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-

621. 3 (07)

. .


2001

621.3.011(075.8)
. . : . 77 .
. .
.

. 63, . 3.


1. , .
............................................................ 4
1.1. ................................................................................................ 4
1.2. ................................................................................. 10
1.3. ............................................................ 16
2. ................................................................................ 18
2.1. .............................................................................................. 18
2.2. ................................................................................. 21
2.3. ............................................................ 29
3. . 31
3.1. .............................................................................................. 31
3. 2. ................................................................................ 33
3.3. ............................................................ 49
4.
........................................................................................... 50
4. 1. ............................................................................................. 50
2. .................................................................................... 52
4.3. ............................................................ 60
5.
........................................................................................... 62
5. 1. ............................................................................................. 62
5. 2. ................................................................................ 64
5. 3. ........................................................... 77

1. , .

1.1.

,

.
.
u (t ) = u (t + T ) i (t ) = i (t + T ) .
, ( ), : f = 1 T . 1 , ().
:
u (t ) = U m sin(t + u ) , i (t ) = I m sin(t + i ) .
:
- u (t ) , i (t ) ,
- Um , Im ,
- = 2 / T = 2f ( ),
- u , i ,
- t + u , t + i , .
u (t ) , i (t ) t,
t , t (. 1.1).

u, i

u
i

Um I m
0

Um I
m

u
T = 2
. 1.1
4

3
2

= (t + u ) (t + i ) = u i
. . 1.1 u > 0, u > i > 0, = u i > 0, . . . .
, R
, , .
.
i (t )

1T 2
I=
i dt .
T 0
,
RT , :
T

I RT = Ri 2 dt .
2

,
I,
R , i (t ) .
i (t ) = I m sin t

I m2
I sin tdt = 2
0

2
m

I m2
(1 cos 2t )dt = 2 T .
0

I=

Im
.
2

u (t ) , . . . e(t )
:

U=

Um
E
; E= m.
2
2

, , . .
. ,

2I
2
2T2
T 2
I = I m sin tdt = m ( cos t ) 0 = I m .
T

T 0

u (t ) , . . . e(t ) :

2
2
U = U m ; E = Em .

k, k. , , i (t ) ,
:

ka =

Im
I
I

= 2 1,41 ; k =
= m
=
1,11.
I
I cp
2 2I m 2 2

i (t ) = I m sin(t + i )
R, L, C . 1.2

u R = Ri = RI m sin(t + i ) ;

di
= LI m sin(t + i + 90o ) ;
dt
t
1
1
u C = i ( ) d + u C ( 0 ) =
I m sin(t + i 90o ) .
C0
C
uL = L

uR
i

U R = RI ,
= u i = 0

U L = LI ,

uL

= u i =

uC

UR

UC =

1
I,
C

= u i =

UL
I
I

UC

. 1.2
R
. = 0 .
L

. = .
2
2
6

. = .
2
2
L 1 C [] X L :

X L = L
X C :

XC =

1
.
C

1 L C [ 1] BL :

BL =

1
.
L

BC :

BC = C .
R, L, C :
U R = RI ; I = GU R ;

U L = X L I ; I = BLU L ;
U C = X C I ; I = BCU C .
u = U m sin t (. 1.3) i = , i = I m sin(t ) .

R , L, C

IG

. 1.3

U R = U cos

.
, ,

U X = U sin
.

I G = I cos
.
7

UR

UX

IB
I

, ,

I G = I sin
.
:

U = U R2 + U X2 ; I = I G2 + I B2 .
:
1. Z:

Z=

U
,
I

2. R X :

UR
U
, X = X = X L X C ,
I
I
3. Y :
I
Y= ,
U
4. G B :
I
I
G = G , B = B = BL BC .
U
U
R =


(. 1.4) :

R = Z cos ; X = Z sin ; Z = R2 + X 2 ,

X B
1
1
=
;Z= ;Y= .
Y
Z
R G

G = Y cos ; B = Y sin ; Y = G2 + B2 ,

tg =

Y
. 1.4

,
(. 1.5).

i
u

. 1.5

. 1. 5
U , .

.
2
2

, u (t ) i (t ) ,
. :

1T
P = uidt =
T0
UmIm T
UmIm
=
sin

t
sin(

)
dt
=
T 0
2T

(cos cos(2t ) )dt = UI cos .


0

S = Pmax = UI ;
Q = UI sin

S Q .

S = P2 + Q2 .
k
:

k =
i
u

P
= cos .
S

[].
.
. 1.6.
[], [].

. 1.6
:

P = U R I = I 2 R = UI G = U 2G ;
Q = U X I = I 2 X = UI B = U 2 B ;
S = I 2 Z = U 2Y .
9

1.2.

u (t ) i (t ) . , .
, R (. 1.7, ).

f = 50 (. 1.7, ). , , R = 10 , L = 1,6
. u (t )
. 1.7, .
R = 0,1 . mu = 0,02 B
(0,02 ).
u RL , u R u L . u RL , u R u L .

1.1.

u RL
u

2A

)
. 1.7

. 1.7, 2 = 10
. Im i:

2 Amu 10 0,02
=
= 1 .
2 0,1
2 R
L
= 2f = 6,281000 = 6280 1

Im =

= L = 6280 1,6 10 3 = 10,053 10 .


u R u L :
U mR = I m R = 10 ; U mL = I m X = 10 .
R
L ( i = 0 ):

u R = U mR sin t = 10sin 6280t ;


u L = U mL sin (t + 2) = 10sin ( 6280t + 2 ) .

10

,
2 .
:

U
10
U R = mR =
= 7,07 ;
2
2
U
10
U L = mL =
= 7,07 ;
2
2
U RL =

U RL

UL

UR

2 7,07 = 10 .

. 1.8
. 1.8.

U mRL =

2 10 = 14,1 .

u = = arctg

UL
= (. . i = 0 ),
UR 4

u RL = U mRL sin (t + u ) = 14,1 sin (t + 4) .

u R (t ) ; u L (t ) ; u RL (t ) . 1.9.

B u
10

u RL

uR

uL

3
4

t
2

10
15
. 1.9
1.2.

uR
i

uC

. 1.10

. 1.10 u = 141sin 314t .


,
R = 30 , = 79,62 .

11

. 1.10.
= 314 1:

1
10 6
=
=
= 40 .
C 314 79,62

Z = R 2 + X C2 = 30 2 + 40 2 = 50 .
:

U m 141
=
= 2,82 ;
Z
50
- R: U mR = RI m = 30 2,82 = 84,6 ;
- : U mC = X C I m = 40 2,82 = 112,8 .
u i
X
XC
40
= arctg = arctg
= arctg
= 53.
R
R
30
i u i = . ,
i = = 53.
- i : I m =

i = I m sin (t + i ) = 2,82 sin 314t + 53o ;

u R = U mR sin (t + i ) = 84,6 sin 314t + 53o t ;

uC = U mC sin (t + i 90o ) = 112,8 sin (314t 37 o ).


:

I=

Im
U
U
= 2 ; U R = mR = 60 ; U C = mC = 80 .
2
2
2

1.3

(. 1.5) :

U = 10 ; I = 2 ; = 30.
.
.

Z=

U
= 5 ;
I
12

R = Z cos = 5 cos 30o = 4,33 ;


X = Z sin = 5 sin 30o = 2,5 .
1.4

. 1.10 i f1 = 500
f 2 = 1000 , , I1 = 1 I2 = 1,8 .
R ,
U = 100 B.

f1 f 2 :

Z1 =

U
U
; Z2 = .
I1
I2

. 1.10 :
2

1
1
; Z 22 = R 2 +
.
Z = R +

C
C
1
2
2
1

R
2

1
2
= Z12 ;
R +

1C

2
2 1
2
.
+
=
R
Z
2
C

Mathcad.
U

100 f1 500 f2 1000 I1 1 I2


U
U
z1 = 100 z2 = 55.556
z1
z2
I1
I2
1 2. . f1 2 2. . f2
6
R 100 C 10 . 1

1.8

.

f1 f2.
.

R .
.
[Ctrl] =

RC
R .
R = 27, 9 , = 3,3 .

Given
2

1
1. C

1
2. C

R
R

RC
RC =

z1
z2

Find( R , C )
27.962
3.315 10

13

: R = 28 ; = 3,3 .
1.5

G = 0,011 1
= 0,016 1. U = 30 .

