghW, fl Y xU Fl viyF cgL,
Fl irUJ Fl iria neh bjhlJ XobfhoUF
gF nuhlf vdgL. < ir, RH, tkly mGj,
fh ntf, kiH , mGj r, btgiy ntWghL, fl cta,
g cUFj, flfiu mik, flyo ynjhw Ma fhufsh fl
nuhlf VgLwd.
94

MWfis nghynt nuhlfSF fhy, ntf vyh cL. Mdh


MWfis l gglF iu it flJwd.
fl nuhl jh gh gFf fhyiyiana khaikF jik
bfhlJ. cjhuzkhf nkF Inuhgh F fhy VgL, kiHF fhuz
tl myho Cna (North Atlantic Drift) MF. iyba
fhoneagF yh nghW X ciwg ykhfnt UUF.
nuhlf rJ bghUfis vLJ tUtnjhL rJ bghUf J nghd
lf L, L Jf brwd. jdh fl tsK
jhtu tsK bgUFwd.

uh L fiuf ts bgU

fhzgLtjF nuhlfns fhuzkhF.


bra : c y o j s f c U t h t j F n u h l f b g J
cjwd - Muhf.
btgiyia mogilahf bfhL nuhlf btg nuhlf (Warm
Currents), F nuhlf (Cool Currents), fLF nuhlf (Cold Currents) vd _W

tiffshf fgLwd. btg klyUJ s nuhlf btg


nuhlfshF. (c) shlh nuhl, Fnuhah nuhl, ehnt nuhl, nu
nuhl ca mr nfhLfUJ s il nfhL neh Xo tU
nuhlf fLF nuhlf vdgL (c) yhuhl nuhl, bgU nuhl,
bgFyh nuhl, ka mr gFfUJ il nfhL neh XotU
nuhlf FnuhlkhF (c) fnghah nuhl, fhd nuhl Kjad.
cy _W bgU nguhf nuhlf mikJsd. mit, a
nguh nuhlf, myho nguh nuhlf, g nguh nuhlf.
bra : fl nuhlfis ga thd jftfis my cj bfhL
bjJ bfh.
3.8 fl tsf
fl cs tsf kjDF, kw cdfSF gaDsjhf csd.
fl fQF bjahj ghOahUJ bgU uhahd fy
tiu csd. 1,50,000 tif cdf thwd. m 16,000 tif fS, 20,000
tif jhtufS mF csd.
fl c Kj midJ tifahd vyh fbghUfS csd. c,
ka, nuh, fjf, ghng, khfR cUilf, jf, yf ju
U, jfu, bghlha, nua kW Fnuhik Ugjhf
fLofgLsd. itf bjrhiy tsF bgJ gagLwd.
95

rtsfshd vbz flYF mo flf flL


gF Ugjhf fLsd. vdnt ekF njitahd r tsfis
fl mwJ. Xjf _y Xj r bgwgLwJ.
flUJ cz bghUf njitahd ms bgwgLwJ. xU
Ka cz bghUshf, vbz, kUJ kW cuf jahf
_ybghUfshf gagLjgLwJ. oF bjh xU Ka
bjhyhf btg klyf gwgLwJ. cy Ka o jsf
midJ flfiuF mUfhik mikJsd. ju MflfS Mfl
oF ca jsfshf csd. UJ , fy nghw kf
f ofgL vbz, njh bghUf jahfgLwd.
fl kiHia juToa xU Ka Mjhu vdyh. flUJ R
fhWf _y flfiuia xoa ygFf mf kiH bgWwd.
nkflthW fl vzw tsf e thifF cWJiz
wd. vdnt fliy khRgLjhk fhghWtJ ekJ flikahF.

3 . 9 Rdh (Tsunami)
xnu eh cyfij mrgl, Mragl itj brh Rdh. j
_W vGJ brh j who Ka brhyhf tuyh VlJ.
Vfdnt gy ehLf Rdh wij rUjhY ekF J J. j
who ts jft bjh Eg u Uj nghY, z
yhjjh Mufzhd cfis HJnsh. flYfo VgLw
fgjh Rdhia cUthFwJ.
d bgURtiul ukhlkhdJ j Rdh miyRt. j s
mfyij brhdh Mrakhf UF. J fliy flF. fiuia
kLnk jhF. gh nghy gJ gJ flfiu Xu kL glbkLJ
jdJ wij fhL. Rdh miyf fiu neh gaz brnghJ fl
rhjhuzkhf njhW. fiuia bjhll jh mj Mw mRu ntf
t%g vLF. mnghJ VgL miyf rj gafukhf UF.
Rdh vwh vd?
Rdh vwh Mnguiy vW bghU. J fl MHgFUJ
cUthwJ. J bgUghY flYfo yeLf nghJ VgLtjh
yeLfir fhuzkhf mj nk cs j l bgaUwJ. jdh
bga miyfshf flnyhu gFfSF tUwJ. j miyf bjhFng
Rdh vgjhF.
96

Rdh vgJ #gha brh R (Tsu) vwh #gha bkh JiwKf vW


bghU dh vwh miy. j miyf JiwKffis jhajh jid Rdh
(JiwKf miy) vW miHjd #gha. jbganu nghJ cyf KGtJ
VW bfhsgl bgauhf tH tUwJ.
eLfl Rdh miyf miys f mfkhf UF miy
ntfK mfkhf UF Rdh ntf kF 350 .UJ 850 .. tiu
UF. Rdh riuia jhFnghJ mj cau1 lUJ 50 l tiu
UF. fiuia beUF xU Rdh miyF dh bdhU Rdh miy
100 myJ 200 .lUF mgh tJ bfhoUF. J nghy xbthU miyahf
bjhlJ fiuia neh tJ bfhnlUF.
yeLfK Rdh
yeLfK, Rdh xWbfhW bjhl cilait. fl y eLf
Vgl Rdh miy cUthf bjhlL. J Rdh cUthF lF,
flfiuF il cs u msit bghUjJ. flfiuia xo cs
gFf nyrhd y m Vglh Tl clnd fiuia L j brW l
ntL. Vbd mnj neu fiuF mgh Mfl VnjD xU l y
m ikagF Ujh, Rdh miy Vgl thUgjh vrifahf
UfntL.
Rdh njhWtij mJ njha clndna fla Ko. g bgUfl
gF jh Rdh mofo VgLwJ xU whoF ruhrahf 6 Kiw
VgLwJ. vdnt mbfyh Rdh jhFj g vrif ikaf
WtgLsd.
2004 org 26 nj Vgl Rdh njhndah, jhyhJ, yif, knyah,
khy, ah, mjkh nfhgh, jehL, nfush, Muh, gfshnjZ,
nrhkhah, bfah Ma ehLfis jhaJ.
bra : Rdh
Rdh - org 2004
2004 izajs _y jft fsa jah brf.
Rdh jft ika
Rdh jft ikafshf, gdhL Rdh jftika (International Tsunamic Information Centre) g Rdh vrif ika (Pacific Tsunamic Warning Centre) Ma uL

ikaf mbkfh bragL tUwd.


l ms nfh 7.5 msF nk xU y m gthd clndna Rdh
ffh ga braghLf jhdhfnt bjhlL. mj Rdh
97

ciknyna VgLsjh vgJ g miy msit iyafUJ (Tidal Gauge


Station) tuf vrif ikajh nfhugLwd.

Rdh af vJ iy

vW miy msit iyaf bjJlh Rdh ffh cldoahf


WjgLwJ. Rdh af Ugjhf j iyaf cW brJ lh
mLj 14 k neu Rdh jhf ths vyh lfSF jftf
mDggLwd.
RdhUJ jgJ vgo?
fg, Rdh nghw nguf F, a, kiH nghw gUtfhy khwfsh
VgLtJ iy. UD FWa neu VgL j mghaij ngl
nkyhik _y eik fhJ bfhtJ mta.
3.10 Koiu
j cyf f bgaJ. mijl bga mthwiy aif kjDF
tHsJ. j Mwiy bfhL aifF vuhd braf <Lglhk
Uf ntL. eh aFtJ nghy FS X af elJ bfhL jh
UwJ. ij jh yeLff, Rdhf ekF czJwd. aif
cs tsfis ng ghJfhgJ aif wfUJ eik eh ghJfhJ
bfhtJ f aikahjjhF.
3.11 ghit f
1.

Arthur N. Strahler- Principles of Earth Science, Happer * Row publication. nLondon (1976)

2.

Balbir Singh Negi, Physical Geography, SJ Publication (1990)

3.

Cain.H.R., Geography, Longman pvt.Ltd., Madras.

4.

Das Gupta, A.R. Kapoor A.N.- Principles of physical Geography S.Chand &
Co.Ltd. New Delhi.

5.

Kumarasamy, K. Kamaraj E, Anand P.H, Samuvel Selvaraj R, Kumar VClimatology, Grace Publication, Kumbakonam

6.

Nigam V.N (1975), A Complete course in certificate Geography, Pijamhar


Publishing company, New Delhi (1975)

7.

Sindhu Basker, fg, Rdh V? vgo?

98

myF 4

A.

cnfhs

mKf
xU cnfhs. cdf midJ xWl xW
beUa bjhl bfhL, aif Niyia rhJ thwd. jifa
cfSF, aif NiyF cs bjhlig tgnj Niya
(Ecology) MF. jifa bjhl cs fyhd mikig MuhJ
tgnj aif Niy mik vgjhF. j mikghdJ vj
msY Ufyh. mjhtJ f a Fil UJ, f bga mnkrh
kiHfhLf tiu mikayh. jifa aif Niy mik vthW
miHJsJ vgij thf fhngh.

myFTWf
4A.1

aif Niy mik

4A.2

kjDF aif NiyF cs bjhlf

4A.3

aif tsfS kjD

4A.4

aif tsf tiff


4A.4.1

cUs tsf

4A.4.2

cuw tsf

4A.4.3

JfToa tsf

4A.4.4

Jf Koahj tsf

4A.4.5

RHF cgl tsf

4A.5

tsf - ghJfh kW nkyhik

4A.6

Koiu

4A.7

ghit f

99

fw braf

t
v

myF
TWf

t HfgL
brKiw
g

njit gL
jft f

t ufis nrfF
l
g

xgil
jhf
t F C Niy mik
aif
cs aif aif Niy
Niy
Niy
nfLf jLF
mik
mik
t Kiwf
mikJs
j
xgil
aif
ah
t sf Ka kiy
Ka kiy
t hlfS
t iff
t hlf,
Jf
mt
RWyhjyf
fhzgL
Toa
t sf
RWyh
jyfS

kw lf

jhf t F
gFia MuhJ
mJ bjhFj

yf,
izajs,
yt iuglf

Jf
Toa
t sf

mif :
Wt d
'ku eLHh'

ku eL Hh
bfhlhL eh Wt d
mj KaJt

Jf
Koahj
t sf

JQF
jf :
Figf
UJ
rhu
vLF
t Kiwf
jeho
mit
gwgL
lf

Figf UJ
rhu vLF
t Kiw,
gwgL
lf

jHf mu
bra lf,
izajs

ngz jFj
Kndw
t iuaiw
braghLf

yf,
izajs

fyJiuahl :
ngz jFj
t sf
Kndw
ghJfh
ga
kW
i w a
nkyhik
KaJt

100

4A.1 aif Niy mik (Eco System)


aif Niy mik vgJ y, , fhW kW cdfshd
jhtuf, uhf Matiw cslaJ. ij uL tifahf
fyh. mit,
(1)

bgsf Niy

(2) ciy Niy


bgsf NiyahdJ y, , fhW Matiw cslajhF.
ciy NiyahdJ jhtufis, uhfis cslajhF.
vdnt uL xUizj bjhFjh cnfhs (Biosphere) vW
miHfLwJ. a j cnfhskhdJ xU jjik thj
mikig bfhljhf sFwJ. Vbd, vyh cdfS xid
xW rhJ thtnjhL, jh thG guYs bgsf Niyia rhJ
thwd. vdnt j cnfhs vgJ kL fhzgL xU
NiyahF. tsJ tU kj ehffF, th mogilF j
cnfhs ikahjjhF.
cnfhsij _W tifahf fyh. mit,
1 . ynfhs
kj gntW eltoiffSF Kakhdjhf ynfhs mikwJ.
kj j ciHghY, rahY aif Niyia khWwh. kj
ftsfis njho vLwh. kufis, yFfis mwh.
MW

iu

rF,

gazF

gagLJwh.

ynjhw tabtfis, efufis, bjhrhiyfis


cUthFwd. jdh, y Fl unjrf g bjh brJ,
cg bjh ikafshf, ahghu unjrfshf Kndw
kilwd. xbthU unjrK xbthU tif aif tsij
gagL jw thj bjhFfis VgLwJ.
2 . nfhs
nfhs vdgLtJ gufshd nguhf, Vf, MWf kW cs
ju iyfis cslajhF, bkhj gu 71% nkyhf
iyf fhzgLwd.
101

Mjhuf

rjj

bgUflf (c )

97.5

gahWf, gFf kW g

2.0

0.5

bkhj

100.0

j gu nghw cz tiffS, fkf, vbz ts,


aif th, yf nghw r bghUfS ilwd.
3 . tnfhs
tnfhs vdgLtJ nfhsij KGikahf Nj thfsh Md xU
nghitahF. njitahd ms btgkiltjF, u ygFia
btJbtJghf itUf tkly xU Clfkhf bragLwJ.
gntW fhyiy ytjF tkly fhuzkhf mikwJ. jhtuf kW
ydf thifahdJ fhyiy gUt ntWghoF Vg uhf
mikJsJ. btgK, kiH kjid ghwJ. vdnt y
fhiyiyF VwthW kj j cil, cz kW thif Kiwfis
mikJbfhwh.
4A.2. kjDF aif NiyF cs bjhlf
kjDF, aif NiyF cs bjhlid g khl a (Human Geography) _y mJ bfhsyh.nkY kj j njitfis
brJ bfhs aif NHnyhL izJ bragL Kiw _yK mJ
bfhsyh. Mdh iuthf bgU tU cyf kf bjhif bgUf j
aif Niy rkiyia f ghJsJ. kf bjhif bgUf
fhuzkhf aif tsf mfkhf gagLjgLwd.
vyh cdfS mt dbgUfF, tsF, njitahd
MwYF, czitna ehosd vgij eh mnth. Mw Xnu _y Na
r kLnk. jhtuf jf czit Na ria bfhL jahwd.
mij jhtuf, jf tsF gagL bfhwd. jhtuf
czthf (rhfgf) khf, MLf, ghOahf nghwtF
gagLwd. C cfshd f, nghwit rhfgfis cL
Mwiy bgWwd. kj rhfgfis, jhtufis czthf
bfhwh. ghOah, kG nghwit koj jhtufis, Uffis
ijJ, rJs jhJthf khWwJ. mtiw jhtuf czthf vLJ
bfhwd.
102

Niy kly cWdfSF ilnas bjhl


vdnt Niy kly rahdJ xU cz iyUJ knwh
cz iyF brtnj cz r bjhl vdgL. cz r vgJ
f vikahdJ my. Vbd y cdf gy tifahd czfis
cbfhwd. mit gy cdfSF czthf mikwd. j cz
r bjhl VjhtJ xU gF bjhju braglh Niy fLikahd
isfis VgLJ vgij eh czu ntL. RWw bjhlf
VjhtbjhU a mikig khWtjhdhY mJ KG RWw mikignk
khL. vdnt vj xU Niy klyY m thG cdf
Niyia rkgLJ Kiwnyna jfis mikJ bfhwd. Mdh
kj j aifF khwhf Niyia jdF rhjfkhf kh bfhL
tUwh.
jisthf aif brtf FiwJ bfhL tUtJ, bghUshjhu
braKiw mik ntWgLtJ eh mj xwhF. bgUghyhd
ghff gagLjgLld. j isthf bgUghikahd lf
k m, yr, tw nghw ilWf VgLwd. kf bgUf
efwf bgUFtj isthf gyj iurfS, btgK,
fbghUfS bga ms aif Niy nfLfis VgLJwJ.
Niy kly cWdfSF ilnas bjhl
Na
fay th
r

jhtuf
(cgahsf)
ieu#

rhfgr

ijgit

C cf

ju ff

4A.3 aif tsfS kjD


tsf vdgLgit kj njitia bra Toait MF.
aifts vgJ UJ lbghUshfnth, ut bghUshfnth myJ
th bghUshfnth ilf Toa xU bghUshF. vdnt, kj j
njitfhf nkguY, foY l, ut kW th
bghUfis neuoahfnth, kiwKfkhfnth gagLJwh.
103

jifa aif tsfis cUthFt aif Niy mik


bgUgF twJ. kiy, k, MW, mik, fhyiy nghwtiw
bghWJ xU eho aif ts mikwJ.

4A.4 aif tsf tiff


aif tsfis mJ njha j mogil U Ka
fshf fyh. mit
1. cUs tsf (Biotic Resources)
2. cuw tsf (Abiotic Resources)
4A.4.1 cUs tsf
aif fhzgL tsf vjhf milahs fhzgLtJ cUs
bghUfns MF. kj cUs tsf jiywj tskhf
fUjgLwh. jhtufS, yFfS c ts mlF. c tsf
midJ, Niy TWf rhjhfkhf cstiu, jfsJ dfis cUth
bfhnl UF. vdnt midJ cUs tsfS Jf jFj tsfns
MF. mt jiknfg, NHYnfg mit khWgLwd.
4A.4.2 cuw tsf
cuw tsf vdgLtJ, Jf ayhjjhF. bjhlJ gagLJ
bghGJ Jl Toait. xU Kiw vLfglh L mgF ilgJ
mjhF. jhJfshd yf, bgnuha, aifth nghwit cuw
tsf y Ka rhWfshF. U, mYa nghw jhJf, cyf
KGtJ gutyhf fhzgLwd. jf nghw xU y cuw tsf
Fiwthf Fl lf kLnk fhzgLwd. ilF tsf
ms kW mtiw mila eh gagLJ bjhEg Matiw bghUJ
cuw tsf U fhy tiuaiw mikwJ. cuw tsf gy jnghJ
y FiwJ tUtjh flyo mikJlF tsfis njo
gagLJtJ mfJsJ.
mLJ jifa aif tsfis JF mogil _W
tifahf fyh mit,
1. Jf Toa tsf.
2. Jf Koahj tsf kW 3. RHFgl tsf MF.
4A.4.3 Jf Toa tsf
vj tsfis Jf aYnkh, mitah Jf Toa tsf
vdgLwd. it kj, fhLf, ts, fheilf nghw
ctsfis cslsd.
104

a) kj ts
kjts midJ tsfY w fJ. W midJ
WtdfS, mikfS, ehLfS j KaJtij czJ
lL

gagLj

MuJsd.

tsj

ehLf

tsF

mogilahd fhuz, mehLf jf kj tsij Kiwgo gagL


bfhlnj MF.
b) f h L f
fhLf kjDF gntW tiff gagLwd. Kakhf mit
k kW ghJfhF, tdyF ghJfhF, NH rkghoF
bgJ gagLwd. fhLf fhyiyia jgLJwd. fhLf
cg bjh Ka gF twd. vdnt fhLf flha
ghJfhfgl ntoa xU tskhF. jdh k m, yr nghwit
jLfbgW k ts ghJfhfgLwJ. nkY fbga MWf cg
MF lfshf, tdyF ruzhyafshf kj aif
fhfis fLfF bghGJnghF lfshf csJ.
cy 2/3 gfhf Uj fhLf jbghGJ 1/3 gfhf FiwjJsJ.
cyf KGtY cs fhLfis mit mikJs klyf, kutif kW
fhyiyia bghWJ 3 tiffshf fyh. mit,
i) btg kly fod kutif fhLf
ii) jbtgkly fod kutif fhLf kW
iii)jbtg kly bk kutif fhLf
tif

fhLf,

bj

mbkfh

mnkrh

gFY,

Mfh fhnfh gFY, Mah kakiy, nkF bjhl kiy


kW knyah, ahk, njhndah y gFf kLnk jbghGJ
fhzgLwd. tif fhLf knfhf, vg, njF, rh, rh, _,
ug nghw fod tif kuf csd.
W

tif

fhLf

bgJ

mJ

tUwd.

Vbd

btgkly fhLf cs midJ ehLfSnk kf bjhifia mfkhf


bfhL, cg bjhYF, is yfSF fhil mwd.
nkY fk kW vbz tsfis vLF bghGJ, mizfLf,
bjhrhiyf, FoUf nghwtiw fL bghGJ fhLf
mfgLwd.
105

i)

jbtg kly fod kutif fhLf


it tlHF mbkf Ia ehLf, Inuhgh ka rkbt,

tldh kW #gh, HF Mnuah kiygF nghw lf


fhzgLwd. tif fhLf Ka kuf X, the, nk
nghwit MF. btg kly fhLf nghW it cg bjhYfhf
bgJ mfgL tUwd.
ii)

jbtg kly bktif ku fhLf


tif kuf, j btg kly F unjrfshd fdlh, l,

ehnt, yhJ, irah, yhJ, ah kakiy ca mr


unjr nghw gFf fhzgLwd. X, brj, ig, ~

tif kuf fhzgLwd.

bgwgL kuf bgo

bjhrhiy, fhj bjhrhiyf, kubghikf, isahL rhkhf


nghw cg bjhf gagLwd.
jbghGJ mJ tU fhLfis ghJfhf a muR gntW
eltoiff vLJ tUwJ. mit ;
ahghu nehfJl ku btLjiy, mu gntW bfhiff
_y fLgLJwJ.
a td yhfh vLJ tU KafshY, kufis eLtj _yK
fhLf mig FiwwJ.
nluhL (Dehra Dun) cs a tdMuh Wtd (FRI-Forest
Research Insititute) fhLfis tswJ. m xWjh r_f fhL
ts (Social Forestry) vgJ. j _y gyhufzfhd
kiyth kfS, trhfS ntiy thid bgWsd.
nkY 1950 M ML bjhlfgl, ku eL Hh vD bfhif,
xbthU ML mnlhg Kj thu bfhlhlgL
kufWf elgL tsfgLwd.
bra : cf Wtd ku eLHh bfhlho mjid ga
mif jah brf.
ts kW fheil tsf
bgU tU kf cz njitfSnfg czfshd , gh, Kil,
iw nghwit Ka lij twd. jbghGJ oj ms
caJsjh eh gy uridfis rf ntosJ. mit,
106

ed

glFf

_y

ogjh,

msF

mfkhf

ofgLwJ.
glFfS, fgfS cuf, bfhf, U ehf kW
vbz jhJfis vLJ brY bghGJ gJfdh, fl
fyJ tif tsf mJL mgha csJ.
mQ Muh kW mQf Kjad fl nrtjh VgL
faffdhY tsf ghfgLwd.
flYfo vbz ts vLgjfhf nghlgL FHhf
VgL ghdh vbz f VgL ts mfgL
mgha csJ.
vdnt muR tsfSF gh Vglhtz, jDila ts
gfis jFj rlf kW eltoiff _y nkbfhL tsij
ghJfhj f mta.
tsf nghnw
tsfshf

fheilfS xU fwj Jf Toa

nghwgLwJ.

