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evsjvG`k wkqvwUK mvmvBwU cwKv, Kwsk L, Mx msLv, R 1420/Ryb 2013

cwZGekx `kmgGni cwZ fviGZi kvmK `Gji bxwZ : evsjvG`k cm


gvnv` bvRgyj `v*

mvimsGc
vaxbZvi ci ZrKvjxb fviGZ gZvmxb KsGMm miKvGii AvgGj eez kL gywReyi
ingvGbi kvmbKvj ch evsjvG`k I fviGZi mK AvwiK I D wQj| eezi
nZvKvGi ci KsGMm miKvi evsjvG`Gki bZzb miKvGii cwZ KGVvi Aevb bb| KviY,
fviGZi cavbgx Bw`iv Mvx evsjvG`Gki mvgwiK kvmK RbvGij wRqvDi ingvb KZK
msweavGb bZzb aviv msGhvRb I ciivbxwZi G Avgj cwieZbGK mnRfvGe bbwb|
cieZxKvGj 1977 mvGji mvaviY wbevPGb KsGMm civwRZ nq es gviviwR `kvBGqi
bZGZ RbZv `j gZvq eGm cwZGekx `kGjvi mvG^ mGKi Dqb KGi| dGj 1977
mvGji 5 bGfi evsjvG`k I fviGZi gGa cvwb Pzw vwiZ nq| RbZv cvwU wcvwKZv
bxwZGK `wY wkqvi ivGjvi G KvhKifvGe cGqvM KGiwQj| bxwZi DGk nj
`wY wkqvi ivGjv hvGZ h^fvGe fviGZi weiG Aevb bv wbGZ cvGi| wcvwKZv
bxwZGK fviZ `wY kxq AvwjK mnGhvwMZv msv mvK- cGqvM KGi| hyd miKvi
gZvq Gm cwZGekx `kGjvi cwZ mgGSvZvgjK Rivj gZev` NvlYv KGiwQj|
1996 mvGj evsjvG`Gki mvG^ cvwb Pzwi evcvGi fviGZi Qvo I mgGSvZvgjK gGbvfvGe
Rivj gZevG`i eve cgvY cvIqv hvq| weGRwc `wY wkqvi ivGjvi cwZ cviwiK
kvi wfwGZ AvwjKZvevG`i Ici Rvi `q| fviGZi eo eo ivRbwZK `jGjvI
gvGS gvGS KgGekx AfixY ivRbwZK vG^ evsjvG`k mswk wewf BmyGK eenvi KGi|
cKZcG fviGZi KZZev`x bxwZ me mgq evsjvG`kmn cwZGekx Abvb ivGjvGK nZvk
I fviGZi cwZ eix fvevc KGiGQ| evsjvG`Gki cwZ fviZxq kvmKGMvxi gGbvfve
ceG DcvcGbi Pv Kiv nGqGQ|

fwgKv
eZgvb wek eevq ivGjvi gGa cviwiK mGKi DwZi G I ciivbxwZ
MVGbi G wewf wbaviK KvR KGi| weGkl KGi cwieZb ceY MwZkxj
AvRvwZK cwiGek -GG RvivGjv fwgKv ivGL| mvaviYZ A^bwZK jvf I
RvZxq wbivcvi cvcU KZZkxj wbaviK wnGmGe h-GKvGbv wcvwK I
ecvwK mKGK cwiPvjbv KGi| fvGe wewf ivGi mGKi G ciGii
*

mnKvix AavcK, eemvq ckvmb wefvM, wmwU BDwbfvwmwU, ebvbx, XvKv|

98

evsjvG`k wkqvwUK mvmvBwU cwKv

RvZxq v^ es wbivcvi aviYv mGKi gj wfw wnGmGe KvR KGi|


fGMvwjKfvGe wbKUeZx enr kwai cwZGekx `Gki mvG^ mK vcb I eRvq
ivLGZ wMGq AGcvKZ z` I kwm `Gki RvZxq wbivcvi wewf w`K
AGbK mgq DGM I kvi mw KGi| evsjvG`kI D wbqGgi ewZg bq| fviZ
cwZGekx `kGjvi mvG^ wcvwK mGKi G RvZxq wbivcvi aviYv I
A^bwZK jvfGK mK eRvq ivLvi wfw wnGmGe AMvwaKvi `q| ZGe evsjvG`Gki
mvG^ mGKi G fviGZi RvZxq wbivcv A^bwZK jvGfi PGq iZcY nGq
IGV|1 evsjvG`k I cwZGekx z` `kGjvi cwZ fviGZi gGbvfve AvwacZgjK
ceYZv ^GK DZ, hv fviGZi gZvmxb kvmKGMvxi gGa egj nGq MGQ|
1947 mvGj wewUkiv fviZ ZvGMi ci fviZ gZvi AveiGY `wY wkqvi
wbivcvi wbqZvGK ZvG`i wbR KvR eGj gGb KiGZ ^vGK| AGji QvU
`kGjv hvGZ evBGii AGji KvGbv `Gki mvG^ wbivcv msGhvM vcb bv KGi
Zvi Rb fviZ Pvc `q| gbwK DcgnvG`Gki Abvb `k wbGRG`i GK AcGii
wbivcv DGM `i Kivi Rb cviwiK mvnvh I mnvqZvGK fviZ mn KGi bv|2
AavGqi DGk nGQ evsjvG`Gki mvG^ mK iPbvi cvcU evSvi Rb
fviGZi gZvmxb cavb cavb ivRbwZK `j hgb- KsGMm I fviZxq RbZv
cvwUi (weGRwc) De, MVb I ciivbxwZ Z^v evsjvG`k mGK `jxq AevGbi
cwiPq ZzGj aiv| Qvov Bwqv WKwUb I Rivj WKwUb mGK es wewf
BmyGZ fviGZi ivRbwZK `jGjvi KgmwP mGK AvGjvPbv Kiv|
evsjvG`k-fviZ mGKi wbaviK cmG w`xi wbivcvwelqK weGklK myfvl Kvwcjv
eGjb h, evsjvG`k-fviZ mK A^bwZK wbqK A^ev ivRbwZK A^ev
KUbwZK wbqqGKi Ici wbfikxj bq| `y`Gki mGK Kgv wbqK fviGZi
RvZxq wbivcvi AGbK iZcY kKvZi welq| Gjvi gGa cavb wZbwU welq
nGjv- 1. evsjvG`Gki fGMvwjK Aevb fviGZi Di-cevGji AwiZv mwGZ
cfve dGj| weGkl KGi evsjvG`Gki mG cvwKvb Avi PxGbi mGKi w`KwU LyeB
iZcY| evsjvG`k KKfvGe A^ev cvwKvGbi mG A^ev Pxb-cvwKvb-evsjvG`k
AjGK D iGL fviZGK PvGj Kivi gZv ivGL| 2. fviGZi RvZxq
wbivcvi vG^ evsjvG`kGK fviZ KLGbvB Zvi Di-cevGj AwiZv evovGbvi
g wnGmGe eenZ nGZ w`GZ cvGibv| 3. fviZxq wbivcvi vG^ evsjvG`kGK
KwU Bmjvgx Rw ivG cwiYZ nGZ w`GZ cvGibv| Bmjvgx Rwev`x evsjvG`k ay
fviGZi RbB bq, mgM `wY wkqv es hyivGi vG^i cwicx|3 Zv Qvov

cwZGekx `kmgGni cwZ fviGZi kvmK `Gji bxwZ

99

evsjvG`Gki wbivcv weGklK g. mvLvIqvZ nvGmb eGjb, evsjvG`Gki gZvmxb


ivRbwZK `Gji weGePbvqI evsjvG`Gki cwZ fviGZi bxwZ fvimvg vcGbi G
KwU iZcY welq|4 GG fviZ evsjvG`Gki gZvmxb ivRbwZK `Gji mvG^
HwZnvwmK mK I `jxq Av`wkK v^GK cvavb w`Gq ^vGK|
fviGZi ciivbxwZi weeZb es AvKwZ I ic w`GqGQ gZvmxb wjU kYx,
weGkl KGi KvwikgvwUK bZv RInijvj bGni| RInijvj bGni `p cZq
e KGi eGjb, KwU bwZK es bvh wekeev cwZvi Rb fviZ AbyNUGKi
(catalytic) fwgKv cvjb KiGe| i c^g c`Gc wnGmGe wZwb 1949 mvGji 23
gvP bZzb w`xGZ wkqvb mK mGjb (Asian Relations Conference) Avnvb
KGiwQGjb| D mGjGb wkqvb `kGjvi ewkifvM bZv AskMnY KGiwQGjb|
mGjGb wZwb eGjb,
Peace can only come when all countries are free and also when human
beings everywhere have freedom and security and opportunities for
development. Peace and freedom, therefore, have to be considered both in
their political and economic aspects.5

bGnii gGZ, fviGZi ciivbxwZi K`xq DGk nj AvRvwZK ivRbxwZi


MYZxKiY| wZwb `wY wkqvGZ fviZGK ewUk ivRbwZK kwi hvM
DivwaKvix wnGmGe gGb KGi AvZwekvmx wQGjb hv Bw`iv Mvxi kvmbvgGji
kGli w`GK ivRxe Mvxi mgGq eve ic bq| DcgnvG`Gk bGnii mvD^ wkqvb
wfkb fGMvwjK mxgvbvq mxgve wQj bv| wZwb wekvm KiGZb, fviGZi wbivcv I
ciivbxwZi v^ wbwnZ ^vKGe cwZGekx `kGjv QvovI AvdMvwbvb, mvj
wkqv es gvqvbgvi, gbwK `wY ce kxq G`kGjv nGZ BG`vGbwkqv ch|
mgZv, GK AcGii welGq nGc bv Kiv, GK AcGii fGMvwjK ALZvi cwZ
kv es cviwiK jvfRbK mnGhvwMZvi wfwGZ DcGiv `kGjvi mvG^
fviGZi mK nGe eGj wekvm KiGZb| 1947 mvGji 4 wWGmi bGni
KwUwUDGq vGmwjGZ fviGZi ciivbxwZ mGK eGjb,
The art of conducting the foreign affairs of a country lies in finding out
what is most advantageous to the country. We may talk about peace and
freedom and earnestly mean what we say. But in the ultimate analysis, a
government functions for the good of the country it governs and no
government dare to anything which in the short or long run is manifestly to
the disadvantage of the country.6