Y = G2 + B2 =

0,0112 + 0,016 2 = 0,019 1.

I =YU = 0,01930 = 0,58 .



G
0,011
P = UI cos = UI = 300,58
= 10,1 .
Y
0,019
1.6


R 0,1 (1.11).
u, iL i, R = 430 ;

iL

iR

X L = 600 . , - u

. 1.11.
I R = 0,1 .

. 1.11

U = I R R = 0,1430 = 43 .

IL =

43
U
=
= 0,072 .
X L 600

I = I R2 + I L2 = 0,12 + 0,072 2 = 0,123 .


I , Y .
2

1 1
1 1
3
1
=
Y = +
+
= 2,8610 .
430 600
R XL
14

I = YU = 2,8610 3 43 = 0,123 .
:
P = I R2 R = 4,3 ; Q = I L2 X L = 3,082 , S = UI = 5,29 .

P 2 + Q 2 = S 2 .
1.7


. 1.10 U C = 24 . u

i, = 12 ; R = 16 .

I=

U C 24
= = 2 .
X C 12

Z = R 2 + X C2 = 16 2 + 12 2 = 20 .
u
U = IZ = 2 20 = 40 .
1.8





(. 1.12).
:

iC

. 1.12

0,5 , U 100 , W 30 .
() ( < ). . .

: I = 0,5 , U = 100 . , , = 30 .

Z=

U 100
= 200 .
=
I
0,5
15

30
P
= 120 .
R = 2 =
0,25
I

) U
I

X = Z 2 R 2 = 200 2 120 2 =
= 160 .

IC

IC

I
>0

IC

I
<0

IC

. 1.13
( = X L , > 0 ).
, I < I .
. 1.13, . . 1.13, .

Y=

0,5
I
= 510 3 1 .
=
U 100

G =

30
P
= 310 3 1 .
=
2
2
U
100

B = Y 2 G2 = 25 10 6 9 10 6 = 410 3 1 .
,
(. 1.4). ,

R G X B
=
= .
Z Y
Z Y
,

G =

R 120
X 160
1
3
B
10

;
=
=
=
3
=
= 410 3 1.

2
2
2
2
Z
200
Z
200

1.3.

1. L = 0,1 u L = 141sin(1000t 30o ) .


.
2. = 0,1 i = 0,1 sin( 400t + 3) .
.
3.
R = 160 = 26, 54
i = 0,1sin 314t .

. ?
16

4. . .
5. . ?
6. ()?
?
7. . ? .
8. , ?
9. .
10. ,
?
11. , ?
12.
?
13. R = 1000
L = 0,12 . U R = 10 . f = 1000 .
.
14. R = 160
= 120 .
U = 20 .
15. i .
1.14, , , . U = 100 , R = 80 , X L = 100 , X C = 60 .

XL

XC

)
R

XL

XC
. 1.14
16. (. 1.5) :

U = 10 ; I = 2 ; = 30.

.
17

2.
2.1.


. ,
i (t ) = I m sin(t + i )

i = I m e j ( t +i ) = I m e ji e jt = I m cos(t + i ) + jI m sin(t + i ) .
i (t ) :
i (t ) = Im[I m e j ( t +i ) ] .
j
I&m = I m e i
,

I&
I& = m = Ie ji
2
.
, . . ., , . .
, u (t ) = U m sin(t + u ) . . . e(t ) = Em sin(t + e )

u = U m e j u e j t , e = E m e j e e j t ,
j
j
U& m = U m e u , E& m = Em e e

U& = Ue ju , E& = Ee je .
() j :

d
(I m sin(t + i ) ) = I m sin(t + i + 2)
dt
j t

I m e e

j i

= j I m e j t e j i = j i .

() j :

1
(
)
I
sin(

t
+

)
=
I m sin(t + i 2)
i
m

j
I
I
i
m e j t e j i e 2 = m e j t e j i =
.

j
j

18

:
e j = cos j sin .

j
j

1
= : e 2 = j , e 2 = j = .
2
j

2.1.
2.1

uR

uL

u R = RI m sin(t + i )

u L = LI m sin(t + i + )
2

U& R = I&R

U& L = jLI& = jX L I& = X L I&e

uC

uC =

&
j
I m sin(t + i ) U& = I = jX I& = X I&e 2
C
C
C
C
2
j C

(. 2. 1, ),
:

U& Ue ju
Z = = ji = Ze j ( u i ) = Ze j = Z cos + jZ sin = R + jX ,
I&
Ie

I&
Ie ji
j ( u i )
Y= =
=
Ye
= Ye j = Y cos jY sin = G jB .
j

u
&
U Ue

, R X (. 2. 1, ), G B (. 2. 1, ). > 0.
19

I&

I&

U&

I&

jX

U&

U&

jB

. 2.1
2.2 .
2.2

I&

I&

Z1

I&

Z L = jL = jX L = X L e

Z1

I&
I&

ZR = R

j
1
ZC = j
== jX C = X C e 2
C

Z2

Z = Z1 + Z 2

Z2

Z=

Z1Z 2
Z1 + Z 2

:
1. U& = Z I& ,
2. I&k = 0 (
k

k ),
3.

U& l = E& l
l

l ),

S = U&I = Ue ju Ie ji = Se j = S cos + jS sin = P + jQ,


S , I = Ie
, S .

j i

20

S EJ = S Z , PEJ = PZ , QEJ = QZ ,
l

S EJ , PEJ , QEJ ,
. . . , S Z , PZ , QZ , Z . .
. . . E& J&

, 2.3.
2.3

I&

I&

E&

E&

S = E& I

S = E& I

J&

J&

U&

U&

S = U&J

S = U&J

S Z = U& Z I = Z I&I = Z I 2 = I 2 R + jI 2 X ,

U& Z Z .
2.2.
2.1

u = 14,1sin(100t 30o ) . . ?

- u = 14,1e j (100t 30 ) ,
o

- U& m = 14,1e j 30 ,
- U& = U& m

2 = 10e j 30 .

2.2

I& = 3 + j 4 .
i(t).

21

+j


(. 2.2). :
I& = 3 + j 4 = (3 j 4) .

I&
i

I& = 32 + 4 2 e j arctg ( 4 3 ) = 5e j 53,13 = 5e j126,87 .


o

+1

o
o
I&m = 2 I& = 2 5e j126,87 = 7,07e j126,87 .

+4

. 2.2


o
i = Im[I&m e jt ] = Im[7,07e j126,87 e jt ] = 7,07 sin(t + 126,87 o ) .

Mathcad 1j,
1 .
.
i
I

3 j .4
i I =5

Im
2. I
Im = 7.071
i arg( i)
i = 2.214
i

arg( i) .

i .
i ( ).
.
i .

180

i .

i = 126.87

2.3

:
u = 100 sin 314t ; i = 0,2 sin 314t + 53o .
.

o
100
0,2 j 53o
U& =
= 70,71 ; I& =
e
= 0,141 e j 53 .
2
2

Z=

o
U& 70,71 j 53o
=
e
= 501,5 e j 53 = 300,9 j 399,3 ;
I& 0,141

22

o
I& 0,141 j 53o
=
e
= 1,99410 3 e j 53 = 1,20410 3 + j 1.59710 3 1.
U& 70,71
C
iL
i
2.4

Y=


. 2.3 U = 100 .
,
X = 20 , R = 80 , XL = 60 . .
.

iR

. 2.3


U& = U = 100 .
:
- : Z 1 = j X = j 20 ; Z 2 = R = 80 ; Z 3 = j XL = j 60 ,
- 2-3: Z 23 =

o
80 j 60
Z2Z3
=
= 28.8 + j 38.4 = 48 e j 53,1 ,
Z 2 + Z 3 80 + j 60
o

- : Z = Z 1 + Z 23 = j 20 + 28.8 + j 38.4 = 28.8 + j 18.4 = 34,176 e j 32, 6 .


U&
100
j 32 , 6o
.
I& = =
o = 2,466 j 1,575 = 2,926 e
Z 34,176e j 32, 6
2-3
o
o
o
U& 23 = I& Z 23 = 2,926 e j 32,6 48 e j 53,1 = 140,45 e j 20,5 .