Mdh

cz

njitfhf

mit

Jjiyl, f ntfkhf mfgL tUtnj mf csJ. vdnt muR


j a lf _y fheil tsfis bjhlJ Jf
trhfSF, fheil nkr bjh gtUF, fl trfis,
ed bjh Egfis ga mit jJ tsij Jj
mta MF.
4A.4.4 Jf Koahj tsf
fk ts
tif tsf fk tsfshd UjhJ, jhu, khfR,
ghi[, Jjehf, jfu nghwitfS, r tsfshd yf,
vbzjhJ nghwit mlF. xUKiw jhJf UJ
vLfglh mtiw L Jf ayhJ. bjhlJ RufUJ xU
fkij vLJbfhnl Ujh mit J Lwd. jdhjh,
Ruf bjhiy, bfhis bjh vW TWt. tsfis Jf
ayhJ vgjh tiw gagLJt Fj vrif njitgLwJ.
vbz kW aif th ekJ mwhl gagho Ka lij
twJ. ekJ eho KigY, fhnt bllh gFY 40% vbz
vLfgLwJ. j 60% cgnahfF tisFlh ehLf UJ wFk
bragLwJ.
107

k ts
ekJ Kjik bjhyhd trha ktsij rhJsjh kts
f mtakhwJ. jhtuf kW yFfdh k ts
zfgLwJ. XL , fhW, btg Mait k cUthtjF
fhuzkhf UjhY mitna k mF fhuzkhwJ. nkY
msffkhd urhad cuf gagLJj, bjhlJ gLj _yK
k ts gfgLwJ.
thW VgL k mig, k ts ghfgLjiy
jLgjfhd tKiwf;
ku btLjiy jj
kufis eLj
rk cauKiw kW gofL Kiw ntshik (Contour Farming)
fh ntf mfkhf cs lf kufis mufshf
tsj.
urhad cufis jJ c cufis, jiH cufis mf
ms gagLJj.
g RH Kiw trha brj.
it midJnk Jf Koahj tsfshf csjh kfSF
jid g z VgLJtj _yK, uhd kW khW cgnahfij
tWJtj _yK kLnk jid eh ng fhf Ko.
vdntjh twhj tsfshf cs Na r, fhW, fl miyf
MatUJ r bgwgLtjF lf mudh lgLwd.
Mdh Kiw bjh Eg <LghL mfkhf UgjhY, KjL
mf njitgLtjhY, t _y ilF r ms f
FiwthF. W Figf UJ rhu (Bio Fuel) vLF Kiw
bgUghY tsj ehLf gagLjgLwJ. Mdh ah nghw tsU
ehLf twhj tsfUJ bgwgL ria gagLJ Kiw kLnk
eilKiw csJ.
bra : Figf UJ rhu vLF tKiwf g, mtiw
jeho vbfyh gWwhf vgJ g xU W
JQF jf jah brf.
108

4A.4.5. RHF cgl tsf


RHF cgl tsf Ka tskhF. xU Kiw gagl
uhdJ RH kL kWRHF cgL RjgLjgL L
cgnahfgLwJ.
k tsij nghnw tsK, ey Kiw gagLjgl ntL.
czF mLjgoahf , thifF aikahjjhwJ. nkY
trhaF, bjhrhiyfSF f mta. vdntjh jid
fdkhf, mnj neu nfL yhkY gagLJj f
mtakhwJ. nkY jid RH kW kWRH _y gagLJj xU
f Kakhd brayhf csJ.
jid fU bfhLjh a murhfkhdJ gnehF
mizfL l _y gntW mizfis fLJ khRgLj
UJ, zhfgLj UJ ghJfhwJ. vLJfhlhf, nk^,
jhnkhj, guhef, nfh,uhF, Jfguh, ehfh#]drhf kW rg
Ma gnehF lfis (Multipurpose Projects) Twyh. nkY ijifa
tsij bfhL r jahgjfhfnt trKu, igfhuh, ko,
A (k.), bfhdh (kAh), ghnksh (x[h) nghw mizfLf
flgLsd.
4A.5. tsf - ghJfh kW nkyhik
jbghGJ kj aif tsf gaghil mfJ bfhnl
tUwh. bgU tU kf bjhifF VwthW njitfS mfJ
bfhnl tUwd. thW aifahd tsfis mfkhf gagL
KY mJ nghtij jLf aif ghJfh filofgLwJ.
vdnt aif tsf mtij xU ey ll kW wj nkyhik
_y, xU uhd gaghoF bfhztnj aif tsghJfh vdgL.
ij fl tKiwf gwyh.
vyh tsfis ftdJlD, fhy mltiz lJlD
gagLjgl ntL.
tsf midJ ghJfhfgl ntoa iy cs fhuzjh
RH kW kWRH Kiwfis gagL, twhj tsfsh
gagLJtJ eyJ.
109

twhj tsf JizbfhL tsfis ghJfhfyh. (v.fh


Na r)
khW tsfshd Nar, fhW kW flyiyf nghw r
tsfis ehLj f mta.
k, , fhW, fhLf kW tdyF, fk tsf nghwtiw
a Kiw gagL tsf ghJfhfgl ntL.
kjD j njitfis FiwJ bfhL aif tsf nkY
gyhu MLfSF ilf Toa go gagLJj ntL.
ngz jFj Kndw (Sustainable Development)
ngz jFj Kndw vgJ kj khtU njitnfg, xU
btfukhd nkyhikl, aif tsfis mf gaghoUJ,
khRgLjUJ tU jiyKiwdUfhf ghJfhj MF.
W ah 1000 a kf bjhifia jho lJ. bgU tU
kf bjhifnfg, midJ JiwfY cg wid bgUf ntoa
flha cnsh. thW cgfhf bjhlJ eh tsfis
gagLJbghGJ, mjdh VgL v isf ga zit
kfilna VgLJj mta. vdnt,
uhk kflUJ Jt efw kf tiu mtfSila mwhl
thif khRgLjdh VgL ikfis, zit VgLJj.
(v.fh) eRbghUfis btnaW Miyfis jFj muR eltoiff
_y jLj, W FLg be, fhLfis tsj nghwit.
RWw NH ghJfh kW uhd j aif tsf
gaghL Ma uil, ngz jFj Kndwfhd z
bfhiffshf bfhSj.
cs tsfis, jnghija rjdUF ntoa njitfis
tUfhy rjd njitfis, brgo gagLJj.
bjhlf fUnj RW wij ngz ntoaj mtaij
ga fait twJj.
e eho tsfis, RWwij ghJfhj cs jkj
bghWig czu itj.
ed fhyf, kj Mlgu bghUfis nrfgY, mj _y
mt thif ju cawJ vw nghahd vzfis jf
110

ntL. thW brtj _y tsfis mf ms cg w


gagLJtij jJ tsfis ghJfhfyh.
jeg j bghWig czw mnj neu, J xU cyf uid
vgij czJ bragLj.
bra : ngzjFj Kndw KaJt ga fyJiuahl
gnfW mif jah brf.
vdnt jbghGJ UF tsfis llhk cgnahjh
tU rjdUF bkhjkhf khrilj X cyfij, xU tskw
thifia kLnk ju aY. mnghJ ehff yhj ma,
kjjik yhj xU rKjha nghwit cUthL. vdnt nkfa
ma uia mgona e njitfis xo kh mikfhk,
njitnfg bragL, rKjhaK, RWwK bflhk fhf ntoaJ
e jiyaha flikahF. vdnt jbghGJ ekF ntoa njitfis
brJ, tU rjdUF tsfis ghJfhj f mta.
Jnt ngz jFj KndwK MF.
4A.6.Koiu
Koiu
cnfhs kj brthF caUjhY, aif
NiyF Kughlhf kj thHnt KoahJ vgij j my _y eh
czuyh. vdnt aif Niy rkghL ghfhjthW kj j
brafis mikJ thH ntL. mnj neu tUfhy rjdU thH
t tFf ntL.
4A.7. ghit f
Asthana D.K & Meera, 2003

Environment Problems and Solutions


S. Chand & Co.Ltd, New Delhi.

Dix. H.M, 1981

Enviromental Pollution
John Willey & Sons, New York.

Singh, Savindra, 1995

Enviromental Geography
Prayag Pustak Bhavan, Allahabad.

Subramanian. V., 2002

A Text Book in Enviromental Science.


Narosa pullinshing House, New Delhi.

111

B.

khRgLj

mKf
eh mwhl khRgLj ga brfis brjhf kW
bjhiyfh _y mJ bfhnl Unwh. khRgLjyh cy
btgkakhjY, mlhofhYs gkiyf cUFjY, Xnrh kly
RUFtjhY, Na x mbtg neuo jhfij VgLJtJ,
twh tsfSl kj tsK nfL miltJ bjhlJ eilbgW
bfhnl csd. mntfkhf bgUF kf bjhif, ma bjhEg
ts eh gagLJ thfdf if y, kW fh
ajikia kh gntW bgsf, urhad kW cd khwfis
cUthFwd. braKiwia khRgLj vnwh. khRgLj bjhlJ
eilbgwh cd midJ iu ma Toa mghaKsJ.
vdnt khRgLj kW khRgLjUJ ia ghJfhF tKiwf ga
fUJfis Ma khzhff midtU mJ bfhtJ f mta.

myF TWf
4B.1

fhW khRgLj

4B.1.1 fhW khRgLj isf


4B.1.2 fhW khRgLjiy fLgLJj
4B.2

khRgLj

4B.2.1 khRgLjiy njhWgit


4B.2.2 khRgLj tiff
4B.3

y khRgLj

4B.3.1 ghjurjh VgL khR


4B.3.2 sho ff
4B.4

x khRgLj

4B.4.1 x khRgLj isf


4B.5

efukakhj

4B.6

RWNH ju Fiwj

4B.7

gRik y is

4B.8

fhLf mj

4B.8.1

fhLfis ghJfhj

4B.9

btg mfj

4B.9.1

btg mf ghf
112

4B.9.2

btg mfgh cdfSF VgL ghf

4B.10.

ah khRgLj mfkhf cs lf

4B.11

ngl nkyhik

4B.11.1 ngl iyf


4B.11.2 ngliu kLgLJj
4B.11.3 ngl nkyhik VgLs Kndwf
4B.11.4 ngl nkyhik ah a lf
4B.11.5 ngl nkyhik khy mu mikf
4B.12

Koiu

4B.13

ghit f

fw braf
t .vt HfgL brKiw
myFTWf

njit gL
jft f

goaLj :
jhf t F
fhW khRgLjYF
gF fhW
fhuzkhd
1 fhW khRgLj
khRgLjYF
t hf,kW
fhuzkhdt hfis
j f
flJ goaLj
khRgLjiy
Mt if
njhWgit ,
khRgLj
VgL is f,
khRgLj
fhuzf kW
2
khRgLjiy
is fis MJ
fLgLJ
mif jahj
t Kiwf

6.

goaLj
t F gF x x khRgLjYF
x khRgLj
khRgLs
fhuzkhd braf
lfis flJ kW mj f
fis goaLj
RWNH ju
Fi w j

xgil
khRfLghL
t ha mik
kW gf

RWNH
ghJfh

RWNH kw
kW nja
gRikgil

ngl
nkyhik

t ufis nrfF l
g

kw lf
Wt d ( m) t F
l
fhW khRfis
flJ
mj
Wt d mU
cs khRgLs
iyfUJ
khf vLJ
Muhj.
Wt d ( m) t F
l x khR
cs lf,
fhuzf kW
fis flJ
goaLj

khRfLghL
t ha mik
kW gf

a
khRfLghL
t ha

FlgLs
kw braghLf

brjh,
izajs, a
khRfLghL
t ha

fyJiuahl
ngl, ngl
ngl ga
nkyhik
t uf, z
z , ngl
kW nkyhik
nkyhik
elt oiff ga
elt oiff
fyJiuahl

113

brjh,
izajs,
muRlf
( ngl ga
z Kfhf)

4B.1.fhW
fhW khRgLj (Air Pollution)
cd thtjF tkly aikahjJ. tkly gy
thf fyitahF. ieu# 78.09% M# 20.95, Mfh 0.93,
fhg-il- Mi[L kW y Fiwj mss thf mlsd.
kjDF f mtakhd M# tklyYsJ. xU kj xU
ehisF Rkh 20,000 Kiw ruhr 16 nyhuh fhiw M#Dl
tkly UJ bgW btLwh. fhW ehSF eh
eRfhwhf khRgL bfhnl tUwJ. kj RthF j eRfhW
mtdJ cl eyij ghJ bfhnl tUwJ.
tklyYs fh fk kW fk nta bghUfshf
khRgLJ bghUf l , ut kW th iyf tJ fywJ. Fghf
fhg-il- Mi[L, nshnuh fhg, ieu# Mi[L, fjf TL
bghUf, mnkhah, ienuhfhg kW Jl lh, Vnuhrh
nghwitf khRfshf mf fywJ.
khRgLj jik ms khRf jik kW msit bghWJ
mikwd. J lF l kj braghLfSFnfg, aif
NiyF Vg khWgLwJ. fhW U tf khRgLwJ. mitahtd,
1. aif ffsh khRgLj.
2. kj eltoiffsh khRgLj.
1. aif ffsh fhW khRgLj :
vkiy btojyh btgL , rhg, if, fhg-il-Mi[L
kW gy thf btgLtjhY.
bt

cs

vff,

xWl

xW

nkh

Gtjh

njhWfgL fshY.
brofUJ

btgL

uhngh

fhuzkhf,

EQfUJ btgL fhg-il-Mi[L _yK.


y kW flUJ bttU c kW k bghUfshY, fhW
khRgLwJ.
2. kj eltoiffsh fhW khRgLj :
LfY,bjhrhiyfY

Figfis

thfdfUJ btnawgL eRfhW _yK.


114

vj

_ykhf,

bjhrhiyfUJ, RuffUJ bga efufUJ


FfgLw l f bghUfdhY.
mQfU ciyfUJ mQr btahtjhY, mQfU s
nghwtwh VgL frhY.
Lf kW bjhrhiyfUJ btnawgL if, btg
nghwtwhY, fhW f ntfkhf, mf msY khRgLwJ.
fhW khRgLj isf :
fhW mntfkhf gkl khRgLjyh fl isf
VgLwd.
1. thiy kW fhyiy khw.
2. kjDF VgL cl eynfL
3. jhtufSF VgL gh
1. thiy kW fhyiy khw
fhW

khRgLj

gntW

tf

VgLtj

fhuzkhf

ekJ

UlY, Rs gFfY, cyf msY fhyiy kW


thiy khwf bjhlJ eilbgWwd.
Frhjd bgofUJ kW ed bghUfUJ btnaW
Fnshnuh-nshnuh fhgf , tklyYs Xnrh klyij
ntfkhf ghJ tUwJ. j fhuzkhf nkgu btgiy
bjhlJ mfJ bfhnl tUwJ. j isthf Mo, mlho
nghw lf cs gghiwfis, ggofis cUf itwJ.
jdh fl kl bjhlJ caJ tUwJ. flYF cns cs gy
f kW flnyhu gFf fl _F mgha VgLsJ.
(a) gRik y is (Green House Effect)
fhg-il-Mi[L kW gy thf bjhlJ tkly nrJ
tUtjh tkly cs gRik y is mfkhf tUwJ.
(b) if_l gut (Smog)
thfdfUJ, bjhrhiyfUJ btnaW ifahd fhg
nkhdhi[L,

fjf-il-Mi[L

kW

ieu#

Mi[Lf

g_lnjhL nrUbghGJ if_l njhWwJ. J kj cl


eyF nfL iswJ. 1952 ML org khj yl efu
115

Vgl tif g_ljh 4000-F nkgltf Rthr nfhshW


fhuzkhf wf nejJ.
(c) my kiH (Acid Rain)
kiHbgh nghJ kiHUl fyJ tU myijna mykiH
vW miHnwh. J bgUghY rg Mi[L kW ieu# Mi[L
Matwh njhWfgLwJ. P H k 7.0 Uj eyJ. jF
Fiwthf Ujh myjik mf bfhljhf UF. jF
mfkhf Ujh fhujik bfhljhf khL. P H k 4.0F,
mjF > brwh miu gagLdh f nkhrkhd cl
eynfil njhWF.
2. kjDF VgL cl ey nfL
fhg nkhdhi[L bgUks khRgLJ fhuahF. J kj
uj cs nkhFnsh cs _yTWf M#id l Rkh 200
klF ntfkhf fywJ. jdh ekF _Rzw VgLwJ.
tklyYs

Xnrh

mL

Jisf

VgLsd.

mJisf tahf btnaW Naf cs wCjh ff


njh rgjgl nehf, Wneh nghwtiw njhWwJ.
3. jhtufSF VgL ghf
Xnrh kly bjhlJ fhg bghUfsh ghfgLtjh mUJ
btnaW wCjhff jhtuklyij bgJ ghwd. Fghf
jhtuf gira jahF w, jhtuf bgUf kW k
<ujik nghwit bgJ Fiwwd.
bra : eh tF gFY eh fhQ gy lfY vbjj
Kiw tklyF fhg TLbghUf fywd? vd
MuhJ

tifgLJj.

(v.fh-

thfdf,

bjhrhiyf,

cztff, njitaw bghUfis vj nghwtfhd fis


J mltizLj.
4B.1.2

fhW khRgLjiy fLgLJj.

ehSF eh tsJ tU kj njitfis iw brtjfhd


bjh Eg tsah, fhW khRgLj jf Koahj xwhf csJ.
UD mtiw xU fLghLF itUgJ f mta. ekJ
116

thifF cfj Niyia njhWj ekJ flik. mjfhf


fl y cfis eh ifahs ntL. mitahtd,
1. muR kW muR rhuh Wtdf _y bghJkf midtUF
khRgLj ga zit VgLJj.
2. bjhlJ khRgLj iyia, msit ffhJ mjF Vg
lfis tFj.
3. ma khRgLjYF fhuzkhf cs _ybghUfis mJ,
mt gaghoid Fiwf brj.
4. tkly khRbghUf nruhk Uf ca tKiwfis
Muhj.
4 B.2. khRgLj (Water Pollution)
cdfSF f mogilahd njitfS xW MF. eh thG
cnfhskha cs bkhj xU rjjjh Rjkhd uhf
cdfSF ilwJ. yjo _y bgUks iljhY, tsJ
tU kf bjhif fhuzkhf, bjhrhiyf njitf
mfgjhY ms FiwtnjhL juK FiwJ bfhnl tUwJ.
khRgLjyh, mij cbfhS kjD, ydfS gntW cl
eynfil milwd.
khRgLj fl tf VgLwJ.
1. aif.
2. kj eltoiff.
1. aif
k m, vkiy bto, yr, cdf mGnghj
Matwh khRgLj VgLwJ. MWf mJ tU bghUfS,
fltU bghUfS fyJ ik nfil njhWwJ.
2. kj eltoiff
kj mwhl eltoiff _y khRgLj mfkhf
eilbgWwJ. it bjhrhiy ff, trha ff, bgUtU
efukakhj, fyhrhu, flikf Matwh VgLtd MF. nkY,
efu rhfilf, trhaF gagLJ urhad cuf kW
kUJf _ykhf, iwa kf rka, fyhrhu ffSF xW
117

TLnghJ, Fsf fheilfis FghLtjhY, Fig Tsfis


FsfY, MWfY bfhLtjhY jik bgJ ghfgLwJ.
4B.2.1 k h R g L j i y n j h W g i t
1. bjhrhiyfUJ tUgit
2. trha _y tUgit
3. efu _y tUgit
4. aif _y tUgit
4B.2.2 k h R g L j t i f f

khRgLj

VgL

jUJ

mtiw

flthW

tifgLjyh.
1. y nk cs khRgLj
2. Vf cs khRghL
3. yjo khRgLj
4. fl khRgLj
muR iwa a lfis bfhLtJ bragL, kfSF ey
zit VgLJtj _yjh jid fLgLj Ko.
bra : gy lf - zW, FHh, Fs, MW, Fil nghw lf
iu jjahf nrfJ, mt w, kz, jik, ju mt
fyJs

eR

bghUf

nghwtiw

goaL

mjfhd

fhuzfis, mjdh VgL isfis goaLj. nkY


juidfSfhd fis MJ mif jahj.
4 B.3 y khRgLj : (Soil / Land Pollution)
cnfhs cs cdfSF iu nghW yYs kQ
mtakhf njitgL bghU MF. k tskhf Ujhjh gf
bgUks gl Ko. tskhd kUJjh cdfSF
njitgL cz bghUfis isf aY. k njhWtjF l
fhy njitgLwJ. xU 2 1/2 br. (m) 1 k njhWtjF Mu MLf
MF vd fzlgLsJ.
kj eltoiffshnyh myJ aif tnyh k ju
Fiwjh mjid y, k khRgLj vnwh. J k mdhY
jhtuf cs rJf FiwtjhY, k cs E cf
118

FiwtjhY, <ugjikahY njhWwJ. nkY f mfkhf


gagLjgL urhad cuf, kUJf nghwtwhY khRgoj
njFtjhY, fhL VgLtjhY, efuf FfgL f
bghUfshY khRf mfkhfgL tUwJ.
y

khRgLjiy

VgLjJ

fhufis

flthW

tifgLjyh.
1.

bgsf TWf _y (Physical Sources)


k m, kiHas, btgiy, fhW, jhtuf gut, k
jik nghwitfsh.

2.

cf _y (Biological Source)
EQf, njitaw jhtuf,
btnaW EQf nghwit.

3.

yFfUJ

fhwh tU fhuf (Air Borne Sources)


bjhrhiyfUJ btnaW iff, thfdf UJ tU
if, Lf UJ btnaW if, my kiH nghwit.

4.

urhad cuf, c bfh kUJf (Chemical Fertilizer and Biocides)


trha cgia bgUFtjfhf gagLjgL urhad
cuf, kW kUJf nghwit.

4B.3.1 ghjurjh VgL khR ((Mercury Pollution)


rgfhy Mf, ghjurjh (Hg) VgL Rfhjhu nfLf g
btoUwd. bj mbkfh cs mnkrh fhLgFf
dkhlh (Minamata) vw neh eufis tYHf brJsjhf
flagLsJ. j ghjur (Hg) isf ah kW mbkf
Ia

ehLfY

fhzgLwJ.

kj

eltoiffshY,

braghLfshY, vkiy btoghY bt tUwJ ghjur kW


ghjurjh VgL is mfkhf Ujh, czik(Loss of sensation),
ghitH

(B l i n d n e s s ) ,

idik

(Coma ),

nghw

nehfis

njhWwJ.
cyf f mfkhd ms ghjur (Hg) moghiw mLFfY,
Mfl gofY fhzgLwJ. cyf bkhj ghjur ms 10 10 g
vd fzlgLsJ. tW 10-15 rjj ghjur btghL kj
eltoiffsh

btnaWwJ.

Fghf
119

kW

mQ

bjhrhiyfsh btnaWwJ. twh tU ff RW NHYF


c thjYF Fj iluhf mikJsJ. cz bghUf fygl
jil rl kW f (The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act and Rules)
1955 ghjur (Hg) xU eR cnyhf (Poisonous Metal) vd mJsJ.
4B.3.2 sho ff
sho ffdh Niy mikF kj cleyF
Fj nfL isfgLwJ. ah Rkh 4-5 rjj sho ff
njhWfgLwJ.
sho ff fl uidfis njhWwJ.
sho ff mtiy.
k toJ brtij jLwJ.
f FHhfis, oF gagL FHhfis milJ
bfhwJ.
sho ff vfgL nghJ eR if, thfsh (Toxie
fumes and gases) btah kj cleyij bfLwJ.
sho
ff vfgLnghJ mfkhd fay th
tkly fyJ btg mfig (Global warming)
mfgLJwJ.
jL Kiwf :
sho ffis Fiwf
sho bghUfis FiwJ bfhSj (Reduce)
L gagLJj (Reuse)
kW RH gagLJj (Recycle)
giz, bjid xiyfsh bragl bghUfis gagLJj
nghw tKiwfis gw tWjgLwJ.
sho bghUfis bfhL rhiyf nghL a bjh Kiw
flagL gagLjgLwJ.
y, k khRgLtjh kjDF f mtakhd cz cg
ghfgLwJ. nkY y lf yfis gagLj Koahj iy Tl
VgLLwJ. k ts fhf jFj eltoiffnshL kfSF
zit VgLJtJ f mtakhF.
120

4B.4.. x khRgLj (Noise Pollution)


mfkhd rj fhuzkhf kjDF VgL kdnrh (Discomfort) kW kd mikik (Restlessness) iana x khRgLj vnwh.
J aifahf, kj eltoiff _ykhf njhWfgLwJ. f
ntfkhf tsJ tU bjhts kW efukakhj nghw kj
braghLfsh x khR njhWfgLwJ.
mf mGjK uK bfhl xiajh khRgl (Noise) xahf
fUjgLwJ. x msthdJ blg (Db) vw myfh mslgLwJ.
fl mltizia cWnehf.
0 - 30 Db

f bkJthd x (Whispering)

50 -55 Db

fij fiyF rj

60 - 90 Db -

rhjhuzkhf nghL rj

90 - 95 Db -

khw Koahj eua jhfij njhWF rj

150- 160 Db

y yFf cUF MgJ isfToa rj

x khRgL jij itJ fl tiff fyh.


1. aifahf njhWgit
o, f ntfkhf R fhW, a, Myfo kiH, ol Toa fhW,
, mf kiH nghwit.
2. cdfsh njhWgit :
ydf rj, kjf eltoiff (rjkhf rilLj,
ghLj, j) nghwit.
3. braifahf njhWgit :
kj braghLfshd Fj rjJl irfU thj,
glhR btoj, khd x, bjhrhiyfUJ tU x, thfdf
njhWF x nghwit.
4B.4.1 x khRgLjdh VgL isf :
zfgl x msF nk VgL xf a lghLfUJ
ujukhf fhJnfshik iyF jL jik bfhlJ. vdnt j
isfis njhWfhj tz ekJ xbthU brafis
ffhJ elJ bfhtJ midtUF eykhdJ.
121

bra :

x khRgLjiy mJ bfhs mjj Cf, efuf,

Mat

gy

lf

vbjj

mfkhf

btgLjgLwJ vd goaLj. mtiw jLf nkbfhsgl


ntoa brafis goaLj.
4B.5 efukakhj : (Urbanisation)
tsJ tU kf bjhif bgUfK, njit kjfis efuij
neh Fo bgau brwJ. j fhuzkhf efuf f ntfkhf tsJ
tUwJ.

iwa

NiynfLfis

njhWwJ.

efu

folfSF gagLJ bghUfshY, eilghijfshY F y


btg rkiy ghfgLwJ. nkY fh RHia J ghwJ.
efu bttU if kW gy f bghUf fhuzkhf fhyiy
ghwJ. fhW f ntfkhf ghfgL mfkhd fhg il Mi[il
cbfhs ntoa iy VgLwJ. nkY fh fyF khRfsh ghF
w ( V i s i b i l i t y ) f FiwJ tUwJ. thfdfUJ tU if
bjhrhiyfUJ tU if, LfUJ tU if, kW Fnshnuh
nshnuh fhg nghwitf gl nrUnghJ if _lij
njhWwJ. J f eR jik bfhlJ. y neuf cH
nel J fhuzkhf mikwJ.
4B.6. RWNH ju Fiwj :
RW NH ju Fiwj vgJ Niy jh tFlY
mj gFY cyf msY aif khwfshY kj eltoiffshY
FiwJ bfhnl tUwJ. j Niy ju Fiwj eltoiffis
uL fshf fyh.
1. f ukhd ffS nfLfS (Extreme Events and Hazards)
2. khRgLj (Pollution)

RWNG ju Fiwj
f ukhd

khRgLj

ffS nfLfS

122

1. aifah VgL nfLf

bgsf khRghL

1. y VgLgit :

(Physical Pollution)

(vkiy, yeLf, y caj jhj)


2. tkly VgLgit :

1. fhW khRgLj
2. khRgLj

(Nwht, d)

3. y khRgLj

3. xLbkhj tkly nfLf :


(bts bgUF kW tw)
2. kjdh VgL nfLf
1. kjdh VgL fhL
2. yr (kj eltoif)
3. bjhrhiyfUJ btnaW
eR bghUf
4. kf bjhif bgUf

2. r_f khRghL
(Social pollution)
1. bgU tU kf bjhif
2. faik
3. ehLfSilnaahd
ril
4.mahik, tWik

5. ma cdf mj

nghwit

aif kj braghLfS nrJ j Niy ju


Fiwghil brjhY, kj braghLfjh m f mfkhd gF
twJ. vdnt kj eltoiff midY ma fnzhlJl
mtiw FiwF tf bragLtJ f mta.
bra :

xgil : khR fLghL thaF brW gy tifahd

lfis g mj. nkY khRfLghL tha cs tYef,


Jiw Phf nghwtfis miHJ sfiuahw brj.
j mogil khRfLghL tha braghLf ga
xgil jah brj.
4B.7. gRik y is (Green house effect)
fhg il Mi[L nghw thf tkly xU nghit nghy
glJ UJ bt brY btgij jLJ bjhlJ btg
iyia mff brwJ. jid gRik y is (Green house
effect) vW miHg. j iyF fhuzkhf UF thf gRik y
thf vW miHfgLwJ.j thfyit Na friy
CFwJ. Mdh UJ bt brY (Long Waves) fir
vLJ bfhwJ. jdh nkgu mjF mUfhik cs
tklyK bjhlJ btgkilwJ.
123