100

evsjvG`k wkqvwUK mvmvBwU cwKv

1947 mvGji 15 AvM vaxbZvi ci nGZ fviZ RInijvj bGnii bZGZ KsGMm
`j viv kvwmZ nGqGQ es 1977 mvGj jvKmfv wbevPGb c^gevGii gZ KsGMm
`jGK civwRZ KGi RbZv Kvqvwjkb `j gZvq AvGm| cieZx mgGq 1980
mvGji wbevPGb KsGMm Rqjvf KiGj Bw`iv Mvx wZxqevi cavbgx nGqwQGjb
es Zvui QGj ivRxe Mvx 1989 mvj ch gZvq wQGjb| 1989 mvGj wf. wc.
wmsGqi bZGZ AKsGMmx bvkbvj d miKvGii vwqZ wQj gv 13 gvm es 1991
mvGji wbevPGb cybivq KsGMm gZvq AwawZ nq| 1996 mvj ^GK 1998 mvj
ch AKsGMmx hyd miKvi gZvq wQj| 1998 mvGj fviZxq RbZv cvwUi
(weGRwc) bZGZ bvkbvj WGgvGwUK jvGq (bwW) miKvi gZvq AvGm
es 2004 mvGji gvSvgvwS ch fviZ kvmb KGi | Avevi 2004 mvGji g gvGm
evg mgw^Z KsGMm bZZvaxb BDbvBGUW cGMwmf jvGq (BDwc) miKvi
gZvq AvGm I kvmbKvj cY KGi es 2009 mvGji wbevPGbi gvaGg KsGMm
Avevi gZvmxb nGqGQ, hv AvRI fviGZ AevnZ iGqGQ| cKZcG fviZ KsGMm
`j vivB ewkifvM mgq kvwmZ nGqGQ es nGQ| bxGP evsjvG`Gki cwZ bxwZ
cYqGb fviGZi cavb cavb ivRbwZK `jGjvi gZv`k AvGjvPbv Kiv nj|
KsGMm
1885 mvGj wKQz msLK weLvZ BsGiR es fviGZi wjU kYxi mnvqZvq
cwZwZ nq fviZxq RvZxq KsGMm| GG fviZ `iw` wmwfwjqvb AvGjb
AKGUwfqvb wnDg (Allen Octavian Hume) KsGMm MVGb iZcY DG`vM bb|
ZLb fviGZi ivRbwZK G h cej DGRbv weivR KiwQj, Zv KgvGbv es
bxwZwbaviYmn ckvmwbK welGq fviZxq eywRxexG`i gGbvfve I ZvG`i gZvgZ
mGK miKviGK AewnZ Kivi DGk wbGqB KsGMm cwZwZ nq| Aek cwZvi
ci ^GKB RvZxq KsGMm miKvwi cGcvlKZv I AbyGciYv jvf KGi| evOvwj
evwivi DGgkP` evbvwR KsGMGmi c^g mfvcwZ wbevwPZ nb|7 KsGMGmi bZGZ
fviZ 1947 mvGj 15 AvM vaxb nGqGQ| vaxbZvi ci KsGMm fviGZi kvmbfvi
MnY KGi| fviGZi msweavb cYqGb KsGMm wbaviGKi fwgKv cvjb KGi es 1969
mvj ch KG` I ekxi fvM ivGR gZvmxb `j wnGmGe fviZ kvmb KGi| 1969
mvGji kGli w`GK KsGMm (AvB), KsGMm (Avi), KsGMm (I) es KsGMm (m)
bvGg `jwU KGqKwU fvGM fvM nGq hvq| KsGMm (AvB)-K wbevPb Kwgkb jvKmfv
I ivRmfvMyGjvGZ evcK RqjvGfi KviGY kwai gZvmxb `j wnGmGe AbyGgv`b

cwZGekx `kmgGni cwZ fviGZi kvmK `Gji bxwZ

101

`q| 1985 mvGj KsGMm (AvB) `jwUi cwZvkZevwlKx D`hvcb KGi| kxgvb
bvivqY fviGZi RvZxq KsGMm mGK ge KGib h,
that the greatest service that the congress has rendered to India is the
maintenance of national unity and solidarity in the face of great dangers
and difficulties before and since independence.8

fviZxq RvZxq KsGMm wewf fvlv, RvwZ, DcRvwZ I wewf jvKvi RvwZMZ `j
Dc`j wbGq MwVZ es mevBGK `Gj ivLvi Rb mywbw` `jxq Av`k AvGQ|9
RInijvj bGnii bZGZ KsGMm RvU wbiGcZvGK ciivbxwZi wfw wnGmGe
MnY KGi AvRvwZK welqvejxGZ mwqfvGe AskMnY KGi es civkwGjvi eK
^GK `Gi ^vGK|
cwZ RInijvj bGni fviGZi ciivbxwZ MVGb ewMZfvGe RvivGjv fwgKv
iGLGQb| wZwb KB mgGq cavbgx I ciivgx wnGmGe `vwqZ cvjb KGiGQb|
wZwb fviGZi ciivbxwZi mKj eo eo wmvGjv wbGqGQb| RInijvj bGni
fviGZi c^g iZcY bZv whwb wekeevi mgmvGjvi cwZ Mfxi `w
w`GqwQGjb es mGK fviGZi gGbvfve cmvwiZ KGiwQGjb| wZwb 1949 mvGji
8 gvP KbwwUDGq vGmwjGZ (Constituent Assembly) fvlY `qvi mgq
KsGMGmi ciivbxwZ mGK eGjwQGjb,
... our foreign policy is one of keeping aloof from the big blocks-rivals-and
being friendly to all countries and not becoming entangled in any alliances,
military or other, that might drag us into any possible conflict.10

fviGZi ciivbxwZi Abvb DGLGhvM w`K nGQ JcwbGewkKZvev` I


eYelgevG`i weGivax, mKj weGivGai kvwcY gxgvsmv, wkqvb-AvwdKvb
mc`vqGjvGK mg^b es AvRvwZK msvGjvGK mg^b `vb Kiv|11 KsGMm
(AvB) `wY wkqvi fviGZi cwZGekx `kGjvi mvG^ ezZcY mGKi AvKvv
e KGi es AGj Zvi bZZkxj fwgKvi xKwZ I MnYGhvMZv cwZGekx
ivGjvi KvQ ^GK cZvkv KGi| Qvov KsGMm (AvB) cvwKvGbi mvG^ mKGK
weGkl iZ `q| hLb cvwKvGbi mvG^ vfvweK mK eRvq ^vGK KsGMm
fvGe Avkv KGi cvwKvb DcgnvG`Gk fviGZi Preeminent fwgKvi xKwZ
`Ge| Zv Qvov KsGMm Abvb civkw KZK cvwKvbGK AvRvwZKfvGe
DZgvGbi AkGi mvgwiK mnGhvwMZv `qvi weGivwaZv KGi|12