I&R
I&L

o
o
U& 23 140,45e j 20,5
=
=
= 1.756 e j 20,5 ;
Z2
80
o
o
U& 23 140,45e j 20,5
=
=
= 2,341 e j 69,5 .
Z3
j 60

:
I = 2,926 ; I R = 1,756 ; I L = 2,341 .
.

o
S U = U&I = 1002,926 e j 32,6 = 246,6 + j 157,5 ;

U = 246,6 ; QU = 157,5 .
23

S Z = I 2 Z 1 + I R2 Z 2 + I L2 Z 3 = 2,926 2( j 20) + 1,756 280 + 2,341 2 j 60 =


=246,6 + j 157,5 ;
Z = 246,6 ;
+j
QZ = 157,5 .
.
I&R
+1
U&
. 2.4
I& I&L
.
U& 23
&
o
U
1
U& 1 = I& Z 1 = 58,52 e j122,6

90 I& . I&R ,

. 2.4

I&L 90 U& 23 .

2.5

. 2.5 C2 i2

, 1i
2
L
1
R
3
u12 u34.
1 i1
a
i3
i4
U = 220 B.
u12
C3
: R1 = 91 ; R3 =
u
b
R4
u34
510 ; R4 = 820 .

R3
: X1 = L1 = 240 ;
4
X2 = 1/ C2 = 150 ;
. 2.5
X3 = 1/ C3 = 190 .
.

. 2.5.

U& = U = 220 B .
:
o
Z 1 = R1 + jX 1 = 91 + j 240 = 256,67e j 69 ;
o

Z 2 = jX 2 = j150 = 150e j 90 ;
o

Z 3 = R3 jX 3 = 510 j190 = 544,24e j 20,4 ;


24

Z 4 = R4 = 820 .
R1 L1 2 ,

Z 12 =

o
Z1Z 2
= 125 j 273,6 = 300,8e j 65,4 .
Z1 + Z 2

R3 C3 R4 ,

Z 34 =

o
Z3Z4
= 324,5 j 70,78 = 332,18e j 37 ,5 .
Z3 + Z4

Z = Z 12 + Z 34 = 449,5 j 344,4 = 566,3e j 37 ,4 .

&
100
j 37 , 4o
&I = U =
.
o = 0,39 e
Z 566,3e j 37 ,4
:
o
o
U& 12 = I& Z 12 = 116,86e j 28 ; U& 34 = I& Z 34 = 129,05e j 25 .

:
o
o
U&
U&
I&1 = 12 = 0,46e j 97 ,2 , I&2 = 12 = 0,78e j 62 ,
Z1
Z2
o
o
U&
U&
I&3 = 34 = 0,24e j 45,6 , I&4 = 34 = 0,16e j 25 .
Z3
Z4

Mathcad .
R1
X3
rgd
u

91 R3 510 R4
190 U 220
180

820 X1

240 X2

150

z1 R1 j . X1 Z1
z1
1 rgd. arg( z1)
Z1 = 256.67 1 = 69.235
z1 = 91 + 240i
.
z2
j X2
Z2
z2
2 rgd. arg( z2)
z2 = 150i
Z2 = 150
2 = 90
.
z3 R3 j X3 Z3
z3
3 rgd. arg( z3)
3 = 20.43
z3 = 510 190i Z3 = 544.24
z4 R4
z4 = 820
.
z1 z2
Z12
z12 12 rgd. arg( z12)
z12
z1 z2
z12 = 124.99 273.62i Z12 =300.8 12 = 65.45

25


.

.

12 34.

z3. z4

Z34
z34 34 rgd. arg( z34)
z3 z4
z34 = 324.55 70.78i Z34 = 332.18 34 = 12.3
z z12 z34 rgd. arg( z) Z
z
Z = 566.3 z = 449.54 344.4i = 37.46
u
I
i
i rgd. arg( i)
i
z
i = 0.31 + 0.24i I = 0.39 i = 37.46
u12 i. z12 U12
u12 u12 rgd. arg( u12)
u12 = 103.19 54.85i U12 = 116.86
u12 = 27.99
u34 i. z34 U34
u34 u34 rgd. arg( u34)
u34 = 116.81 + 54.85i U34 = 129.05
u34 = 25.15
u12
I1
i1 i1 rgd. arg( i1)
i1
z1
i1 = 0.06 0.45i I1 = 0.46 i1 = 97.23
u12
I2
i2
i2 rgd. arg( i2)
i2
z2
i2 = 0.37 + 0.69i I2 = 0.78 i2 = 62.01
u34
I3
i3 i3 rgd. arg( i3)
i3
z3
i3 = 0.17 + 0.17i I3 = 0.24 i3 = 45.59
u34
I4
i4 i4 rgd. arg( i4)
i4
z4
i4 = 0.14 + 0.07i I4 = 0.16 i4 = 25.15
z34

.

i.
u12 u34 .

.
U
o
S U = U&I = 220 0,39e j 37 , 4 = 67,85 j 51,98 . I = Ie ji
. PU = 67,85 ,
QU = 51,98 . .

S Z = I12 Z 1 + I 22 Z 2 + I 32 Z 3 + I 42 Z 4 =
= 0,462 ( 91+j 240) + 0,782 ( j 150) + 0,242(510 j 190) + 0,162820 =
= 67,85 j51,98 .
.

26

U&1a ; U& a 2 ;

U& 3b ; U& b 4 (. 2.5). Mathcad .


u1a
ua2

i1. j . X1
i1. R1

u1a = 108.4
ua2 = 5.21

u3b i3. ( j . X3)


ub4 = 84.63 + 86.38i

13.75i
41.1i

u3b = 32.18 31.53i


ub4 i3. R3

. 2.6.

I&4
I&3

I&1

+j

I&

+1
b

I&2

2
3

. 2.6

2.6

. 2.7 i1 i2.
. . . e(t ) = 12 sin 314t ; R = 47 ;

= 0,068 ; Z = 12000 + j 25000 .

e(t )

i
. 2.7. . . . E& m = 12 .
= 314 1:

2
R
2
i1
. 2.7

1
10 6
= j
= j 4.68110 4 ,
- 12 Z 1 = j
C
314 0,068
3
- 13 Z 2 = R = 4710 ,
1
10 6
- 23 Z 3 = j
= j
= j 4.68110 4 .
C
314 0,068

27

3
Z

i2

. 2.7 , .
Z 1 ; Z 2 ; Z 3
(. 2.8).
:

Z 12

Z1Z 2
Z Z
Z Z
; Z 13 = 1 3 ; Z 23 = 2 3 ,
d
d
d
d = Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 3 ,

e(t )

Z 12 =

Z 13

Z 23

R
2

i1

i2

. 2.8

R
= 1,4110 4 j 1.869 10 4 ,
2
Z 02 = Z 23 + Z = 3,0810 4 + j 1.56 10 4 ,
Z Z
Z 0 = 01 02 = 1.66 10 4 j 6,76 10 3 .
Z 01 + Z 02
Z 01 = Z 13 +

:
o
E& m
= 0,308 e j 24,5 ;
Z 12 + Z 0
o
o
Z
Z
I&1m = I&m 0 = 0,236 e j 55, 4 ; I&2 m = I&m 0 = 0,16 e j 24, 4 .
Z 01
Z 02

I&m =

i1 = 0,236 sin (314t + 55,4o ) ; i2 = 0,16 sin (314t 24,4o ) .

Mathcad .
12 f 50 2. . f = 314.159
3
6
3
3
R 47. 10 C 0.068. 10 z 12. 10 j . 25. 10
em Em
Em

z1

j
z2
.C

R z3
4

z1 = 4.681 10 j

j
.C
4

z2 = 4.7 10

z1 z2 z3
z1. z2
z1. z3
z2. z3
z12
z13
z23
d
d
d
R
4
4
z01 = 1.412 10
1.869 10 j
z01 z13
2
z23 z

. . .
.

z3 = 4.681 10 j

z02

.
.

z02 = 3.077 10 + 1.558 10 j

28

z0
im

z01. z02
z01 z02
em

z0 = 1.663 10

6.761 10 j

+ 1.282 10 j

im = 2.804 10

z12 z0
Im
im Im. 1000 = 0.308
180 .
im
arg( im) im = 24.567 u0m

u0m
i1m. 1000 = 0.134 + 0.194j
i1m
z01
I1m
i1m I1m. 1000 = 0.236
180 .
i1m
arg( i1m) i1m = 55.39

u0m
i2m. 1000 = 0.146 0.066j
i2m
z02
I2m
i2m I2m. 1000 = 0.16
180 .
i2m
arg( i2m) i2m = 24.405

im. z0

2.3.