4B.8. fhLf mj (Deforestation)


fhLf kjDF gy tf Fj cjwJ. ekF njitahd
frh bghUfis, kuis jUtnjhL, yFf, gwitf,
EQf nghwtF

thlkhf mikjsJ. nkY fhLfsh

tklyF M# nrfgLwJ. k m jilbragLwJ.


kW kiH bghtjF cjwJ. Mdh kj trha, nkj bjh
nghwtiw iyahf bra MujUnj fhLfSF MgJ fH
MuJ lJ. mntfkhf fLflfhk tsJ tU kf bjhif
fhuzkhf fhLf f ntfkhf mJ tUwJ. jdh cldoahf k m
Vgl, Niy rkiy khw Vgl t clhwJ.
btg klygFY, j btgkly gFY cs iwa
tsJ tU ehLf trhafhf Fj fhLfis HJlJ. ah
jF yF my. xU ehoF mjDila a gu 33 rjj
fhLfshf Uf ntL. Mdh j iy 20.4 rjj Fiwthfnt
csJ. jid <Lfl fhLf tsfgl ntL. mjfhd zit
kfl njhWf ntL. cyf ms 7.3 a bAl ms
btgkly fhLf xbthU tUlK mJ tUwd. xbthU
lF 14 bAnl fhLf mJ tUwJ. ah xbthU tUlK
1.3 a bAl ms fhLf FiwJ bfhnl tUwd.
fhLf mtjfhd Ka fhuzf :
1. trha thf
2. kiy fhLf trha brj
3. nkj bjh
4. wfhf mj
5. fLkhd bghUfSfhf mj
fhLf mtjh VgL isf :
fhLfis mgj _y cd rkiy f ghfgLwJ. nkY
tkly <ugj, btgiy, kiH ms nghwit khwF csh
csJ. fhLf mtjh f ma _iff, gHf, nj nghw
aif tsf f ntfkhf FiwJ bfhnl tUwJ. j isfis
flthW tifgLjyh.
1. k ju Fiwj kW k m VgLj.
2. fhyiy khwf
124

3. aif th cdf mj
4. khRgLtij jLF iy FiwJ brYj
4B.8.1 fhLfis ghJfhj (Conservation of Forests)
Niy nfil jLJ kj eyKl thH jFj NHiy VgLj
fl braKiwfis nkbfhtJ iwa Ka njitahF.
1. fhLf mjiy jLj
2. fhLfis tsj
3. midtUF zit VgLJj.
cy bkhj ikahd 1/5 gif, cs jhtuf,
yFf Mat 30 rjjij bfhLs mnkrh MWgLif,
mfJ tU btgiyahY, fhLf mfgLtjhY vtU 2030
Rkh 60 rjj fhLfis HJ L vd fzlgLsJ. (J
gif, org 10, 2007)
midJ ju kfSF ku tsj gafis, fhLfsh ey
bgU gyfis g, ey zit, cjfis brtJ mta.
4B.9. btg mfj (Global Warming)
flj 1000 ML fzgo btgiy mjhtJ jiu fh
btgiyahdJ gjhLfUJ whLfSF + 0.6 0 c vw j
ntWgL mfJ tUwJ. flj 140 tUlf cyf ms fzgo
0.45 + 0.15 0 c vw j csJ. ah ruhr btgiy (Minimum
Temprature) 19 M who Rkh 0.2 UJ 0.6 0 c Mf caUwJ
flj 10 MLf 0.2 Kj 0.3 0c Mf caUwJ vd fzlgL
UwJ. bkhj 20 M whLjh mf btgiy cait
bfhljhf mikJsJ.
btg mfjYF f Ka gF tgJ fhg il
Mi[L, Xnrh, nj, Fnshnuhnshuh fhg, fhg- il Mi[L
kW ieu Mi[L itfjh gRik y isfis njhWF
thf MF. jdh Xnrh gly f ntfkh jhfgLwJ.
j ML (2007) nehg gR bgw btgkfjYfhd
fhuzfis ga M tUkhW TWwJ. tkly cs fhg
RH vghjij l f r thjjhf, vghjF Kng f
125

nkhrkhd fhyiy khwfis njhWf csJ. ( a vu,


mnlhg 24, 2007). bk cgfhf gagL vbghUUJ 2000 -
Rkh 7.0 a bk l fhg btahdJ. Mdh Jnt 2006 8.4 a
bk l Mf caJsJ. thW gy tfY bjhlJ tklyF
gRik y thf mfJ UwJ. J f ntfkhf kjD kw
cdfS thtij ehSF eh fyh bfhnl tUwJ.
jnghJ cyf ms mfkhf tsJ tU bkbghU jah
Wtdf kW mjid rhj bjhrhiyf ff (E-Waste) xU
bgU khRgLj uidahf cUth tUwJ. ah brid,
bfhfjh, bgfq, Kgh, nghw efuf tif f jhf
mfJ tUwJ.
4B.9.1.
btg mfgh VgL ghf
braif btg mfJ tUwJ. gunjr cU ygu
fl _ tUwJ. jdh 300 nfho kf j gjF
nguhgJ Vgl nghtjhf RWNH kL Miza vrJsJ.
fh fk ms mfjjh, glU Na btg
ug

mfjJ. braif btg mfghY nfhilfhy

MLnjhW btg ms To tUwJ.


xUizj jrh bllh khtl 2005- nfhil mfgr
btg ms ruhrahf 37 ghulhf UjJ. Mdh Jnt 2006 ML
38 ghulhf mfjJ. J 2007 40 ghulhf mfJ csJ.
Kd kuf mf UjJ. fh fay jik FiwUjJ.
fhuzfsh btg ug FiwUjJ. mnghJ fh <ugj
mfkhf uhahF ms FiwUjJ.
Mdh, W bt ms Fiwthf UjhY btg ug
mfUgjhf kjf jh bfhs Koahj msF btg
czugLtjhf Muhahsf TWwd.
fk mfgh braif btg mfJlJ. ij
Fiwfhlh cy gunjrf KGtJ cU fl kl 80 l
msF caU.
jdh, jHf UF Hnf cs gF fl _F mgha
csJ. cy cs bgUghyhd ef gunjrf cgahwd.
126

btg mfgh ah fnfh gkiy flj 25 MLf


850 l gunjrij HJ lJ.
nj msF braif btg MLnjhW mfJ gunjr
cUfbjhldh 30 Kj 50 MLf gkiyf midJ cUL.
cy cs bkhj ts 4,895 nfho ov. gagLj Toa
ts 124 nfho ov. 68.7 rj mjhtJ 85 nfho ov e g
unjrf csJ.
braif btgdh gkiyf cUf bjhlFtij jLfhlh,
2025 ML 300 nfho kfSF cy j ilfhk nghlToa
mty iy VgL.
kakiy 1.7 yr ov g csJ. it cU tUtjh
vfhy e izng rhayhJ nghL.
4B.9.2. btgkiltjh cdfSF VgL ghf
btgkilj fhuzkhf td yFfS, RW NHY f
nkhrkhf ghfgL tUwJ. ma mPfsh 1970- UJ bt tj
fLiufis MuhJ ghj 90 rjjF nkyhd RWNH nfLfS
ilWfS kj eltoiffdhjh elJ tUwJ vd TWwd.
mlhofh FiwJ tU bgF vif kW

Mf

Vf FiwJ tU f vif, gwitf lkhw nghwit


f Kakhd btgkiljyh VgL uridfshF. ljl 28,800
yFf kW jhtu tiff Mat vif kW mt
tsfY bgUj khwij njhWUwJ.
my cyf aif ghJfh fHf (The International union for the Conservation of Nature) btLs mif Rkh 1226 tif gwitdf
MgJFsh UwJ vd FLwJ. ah Rkh 88 tif
gwitf MgJ iy csJ vd FlgLsJ.
cf ftdF
a vu, #dt 19, 2009.
f kW iza tisd gaghlh RWNHYF VgL
jhf:
xU mbkf M Wtdij rhj fhd vgt jdJ
Mgo, jft bjhEgJiw bkhj fay th ( C o 2 )
127

gf 2% gif twJ vd bjwh. Ahth gfiyfHfij


nrj lhl mby e uh j Jiw mfkhd Mfis el
tUwh. mt njLj (Browsing) ljl 0.02 uh ms fhgid xbthU
dho tklyF brwJ vd TWwh. J vthW fwJ
vwh

izajs

website),

nritaf

(servers)

Mait

cgnahghsf ffsh izfgLwJ. bra eil bgw


rhu njitgLwJ. j rhu, yf, aif th nghw
vbghUf gagLJtjhnyna bgwgLwJ. mnghJ fay th
tklyF fljgLwJ. J btgkilj braYF xU fhuzkhf
mikwJ.
4B.10. ah khRgLj mfkhf cs lf
ah, ka RW NH fLghL tha [The Central Pollution
Control Board (CPCB)] 24 f Kakhd khRgLj uid cs lfis
flJsJ. mjj khy RWNH fLghL thafSl izJ
gy eltoifis vLJ tUwJ. mtW y lfS mF cs
khRgLj uidfS nH jugLsJ.
l kW khy

uid

1. guht (fehlfh)

kW fhW khRgLj

2. br (kfhuhouh)

bjhrhiy ff, urhaz


bghUf nghwit

3.ogh (m[h)

kW fhW khRgLj- vbz


Rf iyajh VgLtJ.

4. ko nfhfh (rof)

kW fhW khRgLj.

5. bga bfh (nfush)

kW fhW khRgLj-urhad
bjhrhiyf,thfdf,
fbghUf Fj nghwitfsh

6. fyh M(khry unjr)

kW fhW khRgLj

7. kz (jehL)

ienu, (Flouride), nghwtwh


yjo khRgLsJ. nkY ghjur,
Fnuha nghwt f
bghUfshY khRgLj
128

8. tl MfhL (jehL)

njh gjL bjhrhiyfsh


yjo kW XL Mait
mfkhf khRgLsJ.

9. gh (uh#jh)

khRgLj- W ber
bjhrhiyfdh (Textile Industries)

10. gth} (khry unjr)

kW fhW khRgLj bjhrhiy kW fbghUf

11. glnrW gyhuh (Muunjr) kW fhW khRgLj


12. fbus (ka unjr)

fhW khRgLj md iya,


bk, bjhrhiy nghwtwh

13. lhr (x[h)

Fo fod cnyhff
fyJsJ.euh, uhk MWf
iu cldoahf gagLj KoahJ.

14. th (kfhuhZouh)

khRgLj

15. rhfgod (Muunjr) yjo kW fhW khRgLj.


khRgLj kj cleyij, RWw Niyia kL ghgiy.
mjj lf r_f bghUshjhu tsfS jilbgW xL bkhj
tsia ghwJ. jfhd zit jL eltoiff vbjj
tif vLfgl ntL vgJ g xbthUtUF sfgl
ntL.
bra :

RWNH kw bragL m ku tsj, brjh,

izajs _y jft nrf, nja gRikgil afnjhL nrJ


bragLj, RWw NH ga Ka ehf zit
VgLJj nghw kw braghLf <LgLj.
4B.11. ngl nkyhik (Disaster Management)
ngl nkyhik gy Jiwfis csla xU TL braghlhF.
muR thf, ma tYef, lLgtf, j MtbjhL
Wtd bjhlf, bghJ kf nghw midtU gnfW braglntL.
j braghL Kbdrif eltoif vLj, ngl f nghJ,
ngl fJ Koj nghw gy iyfis cslaJ. it xnwhL
xW bjhlilajhF. vdnt jid ga bjthd fUJfis,
braghLfis bjJ bfhtJ f mta MF.
129

ngl ga sf :
aif NHY, kj cUtha NiyfY, ilWf
ftjh

kj

cUF,

cilikfSF

mofo

nrj

isfgLwJ. tiw flthW fyh.


ngl
aifah
cUthfgLgit
1. a

kjdh
cUthfgLgit
1. y,,u Ma nghFtuJf
VgL nglf

2. Nwht

2. gJf

3. btsbgUF

3. bjhrhiyf VgL gJf

4. yr

4. uthj

5. tw

5. folf oJ Gj

6. yeLf

6. mQ braghLf

7. vkiy bto

7. fl vbz Jjyh VgLgit

8. Rdh
bra :

ahY, cyf msY mwhl VgL nglfis

ga tufis, ngl z kW nkyhik eltoiff


g fyJiuahl.
4B.11.1. ngl iyf
1. Kbdrif brj :
ngl tUtjfhd thf cs lf KG ftdnjhL bjhlJ
cW neh njitgLnghJ kfSF bjgJ mtakhd xW. jdh,
njitahd bghUf, cjf nghwtiw jah brJ bfhs, ca
neu cj bra J f mtakhwJ.
2. jah iy Uj :
j _y ngluh njhWfgL jhf msit Fiwf,

ca fhy njitahd eltoiffis vLf, J mtakhF.


130

ngl NHiy rkhf cs jah iy cTWf


VgL nrjij
kLj
jft bjhl Kiw
(I)
cldo brayhf

Wtd l
Kbdif Kiw

(III)

xif ghj

lLj ts
Mjhu

bghJf
kW g

(II)

B.11.2. ngliu kLgLJj (Disaster Mitigation)


kLgLJj eltoif, nglUF tsF ilna cs xU
rhjfkhd bjhl iyahF. Wtdf, r_f, j egf, jfsJ
tsfis gagL ngluh VgL ilWfis bralf _y
kLgLJwd. ey lkhd folfis cUthf bjh rgjgl
fUJfis gJ bfhSj, trha khwfis brj, kfSF
J Fj zit njhWj nghwit y kLgLJj
eltoiffshF. trha ngl kLgLJj ffis brj
f mtakhF. Fghf ngl fjl mjfhd braf fhy
jhkj nkbfhs ntL. bghJkfSF cs z kW
mu iy nghwit f mtakhF.
kLgLJj cf :
y gaghil uhFj
folf fLj ed Kiwfis gagLJj
mtru fhy lf
Kbdrif, vghfS
jft gkhw.
lghLfis goaLj kW fiy M brj
zit, njitahd gfis mj
fhL lf
131

mtru fhy fl :
J ngl fjl cs fhyflkhF. f elj l
cldoahf kfis fhghWtjfhd Kaf, mtfSF njitahd
kUJt trf brj, jfhf thuz Ulf, j, cz
nghwtiw VghL brj, bjhW nehf guthJ jL eltoiff
vLj nghwit eilbgw ntL.
ngl fjl vLfgl ntoa (myJ) njitgL
bghW, eltoiffS. (Response & Recovery Activities)
nkbfhs ntoa eltoiff

thf
bjhlilaJ
ngl bghW
eltoiffis
JjgLJj
thfF
bjj
rl xGF guhkj
njitgL trf,
tYef, bghUf
Matiw
lLj

kUJt
bjhlilaJ
- Kj cj mj
mtru mWit
ir ikaf
Wj
cl ey ghJfh
fUJfis guj
bjhW neh jL
eltoiff
midtUF
kUJt tr brj

nrit
bjhlilaJ
nghFtuJ brj
cldoahf
eltoiff
jfhf Ul
trf brj
bghU, , kUJ
nghwtiw nrfj
br bjhlig
tYgLJj

njitnfg
cjfis bgw
tKiwfis tFj
cldoahf rhu,
bjhiyng,
nghFtuJ, m
nghwtiw r
brj
kWth mjY, folfis cUthFjY (Rehabilitation & Reconstruction)
kWth mj, ngl elj l kfSF cldoahd
njitfis, trfis brJ jUj nghwit f Ka brafshF.
nkY mFs kf f iu jfsJ eltoiffis, bjhfis
132

bjhlu ntoa cjfis nghfhy eltoiff _y brJ jUj. J xU


cldo cjF, vfhy uju eltoiffSF ilna cs Kndw
eltoifahF.
kWth mfgl y fhyf L mj gF uju
folf kW njitahd cUthF braf eilbgw ntL. lkhd,
ujukhd trfis ed bjh Eg _y

bragLJj f

mtakhF. nkY lf, vfhy ilWfis, ts


gfis fz bfhL bragLjgl ntL.
4B.11.3. ngl nkyhik VgLs Kndwf (Developments
in Disaster Management)
ah mf ms aif nglf, y kW fhyiy
mikF Vg elwd. bts bgUF, a, tw, yeLf, yr,
nghwitf mofo fw xwhF. ah Rkhuhf 60% ygu,
yeLfF cgljhf, 40 a bAnlUF nkyhd ygu
btsbgUF VgL mghaK, 8% ygu a jhF iy, 68%
ygu tw VgLw iy csJ.
ngl Vgll brw thuz gial, ngliu jLgjF,
ngl jhfij kLgLJtjF nkbfhS gfns f mtakhd
xwhF. ah gjhtJ IjhL l Mtz, ngl
nkyhik vw jjiy xU gF KGtJ bfhLfgoUwJ.
4B.1.4. ngl nkyhik ah a lf
1. khy Ja thuz Jiwf khaikfgLsJ.
2. ngl nkyhik bfhif tiuaWfgLsJ.
3. ngl ga z g fiyl bfhL tugLsJ.
4. nja yeLf gJ Fiw bral eilKiw csJ.
5. a jft Kiw mogil VgLjgLs ngl nkyhik
Fj tuf ( Development of GIS based National Data Base to Disaster Management)
6. w n k g h L g k W f - m u R g a h s f g n t W
JiwUJ miHfgL mtfSF gahdJ bfhLfgLwJ
(Capacity Building, Training of Education).
133

ah ngl nkyhik jft tiy mikf : (Disaster


Management Network in India)
ka mu cehL tfhu mikrf (The Ministry of Human Affairs)
ngl nkyhik Ja Jil kW bghW MatF ikakhf
sFwJ.
ika fl FGfis csl ngl nkyhik Fj
Kofis vLw bghWfis bgWsJ.
ujk jiyikyhd ka mikruit FG
nja beUfo nkyhikFG [National Crisis Management Committee
- NCMC] under the chairmanship of the cabinet Secretary.]
ka Ja thuz Jiz FG- iyikia M brJ ka/khy
muRfSF ca bratotij bfhLF.
bjh Eg Jiwfshd thiy M ika, ka thf FG
(btsbgUF), uhQt Muh kW nkgLJ Wtd, mQ
kW ca rhj Muh kW ts Wtd nghwit
njitahd jftfis jJ cjwJ.
4B.11.5. ngl nkyhik khy mu mikf
khy Kjik bray, khy msyhd ngl nkyhik FGF
jiyik twh.
khtl Ma/ khtl g / Jiz ffhghs nghwtf j
gf

xUizghsfshf,

nkghitahsfshf

gwhf.
njitahd fhyf ghJfh gild gfSF cjt t
tif bragLsJ.
4B.12. Koiu
kj KndwF, njitF Vg gytf a
fLof bjhlJ bgU bfhnl tUwJ. jnghJs ghgh
RWNH f nkhrkhd iyikF brW bfhoUwJ. bjhlJ
cyfehLf midJ jF KaJt bfhLJ jdJ ehLf jid
jLf, uhf gy tfis gw Kaf vLfgL tUwJ. f
ukhf J FJ braglh xa j ia fhghWtJ f
fodkhF.
134

f Wtdf vyh iyfY, mj jFF iyF Vg


J Fj ghlfis, zit ju ntL. jah JiwF,
bghJkfSF J ga KaJtij, zit, nkbfhs
ntoa eltoiffis g sfij nghfhy mogil jugl
ntL. xbthU jkjD, J FJ mJ jdJ braghLfis
jFjthW kh bfhlh kLnk j khRgLj braiy XusF
fLgLj Ko.
4B.13. ghit f
1.

Asthania D.K and

2003

Asthana Meera

Environment Problems & Solutions


S. Chand & Co.Ltd New Delhi.

2.

Dix. H.

1981

Environmental Pollution
John Wiley & Sons - New York.

3.

Geography & You


Vol 7. No. 11 & 12.
Nov -Dec. 2007

4.

Jagbir S

2007

Disaster Management -IK International


Future challenges and opportunities,
Publishing House pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.

5.

Manual on

2001

Indian Institute of public Admn, New Delhi/


Natural Disaster Management in India

6.

Sharma. V.R

1995

Disaster Management, Indian Institute of


Public Admn,New Delhi

7.

Sing, Savindra

1995

Environmental Geography, Prayag Pustak


Bhawan, Allahabad.

8.

Srivastava,
Yoagendra. N

1989

Enviromental Pollution, Ashish Publishing


House, New Delhi.

9.

Subramanian. V

2002

A Text in Environmental Science, Narosa


Publishing House, New Delhi.

Pollution Control in problem Areas


Iris pub Pvt. ltd, New Delhi.

10. Website
1. Co2 stats.com
2. www.ndmindia.nic.in/mitigation
3. uttp : //ndma.gov.in/

135

gF - M (fj Kiw)
myF 1

iza t mQFKiw
KDiu :
Ugjh who izaw fU fl vW miHfgL f.
f Jiw tsna iza. izaij gagLjhj vJiw
iy vdyh. tjf Jiw iza gaghodh cyf bghUshjhu
btFntfkhf Knd tUwJ. W f Jiw tFgiw fj Kj
thf tiu midJ braghLfY f gagLwJ. khztf
fw w nkghL miltjF, Ma fj w mff f
aikahjJ.
fnghah jh gfiy fHfd tFgiw fw fjiy
w gl nkgLj cj f bjhEg Kiwfis g Mit
nkbfhld. M Ko iza t mQF Kiwah Maf gy a
jftfSl nkbfhl fjiy, khztf TLjyhd fw
milfis

bgwij

fljd.

xU

tuyhW

nguha

bjHfha fol fiy vw ghlij fgjF 5000-F nkgl


tuyhW ghlfis sffis iza js bgW, jkFa
ghlgFfSl jFj ytiu glfis izJ FWjfL jah brJ,
x, xl fjjh jkJ fj w nkglJl, khzhff
fw mil ju cajJ vd jdJ M btgLsh. X Ma
f nguha gntW KiwfSfhd tFgiwfis (onah) x, x to
jah brJ khzhfF sajh fw nkglij cWgLsh.
nkY gy Mf iza t mQF Kiw fF nghJ, fw
btghLfis msl a kL mQF Kiwfis ifahs ntL
vW, khzhff Kiw fwyh iwa jftfis bgW thig
bgWwd vd TWwd.
vdnt iza t mQF Kiw r_f maiy fjyh
khzhff fw mil nkgL vg Iaiy. Ma khzhff
jfhy tFgiw NH iza t mQFKiw fjiy vj
nkbfhtJ vgij fhngh.
136

myF TWf
1.1

iza - iza t mQFKiw - tiuaiw

1.2.

iza t mQF Kiw KaJt

1.3

r_f maY izK

1.4

iza t fj goiyf

1.5

iza t mQF Kiw gaf

1.6

gntW iza Mjhuf

1.7

Koiu

1.8

ghit f

fw braf

t .- myFTW f
v

t HfgL
brKiw
g

iza t
fyJiuahl
mQF
mif
Kiw
KaJt

gnt W
iza
Mjhuf

njit gL
jft f

t ufis nrfF l
g

iwa f
t sF
bgJ
cj t J
iza
Mjhufns

cabjhlf
iy cs
VnjD xU
6,7,8 r_f
bkbghU
wDF
ma
jah
iza t
ghl
mQFKiw jff
FW jfL
jahj

kw lf
mu
flf,
f t s
ga
t uf,yf,
izajs

izajs

1.1. iza - iza t mQF Kiw - tiuaiw


iza
jft gkhwfhf iwa cy gntW lf cs iza
jsfis ff _y xW nrF khbgU bjhEg tiydny
iza vdgL. eh ekF njitahd vyh jftfis vyh
neufY iza _y iuthf bgW izat mQFKiw
juKo.
137

iza t mQFKiw
f Kndw iza gF <L izawJ. ff cs
ghlfUJf bjhlghd jftfis izaUJ njo bgW,
khzhfF fF tKiwna izat mQFKiw (Online Method)
vdgLwJ.
f vgJ xU dDfUahF. W vyh JiwfY f
Ka gF twJ. f gy iyfY f mfkhf gagLwJ.
lL fj xU tifna f fj Kiw MF.
f fj, f fgjF cj fUahf, fF Clfkhf
fwJ.
f gFf
1.

cL fUf

cL vgJ f cns brY br / jft MF. f


cs brf / jft brYj cj fUf cLfUf vdgL.
rhgyif (Keyboard) Ro (Mouse) tUo (Scaner) Ka cL fUfshF.
2.

btpL fUf

fUJ ilF brf / jftf bgwgagLtJ


btpLfUfshF. vKndf f FHh (Cathode Ray Tuber)
mR g br fU (Printer) nghwit MF.
3.

ika brayf (Central Processor Unit)

J jufis jftfshf khW g


gia brwJ. F br /
jftfis jdfnj nrJ itJs id (Memory) csJ.
4.

f tbghU, bkbghU

f bkbghUis gagLj cj au gFf tbghU


vdgL.
f bkh fF brYjgL Miz bjhlfSF
(Instruction) bkbghU vdgL.
f tna ff njbjLfgl ghlgFF ghlbghUfs
vW bga.
1.2.

izat mQFKiw KaJt

izat f eh f bjJ itUf ntoaJ lbe


aF Kiw. W izajs yhj jftfns iy vW brhY
138

msF midJ jftfS iza gfgLsd. flj


fhyf Maf myJ jftfis nrfJ bfhL mjfhf gy k
neuf yf brw jffis njl ntoa iy UjJ. tiw
vikgLJ iyna iza t.
izat fahdJ

bghU s fgij tWJwJ.

mit guj vgij l mit MSjiy tWJwJ.

ukhf fgJ, mit flikgJ Matiw tWJwJ.

gFjhj, xUfikj, kL (Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation)


nghw ca jid ushf tWJwJ.

khztf RWRWghf a fgij tWJtJ

khztf Tlhf, xUtUbfhUt xJiHJ fgij


(Collaboration and Cooperative Learning) tWJwJ.

gntW iyf fUJ git ( Multiple level of Interaction)


tWJwJ.

iza brf iuthf, Jakhf ilwd.

fnghUF brf cldoahf, neilahf ilwd.

bja ntoa brfis ghl bghU toY, tiugl KiwY,


cnuhl braf ( Animated form) to jUwJ.

bra :

1.3

iwa f tsF bgJ cjtJ iza jsfns vw


jiy fyJiuahLf.