102

evsjvG`k wkqvwUK mvmvBwU cwKv

evsjvG`Gki cwZ fviZ miKvGii gGbvfve vaxbZv hyGi ci nGZ eez kL


gywReyi ingvGbi kvmbKvj ch AvwiK I D wQj| KviY AvIqvgx jxGMi mvG^
KsGMGmi Av`kMZ wgj AvGQ| Zv Qvov wgGmm Bw`iv Mvxi mvG^ kL gywReyi
ingvGbi ewMZ mymK wQj| KsGMm memgq evsjvG`kGK ez cwZGekx `k gGb
KGi| Zv Qvov fviGZi mvG^ evsjvG`Gki fGMvwjK bKU, fvlvMZ wgj I
HwZnvwmK msGhvM we`gvb| weGRwc memgq Aea gvBGMkb mGK AwfGhvM KGi,
wK KsGMm KGi bv| KsGMm MYZvwK gjGevGa wekvm KGi|13 wK kL gywReyi
ingvGbi nZvKvGi ci `y `Gki mGKi Pig AebwZ NGU| fviGZi cavbgx
Bw`iv Mvx evsjvG`Gki bZzb bZGZi mvG^ mK vcb KGibwb es evsjvG`Gki
cwZ KGVvi Aevb bb| Zv Qvov `wY wkqvi ivRbwZK GI cwieZb NGU,
KviY Pxb ZLb evsjvG`kGK xKwZ `q| evsjvG`Gki mvG^ mGKi G bZzb
AvwjK kw wnGmGe PxGbi Avwefve NGU|
evsjvG`Gki mvgwiK kvmK RbvGij wRqvDi ingvb KZK msweavGb bZzb aviv
msGhvRb I ciivbxwZi G Avgj cwieZb fviZ mnRfvGe bqwb| AvRvwZK
mGKi weGklK nvib-Ai-ikx` evsjvG`Gki cwZ fviGZi KGVvi gGbvfvGei wKQz
KviY DGL KGiGQb| hgb- 1. Bw`iv Mvx evsjvG`Gki mvgwiK miKvGii cwZ
weZ wQGjb es Zvui wekvm mvgwiK miKvi `Gki RbMGYi cwZwbwaZ KGi bv|
ZvB wgGmm Mvx mnGhvwMZvi gvaGg wcvwK mgmvGjv mgvavb KGi mvgwiK
miKvGii wekvmGhvMZv evovGZ Pvbwb| 2. Bw`iv Mvx Abyfe KiGjb cwmGW
wRqv gjZ evsjvG`Gki msweavGbi BmjvgxKiY I Abvb KgKvGi gvaGg
agwbiGcZvGK cwiZvM KGiGQb| Bw`iv Mvx wRqvDi ingvGbi agwbiGcZvnxb
ckvmwbK KgcwZ I gymwjg `kGjvi mvG^ mK Rvi`vi Kivi cGPvGK fviZ
weGivax wnGmGe aviYv KGib| 3. 1965 mvGji fviZ-cvwKvb hyGi mgq MnxZ
k mw AvBb-i viv wZM wn`yG`i AwcZ mw GdiZ cvIqvi `vwei
evcvGi cwmGW wRqvi AbxnvGK Bw`iv Mvx Abvq I elggjK gGb KGib|
evsjvG`k vaxb nIqvi ci wn`yG`i mw ZvG`i nvGZ wdwiGq `qv DwPZ eGj
Bw`iv Mvx gGb KGib| evsjvG`k cvwKvGbi mvG^ AvwjK I AvRvwZK dvivGg
fviGZi weiG msNe es fviGZi wPi cwZx PxGbi mvG^ Nwb mK vcb
KGi, hv fviZ Lvivc `wGZ `GL| 5. Bw`iv Mvx wekvm KGib cwmGW wRqv
evsjvG`Gki vaxbZv-weGivax kwGjvi cwZ bgbxq wQGjb es Zvi gxmfvq
vaxbZv hyGi mgq cvwKvGbi cwZ ay mnvbyfwZkxj bq cvwKvGbi mg^K I

cwZGekx `kmgGni cwZ fviGZi kvmK `Gji bxwZ

103

evOvwj wbaGb mwq fwgKv cvjb KGib gb wKQz ewGK Afz KGiGQb eGj
Bw`iv Mvx mG`n KGib|14
kxjsKvGZ Zvwgj-wmsnjx MvxMZ Gi cvcGU Bw`iv WKwUGbi Avwefve
NGUwQj| hvGK fviZ WKwUb, ivRxe WKwUb, `wY kxq WKwUb es gbwK
gbGiv WKwUGbi `wY kxq msiYI ejv nq| mvgwiK weGklK fevbx mb D
ZGi cGYZv I ZvwK| mvqyhyGvi cwiwwZGZ `wY wkqvq enr kwGjvi
cwZGhvwMZvgjK AskMnY KGg hvIqvq ZrKvjxb KsGMm bZZvaxb fviZ miKvi
`wY wkqvGZ D WKwUb evevqGb RvivGjv c`Gc bq| kxjsKvi MnhyG
fviGZi b nGc A^vr 1987 mvGji RyjvB gvGm weZwKZ BG`v-kxjsKvb Pzwi
(Pzwi AbZg kZ wQj KjGv Ab KvGbv `kGK kxjsKvq NvuwU vcb KiGZ
G`Ge bv) AvIZvq mLvGb fviZxq kvwix evwnbx gvZvGqb, 1988 mvGj gvjxGc
Afzvb cGPv `gGb nGc es 1989 mvGj evwYR I UvbwRU Pzw msv
gZvbKGK K` KGi fviZ KZK jGewZ `yej iv bcvGji Ici AeGiva
AvGivc Bwqv WKwUGbi eve cGqvM I Rj D`vniY|
`wY wkqvGZ `ywU wbaviK fviZGK Bwqv WKwUb cGqvM KiGZ mvnvh KGi|
mGjv nj- 1. fviZGKw`K `wY wkqv eev; 2. `wY wkqvi `kGjv
fviGZi Rb myweavRbK wcvwKZv bxwZGK ZvG`i gGa AvtmGKi G I
fviGZi mvG^ `wY wkqvi Abvb `Gki mGKi G gj wbqYKvix bxwZ
wnGmGe MnY Kiv|15 Bwqv WKwUGbi gj K^v nGQ, `wY wkqvi wbivcv nGe
fviZGKw`K es AGji iv
Gjvi wbivcv `qv cavbZ fviGZi `vwqZ| dGj
vfvweKfvGeB fviGZi cfve ejq wnGmGe weGewPZ `wY wkqvi ivGjvi
fviGZi mwZ Qvov AGji evBGi KvGbv `Gki mvgwiK mvnvh PvIqv mgxPxb
nGe bv| fviGZi aiGbi AvPiGY `wY wkqvGZ fviZweGivax gGbvfve mw nq
es cwZGekx mKj `Gki mvG^ fviGZi wZZv j Kiv hvq| Zv Qvov
evsjvG`Gki mvG^ fviGZi weGivacY welGq AvGcvlweGivax gGbvfvGeI Bwqv
WKwUGbi cGqvGMi cgvY cvIqv hvq|
RbZv cvwU
eZgvb RbZv cvwU 1977 mvj ^GK 1979 mvj ch fviGZi Kvqvwjkb miKvGii
Ask weGkl wQj| mB mgq RbZv cvwU RbmsN, fviZxq jvK`j, mvmvwj cvwU
es KsGMm (I)-i mgGq MwVZ nGqwQj| cieZxKvGj RMRxeb ivGgi MYZGi

104

evsjvG`k wkqvwUK mvmvBwU cwKv

Rb KsGMm MGc hvM `q| hw`I cGZK Mc ZvG`i Avjv`v cwiwPwZ bZzb
`Gji mvG^ wgwkGq `q| ZeyI RbZv cvwUi cyGiv kvmbKvj AfixY weGivGa
cwicY wQj| RbZv miKvGii cZGbi ci jvK`j Avjv`vfvGe cybMwVZ nq es
weGRwc bZzb `j wnGmGe MwVZ nq| wKQz cfvekvjx bZv wbR ew Kw`K `j
MVb KGib es Abvb `Gj hvM`vb KGib| dGj Aewkvsk wbGqB MwVZ nq
AvRGKi RbZv cvwU| RbZv cvwUi gviviRx `kvB I P`GkLi fviGZi mvGeK
cavbgx wQGjb| RvZxq chvGq wbevPbx ivRbxwZGZ RbZv cvwU Kg fwgKv ivLGjI
ivR mfvq weGkl KGi KbvUGK msLvMwiZv jvf KGi| RbZv cvwU Mvov Mvwev`x
mvmvwj (Orthodox Gandhian Socialists) Av`k AbymiY KGi| RqcKvk
bvivqY Av`Gki KRb Abymvix|16 1977 mvGji Rvbyqvwi gvGmi mvaviY wbevPGb
KsGMm civwRZ nq es gviviRx `kvBGqi bZGZ RbZv `j gZvq eGm|
gviviRx `kvB gZv MnGYi ci NvlYv KGib, Zvui miKvi cwZGekx `kGjvi
mvG^ mGKi Dqb KiGZ AvMnx es cwZGekxG`i weiG mKj cKvi Abvq
KvR eGi Avkv e KGib|
RbZv cvwUi Kvqvwjkb miKvGi mvmvwj cvwU Qvov Ab wZbwU `j ciivbxwZi
G cvvZcx I Av^-mvgvwRK cGk Wvbcx bxwZ Aejb KGiwQj| mvmvwj
cvwU mvgvwRK mgZvev` xKvi KiZ, wK RbZv`Gji Abvb kixKG`i mvG^
cvvZcx (Pro-western) ciivbxwZi mvG^ KgZ wQj|17 RbZv `Gji
ciivgx AUj wenvix evRGcqx fviGZi ciivbxwZi j I DGk mGK eGjb,
It has been the purpose of Indias foreign policy to promote harmony, trust
and a co-operative spirit among nations. Such a relationship among nations
would strengthen peace, eliminate tensions and reduce the danger of
conflict. The main object of our foreign policy is to create around us an
environment of peace, trust and stability which would permit optimum
utilization of our natural and man power resources for economic, social and
cultural advancement. It is only in a climate of trust and peace that the
creative forces of our people can be released and harnessed for improving
the well being of society.18