1. u = 10 sin(100t + 90o ) . .
?
2. I&m = 80 j 60 . I&m . .
?
3. I& = 0,05 j 0.087
o
U& = 200e j 30 .

. ?
4. (. 1.5) : U =
10 ; I = 2 ; = 30. .
5. :
u = 100 sin 314t + 90o ; i = 0,2 sin 314t + 53o .

. ?
6. Z Y
. 1.14.

29

7.
L
i2
i
. 2.9. U = 100 , R = X L = X C = 10 .
i1
C
- U
R
U RC
. .
.
8. . 2.9
a b
i
(. 2.10), u 100 , R = 20 ,
R
R
X L = 2 X C = 10 .
u ab

. - u
b
.
XL
9. . 2.11
XC

i1
i2
.
10. . 2.10
, , .
11. ?
12. ?

R1

R1

C
u

R2

R2
L

R3
C

. 2. 11
13. R , L . .
14. ?
15. ?
16. ?
17.
. 2.11.
30

3.

3.1.

Y 11 U& 10 Y 12 U& 20 Y 13 U& 30 = J&11 ;


Y 21 U& 10 + Y 22 U& 20 Y 23 U& 30 = J& 22 ;
Y 31 U& 10 Y 32 U& 20 + Y 33 U& 30 = J&33 ,

Y 11 ; Y 22 ; Y 33 , , Y 12 = Y 21 ; Y 23 = Y 32 ; Y 13 = Y 31
, J&11 ; J& 22 ; J&33 .

Z 11 I&11 + Z 12 I&22 Z 13 I&33 = E&11 ;


Z 21 I&11 + Z 22 I&22 + Z 23 I&33 = E& 22 ;
Z 31 I&11 + Z 32 I&22 + Z 33 I&33 = E& 33 ,

Z 11 ; Z 22 ; Z 33 ,
Z 12 = Z 21 ; Z 23 = Z 32 ; Z 13 = Z 31 , E&11 ; E& 22 ; E& 33 . . .
.
,
.

. 3.1.
, b q ,
A I& = 0 ;

& = 0.
BU
()

, .

31

& b ,
. . . E

I&

I&b

U&

U& b

Yb =
E& b

1
Zb

J&b

U&

. 3.1

I&

J& b
, . . Z b ,
Y b .

Z b Y b .

& n0 = A YbE
& b + A J& b .
A Y b AT U
Y nn = A b Yb A T -

& b + A J& b , J& nn = A Y b E


,

& n 0 = J& nn .
Y nn U

1 &
& n 0 = Y nn
U
J nn

.

& = AT U
& n0 , U
&b =U
& +E
&
U

& b , I& = I& b J& .
I& b = Y b U

& b.
B Z b B T I& nn = B Z b J& b + B E
Z nn = B Z b B T
& nn = B Z b J& b + B E
& b
, E
. . . ,

& nn .
Z nn I& nn = E

1 &
&I nn = Z nn
E nn

32

.
:
I& = BT I& nn ; I& b = I& + J& ,
:
& b = Z b I& b ; U
& =U
& b E
&.
U
3. 2.
. 3.1

. 3.1 .
U& , E& = 220 ; I& =15 e

j
6

E&

I&

; Z = 4 + j 2 .

I&
U&
U& .
. 3.1
. 3.1

U& I& Z = E& .

U& = I& Z E& = 15 e

220 = 267,6 j 47,2 .

U = U& = 271,8 .
. 3.2

. 3.2 .
o

I&

I& , U& = 380 ; E& = 220 e j120 ;


J& = j 20 ; Z = 5 j 2 .
. U& .

I& + J& + I&b = 0;

U&

I&b

E&

U& I&b Z = E& .

. 3.2

33

J&

U& + E& 380 + 65,18 j 210


I&b =
=
= 91,25 j 5 .
5 j2
Z
:
o
I& = J& + I&b = j 20 + 91,2 j 5 = 91,25 j 25 = 94,75 e j15,6 .

Mathcad .

j . 2.
3

380 e 220. e
e = 65.185
5 j .2
u e
ib = 91.247 5.525i
ib
z
i ib j i = 91.247 25.525i I
180 .
i = 15.628
i
arg( i)

u
z

210.121i

j . 20

.
i

I = 94.75

I& . .

3.3

. 3.3 . R1 = R2 = R3 = R = 47 , = 0,068 .
u , u = 10 sin 314t .

R2


(. 3.3). U&

(
),

I&1 + I&2 = 0;

U& + I& Z = 0;
U& + I&1 R1 I&2 R2 +U& = 0,

Z = R

i2

R1

10
=
.
2
u

i1

iC

R3

. 3.3

j
= (4,7 j 4,68)10 4 .
C

U&
I& = .
Z

U&
&
&
U R 3 = I R3 =
R3 .
Z
34

U& U& R 3
I&1 =
;
R1
I&1 = I&2 .

U& = U& I&1 R1 + I&2 R2 .

Mathcad . .
Ubxm 10 R
ubxm Ubxm

3
47. 10 C

6
0.068. 10

314

1
4
4
z = 4.7 10
4.683 10 j
j .
.
C
ubxm.
uR3m
R
z
ubxm uR3m
i2m
i1m
i1m
R
uvxm ubxm i1m. R i2m. R uvxm = 0.035 + 10j
Uvxm uvxm
Uvxm = 10
180 .
u
arg( uvxm) u = 89.797

Z .
R3.
.
. .

U m = 10 .


u = 89,8.

u = 10 sin 314t + 89,8o .

3.4

. 3.4
. U = 220 B. : R1 = 91 ; R3 = 510 ; R4 = 820 . : X1 = L1 = 240 ; X2 = 1/ C2 = 150 ; X3 = 1/ C3 = 190 .
.

35

C2
1i

L1

i2
2

R1 i
1

i3

u12

u34

C3

i4
R4

R3

4
. 3.4

2.5. :
o
Z 1 = R1 + jX 1 = 91 + j 240 = 256,67e j 69 ;
o

Z 2 = jX 2 = j150 = 150e j 90 ;
o

Z 3 = R3 jX 3 = 510 j190 = 544,24e j 20,4 ;


Z 4 = R4 = 820 .
Z2
I&2
&
I


. 3.5.
U& 34
.

U&

I&1

Z1

U& 34

I&3

Z4

I&4

Z3

. 3.5

1
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ )U& 34 ( + )U& = 0 ,
Z1 Z 2 Z 3 Z 4
Z1 Z 2

U& 34

1 &
1
+
U
Z
Z
1
2
=
.
1
1
1
1
+
+
+
Z1 Z 2 Z 3 Z 4

:
o
o
U& U& 34
U& U& 34
I&1 =
= 0,46e j 97 , 2 ; I&2 =
= 0,78e j 62 ;
Z1
Z1

36

o
o
U&
U&
I&3 = 34 = 0,24e j 45,6 ; I&4 = 34 = 0,16e j 25 ;
Z3
Z4
o
I& = I&1 + I&2 = 0,39e j 37 , 4 .

3.5

. 3.6

,
Z 1 = j10 , Z 2 = 6 + j8 ,
Z 3 = 3 , Z 4 = Z 1 , Z 5 = j 7 ,

J&1 = 5 , E& = j110 .



.

U& J
J&1

I&1

Z1

I&3

Z4

Z2

2
I&

U& 20

E&

Z 3 U& 10

.

0. 2
U& 20 = E& .