r_f maY izaK

``thd bjhLL ujh vw iy izaK, f


jhfK cyfij RU lJ vwh ifahfhJ. e th mwhl
gfY Tl f bgUks jhjid VgLsJ. mnjngh f
_y Vnjh xU l fG aif ffisnah, rKjha ffisnah,
cik to, neuo mDgtJl bjJ bfhs cjtJ izakhF. r_f
ma ghl, fgidbflh, aif nehjfS, kj czfS,
r_f fyhrhu gghLfS iwJ fhzgLwd. aifF, kjDF
cs aikahj bjhlig sFtJ r_f ma ghlkhF. ghl
fUJfis ffSF ygL tif btgL bfhLgJ
izakhF. vdnt r_f ma ghl fj, iza xU gaDs
bjhEgkhF.
139

bghJthd iy vyh ghlfY Power Point Slide _y


ghlfUid RU Jiuf Vwj csJ. cnuhlf (Animation
Pictures) _y ghlfU cik jikia jJ%gkhf sf Ko.
r_f ma ytiu glfis tiutjF ed ahf GIS
(Geographical Information System) eilKiw csJ. t cjah Rkh 1
k neu xU ytiu glij tiu iy kh mjF gyhf 1 k neu
gy W ytiuglf tiu iyF r_f ma f jhf
mfJsJ.
r_f ma Google Earth vw izajs Website Kft
_y eh vnf Unwh? eik Rs jftf vd? vgij
cnuhlkhf czU iy mrajf j fUJf eik uf
itwd.
tuyhW ghl fhynfhLfis mHa flf tiuJ Power Point
cjl kd j iyW sf Ko.
cyf mrafis, cy gntW gkhzfis cnuhlkhf
fQF g jkhf Kgkhd glf _y f cjl bjthf
s a itfKo.
kj v bry Koahj lfis, jftfis cyf
tiyd Kft bjhl bfhL mrf Ko.
1.4

iza t fj goiyf
iza t fjiy fl goiyf nkbfhs ntL.

mit,
1. ll (Planning)
2. iza jft Mjhufis njLj (Searching)
3. nj brj (Selection)
4. izj (Integration)
5. ghll jahj (Preparation of Lesson plan)
6. bkbghU jahj (Preparation of Software)
7. tFgiw fj Kiw (Classroom Teaching Learning)
8. kLj (Evaluation)
9. bjhlg (Follow up Work)
10. gutyhFj (Dissemination)
140

1. ll :
Ma iza t _y ghlij fgjF ll mta. Fl
fhy tuF midJ ghlfis iza t _ykhf fgJ vgJ rW
fodkhdJ. Mfnt fhQjF ma fUJfis jFj ghlfSl sfkf
ghlfis njbjLgJ aikahjJ. (cjhuz):
Mwh tF a ghlgF ngul vw jiyid bfhL
iza t _y vthW ffyh vW ll ntL.
2. iza jft Mjhufis njLj
njLj:
ll ghlij tFgiw fF Kd, ghlYs fUJfS,
cfUJfS bjhlghd jftfis iza t _y uLj ntL.
mjF iza Kftfis njo fL oj ntL. (c.) ngul ghlF
vzw iza jftf csd.
fia M brjl iu _yiu (Desktop) vdgL
f Mugiu njhW. FpLf bghik cUt UF.
Vfdnt BSNL _ykhf f izig bgUjh BSNL fhd FpL (ICON)
bghik _yiu UF. ij bks uL jlit bra.
j miH bjhiyng tahf BSNL brtiu (Server) mil. j brt
_y lbeLl izfgLf. mjF milahskhf tyJ Xu
izfglJ vW mj ntfK cs bria fhzyh.
l beoF ntiy bra vnshu (Internet Explorer) vw
bkbghU njit. f _yiu vnshu FpL (Icon) UF.
ij busr (Browser) vW TWt. j vnshuiu bks[h uL Kiw
brjh lbe iu wwJ.
lbeo btjs Kft cjhuzF http://www.wikipedia.com
vW g bra ntL http: vW Hyper text transfer Protocol vdgL. jft
gtjid brtjF J xU bk bghU MF. xU btjs gfij
wf Unw vW j bghU. mj tUw www vw vGJ World
Wide Web vgj RUbfGJ Wikipedia vgJ btjs bgauhF.
3. nj brj :
Fl iza js vzw jftf J lwd. Mwh
tF khztf fw iyF Vg jftfis njJ vLJbfhs
ntLbk mYs ngul ghlF Fl iza js Vuhskhd
jftf Uwd. mtW ngul, ngul mik, mlf,
ght ml, Na FLg, Na, , eh thG l nghw Mwh tFnf
ca fUJfSF bjhlghd jftfis nj brj ntL.
141

Mwh tF khztf tanfW kd tsnfw jYFa


ms cs fUJfis kLnk njbjLj f mta. njbjLF
jftf, ngulF kjDF cs bjhlig sFtjhf Uf
ntL. (c.) NalUJ tU btgff uUJ eik
ghJfhJbfhS tKiwf, btg u ehSF eh mfJ cyf
btgkakhj eilbgW tU NH btgkakhj eilKiw tf ga
jft uo ff VJthd jftfis njbjLj mta.
4. izj :
izaUJ nj brj jftfis ffgls ghl
fUJfSl, jf glfSl izF braKiwia izj
vnwh. eh vLJbfhl ngulij ga jftfSF iza
cnuhl braf _y (Animation) efJ bfhL brY ngul glfis
fhzyh. mtiw izaUJ w (Download) ghl fUJfSl
izJ bfhs ntL. eh vLJ bfhL ghl jiy vJthD
mjFa jftfis ghlJl izj f mta. Vuhskhd jftf
iza ilf TL. mt ghl fUJfSl izf
jftiw kLnk njbjLg ftd njit.
5. ghll jahj :
Ma FWjfo g brtjF K izat jftfSl
izj ghl fUJis tFgiw fj braKiw gofSl ghll
jah brJ bfhs ntL. m tFiw fj goiyfshf fj
nehf, Kd nrhjid dhf, ghl fUJfis gogoahf sFj,
ghl cfUJfis sa kL dhf bjhFj, xgil
jiyf midJ l bgWj ntL. iza jftf fUJfis
a itgjF khztf tFgiw brtjnfw braghLf Vuhskhf
csd. mtiw njbjLJ ghl ff mDkJs nghJkhd
nehfnfg ghll jah brj, FWjfLf g brJ
bfhsyh.
6. bkbghU jahj :
f fgjnfw bkbghUshd FWjfLf jah brj
ghll mogil bkbghU jahj ntL. ghl
goiynfg, xbthwhf f mR brtJl, ca glfis bghU,
x, x fhl jah brJ bfhs ntL. jah brJs ghll
Ffis nghynt, Kd dhf, glfSl Toa ghlfUJf,
khzhf braghLf kW kL dhf cgl midij
142

FWjfLf g brJ bfhSj ntL. FWjfnl ghjf nghW


tFgiw NG kL myhJ j xU khztnd f tahf fW
bfhs Vwjfjhf mik.
7. fj fw :
izat fj mQFKiw Ka goiyahf tFgiw
fj csJ. jah brJ itfgLs FWjfL f _ykhfnth myJ
LCD Projector _ynkh khzhffSF fj ntL. fhl Toa
ghlfUJfis Ma Jizl Toa ghlfUJfis Ma
Jizl fF nghJ khzhffSF fUJf v J
bfhtjfhd thf csd vd fahsf sFwd. izat
fj khztf j nghF Vg, fia W, Mfhnf
fUJfis Ma bja itgjF thf Ugjh Kiw au t
fjyhf yhk Ma telJ fw Kiwahf csJ.
khzhff Iafis clDFl J itf t VgLwJ.
8. kLj :
izat mQFKiw kLj vw fw fj cTW
mlsJ. Ma jahF FWjfLF kL dhf g
bragoUF. mit ghl fF K Kd nrhjidF, ghl fF
nghnj ililna nffgL bjhl dhfshf, ghl fJ Koj
mil nrhjid dhfshf mikJsd. ju, f Egij
WL, fj braghLfSl kL brJ bfhs thsJ.
9. bjhlg :
Ma bjhlgahf khzhffis FGthf J, W bra
lfis jah xgilfis nkbfhs tfhl ntL.
(cjhuzkhf) ngul cs Na FLg nfhf xbthiw
jjahf gojnfg iza js jftf nrfJ FWjfLfis
jah brJ sf ntL.
10. gutyhFj :
bjhlg nkbfhl xgilfis, bralfis Ma
ghit brJ kL brj d, khztf kw khztfS MafS
m tz, gutyhFj nkbfhs ntL. mthW br bghGJjh
kwtfSF iza t fw KaJtij czu, mij
gagLJt MtK VgL.
143

1.5 iza mQFKiw gaf


1. xbthU khztU f K mkJ jdJ brhj ntf ff
KowJ.
2. iza cjah jgl khzt njitnfg f tHf KowJ.
3. cl CdKwtf, fw FiwghLilatf mthik f
khztf MnahUF iza t wghd f tHf KowJ.
4. guj j myf njitahd mit iza t _y bgw KowJ.
5. iza t f Fj crhfij jUwJ.
6. Kgkhz glf _y r_f ma fUJfis ma cjwJ.
7. ytiuglfis cUthFtJ vjhwJ.
8. neil mDgtij jUwJ.
9. midJ ghlfY tFgiw braghLfis vjhFwJ.
1.6 iza _y bgwToa jftf
khztf gof ntoa go ga KG gu (Course Information)
khztf jfSF gkh bfhs ntoa ghlf Fj
tu (Class Communication)
g xgilf kW kL ga gu (Assignment and
Assessment)
Ma ela ghlFf (Material Covered in the Class room)
bra sf, x, x fhf (Demonstration, Animation, Video and
Audio)
nkY gtjF f gu ( Reference Materials)
iza Mjhuf : (y vLJfhLf)
http://n.wikipedia.org
http://www.webopedia.com
http://www.97.intel.com/education/teds
http://www.winona.edu/21stcentury/success.html
http://www.21stcenturyskills.org
http://www.97.intel.com/education/teach/essantialcourse.asp
http://psyshology.wictita.edu
http://www.bic.org.
http://fcit.usf.edu/distance/clap3.htm.
144

http://en.wikipdia.org/wiki/digital-library
http://www.sofweb.vic.edu.an/internet/research.html.
www.yahoo.com
www.altavista.com
National Geographic.com
filahf tU .com vD brhbjhl tffhf cgnahfgL js
vgij FwJ.
ijngh
.org vw brhbjhl tf nehfyhj xU Wtdij FwJ.
.net vw brhbwhl lbe rgjglJ vgij FwJ.
.int vw brhbwhl my cyf Wtd vgij FwJ.
.ac.uk vw brhbjhl f Wtdij FwJ.
bra : ca bjhlf iy VnjD xU w gFF iza t mQF
Kiw FWjfL jahf fj gF gagL mif
rkf.
1.7 Koiu
f Kndw iza gF izawJ.
Vuhskhd
jftfis, tufis clDFl iza _y Fiwj neu
bgw Kotjh j KaJt ehSF eh mfJ bfhnl tUwJ.
izt mQF Kiw Maf lLjY, jahjY fodkhf
njhdhY, mQa Kiw f vJ, gaDsJ vgjid khztf
fw btgho _y czJ bfhsyh. jifa jft bjh Egij
gagL Maf fjyh iwa rKjhanfg khztf wid
mff bra Ko. vdnt Maf jfSF wid nkgLJj0
mta MF.
1.8. ghit f
1. vyh . . .l be !
k. by - br gnfr, brid.
2. Making the Network for schools.
Online Research Modules - Jamie Mckenzie Vol (No 1) Sep. 1997.
3. j fl - jf
4. lbe vD a eg - b#fhjh, 2002
145

myF- 2

fij brhY Kiw


mKf
bjhlf kW eLiyg khztfSF r_f ma fgjF gy
fF Kiwf csd. mit Kiwna isahL, eo, nf nfl,
RWw Niy Kiw, thbkh, ghljf, bral, flj, FG
nghjid, lL fw, j, ciuahLj, fij TWj MF.
nsnlh, bflh Mnah r_f ma fj fijf l bgWt
KaJtij g Tsd. fijj vgJ ffis, brfis
vLJTWtJ myJ ciugJ MF.
fgid, gilghw, cl, kdtaJ, U Matnfg ghlbghU
lbgWs ffis cztkhf vLJiuF Kiwna fij brhY
KiwahF.

myF TWf
2.1

fijf tiff

2.2

ghlbghUfis fijfshf TWj

2.3

fijf glf

2.4

glfis gagLJ Kiw

2.5

fg Ma gF

2.6

fg waf

2.7

fijKiw dhdj KaJt

2.8

fijKiw kL

2.9

kh fijf

2.10 cik rgtfis fijfshf TWj


2.11

grju fijf

2.12 goJ kH y f
2.13 braf
2.14 Koiu
2.15 ghit f
146

fw braf

t .v

myF
TWf

t HfgL
brKiw g

njit gL
jft f

t uyhW,
a
fj
Kiwf
jff

t ufis nrfF
l

kw lf

Wt d

oYs
bgnahf

fij vgj
sf,
t iff

t uyhW,
Foika,
ghlbghUis a, ghl
bghUfis
fijf
Mt _L
t o
t i f
aj
fijfshf
t oJTWj

L, g
jff,
glf,
f i j f
brjhf, yff,
t iuglf, njit nfg
t iuglf, brKiw
cjl
ca glf,
g
khf,
fijf
t iuglfSl
glbjhF,
( Practicum)
TWj
TWj
glmilf
t Ff

ifid
fiyPf

cl mir ,
Fu
Vwjh , Tjdif
midJ
t sgjfhd
ght id
t i f
cz - dhf nfl
fSl
TWj

wJiw
fiyPf

t hbkh
s f

yf
jff

f,
ciuahlf,
dhil,
fijfSF
jiy myJ
Ko f Tw

g X
bgnwh,
g t lhu
nfhf,
yff
ehLw
fiyPf

Wt d

2 . 1 fijf tiff
1. cikfijf
2. fLfijf
3. uhz fijf
fijf gwitf, yFf, bro, bfhof, thd, , nfhf, aif
mikf, kj cz, cil, cwl, thif iyf Mait
147

bjhlghd cikahd ffis, fijah TWtJ cik fijfshF.


kf thG lf, fhyiy, jgbtgiy aif mikfshd MW, Fs,
V, fl, M, kiyf, gsjhFf, flf, mt aif VgLJ
khwf, wf, bjhf, isr gf, xbthU fhy flY mit
vthW gagLjglJ, vthW ts miljd vgtiw kf
thif iyfis cik fijf thyhf Tw Ko. khztf
fgidia Ltjhf, m mit tsgjfhf, idthwiy
bgUf fijf cj.

2 . 2 . ghlbghUfis fijfshf TWj


ekJ ehL uf, ubraf, ku fijf, murf mtf M
Kiwf, Ujf, mtdh Vgl eikf, ikf, elfhyF
mit muR brafSF vtiff cjwd vgij TWj kW
isfis mj, nghwtwh jdh ehil v nehs rhtfis
ma aY. ekh Ko vw czit njhWF. kj mW ehoF
Ma nritf kW W xbthU FokfD ehoF bra ntoa
flikf, w, w, kf bjhif, kf bjhif fLghL, cley, Rj,
Foik, gghL, fijf thyhf TWnghJ guhk, ghJfh, mabjhEg ts Mait fijfshf TwgLnghJ xbthU khztUF
cik iyia vLJ TWtjhf, fij ff khztfilna elij
khwij cL gz cjtjhf mik.
fltf, a fLof, bt Mf, M gaf u,
jdif, mtf cyf kfSF jdJ ehL kfSF Ma g
(cjhuz : bkfy, la, bt nghnwh fLof) fgidfis
Ltjhf mik. UJ wF nghJ brj c ahf bt
uhfid fgdh rhyh, rhjid wa uhfid Rjh
a Mnah g fijf khztf mit Mtij
LtnjhL mtfis dh rhjidF miHJ brY vg
Iaiy. vdnt, cik fijf ghl wj lij bgWwd vd
Twyh.
fLfijf vgJ yhj xUt, xU uh, fhL, l, C, ehL
vgjhf m eh ghfhj nflahj brafis bfhljhf UF.
mnj nghW cik rgtij dahf bfhl fLfijf cL.
fgid, cUtf, ctkhd, mHa fij eil mikUF. cjhuzkhf
jiu Figah lj itu Mguzfis khjf dfis
148

Ffshf xoJ mj itu Figfis md vgJ nghythF, kj


fouhj mRufz cUtf, TL L TL ghj, kuf, juf iwj
fijfshf mikUF.
uhz fijf khzt muhj f bjhiyYs lfis, rka
rhj uhzfis d bfhljhf, mfhy murf, muayikig
sFtjhf mikJsd. kj m, ghr, g, e, u, uf ga
gfisk nfhg, nguhir, wF F isj, mjdh Vgl
mfis fijf jwd. kj th f caa nehf
iwt jhfis gtnj vgij khztf rka rhj fijf
thyhf ma KowJ. kj gfis tsJ bfhs it cjwd.
uhzfijff TW fUid iwa eilKiwY eh fhzyh.
cjhuzkhf uhkhaz uhk uhtznzhL nghL fh uhtz
nghLnghJ ngh Mj cilJ Mj wh. mnghJ uhk
uhtzl, W ngh ehis th vW Tdh. nghfsY giftl
fhlgL gF f wj cjhuzkhF.

2 . 3 . fijf glf
bjhlf, eLiyg, khztf r_f ma ghllgo
mikfgl ghlbghUSF Vg tU jiyf nrfj
1. glf
2. Rtbuhof
3. glJLf
4. Wgljf

5. bjhl gl milf
6. xF jh glf
7. Xaf

Matiw nrfJ, fij rgtf nk MtK ftia


clhF tif gagLjyh.
y tiuglf
1. tuyhW fijf TW ff eilbgw lf 2. tjlf, 3.
khyf, 4. flf, 5. f, 6. fhL, 7. kiyf, 8. Mwfiuf, 9.
kiybjhlf, 10. tuyhW nghf, 11. ru KaJt thj nfhf,
12. Ka jiytfs wJ, thj lf, 13. khehLf, clgoif ff
elj lf, 14. mraf vd fUjgL gFf.
Hglf
ghuhSkw, rlkw, nja, cq Hhf, eho Kgilf,
rKjha f, njaghJfh, njr jiytf, aif tsf, tlhu,
149

khy thahf cs id df Matiw Hglfshf nrfJ


xl y mik, Ka bjhf, VWk, wFk, mt d,
KaJt g glfis bfhL fijf to TWj mit bjhlghd
ffis nrfJ H glfis gagL m cs cfis,
FpLfis s TWj. mtilna cs fhuz-fhabjhlfis
gl tiuj ir, gu, sFj, u Matiw sFj.
jiugl
jiu tiuJs njrgl y efiu mbyrhjU, a
kdU, ngh brj fia T, kd Unrhjkid nrl (Chetak)
vw Fiu eF mgh, FJ mtiu fhgaJ vgij fijas
Ritahf T midthf W U rfu thfdf nrl vw bgaiu
eh fhgij T khztfis a Mjyh.
mbyrj ngh gilf y e wFtJ nghw nghahd rjij
vG gjfis vjd. mjid cik vd e nghu (Unhjk)
KndanghJ nghu ahidgilfis mbyrhj jwojh. fia
jiuglf thyhf TWnghJ khztfs jid jf kdghitY
fL kt.
2.4. glfis gagLJ Kiw
r_f ma ghl fjYfhd glf, ghl vyh iyfY
(fw gofY) gagLjglntL
xU ghlFa glf kL fjYF gagLj ntL.
tuyhW, Foika, a ghlf cik czit o,
mtF sffis ju ntL.
V? vd ? vgo? vjF? vthW? vw dhfSF ilbgW
tif glf mika ntL.
gagLjnghF glfSF ca jiyf, sfFf,
fhytir Kiw mikgJ, ca tzfis gagLJtJ ca
f gaid mgjfhf, khztf midtU gagLJ
tifY mikgjF, khztfis Maf jah gLj ntL.
2.5. fg Ma gF
bjhlfg khztfSF fijfis TWtjF thbkh
fj Kiwia Maf gw ntL.
150

ghlbghUSF Vwh nghw fijfis totikf ntL.


ghlbghUSF Vwjhf U kufijf, cikfijf,
uhzfijf, giff tU fijf Matiw Twyh.
Ma, khztf J bfhsToa bghU bghj vikahd
thijfsh fijia Tw ntL.
fijf Mtij l Toajhf mika ntL.
tUziz, ctik, xnehF, MatWl, fjhghuf
czfis Fu Vw, wf, , k, ghr, g, e, u, cW
Mat thyhf Ma TWnghJ ghl ftfukhdjhf
mikwJ.
Ma Fl fUJ, brh fUJ, bghJ f Matiw
TWnghJ, etur czfis ugF nghJ thbkh Fu
Vw wfJl u, if, cl mirfis gagL fjyhdJ
fij tU ghuf fij nfgtfl ngRtJ nghw a
mDgtij VgLJ.
YghL, fjhfhnyrg, ghl Mat a Ueho Rju
ahf g fij d TWtJ Ueho J gia
tsF.
cjhuz 1
uF czl tjh ! vGjh!
vW vGjtiu kof
jl jl vd beoa bfhoa
la, glgl vd tjhnd !
#ha thyhgh vwlny
vyh a cjid
g g vd RblLjhnd !
Xjjh Rju jhf !
uiy, a #h bfho -Gtiu
a _tzbfho gblh R tiu !
Rju ah vkJ L !
RUf T J eh bgw ngW !
151

cjhuz 2
a cUah
cUah (Russia) elj uia, cik fit, ghl ghuah
TWwh.
khfh guhr cUa eh
o filf itjhsnf
Mfhbt bwGjJ gh fu;
bfhLnfhy my Gjh
thfhd njh ilnjh thdku
ng fbsyh tUj f
nghfhk f ifJ kojdth;
ita Jik fh !
Ma Fu, Kf ghtid, fijnfg cl eogir, ff tahf
btgLJ ghu czf Mait mtuJ wikia fhL
fzho MF.
fij mogilTWf vdgLgit

bkh

iriff

ir

Kfghtf

Ma brhf, trdfSF, vLJfhlhf ughoa fl bghg


ahl nfwh vw trdij mnrhf ffngh fh
mng cyffh, kf gnk, kd g nghw brhif csla
thrffis khztfl T Mtij VgLj ntL.
gyFuf gwit, yF, o, fhW, d, kiH etur ghtfis
Fuf ntWikgLJ cuJ, jh x vGj Mait vLJTw
tj fUJfis mnj czl kd ga itf cjwJ. cl
mirf _ykhf vLJiufgL iriff braiy btgLj,
cul, flikahw Matiw btbfhzwJ.
gy czfSl btgLJ Kfght ciuahlYF tikia,
bghit mF.
152

bjhlf eLiygf fijfisT mit TW brfis thj,


fyJiuahlYF

vLJbfhsyh.

c..

ah

Kj

Rjunghuhl, myJ gh fyf ga ffis fijfshf T - J


btailUjh.....vw jiyf khztfis fgid bra T
fyJiuahl brayh. ghlbghUis fij Kiw vLJ brYnghJ
Ma btgLJ u cz, ehLgW Mwt _y khztfilna
njrg eho ghJfh, mik ga jidfS nknyhF.
Ma filof ntoaJ
1.

taJ / tFF Vg jahj

2.

Kfij neUF ne ghJ TWj

3.

czf / Kf / clghtidf ca khwfSl mj

4.

Mtij L tif fijfis Dj

r_f ma cyf fyhrhu / gghL / rKjha / tha / cyf


tuyhW, ngh, RWNH khRghL, bg Kndw, cdf, kfis
vnehs rthf, kf bto, FLg ghuga mj Mad fij
to mikF bghGJ jkj xbthUtU uridfis mJ f
fhz thf cUthwJ.
fijf vgo ?
va ciuahl, Fiwj fjhghu, khzt elij khWj, w tsf
cjt ntL. m, u, mw, , jdif nghw kj afis
mogilahf bfhL fij mikf ntL.

2.6 fijKiw waf


1.

cz tkhdJ

2.

uridfis MuhtJ

3.

fw nehfis iwntWj

4.

rKjha flik - cik mj

5.

rh, kj, d ntWikfis fisj

6.

kia mj.

7.

eifRitia eFj

8.

fw Maj / ghl / ehlf w tsj


153

9.

bkh tsia VgLJj. fij tfw xUizfgL


CfgLJtJ ju midJ tha wfis bgw,
ekfis (values) bgw cjwJ.

10. fij r_fa fj bghUis Rit Fjjhf, ftahf,


cnuhlKialjhf khw tyJ.
11.

fgid fw, gil brafis khztfl tsf cjwJ.

12. fij khztfis g kW MSik ftfshf khWwJ.


13. khztf ij ff TwgL ku, uhz, cik id,
maehL, urhfr, M bjhlghd fijf cehL kW
bteho fyhrhu GJf. mit ehL kf iyyh
cak bghf vwh ifahfhJ.
14. tuyhW, Foika, a fUJf cik ffis sF
tif mikJ jU tif TwgL bghGJ mtiw g nkY
mJ bfhs khztfilna cJj VgL.
15. vdnt, gHfhy, ka fhy, ed fhy kf thif, r_f,
bghUshjhu mua, rka iyfis xLfhz, mt
wfis ma, iwa fhy mt nkghL fhz
khztf KgLt. khztfilna wj <LghL, J,
bjhiynehF ghit Matiw tsF.