RbZv cvwUi miKvi wbKUZg cwZGekx `kGjvi mvG^ mymK vcGbi Rb


jvfRbK wcvwKZv bxwZi (Beneficial Bilateralism) mPbv KGi| bxwZ MnY
Kivi cGe RbZv miKvi ceeZx miKvGii cwZGekxG`i cwZ bxwZi G
wekvmGhvMZvi Afve I KZZeK bxwZi cgvY cvq| ZvB RbZv miKvi cwZGekx
`kGjvi wekvmGhvMZv cybivi es Avv I mnGhvwMZvgjK mK vcGbi

cwZGekx `kmgGni cwZ fviGZi kvmK `Gji bxwZ

105

DGGk bxwZi mPbv KGi| w`xi RInijvj bGni wekwe`vjGqi zj Ad


Bvibvkbvj vwWR KZK
AvGqvwRZ Continuity and Change in Indias
Foreign Policy kxlK mwgbvGi fviGZi ZrKvjxb ciivgx AUj wenvix
evRGcqx wcvwKZv bxwZ mGK eGjwQGjb,
The Janata Government, from the first day of its existence, set out
deliberately to clear the cobwebs of suspicion, remove misunderstanding
and banish the fear of interference. We have not only professed strict noninterference in the internal affairs of our neighbours, but also practiced it,
often in the face of great temptation to do the contrary.
In seeking co-operation from and offering it to our neighbours, we have
never imposed ourselves upon them. We have gently tried to explain to
them the mutuality of advantage in bilateralism and allowed the irresistible
logic of geography to assert itself ... . We have conducted and are
conducting an open policy of friendship, mutually advantageous cooperation and equal and beneficial bilateralism with our neighbours.
There are no hidden undertones or traps here .19

bxwZi DGk nGQ Bivb ^GK BG`v-Pxb ch AvwjK mnGhvwMZvi jvKv


wevi KGi fviGZi RvZxq v^ nvwmj Kiv| aiGbi AvwjK mnGhvwMZv `wY
wkqvi `kGjvi Awf mgmv `vwi` ^GK iv KiGe es fviZxq DcgnvG`k
`ywv gy ^vKGe| `wY wkqv cw^exi kwkvjx McGjvi gGa AvRvwZK
wwZkxjZv eRvq ivLvi G iZcY Ae`vb ivLGe| wZwb fviGZi jvfRbK
wcvwKZvbxwZ evevqGb 3wU iZcY welGqi Ici Rvi `b 1. ewMZ
mK (Personal rapport), 2. A^bwZK mgGSvZv (Economic accommodation)
es 3. ivRbwZK wbiGcZv I AfixY welGq nGc bv Kiv (Political
20
neutrality and non-interference in internal affairs)|
1. fviZxq bZe` cwZGekx `kGjvi DP chvGqi cwZcGi mvG^ ewMZ
mK vcGbi Rb cwZGekx `kGjv evi evi mdi KGib| cavbgx gviviRx
`kvB 1977 mvGji wWGmi gvGm bcvj, 1979 mvGji deqvwi gvGm kxjsKv es
1979 mvGji wcj gvGm evsjvG`k mdi KGib| Zv Qvov ciivgx evRGcqx 1977
mvGji RyjvB gvGm bcvj, 1977 mvGji bGfi gvGm fUvb es 1978 mvGji
deqvwi gvGm cvwKvb mdi KGib| Aciw`GK evsjvG`Gki cwmGW wRqvDi
ingvb 1977 mvGji wWGmi gvGm fviZ mdi KGib| cvkvcvwk cwZGekx Abvb
`Gki miKvi cavb I DPc` KgKZviv fviZ mdi KGib|

106

evsjvG`k wkqvwUK mvmvBwU cwKv

2. fviGZi jvfRbK wcvwKZvbxwZi A^bwZK myweavi my cgvY evsjvG`k I


fviGZi gGa 1977 mvGji 5 bGfi mvw`Z cvwbPzw, bcvj I fviGZi gGa
1978 mvGji 17 gvP eemv I UvbwRU Pzw mv`b es 1978 mvGji 14 wcj
fviZ I cvwKvGbi gGa mvjvj nvBGWv-BGjKwUK v wWRvBb I wbgvY Pzw
mv`Gbi gvaGg cvIqv hvq| dvivv Pzwi gvaGg fviZ cwge I weGkl KGi
evwYwRK e`i KjKvZvi v^ wZ KGi evsjvG`Gki Pvwn`v Abyhvqx cvwbi cve
MnY KGiwQj|
3. fviZ jvfRbK wcvwKZvbxwZ evevqGb cwZGekx `kGjvi AfixY
welGq KGVvifvGe wbiGcZv I nGc weGivax Kkj Aejb KGi, hv Lye
iZcY w`K| 1977 mvGji Ryb gvGm jGb KgbIGqj^ mGjb PjvKvGj fviGZi
cavbgx gviviRx `kvB I evsjvG`Gki cwmGWGi gGa mgGSvZv nIqvi ci
fviZ evsjvG`Gki kiYv^x KvGjv e KGi `q es ivRbwZKfvGe wbevwmZ
ewG`i evsjvG`Gk diZ cvVvq| ciivg x evRGcqx AviI eGjb, The Janata
Government would not allow Indian territory to be used for hostile
activities against our partner nations. fviZ cwmGW wRqvDi ingvGbi

weGivax AvIqvgx jxGMi weG`vnxG`i fviZ QvoGZ eva KGi Zv cgvY KGi|
mGK AvIqvgx jxM bZv dwYflY gRyg`vi eGjb,
Some of our workers had sought refuge in India (after the 1975
crackdown). But since the new government came to power in New Delhi,
these workers have been sent back, often at gun point, only to be jailed or
tortured by the military rulers.21

gbwK AvIqvgx jxM bZv KvG`i wmwKxGKI AcgvwbZ KGi evsjvG`Gk wdGi
AvmGZ RbZv miKvi eva KGi| cKZcG fviZ cwZGekx `kGjvi mvG^
KkjMZ welGq KvGbv mgGSvZv KGiwb|
Bwqv WKwUGbi gj ewk nj `wY wkqvGK AwZ AvwjK kwGjvi cfve
^GK gy ivLv| wcvwKZvbxwZ wU mv`b KiGZ mvnvh KGi| mGK
AavcK AGkvK KvcyGii gZvgZ cwYavbGhvM| Zuvi gGZ:
Bilateralism is the opposite of internationalism as well as of regionalism.
Bilateralism is a negation of the super power doctrine that the super powers
have a right to be involved in regional disputes because they know no
frontiers and have worldwide interests. Bilateralism, therefore, is an
approach that seeks to reduce and, whenever possible, to eliminate the
harmful influences of superpowers in regional affairs. In this way,
bilateralism is meant to choke foreign interference by cutting off the
external supply of oxygen in the form of foreign support for the locally
dissatisfied state.22

cwZGekx `kmgGni cwZ fviGZi kvmK `Gji bxwZ

107

fviGZi wcvwKZv bxwZ AejGbi Ab KwU DGk nj, hvGZ `wY wkqvi
ivGjv fviGZi mvG^ mGKi G h^fvGe fviGZi weiG Aevb bv wbGZ
cvGi| bxwZ fviZ `wY wkqvi ivGjvi gGa mdjfvGe cGqvM KGiwQj| ay
ZvB bq, fviZxq bZe` wcvwKZv bxwZGK `wY kxq AvwjK mnGhvwMZv msv
mvKGKI Afz KGib|23
1976 mvGji g gvGm BvyGj AbywZ Bmjvgx ciivgx mGjGb I 1976 mvGji
AvM gvGm KjGvGZ AbywZ RvU wbiGc kxl mGjGb evsjvG`k dvivv Bmy
Dvcb KGi| KjGv mGjGb evsjvG`k Kvb mg^b bv cvIqvq evsjvG`k RvwZmsN
mvaviY cwilG`i 31Zg AwaGekGb BmywU ZzGj aGi| mGbMvj, AGwjqv es
kxjsKvi AbyGivGa RvwZmsN mvaviY cwilG`i ivRbwZK KwgwU dvivv BmywU wMZ
KGi es wee`gvb `kGjvGK wcvwKfvGe mgvavGbi Avnevb Rvbvq|24
evsjvG`Gki ebv mgmv mgvavGb KvGbv cKvi AvwjK ev AvRvwZK KgGKkGji
evcvGi fviGZi Zxe Abxnv| evsjvG`k 1987 I 1988 mvGj asmKvix ebvq
Avv nGqwQj| b`xi vfvweK cvKwZK KviGYB Mv I ecy evsjvG`Gki fZi
w`Gq AwZg KGiGQ| dGj evsjvG`k AGji h-KvGbv `Gki Zzjbvq AwaKZi
ebvceY| `xNvqx mgmv mgvavb I mvaviY gvbyGli KjvGYi DGGk evsjvG`k
cvwb m` eenvGii gvaGg we`yr Drcv`Gbi Rb fviZ, Pxb, bcvjGK mshy
KGi AvwjKfvGe mgvavGbi cve KGi| evsjvG`Gki AbyGivGai cwicwGZ 1988
mvGj RvwZmsN mvaviY cwilG`i weGkl AwaGekGb ebv cwiwwZGK weGePbvq bqv
nq| evsjvG`Gki ebv mgmv mgvavGbi Lmov cvGe fviZ AvwjK mgvavGb KvGbv
aviv msGhvRb mdjfvGe cwZGiva KGi| XvKv cvGe evsjvG`Gki ebv-mgmv
mgvavGb `wY wkqvi ivGjvGK KwU AvwjK cwiKbvq Afz KiGZ
PGqwQj| fviZ ebv-mgmv mgvavGb egyLx cwZi cGqvRGbi weGivwaZv KGi es
h^ ebv wbqY cvMvGg bcvj I PxGbi Afzwi mvebv weGePbvi AGhvM eGj
NvlYv KGi|
Zv Qvov fviZ evsjvG`Gki ebv wbqGY hw` KvGbv AvwjK cwZi DGL ^vGK
ZvnGj RvwZmsN mvaviY cwilG`i cvGei Ici fvU bqvi gwK `q| fviGZi
Zxe weGivwaZvi gyGL RvwZmsN mgmv mgvavGb ^nxb mg^b `q es mvaviY
cwilG` memZ cve cvGki gvaGg mKj m`m `kGK evsjvG`Gki ebv wbqY
cvMvGg mnvqZv Kivi Avnvb Rvbvq| wK cvGe mgmv mgvavGb KvGbv mywbw`
ecvwK KkGji DGL wQj bv| fviZ 1985 mvGj wWGmi gvGm AbywZ c^g