I&4

U& 30

I&2

3
I&5
Z5

0
. 3.6

U& 10 U& 30 .
:

Y 11U& 10 Y 12U& 20 Y 13U& 30 = J&11 ;


Y 31U& 10 Y 32U& 20 + Y 33U& 30 = J&33 ,
1
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
=
+ +
= 0,33 0,2 j 1;
Z 1 Z 3 Z 4 j10 3 j10
1
1
1
1
1
1
Y 33 =
+
+
=
+
+
= 0,06 0,037 j 1
Z 2 Z 5 Z 4 6 + j8 j 7 j10
1
1
=
= 0,1 j 1;
1 3, Y 12 =
Z 1 j10
1
1
1
1
Y 13 =
=
= 0,1 j 1; Y 31 = Y 13 ; Y 32 =
=
= 0,06 0,08 j 1
Z 4 j10
Z 2 6 + j8

Y 11 =

,
J&11 = J&1 = j5 ; J&33 = J&1 = j5 .
U& 20 = E& ,

37

U& 10 Y 11
& = Y
U 30 31

1
Y 13 Y 12 E& + J&1
,
Y 33 Y 32 E& J&1

U& 10 = 2 j 42,4 ; U& 30 = 35,32 j128,13 .


:
o
U& E&
I&1 = 10
= 4,24 + 10,8 j = 11,6e j111 ;
Z1
&
&
&I 2 = U 30 + E = 14,73 + 1,71 j = 14,83e j 6,6o ;
Z2
o
U& 10
I&3 =
= 0,67 + 14,13 j = 14,15e j 92 ,7 ;
Z3
&
&
&I 4 = U 10 U 30 = 8,57 + 3,33 j = 9,2e j 21o ;
Z4
o
U& 30
I&5 =
= 18,3 5,05 j = 18,99e j164 ;
Z5
o
I& = I&2 I&1 = 18,97 9,09 j = 21,03e j 25,6 .

S = E& I + (U& 10 U& 30 ) J1 = 1,92 103 + 1,43 103 j .


S = I12 Z 1 + I 22 Z 2 + I 32 Z 3 + I 42 Z 4 + I 52 Z 5 = 1,92 103 + 1,43 103 j .


J1 , I .
, S = S.
Mathcad .
j . 8 z3 3 z4 z1 z5
180
e 110 j1 5 rg

1
1
1
1
1
1
y11
y33
z1 z3 z4
z2 z5 z4
y11 = 0.33 0.2i y33 = 0.06 0.04i
1
1
1
y31 y13
y12
y32
y13
z1
z2
z4
y12 = 0.1i y32 = 0.06 0.08i y13 = 0.1i
1
y12. e j1
u10
y11 y13
.
u30
y32. e j1
y31 y33
z1

j . 10 z2

j .7

.

.

38

u10 = 2 42.4i u30 = 35.32 128.13i


u10 e
I1
i1
i1 rg. arg( i1)
i1
z1
i1 = 4.24 + 10.8i I1 = 11.6
i1 = 111.43
u30 e
I2
i2
i2 rg. arg( i2)
i2
z2
i2 = 14.73 + 1.71i I2 = 14.83 i2 = 6.64
u10
I3
i3
i3 rg. arg( i3)
i3
z3
i3 = 0.67 + 14.13i I3 = 14.15 i3 = 92.7
u10 u30
I4
i4 i4 rg. arg( i4)
i4
z4
i4 = 8.57 + 3.33i I4 = 9.2 i4 = 21.24
u30
I5
i5
i5 rg. arg( i5)
i5
z5
i5 = 18.3 5.05i I5 = 18.99 i5 = 164.59
i i2 i1 I
i i rg. arg( i)
i = 18.97 9.09i I = 21.03 i = 25.59
se

.

.

e. i ( u10 u30) . j1
3

se = 1.92 10 + 1.43 10 i
2
2
2
2
2
sz I1 . z1 I2 . z2 I3 . z3 I4 . z4 I5 . z5
3

sz = 1.92 10 + 1.43 10 i
3.6

. 3.7

. : Z 1 = j10 , Z 2 = 6 + j8 ,
Z 3 = 3 , Z 4 = Z 1 , Z 5 = j 7 ,

U& J
J&1
I&1

J&1 = 5 , E& 4 = j110 .

Z1

Z3

Z2
I&4

I&3

J&1

I&11

Z4
E& 4

I&2
I&5

I&22

Z5

. . 3.7
I&11 I&22
. 3.7. . J&1 .
39

I&11 I&22 :

Z 11 I&11 + Z 12 I&22 + Z 13 J&1 = E& 4 ;


Z 21 I&11 + Z 22 I&22 + Z 23 J&1 = E& 4 ,

Z 11 = Z 1 + Z 3 + Z 4 = j10 + 3 + j10 = 3 + j20 ;


Z 22 = Z 2 + Z 5 + Z 4 = 6 + j8 j7 + j10 = 6 + j11 ;
Z 12 = Z 4 = j10 , Z 21 = Z 12 ;
Z 13 = Z 1 = j10 ;
Z 23 = Z 2 = 6 j8 .

I&11 Z 11
& = Z
I 22 21

1
Z 12 E& 4 Z 13 J&1
Z 22 E& 4 Z 23 J&1

I&11 = 2,26 + j 3,98 ;


I&22 = 11,72 + j 7,29 .

:
o
I&1 = I&11 J&1 = 2,74 + j 3,98 = 4,83e j124,5 ;
o
I&2 = I&22 J&1 = 6,72 + j 7,29 = 9,91e j 47 ,3 ;
o
I&3 = I&11 = 2,26 + j 3,98 = 4,58e j 60, 4 ;
o
I&4 = I&22 I&11 = 9,46 + j 3,3 = 10,02e j19, 25 ;
o
I&5 = I&22 = 11,72 j 7,29 = 13,8e j148,1 .

.

S = U& J J1 + E& I 4 ,

U& J , J1 ; I 4 .
o
U& J = I&1 Z 1 I&2 Z 2 = 90,84e j 50,5 .
,
S = 652,26 + j 689,82 .
S :
S = I12 Z 1 + I 22 Z 2 + I 32 Z 3 + I 42 Z 4 + I 52 Z 5 = 652,26 + j 689,82 .

S = S, .
Mathcad .
40

z1
j1
rg

j . 10 z2 6 j . 8 z3
5 e4 j . 110
180

z11
z22
z12
z13 =

3 z4

j .7

z1 z5

z1
z2
z4
10i

z3 z4 z11 = 3 + 20i
z4 z5 z22 = 6 + 11i
z12 = 10i z21 z12 z13
z1
z23
z2 z23 = 6 8i
1
z11 z12
e4 z13. j1
.
inn
z21 z22
e4 z23. j1
i11 = 2.26 + 3.98i i22 = 11.72 + 7.29i
i1 i11 j1
I1
i1
i1 rg. arg( i1)

i1 = 2.74 + 3.98i
i2 i22 j1
i2 = 6.72 + 7.29i
i3 i11
i3 = 2.26 + 3.98i
i4 i22 i11
i4 = 9.46 + 3.3i
i5
i22
i5 = 11.72 7.29i

I1 = 4.83
I2
i2
I2 = 9.91
I3
i3
I3 = 4.58
I4
i4
I4 = 10.02
I5
i5
I5 = 13.8

uj
i1. z1 i2. z2Uj
uj
Uj = 90.84 uj = 50.5

i1 = 124.51
i2 rg. arg( i2)
i2 = 47.31
i3 rg. arg( i3)
i3 = 60.4
i4 rg. arg( i4)
i4 = 19.25
i5 rg. arg( i5)
i5 = 148.13

uj

rg. arg( uj)

.

.

.

.
.

sej uj. j1 e4. i4


sej = 652.26 + 689.82i
2
2
2
2
2
sz I1 . z1 I2 . z2 I3 . z3 I4 . z4 I5 . z5
sz = 652.26 + 689.82i


.

.

3.7

. 3.8 . . . = 2 .
f = 1000 ; R1 = 1600 ; R2 = 2700 ; C = 0,05 ; = 1.
f Z = 5100 + j 3000 .
.

U& 1 U& 2 1 2

. 3.8. E& = .

41

C I&C

1
1
1 & 1
1 &
U 2 =
U1
+
+
+
R
R
Z
R
Z
C
C

2
1
2
=

R1

E&
;
R1

R2

1
I&2

I&1

U& 1

E&

2
I&3

I&
U& 2

U& 1

U& 2 = U& 1 ,

U& 1 =

. 3.8

E& R1
.
1 R1 + (1 )(1 R2 + 1 Z C )

= 2 f = 6283 c -1

Z C = j C = 3,18 103 j .