2 . 7 fij Kiw dh dhj KaJt


fij Xl nghJ Ma, khztfl, eL eLnt dhfis
nfgjh fjhghufilnaahd cw, fij ff, cztkhd
sffsh ghl ft Mait VgLwJ.
khztfilna mtf aff tsu cj brwJ. (c-)
cik, neik, u, mHFz Matiw ikakhf bfhl fij ff
egfis sFtjhf Ujh mit khztfilna elij khwij
VgLJwJ. kfhkh, neU, nejh Mnah thif ff, rKjha
Ujthf Ujf, cq, tlhu, khy tuyhW dl
fijfshf TWnghJ mtnghJ vGj uridf KaJtij
cSzJ brayhw, eho xbthU FokfD, Mw ntoa gf g
ma, mt jid <LgL bfhtjF fijf cj. Mdh
jifa khw tUtjF Ma bgUgfhw flikgLsh.
154

fyJiuahlf kW mt}nl vGggL dhf cik iyia


ma, Niy eik, ikfis bjJ bfhs cj.
Ma dhf nfF nghJ khztf xbthUtU ftd brYj,
ciuahl, jdJ fUJfis vLJ Tw cj tif dhnfl
Kiwna tUkhW mikgJ VWbfhs ToajhF.
1. Ma dhj

KG tF gF bgWj

2. Ma dhj

uL tirf myJ tF
W FG gF bgWj

3. Ma dhj

xU khzt gF bgWj

4. khzt dhj

khztf gF bgWj.

2 . 8 fijKiw kL
khztf wikf, MSik ts Mait neuhf ghij
brtjF fijf cjwd vd #h vw mP TWwh. fijf
nfFbghGJ eilna thjtf, Kndhf, iwa jiyKiwd
MnahuJ braf, rhjidf g mwd. mtiw iwa iy
xneh fhgjF KgLwd. j kj kW eho caF
mtiw vthW gagLJnwh vgij czUwd.
Ma va eil tU ghu jiknfg brhfis,
thafis ctik, cUtf myJ tUzizl TWj ghlbghU
ft VgLwJ.
fijnfw glf, glbjhFf fij elj fhy cs mua, r_f,
bghUshjhu tsfis sFtjhf mik. iz brayhf glf,
tiuglf, glbjhF jahf khztfis CfgLJwJ.
khztf fgidw, gilghw w kW j khztwf tsu
it cj. ghlbghU fijfshf khwgLtjh btFehisF mtiw
id itJbfhs Ko. Ugjf gfs khztfilna
tstjF thf VgL.

2 . 9 . kh fijf
F K midtU rk
nguur mgUila mukid mg j mikr ghl ehil
FJ gy bghJthd brfis ng bfhoUjh. gh Ez,
rknahjkhd , mtuJ sffS kdilna, kfilna btF
155

uj. kd mua bjhlghf f Ka Kofis vLFnghJ mt jtW


brJlhk Uf gh vnghJ jdJ va, rhJakhd fUJfsh
be brJ Lth. vdnt gh thijfSF kd ca k mJ
tjh.
xU eh mg, ghl ngRnghJ gh, jfSF rFd eif
clh ? vd nflh. ekJ eho xUtiu ghjhny bfl rFd ntiy
br vw msF ahuhtJ Uwduh? vd ddh.
kd j nf s ghiy uaila brjJ. kd m
rhj brf ftd brYJgt. V mt jid _leif ir
UwJ vd ntjidailjh.
gh jdJ nrhfij btfhlhk, munr ! j C bfl rFd
ojt Uwh. mtid ghgtUF mW KGtJ xU o md Tl
ilfhJ vW Tdh.
bria nfll mg, mgoah, mj JuZl ojtid clnd
mukidF miHJ thUf. ehis eh mt Kf nw. Ko
vd vW ghngh vW Mt bghf Tdh.
gh mW unt bfl rFd vd miHfgltid mukid jf
itjh. mg cwF miwnyna mtDF l mfglJ. kd mg
mfhiyy vGnghJ mt, mg K f ntL vW gh TL
brwh.
mfhiybghGJ yjJ, kd mgU vGjh. mt Kdh mj
kj W bfhoUjh. mg, W bfl rFzij nrhJ ghngh
vW mj kjid ewhf cW ghJL brwh.
kd jdJ mwhl mua ntiyfis ftf Mujh. mW mur
mit tHFf, bt Xiyf vW X yhk bjhlJ g brJ
bfhnlUjh.
mg, clnd mtdJ Kf jjhjh W rhl Tl Koahk
nrh r tjJ vW v, fhtyhia miHJ mtid iw
milJ itf. ehis nghLf vW flislh.
fhtyhf ghl kd Ta jlizia g Td. gh
kdiu fhz tjh. gh, kdnu, mj bfl rFd ojtid l
cju wJsjhf nfgnl vwh. kd, t cy thJ
156

ga iy. tdh W milj Jg mggh...... vdnt LtJ rjh


vwh.
gh vgJ kdUF, FokfDF xWjh. midtU
K rkjhnd ? vwh. nkY bfl rFd ojtid ghjjh kdnu,
jhf nrh r kL jh bfhOf. Mdh mtD jhf
Kfjh jh vgij kwJOf. mtDnfh F jliz
vwh.
mg nahjh. gh, kdnu nghJ TWf, bfl rFd ft
ah? kdtuh ? mj kjuh ? vwh.
gh sf cikia J bfhlh. fhtyhia miHJ
mtid Ljiy brjh. bfl rFd vw _l eifia blhjh.
jtiw vLJ Ta mikr ghiy ghuhodh. K midtU rk
vd T bra fhoa kdiu kf ghuho kjd.

2 . 1 0 cik rgtfis fijfshf TWj


ah ituh b#du fr-kfhuhZouh tdf- yFf iwj
aif fhf cyh brw bghGJ fbga ghiw folf J fhL
brof, bfhof glJ Ugij flh. mtiw J mfa nghJ jh
vnyhuh, m#jh Fiff mt mikj cynfh aF fiy tz fL
ajh. mfiy bghij ghJfhF bjh bghU Muh Jiw
m#jh, vnyhuh ju w a fiyfS ghJfhfgl ntL vd a
bjhbghU Muh rlf _y ghJfh nkbfhs gjh.
a ghuga, fiyf Matiw fJ ghuhLtJ kL eho
xbthU FokfD mtiw ghJfhf cW bfhs ntL vgij
khztf cSzthf nkbfhthf.
khu mbyrhl ngh btfis mj tuyhW mPf,
ah mt bt idthf foa bt fis fhz
iHjd. ah tlnkF gF XL y, dh, uh, a, rby{
e gFfSF mU mbyrhl bt id f Ugjhf
mj r. #h kh nghw tuyhW mPf FG gr ef XL ah
tlnkF gF bjhbghU Muh <Lgld. MuhnghJ
ijl efufshd bkhfbrhjhnuh, Augh efufis, mkf
ehffij mJ bfhS th VglJ.
iddf kj k thj thif Kiwf, ehff,
gghL Matiw ugF fhyfzho MF.
157

nrhHf MKiw KiwahdJ Mnya - rh[ha KiwfSF


xghf UjJ fL Mnyafns ajd. a Fwfis jtf
jdh Jg miljtfSF nrjfis <L brtJ vD ia
filojd. nkY Fw iHnjh jtWfSF tU, bjhlJ nfhf
fh snf, ghfgnlh eyfhf ntLjf tJ tHf
UjJ, va jlidfis VWbfhtJ, tUJjY, ntLjY ia
gw kW kjhkhd gfis filoj MatF wj
vLJfhLf vgij ma KowJ.
tuyh flgazfis JrYlD uJlD vbfhl fl
khYf cyf ehLfSF brY a flt jlfis fLojdhY
kW fl gazf ehaf bA vgt bjhlj KafdhY cyf
kf vyh gafis milJsd. bkfy flgaznghJ Vgl
urid wJlhY mt gaz brJ rhlh kah vw fg cyif
ty tJ rhjid jJ. fg gaznghJ VgL df, fhyiy
khwf, flwf MatF Vg totikfgl W ehthfUJ,
tsJ l ma bjhEgnfg U fgf njhw, EQf
mt ja gaf Mait kj rhjidfSfhd vLJfhLf
MF.
yy gy fijf t tahf TwgL, vGjgL tUwd.
gHfhy fijf mur, mu, stur Mnah ga fijf
nehthgoU X mtkhd _if myJ kyiu Vfl myJ gdhW
fl jho ngh bfhLtu ntL, mt rhW nehia FzgLJ
vgjhf fijf TwgL tUwd.
aiy nehFnghJ T cik ygLwJ. fl
nkguUJ mojs tiu gyf csd. mit,
1. fiunahuL

2. flL

3. flr

4. flnj

5. fljs

6. Mfl mff

7. fl kiyf
fl gLiffis gdhW fshf fhzyh. mit.
1. Mfl mf, 2. vkiy , 3. flkiy, 4. s, 5. eLfl KfLf,
6. jil fu fl kiy 7. sgsjhF 8. Mfl rkbt, 9. flnj
158

10.flgu, 11.mLjikJs flnj, 12. flr, 13. flL, 14.


fl 15. Mfl bf 16. Mfl nuhl.
(bghU - Mfl bf (Canyan) uL caj fufSilnaahd
La brFjhd gsjhF)
fl miyf fiufis cUthF mHfhd ahF. fl mojs gu
xU j cyf. kj fLojitfis l, fLof
ntoaitf flbyd guJsJ.
cikia mogilahf bfhl jifa fijfns kjf M
gazfis nkbfhs a fltf, flf, flf, wehL
bjhlf Vgl fhuzkhf UjJ vgij mJ bfhnwh.
fl khYf ma rhjidfshjh mntf bfhl fliy
myho vd, mfliy jhoa mtfs fl mikna cUthd fliy
g vW miHnwh.
xUKiw flgaz nghJ FoF J ljh khYf
MW flU mUfUnf brY l W bfhoUj bdhU fg
khYfl FogjF nfld. mnghJ mkhYf cf fgUJ nH
vLJ gUFf vwd. khYf c uhf UF vd FHdh. UD
fg mojs brW vLJ gUdh. vnd Mra, mj euhf
UjJ. J aif nehjkhF. bghGJ flgaz brnth Fj
MtYl fl mU brY MWiu mU brwd.

2.11. grju fijf njha j


cyf nghW grju fijf ah bjF unjr
ksh%a vW efu Jtf fhuzkhf UjJ. mkur vw mur
mij wghf M brJ tjh. mt cyf mDgt njjt. Mw
ft. m wjt. rfy fiyfis, fW czjt.
tikf kdf gy mkuria tz mtDF fg brY
tjd. kd mkurF tRr, cu r, mdj r vd _W uf
Ujhf. _tU moKlhf. f mfiwnah, Mtnkh yhjtf.
jtf nghif fL ftiyailj mur, mtfis f,
nff ww brtJ vgo vd jh.
mikrfis, mPfis rigF tutiHJ, bgnahfns ! v
jtf f m yhjtfshf Uwhf. nkY f fgij
159

btWwd vgij mf. J vdF bgU ftiy mwJ. wf


uh{aij eh bgUJ yhj isfis bgwjh thif
KGtJnk JgK ntjid jh milnw. vdJ jtf rhfshf
sFtjF jFj nahridia Tw ntL. mjfhfnt, cfisbayh
miHnj vwh mur.
mur ftiyia czj mPf, munr jf jtf _tU
f jFbgw, Kj yfzij gbuL MLf ff ntL.
mj d, mwfis, bghU fis ff ntL. mjF wnf
mtfSila m ky mil vW Tdh.
Rk vw mikr vGJ, kd bgUkhnd, j thifnah iyawJ.
yfz fgjnfh gy MLf ntoUwJ. mtiwbayh fW
KoJ mthahtJ vbghGJ ? vdnt, mdgwit iu J ghiy kL
gUFtJ ngh rhuKsij kL uo sturf id ga itf VghL
bra ntL. mJnt mtfSF vikahf eikahf mik vW
Tdh. mij vgo brtJ ? vd mur nflh.
e ef fbgw ZQrk vwt rfy fiyfis fw nkij, f
fg tyt. sturfis mtl xgiljh btF iu
rhfshf MLth vd Rk Tdh.
mur clnd ZQtkid miHJ fgjF rkhdK ngdh. Mdh
rkhdij kWJ, sturfis Mnw khjf cyf m, fiyf,
wikf nkglbrtjhf cW mjh. mur jkJ jtfis
ZQtkl kl Lbrwh.
cyf m midij dW fijf _y sturf _tUF
ZQtk s Tdh. mt mjfijfis IJ fSF ml
IJ jufshf idJ lh . mitjh grju vw bga cyf
KGtY gutuhW. sturf mtiw nfL, Ma miugo goJ
MWkhjfSF rhfshf sdhf.
kd ZQtkid ghuho gy UJf, btFkf mjh.
ju vwh , N, cgha, wik vd bghU.
IJ jufshtd
1.

eig bfLgJ

3. mLJ bfLgJ

2.

eig bgWtJ

4.

miljij mgJ

5. Muhahk brtJ
160

xbthU jufSF, cjhuzkhf TwgLs fij jiyf


gUkhW
1.

Kj ju
1. fK KaY, 2. fK brkahL

2.

ulhtJ ju
1. nguhirah cHj e, 2. ahidfS vfS

3.

_whtJ ju
1. ntlD whfS, 2. mdgwit mfij

4.

ehfhtJ ju
1. u tuyhW clh?, 2. FuF Kjiy

5.

IjhtJ ju
1. nguhirfhu, 2. nahrid nfL mj berth

2.12. goJ kH y f
1.

eth nkghLfijf - yt jeht

2. Fwbefijf - yt m.. brtfzg


3. xsitah fijf - .v. ehag
4. gyt fijf-yt f. muRk
5. ffJgu - Ph. khf thrf
6. vGJ ntj - R. Ruka Wfijf
7. jhkiu br gho fijf
8. yh. r. uhkhUj fijf
9. tfz fijf
10. j whL Wfijf I,II & III, njtjh luh
11. rf ya fijf - auR
12. R. rKu fijf
13. K.fUzh mtf fijf
14. Uisahl fijf - Jth brJiw KJ
15. nguP mzh Wfijf I, II & III
16. WtfSfhd fijf - ghy mjehRtu
17. mQr fij - Jy
18. gaDs fijf- nf.v rut
19. WtfSfhd edlij fijf - uhk
20. da jid fijf - etk
161

21. cyf nghW bghbkhfijf - uh Ruka


22. gr jufijf - Kiy .v. Kijah
23. bjdhuhk fl fijf- .v. Kijah
24. ehLw kUJtK eifRit fijfS-ahnuh
25. mPf brhd fijf - btflhry
26. ukhj fijf - Kiy Kijah
27. kahij uhk fijf - .v. Kijah
28. fl - ma cyf X mKf - v. $thr
29. Rtof TW Ritahd fijf - b#fhjh
30. cyfnkijf - nf. tghu

2.13 braf
I.

nH mfgLs jiyfis goJ ca brafis nkbfhf


gfg ah bja gF vGj nrhH nguuR, 1. #ahya,

2. guhjf, 3. uh#uh# nrhH 4. uhn#u (nrhH nrhHnguuR njhw nghf - thf - Uj gf nrhH fhy M Kiw (local Self
Government))
xbthU jiyF ca guf, glf nrfJ fijf gilJ
fUJ g k h W f . 1 ) g y t f , 2 ) g h o a f , 3 ) n r u f , 4 ) u h ou
T l f , 5 ) rhSaf, 6) ahjtf Mnah g ghlbghUis csla
fijf tiuf. 7) Kj a Rju nghuhl, 8) gbjhgjh who rka,
r_f Ujf
II.

k cUthF jij khf, glf, cyf, nja, khtl cq

tiuglf, cikbghUfshf ktiffis fho fij tahf


fUJfis gf.
1.

aif tsfnyna f KakhdJ k. nkgu fhzgL


ghiw Jff, jhJf, ka iy, jiHf, a ghOa fsh k
cUthwJ. k cs <u, jhJf, btg Matiw gagL
mtW jhtuf ntiu brY tsUwd.

2.

k tiff : kz, tl k, brk, fr k, ruis k,


clhFj, fhQ lf, mt is gf khf, glf,
tiuglf, ygl, kh gagL, fij to jah brJ fUJ
gkhWf. g brf.
162

3.

k m VgLtjfhd fhuzf, k mig fLgLJj,


ktsij ghJfhj, tiw fLgLJ ghJfhj Kija fhy
kf ga eltoiff, W ekJ eilKiwf, nkbfhs
ntoa Kafis fij to jah brf.

IIII.

tU ffSF fijf vG fUJ gkhWf.


1.

mogil cikf, flikf

2.

thFik

3.

RWwNH ghJfh

fijfis T w FGl ciuahl elJnghJ rkms gnf,


vzfis gj, Fiwfis fisj, jidia Lj, njitahd
fUfis wghf ifahSj, xWik cz Mad eilbgw cjwJ.
IV.

mg - gh, bjdh uhk fijf tF goJ ciuahLf.

V.

F K midtU rk vW bfhLfgLs fij m


,

fWbfhS

beKiwfS

ahit

fyJiuahLf?

fUJfis g brf.
VI.

5-M tF khztfSF r_f ma ghlij fij thyhf


elJtjF jFj uL fijfis xgilthf jahf

VII. ehF t fijf, xU gf fijf jah brf. (c..) uhkhazbgzhir, kfhghuj- kzhir)
VIII. ir - fijfis va ghlfsh Tw.
IX.

fijf y jiyf - gfhf


1. ehLFiHj enyhf, 2. jid f, 3. yathf, 4.

ma jidahsf, 5. cik ff, 6. kh-nr-J- iuJ


Kndh brY l, 7. bengha nghdgh-uZagilbaL nghJ
jsg kh (kiH) btwh. 8. buRu-nk mlhbd kdiu-kf
J RLgtnu, buho RLgt kidna. vfSF rhLtjF buho RL
jhUf (Hey, baker ! Bakers wife provide us bread) vw kf Tiw
csla fij. 9. rhLtjF buho iyba buho (Cake)
rhlL vW Ta nk mlhbd (If people dont have bread to eat, let them
have cakes) Tiw cslaJ fij. 10. kh / bh (bt f)
kh bhit Jtjfhf oUJ jdJ gilfSl tfhs
163

tjnghJ bh jdJ gilfSl brW fhahflj o maizia


ifgdh. o ghJhthf KoNo bfhlh. jid fijahf
mikJ TWf. 11. fa f mUnf fhzgL bgKlh Knfhz
(myho bgUfl) aif mra - aif fit fijahf
TWf.

2.14 Ko
tuyhW, RWw ga m, idthw, kdg, fhuz fha
bjhlgj, wj FokfSfhd gf, tuyhW, a ffis xoa
Ka lf, mt KaJt, gHfhy rhjidf, el cs
rhjidf Matiw g ma, bja, bgw, ghuhl fijf
tahf ghlbghUfis mgJ xbthU Ma flikahF.

2.15. ghit f
1.

Kochhar S.K. Teaching of Social Studies Sterling publishers pvt. Ltd (1996)

2.

Teaching of Social studies - A.S. Kohli Anmol pvt. Ltd. New Delhi 1996

3.

UPhdrgj - r_f ma fF Kiwf

4.

K. btflrh - tuyhW fF Kiwf - New Delhi

5.

Effective Teaching of History in Schools- Chandhary K.P

6.

Aggarwal J.C - Teaching of History

7.

bjhlfgf tuyhW fj - njaf Muh Wtd,


bl (1970)

8.

Teaching Stratagies - R.P. Singh, Gopal Rana, APH Publishing Corporation.

164

myF 3

gkid
mKf
kjf bgWw mDgtfis _W tifahf fyh vW
fahs vf nl (Edgar Dale) Tsh. mt fUJgo, tDgtf
braiy mogilahf bfhL bgWtJ (Experiences by doing) cWnehf
_y bgWtJ (Experiences by observation), FpLfis mJ bgWtJ
(Experinces by Symbolising) vW fyh. _ bra _y bgW
mDgtfS,

cW

nehfiy

mogilahf

bfhL

fw

mDgtfSnk, iyj fw mDgtij bfhLgitahF. r_f ma


fj gkid (Workshop) twJ. khztf jid,
gilghw Ma jgl wikf btghlhf gkid mikwJ.
gkid _y Ma khztf xL bkhj wfis kLj
vjhwJ. jnghija fbjhEg ts fw bgUghY bra
mogil elgjh jifa gkid KiwahdJ xU Ka fw
fj mQFKiwahf gagLjgL tUwJ. j my jid
g thf fhngh.
. myF TWf
3.1

gkid - bghU kW tiuaiw.

3.2

gkid - bra Kiw.

3.3

r_f ma fw - fj gkid gaghL.

3.4

khztfl btgL wf.

3.5

Koiu.

3.6

ghit f.
165

fw braf:
t .myFTW f
v

r_f ma
fw
fj
gkid
gaghL M
fUf

t HfgL
brKiw g

njit gL
jft f

kh jahjy
va iy Fiwj
iy kW
njit aw
bghUfis bfhL
VnjD xU t hiy
fUia jah
brj

t hiy
fU
gl kW
mik

t uyhW
idlfkh jahj
glf,
fk ( m) irdh
t uyhW
cUkhfis fk bfhL t uyhW
kW
brj
ff VnjD xU
mik,
idl ( myJ)
ffhy
ffhy fUf
fUf
glf
kh
ah kW
ah ( m)
jeho
jeho
kz jo
aifaik
aif
Kgkhz
yt iuglij
mik
kh
kzjo
njhwf
KgkhzJl
brj

t ufis
nrfF l
g kw lf

yf,
izajs,
t hiy
M ika.

yf, a
RW yh
fHf,
izajs

Rt yt iu
gl
kW my

3.1. gkid - bghU kW tiuaiw


mikfhykhf gagLjgL fF Kiwf gkid
xW. gkid vgJ kWbkhU tifahd thjKiw vd y
fUJtJL. Mdh bgaUnfwhngh FGf eilbgW thjfSl
gF bgWnthiu y braf <LgLJtJjh Kiw w.
gkidf mif jahj myJ y fUJfis bjhFJ
btLj (publication) myJ VnjD y bghUfis jahj vd
brafis mikfyh. gkid uL myJ _W ehf elgjhf
Ufyh. myJ xU thu vW Tl ofyh. gkidf iuf,
166

W FG thjf, f gazf, vGJ ntiy, ffhf, y


nrhjidfis mikJfhl vd ntiyfis gntW tifahf mikfyh.
fw - fj eh gkidia tU fhuzfSfhf bragLjyh.
mit,
fa jiyfY, mwhl ff thj jiyfY
fw fUJfis bjhFJ btl.
cq tsf ga bjhF.
aif nglf, df tu bjhF.
fw myJ brayif jahj.
W W FGf, mua, bghUshjhu kW r_f uidf Fj
thjfis mikj.
fw - fj Jiz fUf jahj.
fgazf kW fsgaz M miff jahj.
fw - fj Jiz fUf nghw f bjhlghd ffh
mikj.
kF Fig, kfh Fig - RH, ga z
RWw guhk
cl ey, Rfhjhu - tu nrfj
CdKnwh, bgf, kiythd, gLjgnlh, f tu nrf.
Efiyf, fyhrhu, gghL ga tufis bjhFj.
ifid fiyf cUthf.
wJiwf tsgf, mjdh r_fF ilF gaghL
ga tuf nrfJ btLj.
ma - bjhEg, r_f mikf g fUJ nrfj.
nja Fnfhf, lf, gaghL ga tuf nrfj.
cq tsf tu bjhF
167

3.2. gkid - bra Kiw


ll bra Mfij jU
llh bra Vfij jU
vw rhnwh brhzf, vgia brikahf brJ Kof
ll aikahjjhF. gkid btaf Kj ll ntL.
j lLj gkidia elJtjFa tKiwfis zf
ntL. vdnt xU gkidia bragLJnghJ fl braKiwfis
ll ntL.
1. Fnfh
xU gkidia bragLj ntLbk Kj mgkidfhd
Fnfhis

za

bra

ntL.

FnfhSl

xU

braiy

MuFbghGJjh mj njitf, cf, braKiwf nghwtiw


eilKiwgL, vghF xU jhfij VgLj Ko. vdnt mogil
Fnfhis Kj bj brj ff mta.
2. nehff
Fnfh mogil vghfgL isfis mgkid
Ka nehffshf mika ntL. vdnt it njit mogil
Uj ntL. njit mogil Ujh kLnk gkid
nehf ju thjjhf mik. gkid btl bragL.
3. gkid ikafUJ
Fnfhfis, nehffis zF bghGJjh, xU
gkid ikafUij khf Ko. thW mik ikafUJ
xU uidFa jiyghf Uf ntL. gkid braghLf
muidF Ko TW tifY, fwiy nkgL, f juij
caJtjhf Uf ntL.
4. tYe FG mik
g _, g mDgt, ghlbghU bjj yik nghw
mogilY, gkid ghlfU mogilY tYefis nj brJ
gkidia

telj

af

ntL.

tYef

gkid

fUnfg gkid braghLfis mikf ntL. nkY tYe


FG llthW, gkid Koj mj jhf vthW csbjd m
168

tiu jfSila gfig nkbfhSj ntL. nkY tYef


jhf lL gkid braghLfis gnfgt njitia
mogilahf bfhL, gkid yFfis iwntW tifY
mikf ntL. gkid yFnfg ntoa uidfis xo
gntW fUJfshf J bfhL mjid xo fyJiuahl gy W
FGfis mikgJ mta.
5. FG ntiy
gkid bghGJ FG braghL v WW FGfshf J
Fl braf gF bgWnthiu <LgLJj ntL. FGfshf
F bghGJ, gF bgWnth Mtid fU bfhL FGfis
mikj mta. xbthU FGF gkid fUUJ
ybryhk Fl brafis brkhW gf ntL.
6. l nj
gkid bjhlFtjF K Ma, gkidfhd lid nj
bra ne brW ghitl ntL. mthW nj brbghGJ
ml fl trf csjh vd cW brj ntL.
Uif tr, rhutr, fhnwhl, ik, nghJkhd btrKs
tFgiw Ma midJ cs muif nj brj ntL.
f bjhEg fUf (OHP & slide projectors, LCD, ect.) jah
iy itJ ifahs Toa iy gkid mu csdth
vd ghitl ntL.
Fo, kW fl tr cs lkhf nj bra ntL.
7. fhy mltiz
gkidfhd fhy mltiz KGikahf gwgl ntL.
gkid ca fhy ca neu bjhlfgl ntL. mnj ngh fhy
mltizgo ca neu Kofgl ntL. mbghGJjh khztf
KG ftdJl gkid bragLt.
8. g brj
Ma xbthU fid g bra, jFj xU khztid af
ntL. gkid Kj mk bghGnj xbthU ehSfhd
mifia jahJ tHFgtiu akd brl ntL. xbthU
169

ehS gkid bjhlf, FGntiyf, gagLjgl cf,


tHfgl gkid bjhlghd fUJiuf, iwnta yFf,
khztf gnf nghw midijnk g brj f mta.
nkY gkid KGtJ eilbgw brafis ifgl _yK, miff
_yK g brj ntL.
9. kL kW mif jahj
gkid Ko, khztf fUJfis dhgoa _y
nrff ntL. thW nrfj fUJfis, xbthU mk
mifia, xbthU eh mifia bjhFJ, gFgh brJ
gkid jhfij flj ntL.
thW lL br bghGJjh gkid yFf vj ms
iwntwgLsd vgij mJ bfhs Ko.
10. bjhlg
gkidf brj ntiyid bjhlJ mij eilKiwglJ
ntiyY <LgLj ntL. vLJfhlhf, MaUfhd gil
g gkid v, bjhlJ gf Maf gkid fW
bfhl
brafis
eilKiwgLJwduh
vW
mthW
eilKiwgLJ bghGJ VnjD lghLf VgLwjh vW M
brj ntL. nkY jhf gkid bgw mDgt thj Ko,
fw JizfU brj myJ M mif jahj Kjatiw
eilKiw gWj ntL.