108

evsjvG`k wkqvwUK mvmvBwU cwKv

mvK kxl mGjGb wcvwKZvbxwZ mvK mbG`i Afz KGi| `wY wkqvi
`kGjv fviGZi mvG^ mGKi G wcvwKZvGK bxwZ wnGmGe MnY Kivq
DcgnvG`Gki wewf weGivacY BmyGZ ecvwK KkjGK fviZ weGePbvi AGhvM
gGb KGi| wK wewf mgmvi cKwZi KviGY mgvavGbi Rb `yB ev ZGZvwaK ivGi
cGqvRb| ZGe Uv me bq KviGY h `wY wkqvi ivGjv fviGZi mvG^
ZvG`i mgmv mgvavGb KKfvGe Aevb wbGqGQ| iKg cwiwwZGZ wbwZfvGe
`iKlvKwli myweavUv fviGZi nvGZB ^vGK|25 cieZx KsGMm miKvGii kvmbvgGj
(1980-1989) `wY wkqvi cwZGekx `kGjvi mvG^ fviGZi mK RbZv
cvwUi kvmbKvGji PGq fvj wQj bv Zv wbwZfvGe ejv hvq|26
1996 mvGji Ryb gvGm fviGZ bZzb hyd miKvi gZvq Avmvi ci cwZGekx
`kGjvi Avkv-AvKvv I vG^i cwZ AwaK mgGSvZvgjK gGbvfve cKvk KGi|
hyd miKvGii ZrKvjxb ciivgx I cGi cavbgx B`i Kzgvi Rivj 1997
mvGji Rvbyqvwi gvGm Rivj gZev` (Gujral Doctrine) NvlYv KGib| B`i Kzgvi
Rivj wgfvlx, AgvwqK, wePY ivRbwZK bZv wQGjb| wZwb fviGZi `yevi
ciivgx es Kevi cavbgx wnGmGe `vwqZ cvjb KGib| wZwb cwZGekx
`kGjvi wbKU m`vPvix wnGmGeI mycwiwPZ| fviGZi cwZGekx `kGjvi mvG^
ciiv mK cwiPvjbvi Rb Rivj cvuPwU bxwZ ceZb KGib| GjvGK KG
Rivj Z (Gujral Doctrine) ejv nq| Rivj WKwUb nj: 1. evsjvG`k, fUvb,
gvjxc, bcvj, kxjsKvi gZ cwZGekxG`i wbKU ^GK fviZ cviwiK Av`vbc`vGbi w`GK `w bv w`Gq mij wekvGm mvagZ c`vb I AvGcvmidv KiGe| 2.
`wY wkqvi Kvb iv AGji Ab GKvb ivGi weiG wbGRi fL eenvGii
AbygwZ `Gebv| 3. K iv Ab ivGi AfixY G nGc KiGe bv| 4.
`wY wkqvi mKj iv Ab ivGi fGMvwjK ALZv es mveGfgZGK mvb
c`kb KiGe| 5. cGZGK kvwcY es wcvwK AvGjvPbvi gvaGg wbGRG`i gGa
m weev` gxgvsmv KiGe|27
cKZcG cwZGekxG`i cwZ fviGZi Amg bxwZ (asymmetrical policy), Zvi
cwZGekxiv hv KiGe Zvi PGq ekx Kivi bxwZ es wcvwK AvGjvPbvi gvaGg
mgmvi mgvavb nGjv Rivj ZGi gj mvigg| i gGa bB cviwiK Av`vbc`vGbi (Reciprocity) Kvb welq, bB Kvb fvimvg cwZv (Check and
Balance), gbwK bB ecxq AvGjvPbvi (Multilateral Deliberations) D`vi
Kvb |28 Rivj gZevG` fviGZi KkjMZ `kGb bZzb aiGbi AvGcwK

cwZGekx `kmgGni cwZ fviGZi kvmK `Gji bxwZ

109

bgbxqZv mGI GZ bqvw`xi AZxZ AvwacZ I KZZmyjf gGbvfvGei aviv j


Kiv hvq| Aek GK fviGZi c ^GK mr cwZGekxmyjf gZev` eGj AwfwnZ
Kiv nq| wK cvwKvbGK Rivj gZevG`i BwZevPK avivi evBGi iGL fviZ gjZ
cwZGekx `kGjvGK mr I Amr chvGq fvM Kivi cqvmx nq| Uv gGb nq
DGkgjK hvGZ cwZGekx `kGjv cvwKvb ^GK `iZ eRvq iGL PGj es
fviGZi Lye KvQvKvwQ AvGm| Zv Qvov Rivj gZevG`i wZxq avivq cwZGekx
`kGjvi mxgvbvi Ici wbqY KvhZ fviGZi KK `wfw viv wbaviY Kivi
Pv KGiGQ| cKZcG Uv wQj fviGZi v^ I wbivcvi gvcKvwV viv cwZGekx
`kGjvi ciivbxwZ cYqGbi mveGfg AwaKvGii Ici nGc Kiv| ZviciI
Bwqv WKwUGbi nGcgjK I mcmviYev`x fve I `wfwi Zzjbvq Rivj
gZev`GK AvGcwKfvGe D`vi I mgGSvZvgjK gGb nq| Kbbv gZevG`i gGa
fviZ c^gevGii gGZv cwZGekx `kGjvi cwZ myGhvM-myweav c`vGb cwZ`vb Qvov
KKfvGe c`Gc MnGYi BQv e KGi|29
evsjvG`Gki mG cvwb Pzwi welGq AvGcwKfvGe fviGZi mgGSvZvgjK `wfwi
gvaGg Rivj gZevG`i cwZdjb NGU| w-cvwK I AvwjK evwYGRi
fvimvgnxbZv `i KiGZ fviZ KB aiGbi mgGSvZvgjK gGbvfve cKvk KGi|
mvcUv evevqbmn evwYR D`vibxwZKiGYi gvaGg 2001 mvGji gGa mvcUv
cwZvi Rb KvhKi c`Gc MnGYi AxKvi e KGi| Zv Qvov fviGZ AvwkZ
cveZ PMvGgi kiYv^xG`i evsjvG`Gk diZ cvwVGq ZvG`i mG evsjvG`k
miKvGii cveZ PMvg mwKZ kvwPzw mv`Gb Drmvn c`vbI mnR KGi
`q|30 fviGZi hyd Kvqvwjkb miKvi cGei Abvb fviZxq miKvGii Zzjbvq
cwZGekx `kGjvi cwZ AwaKZi mgGSvZv I ezZmyjf gGbvfvevc wQj|
cKZcG fviZ mvgwiK-GKkjMZ bxwZi cwieGZ ivRbwZK-A^bwZK bxwZ MnY
KGi| dGj fviGZi AvwjK ciivbxwZ I KUbxwZGZ DGLGhvM KvGbv cwieZb
nqwb| -mGei gvaGg fviZ Zvi AvwjK AvwacZ I KZGZi DGk Mvcb
KiGZ Pvq|
fviZxq RbZv cvwU (weGRwc)
1979 mvGj RbZv cvwUi Kvqvwjkb miKvGii cZGbi ci 1980 mvGji wcj gvGm
fviZxq RbZv cvwU (weGRwc) cwZwZ nq| weGRwc Kvb bZzb `j bq, Uv fviZxq
RbmsGNi (weGRm) AbyeZb (Continuation), hv 1951 mvGj mw nGqwQj|
fviZxq RbmsGNi gj m`me` ivxq qsGmeK msN (Avimm) I wn`y gnvmfv