U&1 =

o
2 1600
= 0,83e j155 ;
1
1

(
1
1
)
+
+

+
3
1600
2700
j 3,18 10

o
U& 2 = U&1 = e j180 0,83e j155 = 0,83e j 25 .


o
U&
I& = 2 = 8,026 10 5 + 1154
,
10 4 = 1,405 104 e j125 .
Z

:
o

& jt ) = Im( 2 1,405 10 4 e j125 e jt ) = 2 10 4 sin(t + 125o ) .


i = Im( 2 Ie
3. 8


. 3.9 . . .
= 2 . f = 1000 ;

R1 = 160 ; R2 = 2700 ;
R3 = 30000 ; C = 0,1 ,
G = 0,001 1. f

I&C

I&1

R1

U& 1

I&2

E&

I&3

R2

R3

U& 10

U& 20

2
I&4

GU&1

Z = 300 + j600 .

. 3.9
. .
42

I&

U& 10 ; U& 20 . 3.9.


1 2 :
I&1 + I&2 + I&3 + I&C = 0 ;

I& I&4 I&3 I&C = 0 .

U& 10 U& 20 :

&
&
& &
&
&
&
&
&I1 = E U 10 ; I&2 = U 10 ; I&3 = U 10 U 20 ; I&C = U 10 U 20 ; I& = U 20 ;
ZC
R1
R2
R3
Z
I&4 = GU&1 = G ( E& U&10 ) ,
:

1
1
1
1
1 &
1 &
E&
+
U10 +
U 20 = ;
+
+
R1
R1 R2 R3 Z C
R3 Z C
1

1 1
1
1 &
U 20 = GE& .
+
G U& 10 + +
+
R3 Z C

Z R3 Z C

Y 12 Y 21 .

&
&I = U 20 .
Z
S S :

S = E

E& U&10
;
R1

2
2
2
U
U12 U10
U12
U12
S =
+
+
+
+ 20 U& 20 I 4 ,
R1
R2
R3 Z C
Z

E I 4 . . . E& I&4 , U1 ; U10 ;


U12 ; U 20 .
. + S = P + jQ
.
Mathcad .
R1
C

160.0 R2
6
0.1. 10 G

2700 R3
0.001 f

30000 z
1000 E

300

j . 600

43

3
2. . f = 6.283 10

Y11
Y12

R1
1

R2
1

R3

zC

E
R1

u10

Un00 u20

u20

U1
U20

Sz
Se

R3 zC
1
G
R3 zC
1

J22
1.738 0.215j

0.605 + 1.247j
Un01 u20 = 0.605 + 1.247j

i = 1.259 10

+ 1.638 10 j

3
2. i Im = 2.922 10
180. arg( i)
i = 52.457

E u10
u20

U10

u10

U12

u10 u20

U1

U10

U12

U20

U12

R1
E
E.

R2
u10

R3

zC

u20. G. ( E

+ 2.687 10 j

Se = 3.28 10

+ 2.687 10 j

u10) -

R1

Sz = 3.28 10

J11

G. E Jnn

J22

1
Ynn . Jnn Un0 =

Y21

Un0

Im

Y21 Y22

J11

Y22

R3 zC
Y11 Y12

Ynn

j
.C

zc

:
I m = 2,92 ;
i = 52,5,
,
i (t ) = 2,92 sin( t + 52,5o ) .
:
S = 3,28 10 3 + 2,687 10 3 j ;
S = 3,28 10 3 + 2,687 10 3 j .
, S = S .
44

3. 9

( . 3.10) . . . = 1 . f = 1000 . U& . . . E& .


: R1 = 2300 ; R2 = R1; R = 5100 ; 1 = 0,068 ;
2 = 1. .

C1
I&1

R1

E&

I&C1
a &
I2
U& a

R2

I&

I&C 2 2

C2

R
U& 1 = U& 2

U&

. 3. 10

. 3.10.

E& = E = 1 .

1 2, I&2 = I&C 2

U& 1 = U& 2 = U& 2 .

1 :

I&1 + I&2 I&C1 = 0


I&2 + I&C 2 = 0 .

U& a U& :

U&
U& a &
E& U& a & U& a U& 2 &
U&
; I2 =
; I C1 =
; I C 2 = .
I&1 =
R1
R2
Z C1
2Z C 2

1
E&
1
1 & 1
1 &
U = ;
U a
+
+
+
R1
2 R2 Z C1
R1 R2 Z C1
1
1
1 &
U = 0 .
U& a +
+
2
2
R2
R
Z
C2
2

, Y 12 Y 21 .
Mathcad .
45

R1
C2
rg

2300 R2 R1 R
C1 E 1
180

5100 C1

6
0.068. 10

1000 0

f0

ua

6283

zc1

R1

R2

zc1

ub_x

ub_x

1.034

0.981i

0.071

2.033i

ub_x = 0.07 2.03i


ub_x rg. arg( ub_x)
2. ub_x

Ub_xm

j . 0. C1
1
2. R2

1
2. R2

R2
ua

1
1

zc2

j . 0. C2

zc1
1

E
. R1

2. zc2

.
f.
U& a U& .

U& .
.
.

ub_x = 88
Ub_xm = 2.88

U& = 0,07 2,03 j = 2,033e j 88 .



U m = 2 2,033 = 2,88 .
o
E& = 1e j 0 ,
= 0 ( 88o ) = 88o .
. . 3.10 :
1
E&
1
1 &
1 &
1 &
U a U1
+
U = ;
+
R2
Z C1
R1
R1 R2 Z C1

1 & 1
1 &
U1 = 0 ;
U a + +
R2
R
Z
C2
2
U&
U&1 = 0 ,
2

1
E&
1
1 & 1
1 &
U = ;
U a
+
+
+
R1
2 R2 Z C1
R1 R2 Z C1

46

1
1 &
1 &
U = 0 .
U a +
+
2
2
R2
R
Z
2
C

3.10

. 3. 11
I& .

:
Z
I&
1
Y 1 = 0, 02 j ; Z 2 = 80 j ;
Z 3 = 60 ; Z = 50 ;

J&

Y1

Z3

Z2

E& = 100 ; J& = 0,1 j .

E&

. 3.11
. . . .
Z . U& 0 (. 1.12).

U& 0
, . 3.12,

J&

Y1

Z2

I&1

I&2

Z3
E&

I&
U& 0 + I&2 Z 2 1 = 0,
Y1

I&
U& 0 = 1 I&2 Z 2 .
Y1

. 3.12
:

I&2 =

o
E&
100
=
= 1 e j127 ; I&1 = J& = j 0,1 ;
Z 2 + Z 3 j80 + 60

o
o
U& 0 = j 0,1 j 0,02 1 e j127 80 j = 69 + 48 j = 84 e j 35 .

Z
. 3.13.

Y1

Z2

Z3

Z =

1
Z2Z3
=
+
Y1 Z 2 + Z 3
o

= 38,4 21,2 j = 43,86 e j 29 .


. 3.13
47

I&
j 35o
&0
U
e
84
j 47 , 5o
I& =
=
=
0,615+0,69
j
=
0,82
e
.
o
Z + Z 43,86e j 29 + 50

I& .

, .
Z
I&01 I&01
J& ( . 3.14).

&

Z2Z3
=
Z 023 = Z +
Z2 + Z3
= 50 + 38,4 + 28,8j = 88,4 + 28,8j =
o
= 93 e j18 .

Z 023

Z3

Z2

. 3.14

Y = Y1 +

Y1

= 0, 02 j + 0.0102 3.33 10 3 j = 0,0102 + 0,017 j =


o

= 0,0196 e j 58 1.

J&
0,1 j
=
o
o = 0,0535+0,013j .
Y Z 023 0,0196e j 58 93e j18
I&02 Z
I&02
J& ( . 3.15).
I&01 =

Z 02

Z 2Z +
Y1

=
=
1
Z2 + Z +
Y1

Y1

Z2

o
. 3.15
= 94,12+23,53 j = 97 e j14 ;
o
Z 302 = Z 3 + Z 02 = 60 + 94,12+23,53 j =156 e j 8,7 .

j14o
&

100
97
e
E
Z
02
I&02 =

=
o
o = 0,56 0,68 j .
Z 302 Z + 1 156e j 8, 7 70,7e j 45
Y1

48

Z3

E&


o
I& = I&01 I&02 = 0,0535+0,013j + 0,56+ 0,68 j = 0,615 + 0,69j = 0,82 e j 47,5 .