3.3. r_f ma fw - fj gkid gaghL


r_f ma fw - fj, Maf cq tsfis,
njitaw bghUfis itJ khztf cjl gkid
_y gy va fw JizfUfis jahfyh.
Mug tFf khztf, kzyhY, f kzhY gy kh
cUtfis cUthfyh. nkY fhj fj, gl cUtf mik
nghwit _y gl milfis cUthfyh. fhj T, kW fk
gagL tuyhW w f lf, ehzaf, iddf, y
mikf (rkbt, l, kiy) nghwtiw jahfyh. brjhf
tU tzglfis nrfJ ghlwfSF VwthW glbjhF
jahfyh.
ca tFf MfUf, cUkhf, kz jLf, fk
khf, ytiuglf Kgkhz ytiu glf nghwtiw
jahfyh.
170

1. MfUf
r_f ma cs a gF, ma ghl nghnw y va
nrhjidf _y ghlbghUis ffyh. mthW khztf jahf Toa
y fUf,
fhW irkh (Wind Vane)
fhW ntfkh (Anemometer)
kiHkh (Rain guage)
ghukh (Barometer)
u/ gf kh (Day & Night Model)
ufzf kh (Eclipces - Model)
Hbfh (Shadow pole)
bra : va, iyFiwj kW njitaw bghUfis bfhL
VnjD xU thiy fUia jah br.
mnj ngh khztf braToa va nrhjidf.
btgjh fhW tilj.
fhwGj.
kz.
nta ghiwij.
jifa nrhjidfis brtjfhd va fUf jahgY,
M fUfs jahgY ca tF khztfis (6,7 kW 8 tFf)
gkid <LgLj ntL. jid bjhlJ mtf mij fw
eilKiwgLj Ma wj Kiw ll ntL.
2. cUkhfis brj
r_f ma fw cU khf gF mf KaJt thj
xwhF. khf brj vD brKiw g gkid bragL
bghGnj fw mDgtkhdJ khztDF cldoahf ilwJ. tif
khf fw mDgtij iyJ brtJl mtiw a nfhzf
fhz cjwd. cUkhf khztfSF Rakhf fF rhjdfshf
mikwd.
171

vdnt tuyh, tuyhW ff id dfis, tghL


jyfis, ehzafis, a, ybt njhwf, kh,
mizfLf, bjhrhiyf nghwtiw fKnd cUkhf _y
bfhL tuyh.
bra : fk (m) Chinaclay, _y tuyhW ff VnjD xU tuyhW
idl (m) ffhy fUfis jah br
3. kz jL
gkidf jfL gj kz jo <u kziy gu mkziy
aifaik va njhwfis mikfyh. vLJfhlhf, MW
rkbt, flfiu rkbt, kiy, kiybjhl, l, fzthf,
MWgLif nghw Kgkhz aifaikfis vjhf cUthfyh.
tiw wt ytiuglf _yK tiuJ, tz o
cUthfyh.
bra : ah kW jeho aifaik ytiuglij kz
jo KgkhzJl jahf..

3.4. khztfl btgL wf


gkiddh khztfl jwikf btgLwd. j
_y

jiyik

nghw

wfis

tsJ

bfhwd.

xUizj, lLj nghw wfsh khztf vj xU fUF


tufis nrfJ MuhJ cikia czJ bfhS g tswJ.
gkid <LgLtj _y, khztf fiyw, Mfw,
jft gkhw w, ngRwik, fUJ MH nghwit btgLwJ.
nkY gkid bgw mDgtij eilKiwgLj, ffis F
wid bgWwd.

3.5. Koiu
r_f ma fj gkid brKiw fw mDgtij
khztfSF fwj Kiw jUwJ. nkY khztf KG
<LghL, MtK KGtJkhf ugwJ. thW jahfgL
fw fUfS, fUJfSF, FG

ntiyfSF tFf

khztfSF r_f ma ghl nk cs <Lghil mff


brwJ.
172

3 . 6 . ghit f
1.

Kumar, Aimit (1995)

Teaching of Physical Science Armol Publication Pvt.Ltd.,


New Delhi.

2.

Kochhw S.H. (1979)

Teaching of History, Sterling Publishers Private Ltd..


1-10 Green Park, New Delhi - 110016

3.

Kohli V.K (1998)

How to Teach Science, Vivek Publishers, India.


Salion Basha S.AMethods of Teaching, Discovery
Publishing House, & Digmati Baskra Rao

New Delhi

- 110002 (2004)
4.

Shaida B.D and

Teaching of Social Science, Ayya Book Depot,


Shaida A.C (1994)Korobhagh, New Delhi - 110005.

5.

Alexander &

Effective Teaching in Secondary Schools - Newyork.


Halverson (1963)

6.

James.A

Teaching Strategies for the Social Studies Phillippines, (1973) Addison- Wesley Publishing
Company.

7.

Methods & Techniques of Teaching - Sonali Publication

8. Teaching of Social Studies - A Practical Approach - J.C. Agarwal Vikas Publication

173

myF 4

ma jid l Kiw
mKf
r Ir l < jJtK, jhk Mth vor rhu
fLo, iu rnfhjuf Mfha khd afK, J nghw vzw
fLofS vthW cUthd?
nkfl

ma

cikfis

gnrhjid

_y

flj

mayhsf jid lfjh vgJ eh mjnj.


ed fhy eKila mwhl thif gagLj Toa
bghUf fLofSF fhuzkhf miktJ ma jid wnd
MF. kj jid bgUf bgUf aif tsfis kjDF
njitahd mogil bghUshf khWtjFa tKiwfS, ma
jidfsh cUthfgLwd. iwa jft bjh Eg, f
kW iza cy vj gFY cs jftfis ma Toa th,
aif tsf U cgl midJ j jftfis, vjbthU
kjD mJ bfhS thig ma jidfns ekF jUwd.
Mfntjh aif vyh tsfis fhoY kj ts vwiHfgL
kj ma jid tsnk jiyahajhf fUjgLwJ.
myF TWf
4.1

ma jid l - tiuaiw

4.2

ma jid l Kiw wgrf

4.3

m jid l Kiw - goiyf

4.4

ma jid l Kiw Ma gF

4.5

Koiu

4.6

ghit f

174

fw braf :
t.
myFTWf
v

ma
jid
l
mQFKiw

ma
jid
l Kiw
goiyf

ma
jid
l Kiw
Ma gF

t ufis
nrfF l

t HfgL
brKiw g

njit gL
jft f

fyJiuahl

#dehaf
ah
v t hW
g w
gLwJ.

yf

t hj

bjh
kakhj
kW
efukakhj
braf
eik ikf

yf

goaLj

ca bjhlf
iy
ma,
jid
l
KiwF
Vw
w f

kw lf

6, 7, 8
ghl
jff

4.1. ma jid l Kiw - tiuaiw.


ma jid l Kiw (Scientific Inquiry Method) vgJ cy
aif kW r_f, fyhrhu ffis ga a jftfis dhf
_y fl fw mQFKiw MF vW nghnk kW
btafhd Mnah tiuaWwd.
iwa khzhff, ma jid wid jkJ tFgiw
NHUJ bgU bfhnl brwhf. J nghy r_f ma fF
nghJ mghl fUJfis ma bgUfJl jkJ thifia,
tsikl,

jidl

fW

bfhtJ

mta.

mj

bragLthfnsahdh thH fW bfhtJ aY. vdnt, r_f ma


ghlij fF nghJ ma jid wfis khztfl tsf
ntL vw neh ma jid l Kiw vw fF
Kiwia ts l bgw bragLsJ.
175

fnghiu ikakhf bfhl ma jid l Kiw, dhf


bjhFj Kiwia mogilahf bfhL mikfgLsJ. ma
jid l Kiw tahf khztf mjKs dhfis nff
CFfgLwd. Maf Kojtiu khzhff dhfF
neilahd gfis mgij jJ dhf _ykhfnt gogoahf
khztf jidia L tif dt ntL. fj
Kiw Kfhy rhuO vw jJtPh Kj fhy fahsf tiu
ifahsgL Kiwahf csJ. V? vjF? vgo? vw dhfns midJ
j jftfis mtjF Lnfhfshf mikwd. Kiw
ma ghl fUJfis fgjF kLkyhk r_f ma ghlij
fgjF gagLjgl ntoa KiwahF. r_f ma kj kW
aif ga fUJfis cslaJ kLkyhk, kjDF
kjDF, kjDF r_fF, kjDF aifF cs
bjhlid

sF

ghlkhf

sFwJ.

rKjha

eilbgW

ffSF, uidfSF, jidf _y fhQj


mtakhwJ. ma Jiw uidfSF fhQj iyahd
fis mftyJ.
bra : #dehaf ah vthW gwgLwJ - fyJiuahLf.
4.2. ma jid l Kiw wgrf
wgrf:
dhf _y fl fw mQFKiw, fnghiu ikakhf
bfhlJ.Mjyh khzhff jhfshfnt fw <LgL kdghF
VgLwJ.
khztf Muh kdghikl bragLtjh ghlfUJfsh
KGikahf ftd brYj KowJ.
bghUjkhd braKiw Muh <LgL bghGJ khztfilna
ycz btgLwJ.
khztf jfilna fUJfis bjg tisJ bfhLF
jik guj kdghik cUthwJ.
uidfSF fhgj _y jdif kW J nghw
gfis cUthFwJ.
khztfilna neuoahd fUJ gkhwf ftjh wj kdJl
(Open minded) jkJ fUJfis btgLJ w VgLwJ.
176

J xU ma mQFKiw vgjh bjhlJ gogoahf fUJfis


nrfF wD TLwJ.
#h ^ - TWgo J xU gKid fw mQFKiw. j
mQFKiwah vij mJ bfhsntL vw FHijf
cshj MtK, fUJgkhwK, ghlfUjhfK kW
fiyz btghL nghw ehF gfis tsF w
mrid bfhlJ.
khztf jhf fWbfhs ntoa ghl fUJfis jkF
Vfdnt bjj fUJf UJ gogoahf mJ bfhs Kiw
thgwJ.
Kiw FHijf gilghwYF t tFwJ. (c.) a
nfhz fUJgl tiuj, Jikahd bghUfis cUthFj.
bra : ma jid yhJ U bghUshjhu, ekJ thif,
fyhrhu, ehff, tsbgUf nghwit Kndw th clh ? jid brf.
4.3
4.3.. ma jidl Kiw - goiyf :
Kiwia tFgiw fw fj gagLJ bghGJ fl
goiyfis g bragLJj Kiwahd gaid jU. tU 7
goiyf sffshtd.
1. uridia flj :
khztf j RWw fG aif uidfisnah,
ghlfUJf rhj M jiyfisnah, j mwhl thif fhQ
r_f fyhrhu uidfnsh ma jid l KiwF vLJ
bfhs ntoa uidfshf mikayh. khztf jidia
LtjF uidFa jiyfis njbjLj Kj goiyahF.
Maf uidfis njbjLF iy jfbjhU tfhoahf
bragLj

mta.

Vbd

uidf

khztf

cW

nehfjfjhf, njbjLj uidfSF fL j mwhl


th ifahsjfjhf njbjLj ntL. cjhuzkhf,
1) gF mUfhik cs MW kW Fsf khRgLj.
2) j RWw x khRgLj.
3) gadw bghUfis Fj. (Dumping of waste materials)
177

2. uidfis cWnehFjY, tjY :


ma jid l ulhtJ goiyahf miktJ njbjLj
uidia cWnehFjY thjY MF. uidia njbjLj wF
uid njhwij, _yfhuzij, MHij ma cW nehf
mtakhwJ. vjbthU uidF fhz uidia y fhyfhtJ
cWnehf mtakhwJ. cWnehF nghbjyh uidfhd
fhuzfis tifgLj ntL. goaltiw bjhFJ fhuzfis
goaLj ntL. jdh uidfhd fis mj tifnfg
fla aY. cjhuzkhf,
jh thG lnyh myJ jkJ RWwnyh gadw bghUfis
Fjyh VgL ikfis czJ mjid uidahf njbjLjh,
ahuh, vjjkhd bghUf FfgLwd vgij, vts fhykhf
FfgLwd

vgij,

mjdh

VgL

ltrik,

fbghUfSF VgL nt id khwf, id khwfsh


VgL fhg ml, fhg mfgh eh RthF khRgl fhW
jdh is Rfhjhu nfLf nghw isfis g tJ bfhSj
mta.
3. dhf jahj :
ma jidl Kiw _whtJ goiyahf miktJ
dhf jahj MF. khztf jidia L tif
njbjLfgl uidFa mtkhd dhfis jahf ntL.
eh vLJ bfhl uidFa fl dhgoaiy jahfyh.
1. f bghUfis ca l nghLtj mta vd?
2. f bghUfis kF Fig, kfhj Fig vW V f ntL?
3. Ffgl fbghUfsh gutToa nehf ahit ?
4. nehf gutjh rKjha nfL vthW VgLwJ ?
5. rKjha nfodh isaToa bghUshjhu isf ahit ?
6. f bghUfis vthW nkyhik (Management) brtJ?
J nghw dhfis bjhLjh uidFa it neh
khztf f th VgL.
4. dhfSFfj ilfis ydh brj :
goal

dhfSF

bghUjkhd

ilfis

njbjLJ

sfkj ma jidl Kiw ehfhtJ goiyahF.


178

dhfSF ca ilfis njbjLfgl uid mogil


MuhJ njitahd tufis nrfJ bfhs ntL. cjhuzF
vLJ bfhl dhfSF bghUjkhd ilfis mfyh.
1. Rfhjhu ngQj.
2. y bghUf kF jik thjJ. y bghUf kfhj jik
bfhlit. uL bghUfS fyJ L bghGJ eR jik
bfhlitahf khLwd. J nghW dhfSF il njLj
ntL.
5. gFghj :
uidFa fhuzfis ilf _y tifgLa xbthU
tiffhd fis Mjj ntL. cjhuzkhf,
njbjLfgl uidF kF f bghU, kfhj f bghU
vd J Mjj _y bghUf nkyhik wid khztf bjJ
bfhs Ko.
6. it gj :
uidia gFgh brjl jahfnth myJ FG _ykhfnth
uidFa fis gJ bfhS wid bgwntL. cjhuzkhf
fbghUfsh VgL RWw nfLfis, mtiw nkyhik br
tKiwfis ga zid rKjhadilna VgLj ntL.
7. bjhFj :
uidia flJ, cWneh, tJ, dhfis bjhFJ,
ilfis ydh brJ, flj fis bjhFJ g brj ntL.
g brj tufis mifahf jahJ itj ntL. mthW br
bghGJ khztfSF mtf vbfhS kw uidfSF ma
jidia L Kiw bragl ttFF. cjhuzkhf fbghUf
nkyhik, khztf flj uid KjbfhL, mjfhd fis
flj, tiu bjhFJ mifahf rkJ ma jid l
wid khztfilna l ntL.
bra : bjhkakhj kW efukakhj braf eik, ikfis
thf !.
179

4.4. ma jidia l Kiw Ma gF


fw khztfSF rhjfkhd Niyia VgLj, khztfis
CFf Kiw f gagLwJ. Ma,
1)

Mt_Lgtuhf fUJ mguhf Uj mta.

2) fwYF Vw Niyia cUth jUgtuhf Uj ntL.


3) d UJ bfhL njitahd bghUfis, trfis
VgL bfhLgtuhf Ma Uf ntL.
4) Maf jidia Lgtuhf kLkyhk, khztf
jhdhf fgtuhf khW iytiu cja ntL.
5) khztf uridF flj it th gw tWj.
fl

jiyf

ma

jid

Kiwia

khztfilna eilKiwgLjyh.
1) kj edf - khztf gf.
2) gila vGJ Kiwfis eilKiwgLj ayhik.
3) cyf btgkakhj kLgLj khzt gF.
4) tsf ngzjF Kndw.
bra : ca bjhlf iy cs ghlgF ma jid
l KiwF cfj wfis goaLf!
4.5. Koiu
vdnt, Kiw fw xU Fljf lij tFwJ.
khztf jidia, M kdghikia LtJl,
gilghwiy tswJ. khztf ika fwyhf miktJl iyahd
fwYF ttFwJ. Kiw Ma khztfSF ey
tfhoahf Uwh vg Iaiy.
4 . 6 . ghit f
1)

S. Venkataiah Science Education Anmol Publishing Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi

2)

Kumar, Aimit (1995) Teaching of Physical Science, Armol Publication, Pvt.,


Ltd., New Delhi.

3)

Kohli.V.K (1998) How to Teach Science Vivek Publishers, India.

4)

Wttp /. acept. asu. edu/ courses

5)

Salion Basha S.A & Digmati Baskra Rao Methods of Teaching - Discovery
Publishing House, New Delhi (2004)
180

myF 5

ehlf Kiw
mKf
ghl bghUis khzt m gJ bfhs Ma ghl bghU
jik, khzt iy, tFiw NH, eilKiwgLJj vik
Kjatiw fU bfhL bghUjkhd fj Kiwia
njbjLwh. mjF KiwfS r_f ma ghl fj ehlf Kiw
wghd lij bgWwJ.
r_f ghlfis fWju ehlff gagLwd. Vbd kj
afis j _y eF sf Ko vgJ Vbe M TW.
eoj khzt ghitia kd tsia xnu rka
gagLJwJ vwh o.. nshl.
mz fh mof s ta fLfj mru ehlf
theh KGtJ mtiu cik ngRgtuhf thH brjJ.
eoF af vyh khztflK aghf fhzgL.
mafij fw gagLj ntL. Mug, eLiy tF
khztfSF r_f ma ghlij ehlf Kiw fF bghGJ
ghlbghU cnuhl bgW.
myF TWf
5.1

ehlf - bghU - sf

5.2

eojyh VgL gaf

5.3

eoj go iyf

5.4

tFgiw NH ehlf

5.5

ehlf Kiw ftf ntoait

5.6

eof Tlhj gFf

5.7

ehlf Kiw id bfhs ntoait

5.8

ehlf tiff

5.9

eogjF Vw gFf

5.10

ehlf tiffS ytF vLJfhLf

5.11

Koiu

5.12

ghit f
181

fw bra
t .myFTW f
v

eoF Vw
g F f

ehlf t iff

t HfgL
brKiw g

njit gL
jft f

t ufis nrfF
l
g

goaLj

bjhlf
iy
3 Kj 5
r_fa
t F t iu
eoj
r_fa
KiwF
ghljf
Vw w
g F f

xgil

3 Kj 8
xuf ehlf
t F t iu
gy mf
cs w
ehlf
g F a

kw lf

yf
jff

5.3 eoj go iyf


eogjF Vw gFfis njbjLj
eogjF Vw Kiw totikj
ehlfkhf eoJfhLj
midJ ghlgFfis ehlfkhf kh eof ayhJ. fUJ
br, bkghLfnshL gntW fjhghufS gbfLF tif
mikJs gFfns eogjFa gFfshF.
eogjFa gFfis njbjLj d mjid eogjF Vw
Kiw totikf ntL. ghlgFia ciuahlyhf cUthF nghJ
fgid ts bghUajhf fhgLJ tif ea fjhf mikf
ntL. cik brf kLnk l bgw ntL.
ehlff l bgW fjhghuf ehlf fG fhy, l,
d,

fjhghufSfhd

Mil

mfyf,

xgidf

Kjatiw ll ntL.
ghlgFia ehlfkhf eoJ fhLtnj Kakhd goiyahF. ehlf
llgo eilbgwhjh ehlf ghnghl fw nehf ww
iwntW.
tFiw ehlfij munfW bghGJ llgo iwntWt
bjh VglhY khztf j glit ww eoJ ghuhL bgw
th csJ.
182

5.4. tFgiw NH ehlf


gntW Hhf eilbgW ehlfF tFgiw NH eilbgW
ehlfF Vuhskhd ahr cL. Hhf eilbgW ehlff
KTona lL g mJ ca sFf, mufik,
fjhghufSfhd Mil mfyf, xgid vd midJ
TWfY KGik bgwjhf mfkhd bghU brynthL eilbgW. Mdh
tFiw NH njbjLfgl ghlgFia ehlfkhf eogjF
bkghL, ca czia btgLJ Fu tsK fij trdK
njitahF. KTona lnlh myJ ghlntisia cUthnah
tFgiw ghlfis eofyh.
ghlgFia ehlfkh eogj_y eogtfS ghlfU bj
bgWgt. ehlfij ghnghU wdil bgWt.
tFgiw eo ehlfnkil mikgJ (Stage setting) aif fhf
VgLJjY mta iy. fUgyif xU tskhf, tFgiw xU
gF fijghuf TLlkhf gagLj ntL. eo (Action) bghU
sFj (Gesture) cr (Expression) Fu (Voice) wTw (interpretation) nghwitfSF KaJt ju ntL. cil, fh, nkil mikj
nghwitF mf ftd brYj ntoaiy. ehlff, ciuahlf
nghwtiw khztf vGJgo l ntL.
5.5. ehlf Kiw ftf ntoait
1. ghljfUJ xU Fl gFia njbjLJ tFiw
goJ fhJ, trdfis vGj brhy ntL. it
xUtUbfhUt ngbfhS tifY Xuf trdkhf
mikayh. it tuyhW cikf mogil mika ntL.
2. ehlff cs ghlbjhlghd ffis goJ fhlyh.
mitfSF VwthW khztfis eof brantL.
3. t u y h W c i u a h l f i s g o f b r J m i t f m l s
tuyhW cikfis vGj brayh. ghlfis mKfgLj
eoJ fhlyh. J khztf csfis ftU, ghl
f gogitf cik jikia khztf mJ
bfht.
183

4. Ma khztfl tuyhW fUJfis ciueil gh vG


TWtjF gyhf, mJ rkjkhd nffis nfL ghu,
kdghik, tuyhW cikf Maitfis khztf czu
brayh.
5. tuyhW cikf xU mikahd go, ciuahlf thbkh
mQFKiw, tuyhW cikf jhd nff fUgyif
RUfY l bgW tif mika ntL. itfSF
Jizahf ghliy gagLjyh.
5.6. eof Tlhj gFf
ehlff ril fhf, nghff, wF fhf,
gLbfhiyf, Lj nghwit eof Tlhj gFfshF.
ehlff j kj cUt mikig nf brgo mika TlhJ.
5.7. ehlf Kiw id bfhs ntoait
1.

ehlf

Kiwia

gW

bghGJ

Fiwthd

ghlbghUis

gagLJj, mfneuij gagLJj Mait jfgl


ntL.
2. vyhghlfis eoj Kiwia g ff TlhJ.
3. w vGa ciuahliy xgij, w ela briffis
gWtij y neu gagLjyh. tF ehlf eoj
gaDilajhf mika ntLbkgij id bfhsntL.
4. tF eoj Kiwia Ma nkbfhS bghGJ, y
khztfSF kL erugjia mJ, kw khztfis
wff TlhJ. ey ngR wikila FHijfis kL
eojYF nj brtJ TlhJ. midJ khztfSF rk th
mj ntL.
5. eoF fhahdJ vikahf Uf ntL. fij Niyia
vyh khztfS J bfhS go Uf ntL.
6. eoj eilbgw wF, mJ ga iw Fiwfis fyjhnyhJ
wl eilbgw cjj.
184

5.8. ehlf tiff


ehlfij gyjf tifgLjyh.
t.
v

t ifgLJt jfhd
mogil

t iff

fjhghuf
vif

1.j eo
( t rd rhj /t rd yhj)
2. FG eo

t rd l bgW Kiw

1. brhrhj eo
2. brif rhj eo

3.

mff vif

1. Xuf ehlf
2. gymf ehlf

4.

ehlf fJ Kiw

1. gogjFait
2. eogjFait

5.

y mogil

1. nfgjFait ( t hbdh ehlf)


2. ghgjFait

Fu mogil

1. xUt nu gy fjhghufshf gy Fu
eogJ
2. x bt hU fjhghuF jj
eg eogJ.

6.

nkfl midJ tif ehlffis r_f ma ghl


ghlbghU kW tFgiw NHYnfg Ma gagLjyh.
5.9. eogjF Vw gFf
1. cyf ggy gFf thG kf thif
2. mua rigf, mua Mnyhrid Tlf
3. bga jiyt thif Vgl ff
4. mbyrhjU - UnhjkU, ruFj bksaU - rhzaU,
mgU - igu fhD, xsuf - th, khF - uhzhujh,
bfhyg nghwtfis ga ciuahlf, IjhL lf, Rju
bgw a tuyhW, ey Fokf gf.
5. Na FLg -
bra :

bjhlf iy, r_f ma ghl eoj Kiw

gwToa wfis flJ goaLf.