110

evsjvG`k wkqvwUK mvmvBwU cwKv

G^GK GmwQj| fviZxq RbmsN c^gw`GK knGii Wvbcx gawe kYxi wn`yG`i
`j wQj| weGRwc mvc`vwqK `j wnGmGe gymwjg I Lxvb weGivax wQj es `j
fviZxq mswZi Ici Rvi `q I wnw`GK RvZxq fvlv wnGmGe cPvi KGi|31
cieZxKvGj KkjMZ KviGY fviZxq RbmsGNi bvg cwieZb KGi fviZxq RbZv
cvwU (weGRwc) ivLv nq| weGRwci AfixY KgmPxGZ Av`wkK cwiwPwZ
evcKfvGe fviZ I Abvb `Gk weGkl chvGq MGelYvi `vwe ivGL| wK ZvG`i
ciivbxwZi evcvGi hG^ iZ wKsev `w AvKlY KGiwb| weGRwc RvivGjv
wn`yZev`x KgmwP evevqGbi Avkv wbGq gZvq GjI ciivbxwZGZ gymwjg weGki
mvG^ fvimvgcY mK eRvq ivGL es cvwKvGbi cwZ AvGcvmgjK bxwZ MnY
KGi| Zv Qvov weGRwc KsGMm cvwU ^GK wf `wfw MnY KGi es `wY wkqvi
ivGjvi gGa GK AcGii cwZ cviwiK kvi wfwGZ AvwjKZvevG`i Ici
weGePbvGhvM iZ `q es fviGZi Z^vKw^Z eo fvBmyjf Aevb ZvM KGi|
wbKUZg cwZGekx `kGjvi cwZ weGRwci ciivbxwZ nj:
The BJP considers improvement of relations with our immediate
neighbours like Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Ceylon and India and Bhutan
as one of the major achievements of Janatas foreign policy. The BJP will
continue to pay special attention to the development of these mutually
beneficial with our neighbours.32

weGRwci ee AbyhvqxevsjvG`kGK fviGZi Di-cevGji weG`vnxG`i Avkqckq bv `qv, Aea AbycGek


e, Mvm ivwb, UvbwRU c`vb I UvK-1 es UvK-2 chvGq AvjvcAvGjvPbvi gvaGg
`y `Gki mK fvimvgcY nGZ cvGi|33

wbivcvi aviYv
fviZ Di-cevGji ivRGjvi mnR hvMvGhvGMi Rb evsjvG`Gki fZi w`Gq
UvbwRU myweav Pvq| Aciw`GK evsjvG`k fviGZi fZi w`Gq fUvb I bcvGji mG
evwYR-msGhvM Pvq| evGe bcvGji mG 1997 mvGji evwYR hvMvGhvM fviGZi
AmnGhvwMZvi KviGY kl ch eRvq ^vGKwb| fUvb-evsjvG`k evwYwRK mKI
fviZxq fL eenvGii Ici wbfikxj| fviZ miKvi wbivcvi ARynvGZ
evsjvG`kGK myGhvM w`GZ Avcw KGi| Zv Qvov fviGZi mvGeK ciiv mwPe R
b `xwZ Zvui AvZK^v gGgvqvi Ad Av dGib mGUvwi MG aiGbi
UvbwRGUi dGj Aea evsjvG`kxG`i fviGZ Mgb es fviGZi Di cevjxq
weG`vnxG`i evsjvG`Gki Avkqjvf mnR nGe eGj DGL KGib|34 `wY wkqvq

cwZGekx `kmgGni cwZ fviGZi kvmK `Gji bxwZ

111

fviZ h Zvi mKj QvU cwZGekx `kGjvi fxwZi KviY Zv mKj wbivcv wekvi`
RvGbb| me QvU iv `wY wkqvi evBGii Kvb kwi wbKU ^GK Kvb
AvgY ev AvMvmGbi Avkv KGibv| `wY wkqvq fviZ-fxwZ mGK kxjsKvi
wbivcv wekvi` kjUb KvwWKviv eGjb,
A Perception of threat from India is currently common to all its neighbours
and it is one of the dilemmas of South Asian politics that while India
perceives its neighbours as being integral to its own security. The
neighbours perceive India itself as the entity against which security is
necessary.35

fviZxq wbivcv wekvi` K. myevgvwbqvg Zvui Bangladesh and India Security


kxlK ceG eGjb,
evsjvG`Gki DcwwZ fviGZi KkjMZ Di-cevGj KUv eo aiGbi `yej
AevGbi mw KGiGQ| hw` Avmvg ev Zrmsj DcRvwZi ivGR ev cwZGekx
gvqvbgvGii cwiwwZi AebwZ NGU ZvnGj AGj fviGZi wbqY ivq evsjvG`k
eo AvksKvi KviY nGq DVGZ cvGi|37

Zv Qvov mvgwiK evwnbxi KgKZv jdGUbv RbvGij . g. evnivi eGjb,


evsjvG`Gki RGb fxwZi Kvb KviY bB| wK 1995 mvj ^GK evsjvG`k PxGbi mvG^
hfvGe wbivcvi eGb Ave es eZgvGb cvwKvGbi mvG^ Zvi h mvgwiK
mnGhvwMZv MGo DGVGQ Zv gGb iGL fviZxq cwZiv bxwZ wbaviKG`i aviYv
RGGQ h, Pxb A^ev cvwKvGbi mvG^ GhGKvGbv weGivGai mgq eZgvb kwi
evsjvG`k mbvevwnbx fviZxq mbvevwnbxi eo K AskGK AvUGK ivLGZ cviGe|38

k`k wnGmGe evsjvG`Gki cwiwPwZ GbB, wK Pxb I cvwKvGbi AvGQ| fviGZi


Rb evsjvG`k mgmv bq| evsjvG`Gki mvG^ Pxb I cvwKvGbi GhvMvGhvM ev mymK
fviZ mgmv wnGmGe gGb KGi| ZvB fviGZi cwZiv bxwZ nj evsjvG`kGK bcvj
I fUvGbi chvGq Gb, evsjvG`kGK fviZxq cwZivi weZ dwqvi (Extended
Frontier) wnGmGe eenvi Kiv| `wY wkqvi AvwjK wbivcv cviwiK mG`Gni
gGa AvewZZ nq| mGK AavcK wjI ivR (Leo Rose) DGL KGib:
Pakistan has invariably exhibited extreme apprehension over its perception
of Indian objectives in the region; India in turn has been critical of
Pakistani relationships with extra regional powers which propped up its
military capability. Nepal and Srilanka are also concerned with the
possibility of Indian encroachment on their sovereignty, a sentiment shared
by Bangladesh since 1975.39

wZbweNv Bmy

112

evsjvG`k wkqvwUK mvmvBwU cwKv

fviZxq RbZv cvwU fviZ miKvGii evsjvG`Gki wbKU wZbweNv nvGii Zxe
mgvGjvPbv KGi es fviGZi wbivcvi weN NUv QvovI mxgvG PvivPvjvb I gv`K
eemv evoGe eGj AwfGhvM KGiwQj| 1992 mvGji 26 Ryb evsjvG`Gki wbKU
wZbweNv nvi AbyvGbi w`b cwgeGi fviZxq RbZv cvwUi GbZvKgxiv
ZvrwYK cwZev` wgwQj ei KGiwQj|40 fviZxq RbZv cvwUi bZvKgxG`i kvMvb
wQj wZbweNv w`wQ bv, `Gev bv, i `Gev, wZbweNv `Gev bv, mycxg KvGUi
ivq gvwb bv, gvbGev bv, `nMvg nGe wfGqZbvg.... BZvw`|41 Zv Qvov dGivqvW
eGKi KUv Ask I RbZv cvwU evsjvG`Gki wbKU wZbweNv diZ`vGbi weGivwaZv
KGi|42 Aek RbZv `Gji ciivgx AvB, K, Rivj I cwgeGi gyLgx
RvwZemy AvbyvwbKfvGe wZbweNv c`vGbi wbqZv w`GqwQGjb| ZGe wZbweNv
BmyGZ KsGMm evsjvG`Gki cG KvR KGiwQj|43
cvwb Pzw Bmy
1977 mvGji 5 bGfi fviGZi RbZv cvwUi mvG^ evsjvG`Gki vwiZ cvwb Pzw
mGK KsGMm, KwgDwb cvwUmn mKj ivRbwZK `j ZvG`i `jxq Av`k wbweGkGl
Pzwi KGVvi mgvGjvPbv KGi es fviGZi RvZxq v^ iwZ nqwb eGj ge KGi|
Zv Qvov fviGZi ccwKv, wgwWqv I eywRxex mc`vq weGkl KGi cwge
miKvi wgk cwZwqv e KGi| 1977 mvGji dvivv Pzw mGK eywRxex I
MGelK Rq Kzgvi ivq mgvGjvPbv KGi eGjb,
After all, the aim of the Farakka project was to save the Calcutta port at an
expense of Rs 1,560 million, not to create cordial relations with
Bangladesh. There can be other ways of achieving friendly relations with
Bangladesh without defeating the aim of the Farakka project.45

KsGMm `Gji gwc mMZ ivq PzwGZ evsjvG`kGK Zvi cGqvRGbi AwZwi
cvwb `qv nGqGQ es KjKvZv e`Gii vG^i wZ nGqGQ eGj mgvGjvPbv KGib|
Qvov wZwb eGjb,
... it will serve the interests of military Junta, the political interests; they are
torturing the people of Bangladesh. This is what the agreement amounts
to.46