3.3.

1. .
2. Y nn Y km ?
3. J& nn .
4. Z nn Z km ?
5. . . . E& nn .
6. .
7. . 3.16 .
8.
J&1
&b
, , . . . E

Z1

I&1

J& b
.
9.
. 3.16.

.
10. & b J& b , E
. 3.16.
11.
. 3.8 3.9.

I&2

I&5

Z2

Z5
I&6

I&3

Z3
E& 3

J&4

I&4
. 3.16

49

Z4

Z6
E& 6

4.

4. 1.

. 4.1 ,
. . ,

.

I&1

U& 1

L1

L1
I&2

I&1

a)
L2

U& 1

L1

L1

I&2

L2

U& 2

)
L2

L2

U& 2

. 4.1

. L1 L2 :

U& 1 = U& L1 U& M 2 = jL1 I&1 jMI&2 ;


U& 2 = U& L 2 U& M 1 = jL2 I&2 jMI&1 .
U& L1 = jL1 I&1

U& L 2 = jL2 I&2 , -

: , L1 L2 .
U& M 2 = U& 12 = jMI&2 L1 , -

L1 I&2 L2
, .
U& M 1 = U& 21 = jMI&1 1 2
2 1 .
. 4.1, , :

U& 1 = jL1 I&1 + jMI&2 ; U& 2 = jL2 I&2 + jMI&1 ,


U& 1 = jL1 I&1 jMI&2 ; U& 2 = jL2 I&2 jMI&1 .
50


.
a)
)
. 4.2 L
L
L
L
1
2
1
2
M
M
I&kk
I&kk
I&kk
. 4.2
.
Z kk
+ 2 Z M , I&kk (. 4.2, ) 2 Z M ,
I&kk
(. 4.2, ).
. 4.3 I&kk ,

a)

M
I&kk

L2

L1

I&mm -

I&kk

L1

I&mm

)
L2
I&mm


. 4.3
.
Z km = Z mk
+ Z M , I&kk

I&mm
(. 4.3, ) Z M , I&kk I&mm (. 4.3, ).

, (. 4.4).

jL1
jL2

jM

j(L2 M )
j(L1 + M )

jL1
jL2

j(L1 M )

. 4.4
51

j M

j(L2 + M )

2.
4.1

. 4.5
U = 100 B.
R = 100 ,
XL1 = XL2 = XC = 100 , XM = 0,5 XL1.
U&
, ,
. .

I&
I&1

I&2
R

M
L1

L2

. 4.5

U& = 100 .
.4.5 :
I& = I&1 + I&2 ;

Z 1 I&1 + jX M I&2 = U& ;


jX M I&1 + Z 2 I&2 = U& ,
Z 1 = jX C + jX L1 = j100 + j100 = 0 ; Z 2 = R + jX L 2 = 100 + j100 ;
jX M = j50 .
Z 2 , jX M . :

Z 2 jX M
100 + j100 j 50
= 100
= 4 + j 2 .
2
2500
Z 1 Z 2 ( jX M )
jX M , Z 1 . :
Z 1 jX M
j50
I&2 = U&
=
100
= j 2 .
Z 1 Z 2 ( jX M ) 2
2500
I&1 = U&

I& = 4 + j 2 j 2 = 4 .

:
I1 = I&1 = 4,47 ;

I 2 = I&2 = 2 ;
I = 4 .
.
U& L1 = jX L1 I&1 + jX M I&2 ;
U& L 2 = jX L 2 I&2 + jX M I&1 ,
52

jX L1 I&1 = j100(4 + j 2) = 200 + j 400 ; jX L 2 I&2 = j100( j 2) = 200 ;


jX M I&2 = j50( j 2) = 100 ;
jX M I&1 = j50(4 + j 2) =
= 100 + j 200 ;
U& L1 = 100 + j 400 ;
U& L 2 = 100 + j 200 ;
U& C = jX C I&1 = j100(4 + j 2) =
= 200 j 400 ; U& R = j 200 .
. 4.6.

jX M I&2

U& L1

+j

jX C I&1

jX L1 I&1
+1

U& L2

jX M I&1
I&1
I&

RI&2

I&2

U&

jX L2 I&2
. 4.6
, . :
S 1M = U& 1M I1 = jX M I&2 I1 = j50 ( j2)(4 j2) = 400 j200 BA;

S 2 M = U& 2 M I 2 = jX M I&1 I 2 = j50(4 + j2) j2 = 400 j200 .

L1 : 1 = 400 , 1 > 0.
L1 . L2 : 2 = 400 , 2 < 0.
L2
1 .
,
P = UI cos = 1004 = 400

R .
53

I&1

I&

U&

W1

I&2

L1

. 4.7

W2

L2

, , R
:
2
PR = I 2 R = 400 . . 4.7 , 1 2. , L1 L2
. .
4. 2

, U 2

. 4.8.
, - U& 1
I1 I2, . .

I&1

U1 = 220 B; R1 = 60 ; R2 = 40 ;

I&2
R2

R1

Z U& 2
L1

L2
. 4.8

X1 = 100 ; X2 = 80 ; kC = 0,6; Z = 40 20 j .

. 4.8.
U& 1 = 220 . X M = k C X 1 X 2 = 53,67 . :

Z 1 = R1 + jX 1 = 60 + 100 j ;
Z 2 = R2 + jX 2 = 40 + 80 j ;
Z M = jX M = j53,67 .

I&1 Z 1 + I&2 Z M = U& 1 ;


I&2 Z 2 + I&1 Z M = 0 .

I&2 = I&1 Z M Z 2 .

I&1 =

U& 1
.
Z 2M
Z1
Z2 + Z

:
o
I&1 = 1,33 1,32 j = 1,88e 44 ,9 j ;
o
I&2 = 1 0,14 j = 1,01e 171,8 j .

o
U& 2 = I&2 Z = 42,76 + 14,16 j = 45,05e161,7 j .

54

2
o
U& 1
ZM
=
= Z1
= 83,04 + 82,07 j = 117,2e 44,9 j .
I&1
Z2 + Z

:
U& R1 = I&1 R1 = 77,79 79,48 j ; U& XL1 = I&1 jX L1 = 132,47 + 132,98 j ;

U& 1 M = I&2 jX M = 7,75 53,5 j ;


U& R2 = I&2 R2 = 39,88 5,78 j ;
U& XL 2 = I&2 jX L 2 = 11,55 79,75 j ;
U& 2 M = I&1 jX M = 71,09 + 71,36 j ;
U& Z = I&2 Z 2 = 42,76 + 14,16 j .

. 4.9.

jX M I&2

jX 1 I&1

+j

+1

U& R1

U& L1

U& L2

U&

I&2

I&1

U& 2 U&
R2
jX 2 I&2

jX M I&1
. 4.9

.
S S :

S = U& 1 I1 = 292,55 + 291,42 j ,


S = ( U& R1 + U& XL1 ) I1 + U& 1 M I1 + (U& R2 + U& XL 2 + U& Z ) I 2 + U& 2 M I 2 =
= 292,55 + 291,42 j .
.
P1M , L1 ,

P1M = Re(U& 1M I 2 ) = 81,17 .


P2 M , L2 ,
55

P2 M = Re(U& 2 M I1 ) = 81,17 ; P1 M = P2 M .
, ,
P2 = I 22 ( R2 + Re( Z )) = 8117
, , P2 = P1 M .
4. 3

. 4.10. : Z 1 = 10 8 j ; Z 2 = 6 ; Z 3 = j 6 ,
L1 L2 : XL1 = 6 ; XL2 = 10 , kC = 0,85,
E&1 = 50 ; E& 2 = 50j . .

L1

I&1

Z1
E& 1

L2

Z3
I&22

I&3

I&2
Z2

I&11

I&1

E& 2

I&22

I&3

I&2

I&11
2

2
. 4.10

.
. 4.10.

Z M = jX M = jkC X L1 X L 2 .

Z 11
Z
21

Z 12 I&11 E&11
= .
Z 22 I&22 E& 22

:
Z 11 = Z 1 + Z 2 + j ( X L1 + X L 2 ) + 2 Z M ;
Z 22 = Z 1 + jX L1 + Z 3 .
:
Z 12 = Z 1 jX L1 Z M , Z 21 = Z 12
. . .
E& 11 = E& 1 + E& 2 ; E& 22 = E& 1 .