185

5.10. ehlf tiffS ytF vLJfhLf


vLJfhL 1 :
ehlf tif :

j eo

ghlgF

tF 6 yh g. 179

thG kfns
ehjh yh. Jiznfh u vid fL kG
cfis gf fhz tJns.
nahL xL ghjh eh f bkJthf bragLnt.
jidjhnd R bfhs 24 k neufns vLJbfhwJ. Mdh
ehndh 27.3 ehf vLJ bfhnw. ia xU Kiw R tUtjF nj
fhy msit vLJ bfhnw. jdh thG cfsh vdJ xU
gfijjh ghf aY. mJkLkh? bjhlJ gy ehf uthf gy
ehf gfyhf v UF. v gfneu btg iy 1000
brarhf u neu btgiy 173 0 brarhf csJ.
yhnrhW rhLnth W - eh
yh ngh rhLnth ehis vd fd fhfsh?
v fhW iy vgij l gf kW l u,
msffkhd btg kW F Kjatiw fU bfhL tiw
vbfhS tif ca jftiknghL vid fhzthUf.
vLJfhL 22:
ehlf tif :

brif rhj eo

ghlgF

tF 6 g.28

thf
bjhlf glkhW Kiwna tHfUjJ. kf jfsJ
mil mayhUl bghUfis gkh bfhld.
l

rij

gF bgWnth

ehtif y kf (F, Kiy, kUj, bej)

F y kf :

jflKs nj kW fhffis
bfhLJ

kw yjtl w bghUfis

bgWj.
Kiy y kf :

jflKs gh, j, be nghw


bghUfis bfhLJ kw bghUfis
bgWj.
186

kUj y kf

fU, be, kh, gyh, thiH Kja bghUfis


bfhLJ kw yjtlUJ w
bghUfis bgWj

bej y kf :

, c, flghf, gtsf nghw


flrhj bghUfis bfhLJ w
bghUfis bgWj.

vLJfhL 3
ehlf tif :

brh rhj eo

ghlF

tF 8 bgf cikf

fh 1
l

fk L

gFbgWnth

fk, fk jh kyh jij


mgur

fk
fk: (gUJ L Uj)
mkh! mkh!. . . kh 8 cyf kf dkh. vf g jbfd ngR
ngho eilbgw csJ. eh flha fyJ bfhs ntL vd v tF
Ma Tlh. fjh cyf kfd g vG ju ntL.
kyh
kyh: mjdhbyd...... PhW Hik e C yfF brW
brfis nrfngh. mij bfhL ngRngho fyJ bfh.
fk
fk: PhW Hik tiu fhUf ntLkh?
mgur
mgur: (oF EiHJ bfhnl) vjF PhW Hik tiu
fhUf ntL.
fk
fk: mgh vf g eilbgw cs kf d Hh
ngRngho fyj bfhs Unw. mjfhd jftfis PhW Hik
e C yf brW nrfngh vd mkh TWwh.
mgur
mgur: V yfF bry ntL? v_j rnfhj btyh
kf ey bjhlghd tHFiuP myth? mtl bjhiyng bjhl
bfhL nfns.
fh - 2
l

btyh L

gFbgWgt

btyh, fk
187

btyh : bgfSF MfSF fuhd rk cik ntL


vW Kj Kj cikFu vGat nuf ehil nrj iyuh.
fk : jbahU bg cikFu vd khwij bfhL
tJl Ko?
btyh : cikjh. iyuh FubyGaij bjhlJ uhR
eho bgf u btojJ. mehL bgf z bgW
cikFu bfhLjd. tfnshL gy ehL bgfS izJ
bfhld.
fk : cyf kf d bfhlhL vz vnghJ tjJ?
btyh : 19 who bjhlf btz gutyhf
vGjJ.
fk : Kj Kj vF bfhlhlglJ.
btyh :

1909 M ML Kj 1913 tiu mbkfhYs

nrhr f ut khj 28 ehis nja bgf dkhf bfhlhoaJ.


fk : mbkf ehoYs nfhgbff ef 1901 M ML
rtnjr bgf khehL eilbgwJ. 17 ehLfis nrj 100F nkgl
bgf fyJ bfhld. 100 bgf yhJ ehL ghuhSkwF
Kj

Kiwahf

njbjLfgl

bgf

_tU

mlFt.

khehojhcyf kf d bfhlhlgl ntL vw khd


iwntwglJ. Mdh vj eh bfhlhLtJ vgJ Fj Ko
bragliy. nfhg bff kheho vLfgl Koit bjhlJ 1911
M ML kh 19 M eh cyf kfd bfhlhlglJ.
fk : MfSF Uj cikfS vit bgfSF
kWfgld?
btyh : XLnghL cik, ntiyF brY cik, M
thf l bgW cik, bjh g fW bfhS th....
fk : LFns bgiz o itF ij kjfjh
cybfF UUwhf.......
btyh : bgfSfhd rk cik tHF Ka I.eh. rig
ukhf <LglJ. j fhuzkhf 1945 M ML rhuhnfh ef
elj kheho bgfSF rk cik bfhLf midJ ehLfS Ktu
ntL vw khd iwntwglJ.
188

fk : ey ntis, I.eh rigahtJ bgfSF rk cik ju


ntL vbwanj....... Mkh....... kh 8-M ehis cyf dkhf
mjJ ah?
btyh : xbthU ehoY xbthU eh kf dkhf
bfhlhlglJ. kh 8 M eh bgUghikdahd ehLf cyf kf
dkhf bfhlhoajh I.eh. rig jid cyf kf dkhf mfjJ.
fk : bgf cyf ms xW uL jfSfhd
cikfis bgWs vgij nfF bghGJ f kahf csJ.
ngR ngho ra bt bgWnt.
btyh : bt bgw thJf..........
vLJfhL : 4
gymf ehlf
vLJfhL : jij m
fh - 1
l

ghg mukid

gFbgWnth

ghg, mukid gahsf, thfhty.

thfhty :

munr thf !
mukid mjuUJ br tJsJ.... kf
A]khDF cl eyFiw VgLsjh.

ghg

A]khDF cl ey Fiwth ! nghJ vd brtJ ?

mikr

munr ! jhf ftiy bfhs ntlh. e mukid


ita ifnjjt, mtuh Fzkhf Koahj neh
vJ iy. eh mtiu miHJ brW A]kh
cleyij ftnw. jhf bjhlJ murit
g <LgLf.

ghg

iy mikrnu.... A]khDF cleyyhj nghJ


vdh vj gY <Lgl ayhJ. A]kh v
cD nkyhdt. vdnt ehD tUnw.
fh - 2

A]kh cley Fiwl gLUF miw

gF bgWnth

ghg, mukid kUJt.


189

ghg

A]kh cl ey ehSF eh nkhrkh bfhnl


tUnwnj...... mt iHJ bfhthdh? mt
nehUJ L tu eh vij bra jahuhf
Unw.

vgoahtJ

mtid

fhghWf

kUJtnu..........
kUJt

munr ! v mDgtfis bfhL midJ kUJt


Kiwfis gagL nl. vdh A]kh
cley Kndw fhz ayiy. vdh
A]khid fhgh ayhJ. iwtdh kLnk
mtid fhghw aY.

ghg

(fnuhL KHfh W bfhL) iwth, v


kfid vgoahtJ fhghW.
fh - 3

gFbgWnth:

mukiz
ghg, ghg kid, (ghg kid mGJ
bfhoUj.)

ghg

A]kh

cl

ey

VnjD

Kndw

fhzgLwjh?
kUJt

kU _y A]kh Fzkilth vw eifia


HJ nl.

mJ

gf :

Mdh eh A]kh Fzkilth vd enw.


iwt mtid FzgLJth. munr A]kh
Fzkiljh vlKs iyaj bghUis
jUnt vw thFWnahL iwtl ntLj
brf.

ghg
mJ

:
gf :

vlKs iyaj bghU vJ


iyaj itu. mjid W ViHfSF cj
brnt vd iwtDF thFW bfhLf.

ghg

ituij l v c kghdjhnw. (A]kh


gLifia R elJ bfhL j

ghg

(KHfh W bfhL) iwth v ciu vLJ


bfhS, A]khDF cir jhU. (ghg jiu
rj)
190

kUJt

(A]kh f jij fL) munr! A]kh


fJ lh. iHJbfhth.

ghg

iwt v ntLjYF g jJ lh.

bra : Xuf ehlf xiw gy mf ehlf xiw ehlf tiuth


xgil jah brf.
5.11. Koiu
r_f

maYF

Vw

Kiwia

gagLJ

bghGJ

khztfilna ghl Mt, ngRwik, ebyhGf, eowik


Mait tswJ. khztf jid w kW gilghw btgL
ghlfUJ vikahfgLwJ. nkY mDgt fia khztf j
_y bgWwd. vdnt Maf eoj Kiwia gagLJ wid
ghlfUJl bjhlgLJ wid jfilna tsJ bfhs
ntL.
5.12. ghit f
1. ehlf fyit - mit rKf
2. kf nkik rl cikfS - K. ntfhdj
3. ehlffiy - . ghaKJ
4. tuyhW fF Kiwf - . Phd rgj
5. Kochaar S.K - Teaching of Social Studies Sterling Publication Ltd., (1996)
6. V.K.btflrh - tuyhW fF Kiwf
7. Teaching of Social Studies - A.S. Kohli, Anmol Publication Pvt.Ltd.,
New Delhi

191

myF- 6

kL cf
mKf
FHij, m ts bgWj, JbfhS w bgWj, ey kdghik
bgWj, ey gHf, eyk nghw gf bgW KG MSik ts
bgWtjF, Fghf g fdh bgWtjF, mogilf gagLwJ.
fnghiu ga Mjhufis nrfj, gFjhj kW ntWgLJj nghw
tHfkhd eilKiw brafis kL brwJ. nkY ghl rhj kW ghl
izbraf fw mil kW rhjidfis kL brwJ. fw
c ko, fw fj eilKiwf kW milfis bgWt
xbthU g brhj kL mQFKiwia gWwd. xU Fj
neu mditU VF rhthny kL gfkhF.

myF TWf
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7

kL -tiuaiw kW bghU
dhjh totik jahj
mil njjh
w mogilyhd KGikahd bjhl kL
gUt nj
Koiu
ghit f

fw bra

t .v

myF
TW f

t HfgL
brKiw
g

mil
nj

xgil

gUt nj
kW
myF
nj

gnt L

njit gL
jft f

t ufis nrfF
l
g

mil nj
eikf
gUt nj kW
myFnj
VnjD
1. dht ot ik
x U w
2. dhjh
( 6.7 kW 8
3 dhjh
t Ff)
kL fU kW
myF nj

192

kw
lf
yf

yf

6.1 kL - tiuaiw kW bghU


fw fj xU Kakhd mfnk klhF. ko
eilKiwfshtd brf nrfj (m) bgWj, khj, d
KobtLj nghw TWfis cslajhF. nj, FpLf, kbgf
kW milf nghwt kL bgUgF twJ. kLj vgJ
msLj fUJf ntWgL, KGikahd ko bgUgF twJ.
nehfF Vg lL fgJ ey fjyhF. mJ khztf mil
nghJ Vfjf, kfjf ey isfis ko jU. njf (thbkh
kW vGJ nj) brat nj, cWnehf, nefhz nghw gtif
kL braKiwfis Maf gWwd. nkY ghl rhj, ghl
iz braf khztf Kndw milid kL brJ tf
Kiwf gagLwJ. njf xLbkhjkhd kW mik Kiw
kL brtJ vd UtifgL. mik Kiw kL vgJ KGikahd
bjhl klhF.
kL EQff
FHij ts gyiyf f kL brtJ mtakhF.
bghJthd kL EQf Kiwf tUkhW ;
1. Ez nrhjid 2. mil nrhjid 3. kdghik nrhjid
4 . MSik nrhjid 5. ehlh kW elij nrhjid 6. j msL Kiw
7. nfjh kW rghF goa 8. neKfnj 9. f gntL 10. Ra
rij 11. khzt eh F 12. jah tuyhW 13. r_f msL EQf 14. EQf
VghL Kjad.
f ko ehF iyf
1. nehf (fnehf) 2. bghUslf (ghlbghU, ghll kW
ghljf) 3. kbg braKiw (thbkh, vGJ nj kW cWnehf)
4. fw braghLf (fj Kiwf, nrhjidf, fyJiuahl, nff
kW brJ fhl Kiwf)
kL totik dhf

V ?
vbghGJ ?

kL tot V, vd, ah,

vd?
kL

vgo, vnf, kW vbghGJ

ah ?
vnf ?

nghw nffis bfhlJ.

vgo ?

193

kL EQf nehff
r_f ma ghl kL EQf nehff tUkhW ;
1. m ts bgWj
2. r_f ma ghl ftjik cUthj.
3. Fl w ts bgWj.
4. fw fj eilKiwia, brafis kL EQf KGikbgw
cjj.
5. gUt njf kW mil njf thyhf khzt nkghL
milj
6. mrh, vG kW cs af w nghw fs t fj
yF ts bgw cjj.
7. jufLghL kW nkghLF KGikahd bjhl kL gagLJj
nghwdthF.
6.2. dhjh totik jahj
nj nehf, ghlbghU kW kL nghwitfSF sf
mnjhL Ma kW khztfis njf Lwd. khztfis
nj brtjfhf, nj cgfuzf jahg MafSF cj
njitgLwJ. dh tiff jahgjF Kd myF nj kW
gUtnj totik jahj kW dhjh totik njF
jahgJ ntL.
m ts bgWj, r_f ma ghl njjh jahj, vGJ
njfhf, eF mJ jahfgl kh dhjh nghwit ah
dhjh totik nehffshF. dhjh totikig eF J
bfhtjF, khztf nehffis mJ bfhtjF tf
tUkhW; fj yFf _W bgU gFfis bfhlJ. mit
Kiwna mrhfs (Cognitive Domain) kdbtG rhfs (Affective Domain)cs
afw fs (Psychomotor Domain) MaitahF. mrhfs fw
gFfshd ghlgFf (Objectives) fj nehffshd mj w
(Knowledge Skills) j w (Understanding Skills) gagLJj w (Application
Skills) kW uridfSF fhQ j (Problem Solving Skills) wf
tsj (Skills) kW Mfw tsj (Creativity Skills) nghw w
194

nehff

khztf

nkghL

tsF

mrh

fs

cWgLjgLwJ. ghll kW ghl jf g tiuaWfgLs


wf fj ghl gFfshF. mj, j, gagLJj kW
wf ah, gy nj tif (Objective type) FWa dh (short answer)
kW fLiu dh (Essay Type) nghw nf tiffis cslajhF.
fs (Domain) (m) fsfis dhjh totik RL (m) fhL.
khztf nj bgw kbgf fs cs gtif nfFa
l FfgL. xU dhjh totiknyna gy nfjh kW
gtif nffis jahfyh. F 5- tF njfhd kh
dhjh totik dhjh totikUJ jahfgl xU nj
dhjhS bfhLfgLsJ. fw w, fj nehf, dhtif,
dhFa kbg xJL Matiw K nehfhf (preview) fhL
tiu, dhjh totik MF.

kh dhjh
ghl r_f ma

tF IJ

neu 1.30 kJf

kbgf 50

fsf iw
(m)

kbgf

mj kW j

30

(M) Ms kW urid j

10

()

10

w kW Mj

dhf tif
m gy nj tif

15x1=15

M FWa dh

5x2=10

fLiu tif

5x5=25

dhjh totik - r_f ma kW mua


tF V

jiy bksa nguuR kW csh

195

kbgf 50

F : milF bfhLgLsit kbgf . 15x1=15


F. 5x2=10
f. 5x5=25
bkhj
50

196

1(2)
6

2(1)
1(1)
12

k he f uh
4

1(1)

e f uh

1(2)

2(1)

uhk ri g

1(2)

3(1)

1(2)

m n rhf

2(1)

1(1)

F .dh

J rhu

1(2)

F .f ..dh dh dh

3(1)

.dh

r uF j

g hl b g hU

k b g f

w f

mj

1(5)

f .dh

.dh

10

1(5

1(5)

F .f .Fdh dh dh dh

g a g L J j

d hj h t o t i k - r _ f m a k W m u a

10

1(5)

1(5)

f .dh

50

10

15

k b g

kh dhjh
tuyhW kW Foika
tF V
neu 1.30 kJf

kbg : 50

I.

rahd ilia nj brJ Tiw bra

1.

fil ej muriu njhfojt

2.

3.

4.

5.

m) rKu Fj

M) ruFj bksa

) FkhuFj

<) fjFj

yifF mDgl mnrhf kf


m) Jrhu

M) rhza

) knfu

<) brf nfl

ffnghUF d mnrhf jGa kj


m) j kj

M) rkzkj

) yh

<) Jkj

khefuh jiyt
m) #dhg

M) mitjiyt

) cj #dhg

<)

khefukw jiyt (nka)

efuh jiyik th
m) mitjiyt
) rig mfd

M) Jizjiyt
<) efuh Miza

II.

xU t ilaf

6.

brf nfl vgt ah?

7.

ruFj bksa vbghGJ jnguuir gLdh?

8.

bksa nguuh jiyefu vFsJ?

9.

csh muR vgJ ahJ?

1x5=5

10. efuf cs csh muR uL TW?


III. b g h U J f
11.

1x5=5

grhaJ

muAhlh

12. khefuh Miza

ofh

13. Jrhu

rhueh f

14. bkfj

a uhk / Fuhk

15. nja d

khefuh
197

IV. uL myJ 3 tf ilaf

5x2=10

16. bksa nguuid g ma cj Kjik Mjhuf ahit?


17. brf nfl gilbaLig t.
18. jk mnrhf vgj bghU ahJ?
19. uhk grha Mjhuf ahit?
20. khefuh Ka Mjhuf _W TW.
V. thd il jUf.

4x5=20

21. efuh vgo cUthfgLwJ?


22. khefuh kw efuh bghJthd tKiwia ttN gWwJsFf.
23. ff ngh mnrhf th xU U ika- V?
24. mnrhf vthW jkjij gudh?
25. a tiugl mnrhf nguu lfis FLf.
m) nrhuh

M) nghgh

<) ghlu

c) kfj

5x1=5

) ff

ilF r_f ma kW Foika


tF V

kbgf 50

ilf

I.

rahd ilia nj brJ Tiw bra

1.

M) ruFjbksa

2.

) knfu

3.

m) j rka

4.

<) khefu kw jiyt (nka)

5.

<) efuh Miza

6.

mbyrhl giljiyt

7.

321 .K

8.

ghlu

9.

grhaJ

10.

efuh kW khefuh

11.

Fuhk
198

12.

khefuh

13.

muAhlh

14.

ofh

15.

rhueh k

16.

ofh, mjrhu, mnrhf f

17.

. 304- brf nfl kfj J gilbaLmbyrhl giljiyt brf nfl njh, ruFj
bt.

18.

erhW milahs

19.

Lt, w t, khy muR kW yhg cj.

20. brhJt, thfd t, yF t, bjh t kW bghGJnghF t


(_W kL)
21.

efu W thL Mf j-bghJkf efuh cWdiu


njbjLj, efuh cWd efuh jiytiu njbjLj
kW cj jiytiu njbjLj, efu jiyt, efuh FGit
tgt

22. efuh kW khefuh tNg xsitfshtd


brhJt, thfd kW yF t, bjht, bghGJnghF t
Kjad.
23. m n r h f f f n g h - n g h f f - i s f - m n r h f
kdkhw- jk#a nfhghL gw- jkj jGj- mnrhf
th xU UKid
24. rig braf-knfu kW rfiu-cj- rhueh ghiw, Fiff j nfhghLf
25.

1) nrhuh
2) nghgh
45
1

3) ff
4) ghlu
5) kfj
199

6.3. mil nj
kL vgJ bjhlJ eilbgW X brayhF. j kL bgUghY
Kiwrhj f khztf milid rhjhF. j eg ts
czf, jid kW braf Ugjf khw bgWtjF
nj mfiw bfhwJ vW bkhg fahs TWwh. khzt g
gUt

Vgl

elij

khwfhd

Kndw

Mjhufis,

ntWikgL jftikJ MwJ. fw NH elij btghL


kW vnehF mDgt ah FLgo mil nj bragLwJ.
nj M xU gahF j my sfgL milnj
kL EQff, milnj yFf, dhtiff kW
milnj kL ah bjhlfg Ma g khztfSF
gajuToajhF.
ed kL EQf xUtifna milnj MF. fw
fj eilKiw braf milnj Ka lij twJ.
milnj, khzt fw rhjid tJ vgo vgjF ca tfis
tFJ jUwJ. khztid gnrhJ mtDila tik kW
tikikia flJ ca gfhu Kiwia bragL khzt
etsF tfhLtJ milnj gahF. milnj vgJ
khzt fw milfis flJ, kL, msL br fUahF.
khzt KG w mil bgWtjfhf Mauh lL bragLJ
nj milnjthF. ghll, ghlbghU kW g braghLf
midij xUfikfgLtJ fw rhjidahF.
mil nj yFf
1. x U F l F i w t h d g F f w i y k l k W k h z t
milid nrhj
2. khztid tik kW tikikia nrhjid brj.
3. xU jgl khztDF ca f nehffis cUthFj.
4. khzt ey milF tsF nkiygLj.
5. mogil ghll kW ghl tFf brgl.
6. gfhu msLKiw njitgL lfis RLj
200

mil nj tifghL
milnj

thbkh
nj

vGJnj

brKiw
nj

fLiu dh

afLiu

gilnj

lj
tif
i) Wtif
ii) l
brj

bfhzj
tif

jiugl
fiyl

nj ts

ghlgbghU
ghljff

fw is

fw fj
tFgiw braghLf

kh mikj

kL milnj

fiyl, ghlbghU kW ghljf, nehf kW fw tFgiw


braghLf kW kL mil njf ah vthW fJsJ vd
mtJ kL fUahd milnjfshF.
milnj Kiwrhj kW Kiw rhuhj ghlf thbkh (m)
vGJnj thyhf xU Fl Fiwthd ghl gF khzt
milid nj br bghUL Kdnu Kobragl fw isfis
mila khztf fw milnghJkhdjh myJ nghJkhdjwjh vd
mjyhF. Mifah j Fiw fla, nrhJ mj kW fw
khztf Kndw ma fl goiyfis gw ntL.
201

milnj tUkhW
(m) nj

- fw

ghl

fj

khztfSF

milnj itfgLwJ.
(M) Fiwflj

- khztfw nghJkhdjhf csjh vd flj


M nrhjid Kof

() gfhu fj

- khztf Fiw fisa nkbfhtJ.

(<)

- 3 ju v (eW, Rkh, Fiw) Kiw khztfis

ju ms

ju brj.
(c) fw is

- khztfSF cldoahf Ko bjj.

nj Kiwid xbthU fw ghlY gwntL. xbthU


ghlY milnjF 25 kbgf kW nj neu xU
ghlntiy vd gwntL.
milnjjh kL
mil nrhjid ko jfhy l nehfkhtJ g
FiwghLf fisJ ey gahf cUthFj, Kiwrhuh ghlgFY Tl
nghJkhd ts VgLJj, FHij kd kiwJ lF UgF
Vg Mjuthd etsF cjj nghwitahF. kL vgJ bjhlJ
ftJ,

kW

Kotiu

ftJ.

nkY

mjF

Kont

iy.

gtshfFns c kL g brwJ.
milnj Eg
gtif nj Egfis nj fUfis gagL khzt
KG gufis nrff Kiwrhj ghlgF

milnj ekF

cjwJ. bjhEgf braKiwf tna eh rhjid milayh.


bjh Egf thbkh, vGJ kW brKiw, cW nehf kW w
nghwitf kL bra gagLwJ.
thbkhnj
khzt fUJ btl kW jft bjhl _y wik ma
gagLwJ. khztfl eh nfF nfF neuoahf neUF ne W
th _ykhf fUJfis bgwyh. (c.jh) #a efu nguuir njhWjt
ah?
202

vGJnj tif
fLiu tif
J xU l gjuToa dhthF. khztf ekJ mit
gagLna nfF g jUt. il bjj, Rajid, guj
jF nghw wfis gagL iljUt.
(c.jh) a Fokf mogil cikfS flikf g fLiu tiuf.
FWa dh
fLiu tifial f Fiwj m braghLl Fiwj neu g
juntL
(c.jh) bksa nguuir g ma cj Mjhuf ahit?
fFWa dh
xU a fUJfis xU g myJ xU t g jUtJ.
(c.jh) rhu vgt ah?
brKiw
ghl rgjkhf bfhLfgl g khztf jDil gtif w
kW elijfis btgLJj cW nehf _y mj.
(c.jh) mnrhf kW ffhy kjf gagL Mjfis fk
bfhL cUt jah brf.
brj tif
tif braglhj thaij bra. j ilf
xU brhbwlhuhfnth (m) xU thakhfnth UF. brh mfuh bgaf,
ehf, fUJfis milahs fhz nghw mtsia nrhjidbr
tif dhf mik.
(c.jh) th................... M ML....... l wjh
bkfj vGa ..........MF.
uobyhW il jUj
rah jtwh TWF iljUj. nfF 9

F myJ 0

Foa ca il Uj ntL.
(c.jh) Maf ka MahUJ tjtf (r/jtW)
203

bghUJf.
j tif brf U flf jugLsd (A&B) bgUghY
Fahd brf g B jugL. A F rahd ilia B
njbjLf.
tKiw :
g A F ca brhfSF g B cs rahd bghUis
njbjLf.
g A
1.
2.
3.

nja j
k
nja yF

g B

uu eh jhT
mnrhf
nja bfho
k

gil nj
KGikahd tha nff mikUF rahd ilfhz 4
myJ 5 gf J mfgL mt xU il rahdjhF. w ah
rahd g MfhJ. khztf bfhLfgl il rahdtiw
njbjLf.
1.

(c.jh) fh b#a bfhlhlgL eh


m) mnlhg 1

2.