1996 mvGj wWGmi gvGm mvw`Z cvwb Pzwi cwZevG` 15 wWGmi 96 weGRwci
cwge kvLv Mvq bKvq PGo Pzwi weiG Awfbe cwZev` KGiwQj| 16
wWGmi 96 cwgeGi nveovq weGRwc AvGqvwRZ Rbmfvq weGRwci mfvcwZ

cwZGekx `kmgGni cwZ fviGZi kvmK `Gji bxwZ

113

jvjK Av`fvbx eGjwQGjb, Uv KwU KvGjv Pzw| GZ cwgeGi v^GK


evywj `LvGbv nGqGQ| RGb vbxq weGRwci h-KvGbv AvG`vjGb KG`i
mg^b ^vKvi DGL KGiwQGjb| Zv Qvov KsGMm mfvcwZ mxZvivg Kkix I
cwge KsGMm mfvcwZ mGgb wg Mvi cvwb eb PzwGK vMZ RvwbGqGQb|
KjKvZv e`Gii mvGeK Pqvigvb AwbGgl P` ivq ge KGib, Pzwi dGj
KjKvZv e`Gi weG`kx RvnvR Avmvi mvebv KGg Mj|47 cwgeGi gyLgx
RvwZemy cvwb Pzw vGi iZcY fwgKv cvjb KGiwQGjb| wU Zvui mw`Qvi
cgvY es `xNGgqv`x PzwGZ ivwR nGq wZwb Z evsjvG`kGK KwU eGov iKGgi
Qvo w`GqwQGjb| KviY, Mv b`xi cvwb wbGq Di cG`k I wenvGii mvG^ cwgeGi
KwU iGqGQ|48 gviviwR `kvB-i bZGZ RbZv cvwUi miKvGii mvG^
evsjvG`Gki wRqv miKvGii ivRbwZK `wfwi LvwbKUv wgj wQj eGjB 1977 mvGj
cvwb PzwwU mvw`Z nGqwQj| Avevi fviGZi KsGMm miKvGii mvG^ evsjvG`Gki
gZvmxb ikv` I LvGj`v wRqv miKvGii gGa ivRbwZK `wfwi AwgGji
KviGY KvGbv Pzw nGZ cvGiwb| Avevi 1996 mvGj evsjvG`Gki AvIqvgx jxM
miKvGii mvG^ ZrKvjxb fviGZi Kvqvwjkb miKvGii ivRbwZK `wfwi wgj 30
eQi gqv`x cvwb Pzw mv`Gb mvnvh KGi| DGL h, fviGZi Kvqvwjkb
miKvGi KsGMmmn Abvb `Gji mg^b wQj|
Aea AbycGek
fviZ evsjvG`kx bvMwiKG`i AeafvGe mxgv AwZg Kivi AwfGhvM KGi, hv
fviZ- evsjvG`k mGKi G gvGSgvGS wZZvi mw KGi| evsjvG`k fviGZi
Aea AbycGeGki AwfGhvM KLbI xKvi KGiwb| 1947 mvGji ce G^GK fviGZ
Aea AbycGeGki cgvY Kiv Lye KwVb KvR| wK 1971 mvGji vaxb evsjvG`Gki
Afz`Gqi ce ch AbycGeGki welGq fviGZi mvG^ KvGbv weGiva wQj bv|
cieZxKvGj fviZ Zvi wbivcvi cvcGU mgmvGK `LGZ ^vGK| 1991-1996
mvGj webwci kvmbvgGj fviZ cykevGKi bvGg evsjvfvlx fviZxq bvMwiKG`i
evsjvG`Gk VGj w`Gj BmyGZ `y `Gki wcvwK mGK Pig wZZvi mw
nGqwQj| 1996-2001 mvGj AvIqvgx jxM kvmbvgGj fviZ RviceK cykevGKi
Kvhg e ivGL es 2001 mvGj cybivq webwc gZvmxb nGj fviZ Avevi
Aea AbycGeGki AwfGhvM ZvGj| fviGZi Dccavbgx es ivgx 2 wgwjqb
Aea evsjvG`kx fviGZ evm KGi eGj DGL KGib|49 1979 mvGji gvP gvGm fviZ
miKvi Abyfe KGi Aea evsjvG`kx AbycGek fviGZi Di-cevGji ivRGjvGZ

114

evsjvG`k wkqvwUK mvmvBwU cwKv

Zxe mgmvi mw KiGQ es miKvGii DP chvGq mgmvwU AvGjvPbv nq| welqwU


KPwk Rb m`m ivRmfvq Dcvcb KGib| fviGZi Avmvg, gNvjq, wcyiv I
cwgeG Aea AbycGek NGU| RvwZMZ I fvlvMZ AwfZvi KviGY `y `Gki
RbMGYi gGa Aea AbycGekKvixG`i mbv Kiv LyeB KwVb| evsjvG`Gki
A^bwZK `yievi Rb nvRvi nvRvi evsjvG`kx fviGZ AeafvGe AbycGek KiGQ
eGj fviZi AwfGhvM| fviGZi cavbgx gviviRx `kvB evsjvG`k mdGii mgq
Aea AbycGek mgmv wbGq evsjvG`Gki cwmGWGi mvG^ AvGjvPbv KGib| Dfq
`k KgZ nq mxgvG AeafvGe PjvGdiv e Kivi Rb hvGZ `y `Gki mK
wZ bv nq| ZrKvjxb fviGZ evsjvG`Gki nvBKwgkbvi Aveyj nmvGbi wbKU
fviGZi ciiv mwPe Avi. wW. mvGZ 1980 mvGji g gvGm KwU viKwjwc nvi
KGib| viKwjwcGZ ejv nq, evcKfvGe fviGZi cwge, gNvjq,Avmvg, wcyiv
I wgGRvivg ivGR Aea AbycGeGki KviGY fviZ miKvi MfxifvGe Dw es hv
fviGZ mvgvwRK, A^bwZK I Abvb mgmv mw KiGQ| evcvGi wewf mgGq
evsjvG`k miKvGii `w AvKlY Kiv nGqGQ| Aea AbycGek eGi Rb fviZ
miKvi mxgvG wbivcv eev Rvi`vi, AwZwi mxgvix gvZvGqb, mxgvG Unj
eev Rvi`vi I evsjvG`k miKvGii mvnvh PvIqv nq|50
evsjvG`k ^GK fviGZ AbeiZ Aea AbycGeGki AwfGhvM evsjvG`k AxKvi
KGi| evsjvG`k gGb KGi Aea AbycGeGki AwfGhvM DGkcGYvw`Z I wfwnxb
es BmyGZ fviGZi mvG^ mgGSvZvi cGqvRb bB| eis fviZ Avmvg, wcyiv I
cwge nGZ weG`kx bvMwiK gGb KGi evsjvfvlx fviZxq bvMwiKG`i evsjvG`Gk
XzwKGq `q| fviGZi hyw nj evsjvG`Gki RbMGYi Pig `vwi` I fviGZ
KgmsvGbi myGhvM myweavi KviGY Aea AbycGek NGU|51 evsjvG`kx AbycG ek
fviGZi Di-cevGji ivRGjvGZ weGkl KGi AvmvGgi AfixY ivRbxwZGZ
cfve dGj es wbevPbx BmyGZ cvavb cvq| wK weGRwci kvmbKvGj `y `Gki
gGa cvwb m`, eemv I cwZiv wbGq DP chvGq Avjvc AvGjvPbv nGjI Aea
AbycGeGki BmywU AvGjvPbvi evBGi ivGL|52 1987 mvGji Rvbyqvwi gvGm weGRwci
RvZxq cwil` evsjvG`kx I cvwKvbx bvMwiK fviGZ AbycGek KGi wewf mxgveZx
RjvGjvGZ mvc`vwqK cwiwwZi cwieZb KiGQ eGj KwU wevwiZ cve cvk
KGiwQj| weGRwci gZvgZ nj Aea AbycGek fviGZi RvZxq wbivcvi Rb
gwKi KviY| wK `ytGLi welq fviGZi AvGjvwKZ RbgZ RvwZGK wecKvix
gvivZK BmyGZ mY mGPZb bq| weGRwc myGhvGM bxie RbmsLv AvgGYi

cwZGekx `kmgGni cwZ fviGZi kvmK `Gji bxwZ

115

ivRbwZK wec` mGK RvwZGK mZK KGi `q| weGRwc evsjvG`kx AbycGeGki
ivRbwZK `Gji myweav mGK memgq DGL KGi AvmGQ| AbycGeGki dGj
cwgeG fvU 1987 mvGj kZKiv 0.5 nGZ 1991 mvGj kZKiv 11.4 ew cGqGQ
es ZzjbvgjKfvGe RvZxq chvGq 1984 mvGj kZKiv 7.4 nGZ 1991 mvGj
kZKiv 21.9 ew cGqGQ|53 AbycGek mGK b b Sv eGjb, mxgvG eov
wbgvY nGj mxgvG nvvgv, nZv I Aea AbycGek KgGe|54 fviGZ evsjvG`kx
AbycGekGK weGRwc fviGZi mvc`vwqK ivRbwZK BmyGZ cwiYZ KGiGQ| Zv Qvov
weGRwci Qv msMVb AwLj fviZxq we`v^x cwil` (Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi
Parishad) evsjvG`kx gymwjg AbycGekKvixiv fviGZ mvmev` mgmvi R w`GQ
eGj wbqwgZ cPvi KiGQ es mvmev` wbgj Kivi Rb KGVvi c`Gc bqvi
civgk w`GQ| wK weGRwci bZZv axb bvkbvj WGgvvwUK jvGq Kvqvwjkb
miKvGii kvmbKvGj mgmv mgvavGb Kvb KvhKi bxwZ MnY KGiwb| KsGMm,
wmwcg I ZYgj KsGMGmi cwgeG kwkvjx Aevb ^vKv mGI Aea
AbycGekGK mgmv wnGmGe gGb KGiGQ, ZGe weGRwci gZ KGVvi I mvc`vwqK
mgmv wnGmGe MY KGi bv|55 A^P weGRwc gZvq ^vKvKvGj Aea AbycGek ivGa
KvGbv KvR KGiwb|56 cKZcG weGRwc Aea AbycGeGki BmywU AfixY
ivRbwZK vG^ eenvi KGi|
fviGZi mvGeK KUbxwZKiv cwZGekx z` `kGjvi cwZ fviGZi eo fvBmyjf
AvPiY, I AeGnjvcY gGbvfve mGK G`vlvGivc KGib| mGK fviGZi
KRb mvGeK KUbxwZK eGjb,
Indias policy towards neighbours suffered from a sense of Superiority
and Neglect. Prime Ministers and foreign ministers often feel shy in
visiting neighbouring capitals and senior diplomats falter on the count of
being polite and courteous towards their neighbouring counterparts. There
is a lingering shadow of the British imperial mindset of the Indian
bureaucracy when it comes to dealing with neighbouring countries and
their citizens.57

KvGbv cwZGekx `Gki mvG^B fviGZi mymK bB| dGj mgmvcY wcxq
mGKi KviGY AvwjK cwiGekI AbvKvwZ| RInijvj bGni wekw`vjGqi
AvRvwZK mK wefvGMi AavcK Awbi Zvui A Brahmanic Framework
of Power in South Asia ceG `wY wkqvi cwZGekxG`i cwZ fviGZi `wfw I
bxwZi mgvGjvPbv KGi eGjb, The Indian mindset of treating its neighbours as

116

evsjvG`k wkqvwUK mvmvBwU cwKv

inferior.58 cKZcG evsjvG`Gki cwZ fviGZi bxwZ memgq Low Profile

AbymiY KGi, hw`I GKevGi DGcv KGi bv| cmG KRb MGelGKi ee:
The Bangladesh-India relations are further complicated by the fact that
while their exists an Indian factor for Bangladesh, there exists no such
corresponding Bangladesh factor for India. Indias inertia, lack of political
will and sympathy to settle the outstanding contentious issues is indicative
of this. For New Delhi, these are irritants, but for Dhaka, these are vital
issues. Delhis attitude only sharpens Bangladeshs hostility towards India
and militates against pulling the relationship too close.59

Zv Qvov evsjvG`kmn `wY wkqvi `kGjvi cwZ fviGZi AvgjvZ PigfvGe


KZZkxj gGbvfve c`kb KGi|60 evsjvG`Gk fviGZi v^ mGK fviGZi mvGeK
ciiv mwPe A. P. Venkateswaran ge KGib:
We have three basic interests vis--vis Bangladesh. The important is to
retain a legitimate proportion of the lean-season flows of the Ganga and
other rivers that we share with that country. Secondly, we have an interest
in the welfare of the minorities in Bangladesh, since any marked
deterioration in their living conditions provokes immigration to India and
adds to an already festering problem. Thirdly, the illegal migration that had
already taken place has caused enormous socio-economic problems in our
bordering states. It is in our vital interest to see that this process stops and
is reversed, with the return to Bangladesh of those who have illegally
entered our country.61

Dcmsnvi
vaxbZvi ci ZrKvjxb fviGZ gZvmxb KsGMm miKvGii AvgGj eez kL
gywReyi ingvGbi kvmbKvj ch evsjvG`k I fviGZi mK AvwiK I D wQj|
eezi nZvKvGi ci KsGMm miKvi evsjvG`Gki bZzb miKvGii cwZ KGVvi
Aevb MnY KGi| KviY, fviGZi cavbgx Bw`iv Mvx evsjvG`Gki mvgwiK kvmK
RbvGij wRqvDi ingvb KZK msweavGb bZzb aviv msGhvRb I ciivbxwZi G
Avgj cwieZbGK mnRfvGe bbwb| cieZx mgGq 1977 mvGji mvaviY wbevPGb
KsGMm civwRZ nq es gviviwR `kvBGqi bZGZ RbZv `j gZvq eGm
cwZGekx `kGjvi mvG^ mGKi Dqb KGi| dGj 1977 mvGji 5 bGfi
evsjvG`k I fviGZi gGa cvwb Pzw vwiZ nq| KsGMm cvwb PzwGZ fviGZi
RvZxq vG^i Pig wZ nGqGQ eGj mgvGjvPbv KGiwQj| RbZv cvwU wcvwKZv

cwZGekx `kmgGni cwZ fviGZi kvmK `Gji bxwZ

117

bxwZGK `wY wkqvi ivGjvi G KvhKifvGe cGqvM KGiwQj| bxwZi


DGk nj `wY wkqvi ivGjv hvGZ h^fvGe fviGZi weiG Aevb bv wbGZ
cvGi| wcvwKZv bxwZGK fviZ `wY kxq AvwjK mnGhvwMZv msv mvK-
cGqvM KGi| hyd miKvi gZvq Gm cwZGekx `kGjvi cwZ mgGSvZvgjK
Rivj gZev` NvlYv KGiwQj| 1996 mvGj evsjvG`Gki mvG^ cvwb Pzwi evcvGi
fviGZi Qvo I mgGSvZvgjK gGbvfvGe Rivj gZevG`i eve cgvY cvIqv hvq|
weGRwc `wY wkqvi ivGjvi cwZ cviwiK kvi wfwGZ AvwjKZvevG`i
Ici Rvi `q| ZGe weGRwc evsjvG`Gki Awfevmx BmyGK mvc`vwqK ivRbxwZi
gvaGg KwU ivRbwZK BmyGZ cwiYZ KGiGQ| hw`I weGRwc gZvq ^vKvKvjxb
Aea AbycGek ivGa KvGbv KvhKi c`Gc bqwb| fviGZi eo eo ivRbwZK
`jGjvI gvGS gvGS KgGekx AfixY ivRbwZK vG^ evsjvG`k mswk wewf
BmyGK eenvi KGi| cKZcG fviGZi KZZev`x bxwZ me mgq evsjvG`kmn
cwZGekx ivGjvGK nZvk I fviGZi cwZ eix fvevc KGiGQ|

cwZGekx `kmgGni cwZ fviGZi kvmK `Gji bxwZ

117

bxwZGK `wY wkqvi ivGjvi G KvhKifvGe cGqvM KGiwQj| bxwZi


DGk nj `wY wkqvi ivGjv hvGZ h^fvGe fviGZi weiG Aevb bv wbGZ
cvGi| wcvwKZv bxwZGK fviZ `wY kxq AvwjK mnGhvwMZv msv mvK-
cGqvM KGi| hyd miKvi gZvq Gm cwZGekx `kGjvi cwZ mgGSvZvgjK
Rivj gZev` NvlYv KGiwQj| 1996 mvGj evsjvG`Gki mvG^ cvwb Pzwi evcvGi
fviGZi Qvo I mgGSvZvgjK gGbvfvGe Rivj gZevG`i eve cgvY cvIqv hvq|
weGRwc `wY wkqvi ivGjvi cwZ cviwiK kvi wfwGZ AvwjKZvevG`i
Ici Rvi `q| ZGe weGRwc evsjvG`Gki Awfevmx BmyGK mvc`vwqK ivRbxwZi
gvaGg KwU ivRbwZK BmyGZ cwiYZ KGiGQ| hw`I weGRwc gZvq ^vKvKvjxb
Aea AbycGek ivGa KvGbv KvhKi c`Gc bqwb| fviGZi eo eo ivRbwZK
`jGjvI gvGS gvGS KgGekx AfixY ivRbwZK vG^ evsjvG`k mswk wewf
BmyGK eenvi KGi| cKZcG fviGZi KZZev`x bxwZ me mgq evsjvG`kmn
cwZGekx ivGjvGK nZvk I fviGZi cwZ eix fvevc KGiGQ|

Z^wbG`k
Brigadier General M. Sakhawat Hussain, Regional Conflicts Impact on
Global Peace, Dhaka: Palok Publishers and Bangladesh Research Forum,
February 2008, c. 67
2. S. A. Zafar, Indo-Bangladesh Relations: Problems and Prospects, Pakistan
Horison, Vol. 46, No. 3&4, July-October 1993, c. 90
1.

3. `wbK c^g AvGjv, 7 wcj 2005, DZ, weGMwWqvi RbvGij g mvLvIqvZ nvGmb
(Ae:), `wY wkqv I evsjvG`Gki wbivcv, XvKv, cvjK cvewjkvm, deqvwi 2008,
c. 341-342
4. Brigadier General M. Sakhawat Hussain, cv, c. 70
5. J. N. Dixit, Makers of Indias Foreign Policy Raja Ram Mohun Roy to
Yashwant Sinha, New Delhi HarperColklins Publishers, 2004. c. 84
6. A. Appadorai and M. S. Rajan, Indiaa Foreign Policy and Relations, New
Delhi South Asian Publishers Private Ltd., March 1985, c. 32
7. gynv` Ave`yi iwng, Ave`yj gwgb Payix, .we.g. gvngy` I wmivRyj Bmjvg,
evsjvG`Gki BwZnvm, XvKv: bIGivR wKZvwevb, v`k msiY, mGi 2006, c.
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