M) mnlhg 2

) etg 1

<) etg 2

bfhLfgl brhf bghUjkhd xiw monfhL L


(c.jh) g u, iAj m, fr u, l u

fw btpL
1, xU Fll Fiwthd gF fw klglJ kW khzt
milf nrhfglJ.
2. khzt tik kW tikikia ma nrhjid braglJ.
3. xU jgl khztDF ca f nehff cUthfglJ.
4. mogil ghll kW tsF nkgLjglJ.
5. mogil ghll kW ghl tFf brglglJ.
6. gfhu msLKiw njitgL lf Rlgld.
bra : milnj eik ga xgil jah brf.
204

6.4 w mogilyhd KGikahd bjhl kL


ghl rhj kW ghl iz bra fj fgtf ga
Mjhufis nrfj, gFjhj kW ntWgLj nghw tHfkhd
eilKiw brafis brtJ klhF. g eilKiw brafis
brtJ klhF. g KG braghLf kW fw mDgtf
midij xUizJ ghl rhj bjhlahd kW xGfhd kL
brKiw tsna KGikahd bjhlklhF. nkY J fw fj
brafis xUizwJ. ghl rhj kW ghl iz braf rhj
fw gFf khztf Kndw kW rhjidfis Kiwahd
brKiw brafis brtJ KGikahd bjhl klhF. khztf KG
ts be jikia mikJ jUtJ knlahF. RaF, myF
F kW juF nghw _W braKiwf ts m kL (Formative Evaluation) bjhF mil kL (Summative Evaluation) nghw
kLfis brayh. j ghl my w mogilyhd bjhl kL
nehff, ko tiff, Kiwrhj Kiwrhuh f kL ko
KaJt, ghl rhj, ghl rhuhj gFf, Mtzf ghJfhj
nghwt Ka g fhngh.
nehff

msl kW kl ntWghLfis mj

junrhjid milit guhkj

Rafw kW Ra kL braYF totikj

gtif kL Egfis bgw th jUj

ts m kL kW bjhF mil kL ga mit bgWj.

khztf KG mil Kndw fzLj

iuJ fF khztfSF mil zit VgLJj

vj gFf Fiw kL njit vd mj.

jgl khztf tsF Mnyhrid jUj.

khztf gy kW gy kw brafis brj


205

kLjY msLjY
msLj

kLj

1.

msKiwf khWgL

msKiwial juKiwf khWgL

2.

rhjid kw wik

rhjid kW wik ms

ms Ko bragLwJ

Fiw flJ t bragLwJ.

bgUghyhd gf

J kLtjfhd Kj mogil

tHfkhf iw bgW

brayh.

J mogil kL

Kiwaw fUfshd msL

nrhjidahF

rghF goa, cWnehf kW w

3.

4.

csJ.
ko tiff
Maf

nefhz,

cWnehf,

braKiw

bjhlg,

thbkhnj kW vGJ nj, Kiwfis gWwd. Mdh


kL vgJ ts m kL kW bjhF mil kL vd
UtifgL.
1.

ts m kL
khztf braf gogoahd kL Kiwna ts m

klhF. j gogoahd kL braf jutir ms xU Fl


fU khWgLwJ. mnjnghy xbthU fUJfS kL braf
jums khWgL. kL khztl cs ftdik, ftik,
xGd nghw Fzfis jLwJ. khzt milwid fw rhj
kW iz braf goiy mogil kLwJ. nj Kof
Kndw mil gagLwJ. m khzt jh bgw kL kw w
khztfilna j ko cw iy (Rank) nghwtiw mwh.
ts m ko nehf fw mo vLJ itgjhF.
2 . bjhF mil kL
fhyhL, miuahL kW KG ML ms kL bragLwJ.
kL khztfSF fw Mtik, tFgiw sfw kW
ilw nghw NHiy VgLJwJ. kL tFgiw fw yF
kW

kL

fSF

mF

njhfSnf f KaJt jUwJ.


206

lijl

nj

myJ

w mogilyhd KGbjhl kL
w mogilyhd KGbjhl kL bjhlahf ML KGtJ
bjhltjhF. njf ghl rhjJ, ghl rhuh gFfis cslajhF.
khztf KG MSik ts bgWtJ ko nehfkhF. Ma
tFgiw khztf w ftf, jatf vd flJ
gfhu fwYF ttif brth. Kiw rhjhuz fwjUJ khWgL.
Kiwrhj, Kiwrhuh f kL
Ma ghl fjnghJ nf nfl, iuthf clDFl
nfF g bgWj, kdF vj fUid gJ itUj
nghw f mDgtij bgUgJ mtakhF. jifa Maiuna
Kiwrhuh fghl elj mDkf ntL. Kiwrhj f myF
nj jahj, gUtnj jahj, Fj neu khztfSF jUj
nghwit Ma flikahF. bfhLfgl ghlntis KGikahf
Kofgl xU myF myJ myF bjhF UJ vjid khztf
fWsd vd mtJ ghlbghU klhF. X Mo xbthU
khztD jh bgw, mf cik thj KGika mil iy kW
Kndw ah ko tna bgw gtif isfshF
KaJt
khztf ML KGtJ ey nghL fod ciHnghL <Lgl
Cf mwJ.
khztf wikahf ff, fgJ F gaju MafSF m
gF cjwJ.
kL rhjid mf eifs Mjhufis jUwJ.
KGikahd ghl rhuh koid fU bfhwJ.
iuJ fngh Fj gabgWt.
Ma khztfSF Ra kL kw fngh w braf ts
bgWj nghwtiw kL tikgLJwJ.
J bjhlahd gUt njid mogilahf bfhlJ.
g khztfis xGfhf tUifF Fj neu tUifa
CfgLJwJ.
207

ghl rhj gF
X MoF tuyhWghl xU njF 20 kbgf j 5
njf elj ntL. j kL mltid tUkhW.

ghl

kbgf

nj v
kbgf

1
20

2
20

3
20

4
20

t F t F
ruhr
ju

bkhj
5
20

100

100

r_fma

IJ njf kbgfS fl Fj d njf KGik


bgWwJ. xU khzt bgw ruhr kbgf fl l d
midJ khztfSF juv tHfgL Kndw mif gf.
ghl rhuhgF
gF 4 fisbfhlJ. xbthU koY mogilf Mtd,
1. Ma cW nehf 2. gntLf gF braf kW 3. khztf
wik, 4. kdghik kW Ug MF.
1.

ghl izbraf
xbthU

khztD

VjhtJ

bra

gF

bfhL

nj

bgUfntL. mitKiwna 1. gokw, 2. kdghl xj, 3.


ir, 4. ehlf, 5. eld, 6. tz Lj kW 7. tiugl tiuj.
MoF UKiw ehF v ju kL bra. bgw FpL kW
kfis
fl

kW

gf.

II
U

kbgf ruhria

nj ju
braf

mLjfhy gf.
j kil eLt myJ

Ma

Jizl

brantL. ehF ju

k tUkhW : feW,
eW, Rkh, Fiw, f
Fiw

ruhr ju
I

4
5

208

II

2 . isahL, ngho kW btbraghLf


g cs trnfg isahL, nghof Uj ntL. nkY
jDl r_f nrit nja khztgil, rhuz af, kW bgf
cjl kW r g izjitah. xbthU khztU xU
bra KGikahf <LgL nj bgUfntL. j kL tUl
UKiw eljgL I & II fl FfgL. ehF ju v kL
gagLjgL.
3 . jeg kW r_f jFf
jeg kW r_f jFf goaf f skhdit. (c.jh) kd vG,
neik, Cf, jiyik rjik, ftd, xWik nghww. itf
ah f Kakhdit. it midij Ma tFgiw xbthU
khztlK kl ayhJ. Fj neuF tUj, tUif nghwit
tFgiw tUif gnto FfgLsJ. w jFf dK
khztfis cW nehf tahf 5 ju F kL brj ntL.
MoF uL Kiw. j kL eljgl ntL. kLgot
tUkhW.

jukL
j F f

ruhr
I

II

Ma
cW
nehf

neik
jiyik
x G f
4 . mfiw / bghGJnghF
tUlF xUKiw cWnehf Kiw khztfis kl ntL.
kl gFf tUkhW
MtFj fijf goj, fijf, wtif jff, gl ghj,
ghl, vGJj, r_fnrit, g Hhf mikj, tuyhW bjhlghd
braghLf kW w. Uju FpL gagLj 1. fcaj jKid
2. eLjukhd jKid Kjad
209

C . Rfhjhu kW clgf
J ghl rhuh gFl nrjJ mW. Mdh gnt f KakhdJ.
flaglhj clfYF khztf Rfhjhu gntL khztf ir
bgw mahtakhwJ. MoF xUKiw khztfis Rfhjhu gnrhjid
bra j gntL mogilahwJ. _W ju ms gagLjgLwJ.
mitKiwna eW, Rkh, Fiw
Mtzf ghJfhj
(Keeping Records)

1.

u gntL (Cumulative Record)


g ntiy ehf khztf ts g tFthahf Mjhufis

tHF gntL u gntlhF.


2 . Kndw mif (Progress Report)
Fjfhyf fG khztf nj kbgfis Kndw
mif _y bgnwhfSF jft mDgLwJ. j _ykhf khzt
f ts xUizfgLwJ. khztf ts FpLfS Fj
fhyf cl jft bjfgLwJ.
3 . ju msnfh
Ma khzt xU Fl neu xU Fl l if
fUthyhf kL brj kW ghlbghU nghJkhdjhf csJ.
ghlbghU Fiwjgr FiwfglntL vgJkhd fSF
khztfis Ma kl cj.
4 . thif JQF gntL
khztf elij g Mjhufis jeg kW r_f jFfnshL
xgilj. J thif JQF gntL MF. xbthU MaU khzt
ga Mjhufis cW neh F jUj. j _y khzt ft,
ehl mayh. J f mahtakhdJ. khzt KGikahd MSik
tsF gntL njitahF.
6.5 gUt nj
f vdgLtJ FHij m ts, J bfhSj, w ts
bgWj, ey kdghik bgWj, k kW bghGJnghF nghw ts
210

_y r bgWjyhF. j thyhf xUizj KG MSik ts


bgWjyhF. fngh kdw kW ko jhf cl ts kW
ms bgUf Fj tikia mwJ. jid fw eilKiwY,
kL gY bjgLjgLsJ. fghl rhj, ghl
izbraf khzt Kndw, bra, kL nghwt
Kndw nkY wf t brwJ.
nj KiwahdJ fj nehffSF sf mwJ.
jugLjgl nehffis kL brwJ. jdh Ma kW
khztf l jhfF cgLwd. khzt nj nehf vgJ
FHij kd jLkhw eLiynahL UgJ, fL ciH, Fnfhis
mila liy JjgLJj nghwitahF.
fw ghl rhj kw ghl iz braf rhjid j kW
nrfj, Mj, ntWfhz kw fngh Kndw Mjhuf ah
ko Kiwahd eilKiw brayhF. bjhlfg ghl rhj
ghlf-

bkh,

fj,

RWw

ma

MF.

ghl

rhuhj

izghlfshtd jkj kW r_f jFf, Mt, bjhf,


clts kW eyf jF nghwitfshF. fw fj
eilKiwia xUizgJ ko njitahF. nkY it fw
Ffis, cf kW fw EQffis fw bjhl
isfis MaUF mwJ. ghl my gUtnj, yFf,
kL tiff, gUtnj fUf, gUtnj kL braKiwf
kW wtiw ffyh.
gUt nj yFf
1.

fw yF mogil fngh milw msl

2.

khzt bjhlJ f ff bra

3.

khzt tik kW tikikia nrhf.

4.

Fiw eltoiff njitgL gFfis Rl

5.

khztl kiwJs wikfis btbfhzu

6.

Ma gwik, fw mDgt, ega jU miuf kW


tFgiw braghLs ah nrhjid bra

7.

khzt giHa nj rhjidfnshL xl.


211

nj / ko tiff
ko tifshtd
1.

bjhF mil kL (Summative & Evaluation) , ts m kL


(Formative Evaluation)

2.

mf kL, w kL

3.

KGikahd bjhl kL

bjhF mil kL
bjhlf g iy khztf ahtU cz ftuhfk
sikahf Ughf. Mdh iyF izfyhj kL Kiw
fgLsJ. j khztfSF kL Kiw VwFiwa bjhF
mil kil rhjJ. (c.jh) kL Kiw fhyhL, miuahL kW
KG ML mogilia rhjJ. j Kiw fwfs zfyhjJ.
fw _iy ts kW mw tsia s (bgUghY
khzt id ms) w ts TWfshd cl, kd, r_f, ebd
gfis kwJ LwJ.
gUtnj EQffS fUfS
FHij kL brt ghl rhj gF gy khWgl EQff
kW fUfS brf nrff csd. gUt nj khztfs rhjid
a Mjhufis nrfF bghUf fUfshF. Egf ah thKiw,
vGJ Kiw, brKiw kW cWnehf Kiwia ko gagLJwJ.
gUtnj braKiwf
Kj gUt g KowJ xU Kj gUt nj 2 (m) 2.30 k ms
cilajhf

r_f

ma

khztfSF

Kj

gUt

KGikF

itfglntL. jF 100 (m) 75 kbgf cila nfjh jah


bra ntL. F 100 kbgf itfgLsJ. xW J l
njF (KG ML njF) khztiu jah brwJ. ulhtJ
gUtnj ika fUJf ftdkhf ifahsntL. gUtnj xU
myF fhk itfglntL. K VghLf vgo njitnah mgona
vLJbfhsyh. midJ Ka fUJfis K fw myUJ
xW izfgljhf khnj mikj ntL. myF F nj nghy
gUtnj adhY mjid gFjhnghJ K TaUJ ll
fw btL khWgL. fw ilbt milahs fhz J MaUF
212

cj. j mogil eh vLF gfhu fwYF Kghf tUw


ulh gUt njF Mnyhridf vLfglntL. ulh
gUtnjF fw myFf ulh gUt KGtJ cs ghlfis
cslajhf, nj bra Kiwfis g gUtnj elj ntL.
gUt nj KojJ khztf jFia gntLf gJ Kndw

5
2
1
5
2
1
5
2
1
5
2
kbg

F.
dh
.
dh
f.
dh
F.
dh
.
dh
.
F.
f.
dh dh dh
w f

ghl
bghU

f.
dh

.
dh

F.
dh

w
gagLJj
j
mj

d hj h t o t i k - r _ f m a k W m u a

f.
dh

kbg

mil miffhf bgnwhUF mDg ntL

213

fw btpL
1.

fw yF mogil fngh milwid mslglJ

2.

khzt bjhlJ f ff braglJ.

3.

khzt tik kw tikik nrfglJ.

4.

Fiw eltoiff njitgL gFf RlglJ.

5.

khztl kiwJs wikf btbfhzuglJ.

6.

Ma gwik, fw mDgt, ey miuf kW tFgiw


braghLf ah nrhjid braglJ.

7.

khzt Kija nj nrhjid KofnshL xlglJ.


r_f ma ghlfhd dhjh totik Kj gUt nj nH

s Fghf TwgLwJ
totik
ghl : r_f ma

nj : Kj gUtnj

kbgf : 100

fhy : 2.30 k

fj nehff msl
1.

mj, cl j = 50 kbgf

2.

gagLj kw brawf = 50 kbgf

dhtiff
m)

gydh bj dh 15
nfhol l uj 15

50

fFWa dh & bghUJj 15+5


M) FWa dh 15x2

30

fLiu dh 3x5

15

<)

tiugl 1x5

}
}

50

bkhj

100

bra : ca bjhlf iy VnjD xU tFF gUt njjh,


dhjh totik kw dhjh kL fUia
gntlhf jahf :214

gilghw fKiw
myFnj jh jahj
myFnj
totik
ghl : r_f ma

tF : VII

kbgf : 25

neu : 45kJf

fj nehff msl
1.

m bgWj cl j 15

2.

Ms kW fw 10

dhtiff
m) gdh nj
1. rahd ilia njbjL

(VnjD 4)

2. Lglij brf

4x2 =8

M) FWa dhtif

3x2=6

) bgUdh tif

4x2=8

<) tiugl Fj

3x1=3

bkhj

bgf
25 k
kbgf

3. rah / jtwh
4. bghUJf
5. Wdh

bra : r_f ma ghl fj gF brY K g


myF nj elJtjF dh totikl kW g kL
fUl dhjh jah brf.
215

kh dhjh
r_f ma (myFnj)
tF V

kbg : 25
neu : 45 kJf

I.

rahd ilia nj brJ Tiw bra

1.

uftu nfhiy foat


m) #ahya nrhH

M) uh#uh# nrhH

) uhn#u nrhH
2.

Rf jj nrhH vgt
m) Ma nrhH

M) uhn#u nrhH

) FnyhJf nrhH
II.

Lglij brf.

3.

uhn#u nrhH foa a jiyef....................

4.

nrhH nguu khtl ................vd miHfgLwJ

III. bfhLfgl tha rah (m) jtwh vd RLf.


5.

b#abfhlh ffJguia vGdh.

6.

nrhHnguuR kut tjJ.

IV. bghUJf
1.

uhn#u nrhH

kyhj

2.

tghjnrfu

gojnrhH

3.

uh#huh# III

uh# uh# nrhH

4.

Fjit

nrhHnguu fil mur


nkiy rhSaf

V. xW (m) Utha ilaf


1.

nrhHnguu thf fis gl tiuf.

2.

F thij tiy csJ. tlF bghUJw brhfis


brf. (xWkL bragLsJ.)
fiy
nrhHnguuR

fol

216

3.

jft goaiy brf.


t.
v

mur
bga

glf bt f

fiy
kW
fol

1014-1044
.

1.

4.

fhy

thd il jUf.
(i) nrhHnguu fiy kW folfiy ts iyia kdtiugl
tiuf.
(ii) nrhHnguu thfKiw g mjit ahJ?

5.

a tiugl nrhHnguu murf uh#uh# kW uhn#u


nrhH nguuR thf Fl lfis Ff.
1. yif

2. nrunguuR

3. fifbfhlnrhHu

6.6 Koiu
iwa f ts, kL cf ga midJnk Ma
ifahS wjh mikwJ. xU wj Ma kLnk khzt gKf
wid kl Ko. vdnt Maf kL cf EQf,
KaJt, gagLJ Kiw Matiw eF czJ, ca neu
gagL khztfis kL, mtf KndwF t tFf
ntL.
6.7 ghit f
1.

Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation - Lokesh Koul - Himachal Pradesh


University - New Delhi

2.

kL nj, bjhlf, eLiyg Ma ifnaL - DTERT, Ch-6

3.

Effective Teaching of History in Schools - Chandhary K.P

4.

Evaluation in Social Studies - Directorate of extension programmes for Secondary Education, Ministry of Education, Govt. of India. 1960

217

F
gF - m- cs nff (2 kbgf) midF
ilaf ntL.
gF-M- cs 8 nff (4 kbgf) IF kL
ilaf ntL.
gF -- cs 4 nff (10 kbgf) vitnaD
uoF Internal -choice-go ilaf ntL

bkhj

218

kbg
ghlbghU
2 x 10 = 20
5 x 4 = 20
fF Kiw
2 x 10 = 20
5 x 4 = 20
2 x 10 = 20
100

24

1 (2)
1 (2)

1 (2)
1 (2)
1 (2)
1 (2)
14

3
4

myF 1
2
3
4
5
6

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4 )

12

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

F.dh f.dh .dh

1 (2)

.dh

mj

myF 1

ghl
bghU

24

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4)

F.dh

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

.dh

10

1 (10)

10

12

1 (4)

1 (2)
-

1 (4)

1 (4)

20

1 (10)

1 (10)

F.dh f.dh

1 (2)

fF Kiw

f.dh

gagLJj

dhjh totik -I

r_f ma fj
ulh ML

1 (2)

1 (2)

.dh

1 (4)

F.dh

10

1 (10)

f.dh

144

18

12

16

18

16

12

12

14

14

12

kbg

F
gF - m- cs nff (2 kbgf) midF
ilaf ntL.
gF-M- cs 8 nff (4 kbgf) IF kL
ilaf ntL.
gF -- cs 4 nff (10 kbgf) vitnaD
uoF Internal -choice-go ilaf ntL

219

kbg
ghlbghU
2 x 10 = 20
5 x 4 = 20
fF Kiw
2 x 10 = 20
5 x 4 = 20
2 x 10 = 20
bkhj 100

1 (4 )

28

1 (2)
1 (2)
1 (2)

1 (2)
1 (2)
10

myF 1
2
3
4

myF 1
2
3
4
5
6

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4)

F.dh

mj

.dh

ghl
bghU

f.dh

14

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

.dh

20

10

1 (10)

1 (4)

1 (2)

1 (2)

.dh

10

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (4)

1 (4)

F.dh

20

1 (10)

1 (10)

f.dh

gagLJj

fF Kiw

f.dh

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4)

1 (4)

F.dh

dhjh totik -II

r_f ma fj
ulh ML

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

.dh

1 (4)

1 (4)

F.dh

10

1 (10)

f.dh

144

18

12

16

18

16

12

14

14

12

12

kbg

r_f ma fj -ulh ML
kh dhjh I
- I (ghlbghU)
gF -m

I.

kbg : 100
neu : 3 k
vyh dhfSF (100 thijf) ila :
(10x2=20)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

fh gUt gf - F tiuf.
thiy kW fhyiy ntWgLJf.
my kiH vwh vd ?
a trha ghrd ahikahjjhf Ugj fhuz vd ?
bjfha ehLf Tlil FHijf KndWtjfhd cikia
vthW tFJsJ?
6. Xnrh mLF ghgh vd isf VgL?
7. tWik msLf ahJ?
8. flnyhugFf btgiyia flfhW vthW zwJ?
9. fhW khRgLjiy jLF tKiwf VnjD ehid FLf.
10. vGjikF fhuzfshf Ugit vit?

II.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

gF -M
vitnaD 5 nffSF (200 thijf) ila :

lhlh U v~F bjhyf #hb JtfgljF Ka


fhuzkhf Ugit vit?
bgfSF mfhu mf fhuzf ahJ?
tkly mGj gutiy ghF fhufis t.
njha jij t.
a KndwF IjhL lf vthW ttif brJsJ?
fhyiyia bghWJ aif jhtufS, td yFfS
vthW gusd?
ngl kLgLJj vthW gwgLwJ?
ah maYw bfhif cyf mikF ttFFkh? Muhf.

- II ( (fF Kiw)
gF -m
III. vyh dhfSF (100 thijf) ila:
19.
20.
21.
22.

(5x4=20)

(10x2=20)

iza t fjtiuaWf.
ma jid Lj Kiw lLj vthW Uf ntL?
ehlf vgj bghU vd ?
ko tiff ahit?
220

23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

iza t fj nrit ika (Server) w vd?


fw-fj ehlfKiw, goiyfis vthW mikf ntL?
X Ma mil nj yFfis vthW zf ntL?
glfis fij brhY Kiw vthW gagLjyh?
gkid fw - fjiy vthW nkgLJwJ?
gkid goiyf ahit?

gF -M
(5x4=20)
IV. vitnaD 5 dhfSF (200 thijf) ila
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

iza t fj njLj _y ilj jftfis vthW xU


Ma ffyh ?
fw-fj ehlfKiw gaf ahit?
bjhlf iy fij brhY Kiw cfjJ Tiw Mf.
ma jid Lj Kiw goiyfis vLJfhLl t.
Mwh tF Foika gF ehlfKiwF VJthf cs w gFfis
Mf.
ca bjhlf iy a gF iz t fjYF cfj
ghlwfis Mf.
r_f ma fw- fj gkid gaghL vthW csJ?
Mf.
ca bjhlf iy, VnjD xU wDF, brif rhj eo tif
xU ehlf tiuit jah brf.

gF -
(2x10=20)
V. ilia 500 thijfSF fhk fLiu to jUf.
37.m. ghl rhuh gFf kL kW ghl rhj gFf kL br
ttiffis Muhf.
(myJ)
37. M.ghlgFfis fijfshf cUth fgj w vd?
vLJfhLl t.
38. m. ma jid Lj Kiw goiyfis, vlh tF, a
gF VnjD xU wid vLJbfhL sFf.
(myJ)
38.M. bghJ brhJfis guhkg mtaij gkid _y
khztfl vthW tsfyh?

221

r_f ma fj -ulh ML
kh dhjh II
- I (ghlbghU)
gF -m
I.

kbg : 100
neu : 3 k

vyh dhfSF (100 thijf) ila :

(10x2=20)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Fiwj gr fw mil vwh vd?


nfh fhWf vwh vd?
c nfhs tiuaWf?
h khbrl vJ ? V mthW miHfgLwJ?
tWik gkhzf ahit?
btg ryd kiH vthW VgLwJ?
Mfl kL kw fUjh flnfh bjhF (DART) vthW
gagLwJ?
8. ngzjF Kndw KaJt vd?
9. cyf mik NHiy vthW tsfyh?
10. x vj myfh mslgLwJ?

gF -M
vitnaD 5 nffSF (200 thijf) ila :
II.vitnaD
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

braifnfh ts ah gF vthW csJ?


cyf mik ah btw bfhiffS Muhf.
bgUflf moynjhwid t.
khRgLj vwh vd? tiffis t.
ah ghJfh Kiw njitfhd fhuzfis t.
ah kiHbghF bjnkF gUtfhW vthW
JizwJ?
JffToa tsf, fhLf KaJt vthW csJ?
ntiythikfhd
fhuzfis,
mtiw
fis
tKiwfis t.

- II (fF Kiw)
gF -m
III. vyh dhfSF (100 thijf) ila :
19.
20.
21.
22.

(5x4=20)

(10x2=20)

iza t fj Kj goiy vd?


bjhF mil kL vwh vd?
tyhW idlf wig J bfht iza tfw gF
vd ?
fij brhY Kiw Hgl KaJt vd?
222

23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

ehlf Kiw tFgiw eo gw ntoait vd?


f ko ehF iyf vd?
xU khzt jid kW gilghwYF gkid vthW
gagLwJ?
ma jidd Lj Kiw Ma gF vd?
ehlf Kiw gaf vd?
gkid _y khztfilna tsfgL wf ahit?

gF -M
IV. vitnaD 5 nffSF (200 thijf) ila : (5x4=20)
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

fijf tiff ahit? VnjD xF vLJfhL tiuf.


ma jid Lj Kiw khzt gF g t.
eoj goiyfis vLJfhLl t.
kf bjhif bto ga zit iza tfw vthW
fgh?
r_f ma fg gkid Kiw khzt <Lghoid mf
bfhLsJ Tiw Muhf.
iwa f bjh Eg gagho, iza tfw KaJt
g t.
ehlfKiw eof Tlhj gFfis eof Vw gFfis vthW
bj brth?
mil njjh kL M xU g vgij bjgLJf.

gF -
V. ilia 500 thijfSF fhk fLiu to jUf.

(2
(2x10=20)

37.m. ma jid l Kiw goiyfis jFj vLJfhLld


t
(myJ)
37.M. fij brhY Kiw wgrfis jFj vLJfhLfSl t.

38.m. vlh tF w gF xF dhjh totikl, dhjh


xW jah brf.
(myJ)
37.M. gkid goiyfis jFj vLJfhLl t.

223