56

Z 11
+ 2 Z M , . . I&11 X L1 X L 2 .
Z 12 Z M , . .
I&11 I&22 X L1 X L 2 .
,

, j 10 4,58 j I&11 50 + 50 j
16 + 2117
=
10 4,58 j
,
10 8 j I&22
50

:
1

I&11 16 + 21,17 j 10 4,58 j 50 + 50 j


& =

,

j
j
10
4
,
58
10
8
50
I

22
:
I&11 = 1,45 + 4,56j ;

I&22 = 0,11 + 5,31j .

:
o
I&2 = I&11 = 1,45 + 4,56j = 4,78e j 72 ,
o
I&3 = I&22 = 0,11 + 5,31j = 5,31e j 89 ,
o
I&1 = I&11 + I&22 = 1,34 + 0,76 j = 1,54e j150 .

:
U& XL1 = jX L1 I&1 = 4,54 8,03 j ,

U& 1 M = jX M I&2 = 30 9,56 j ,


U& Z 1 = I&1 Z 1 = 7,34 + 18,27 j ,
U& XL 2 = jX L 2 I&2 = 45,57 + 14,52 j ,
U& 2 M = jX M I&1 = 4,98 + 8,82 j ,
U& Z 2 = I&2 Z 2 = 8,71 + 27,32 j ,
U& 3 = I&3 Z 3 = 31,88 0,68 j B.

:
U& 1 = I&1 ( Z 1 + jX L1 ) I&2 Z M = 18,12 + 0,68j B,

U& 2 = I&2 ( Z 2 + jX L 2 ) I&1 Z M = 31,88 + 50,68j B,


U& 3 = I&3 Z 3 = 31,88 0,68j B.

:
57

S = E&1 I1 + E& 2 I 2 = 160,8 + 34,8j BA


S = U& 1 I1 + U& 2 I 2 + U& 3 I 3 = 160,8 + 34,8j BA

. .
.

( . 4. 11). ,
. 4.10
, L1 L2 + , Z 3

jM .
. 0 .

U& 10 (

L +M
I&1 1

L2 + M
jM

Z1
&
E& 1 U 10

Z3

I&2
Z2

E& 2

I&3
0
. 4.11

1
1
1
)=
+
+
Z 1 + j ( X L1 + X M ) Z 2 + j ( X L 2 + X M ) Z 3 jX M
=

E& 1
E& 2
+
.
Z 1 + j ( X L1 + X M ) Z 2 + j ( X L 2 + X M )


(0,1 0,01 j )U& 10 = 6,8 0,93 j ,

U& 10 = 66,86 1,42 j .



o
E& 10 U& 10
= 1,34 + 0,76 j = 1,54e j150 ;
Z 1 + j ( X L1 + X M )
o
E& 20 U& 10
=
= 1,45 + 4,56 j = 4,78e j 72 ;
Z 2 + j( X L2 + X M )
o
U& 10
=
= 0,11 + 5,31 j = 5,31e j 89 .
Z 3 jX M

I&1 =
I&2
I&3

. . 4.10.
.
. 4.10 ( ) :

1 1 0
,
0 1

B =
1

58

E& 1

. . . E = E& 2 ,
0
Z 1 + jX L1
Z b = jX M

jX M
Z 2 + jX L 2
0

0
0 .

Z 3

Z b

Z 12 = Z 21 = jX M ,

.
:
S = ET I ,

& TI .
S = U
: ET , I .
Mathcad .
z1
e1

10 8j z2 6 z3
50 e2 50j

XM

kc. XL1. XL2


180

rg

1 1 0
1 0 1

2i

6.58i
0

XL2

10 kc

0.85

Zb

z1 j . XL1
j . XM
0
j . XM
z2 j . XL2 0
0
0

0
50

6 + 10i 0

Eb = 50i

6.58i
0

T
B. Zb. B

Znn =

Enn

B. Eb

Enn =

1
Znn . Enn

Inn =

.

.

.

XM = 6.58

Znn

Inn

XL1

10
Zb =

6j

0
6i
16 + 21.17i 10
10 4.58i
50 + 50i

10

z3

4.58i
8i

e1
Eb

e2

.
. . .
.

50
1.45 + 4.56i
0.11 + 5.31i

59

Ib

T
B . Inn

i1 =
I1
I2
I3

1.34
i1
i2
i3

Zb. Ib

U1
U2
U3

1.34 + 0.76i

i1

Ib = 1.45 + 4.56i

i2

0.11 + 5.31i
+ 0.76i i2 = 1.45 + 4.56i
i1 rg. arg( i1) I1 = 1.54
i2 rg. arg( i2) I2 = 4.78
i3 rg. arg( i3) I3 = 5.31
18.12 + 0.68i

u1
u2
u3

U = 31.88 + 50.68i

i3
i3 = 0.11 + 5.31i
i1 = 150.55
i2 = 72.32
i3 = 88.78
u1
u2

u3
31.88 0.68i
u1 rg. arg( u1) U1 = 18.14
u2 rg. arg( u2) U2 = 59.87
u3 rg. arg( u3) U3 = 31.88

Se

T
Eb . Ib

Se = 160.88 + 34.8i

Sz

T
U . Ib

Sz = 160.88 + 34.8i

Ib

u1 = 2.14
u2 = 122.17
u3 = 1.22



.

.



.

.

.

:
o
I&1 = 1,54e j150 ;
o
I&2 = 4,78e j 72 ;
o
I&3 = 5,31e j 89 .

4.3.

1. ?
2. .
3. ,
.
4.
?
5. . 4.13, 4.14.
6. . 4.13.
7. U (. 4.14), R1 = 120 , L1 =
160 , 1 C = 320 . kC = 0,9.
.
8. . 4.14,
U ( RA = 0 ).

60

L1

R1

R1

L2
U

L1

R2

L2

. 4.14
. 4.13
9. ().
?
10. . 4.13.
11.
M
. 4.15. R = 10 ,
L1 = L2 = 1 C = 20 , M = 15 ,
L1
L2
U = 100 .
U
C
12.
R
. 4.15 L1 L2 .
. 4.15
13. . 4.15.
14.
. 4.15.
15. . 4.16.
. . . e(t ) = Em sin t .

R1

i1

R2

i2

L2

u L1

uL2

L1

e(t )

uC

C
i3
. 4.16

61

5.

5. 1.

, u(t) =
= u (t + T ) , ,

u (t ) = U 0 + ( Bk sin kt + Ck cos kt ) .
k =1

1T
2T
2T
A0 = u(t ) dt ; Bk = u(t ) sin kt dt ; Ck = u(t ) cos kt dt .
T0
T0
T0
:

u (t ) = U 0 + U km sin(kt + k ) ,
k =1

U km =

Bk2 + Ck2 ; k = arctg

= 2f = 2 T ,

Ck
.
Bk

u (t ) = U 0 + U km sin( k
k =1

2
t + k ) .
T

k = 1
. .

, u(t), j
U& km = U km e k . U km , k
u(t).
. . . () .
1. ...
n

A0 + Ak sin( kt + k ) .
k =1

, , .

62

2. . 1.
() . () . , ( ):

L(k) = kL; XC (k) =

1
.
kC

I = I 02 + I12 + I 22 +K I k2 +K ;
U = U 02 + U 12 + U 22 +KU k2 +K . ,
I0, U0 , I1, U1, I2, U2 . . -

, .

1T
P = uidt
T0


P = U 0 I 0 + U 1 I1 cos 1 + U 2 I 2 cos 2 K+U k I k cos k +K .

Q = U 1 I1 sin 1 + U 2 I 2 sin 2 K + U k I k sin k + K . .


1 = u1 i1 ; 2 = u 2 i 2 ; k = uk ik
, .

S = U 02 + U 12 + U 22 +KU k2 +K I 02 + I12 + I 22 +K I k2 +K = UI .
S 2 P 2 + Q 2 .

T = S 2 P2 + Q2

.
k
:

k =

P P
=
.
S UI

63

, u (t ) = U km sin( kt + k ) , k =1

:
k =

U
,
U cp

U max
,
U
U
k = 1 .
U

k a =

: U , U max , U cp

1T
= u (t ) dt
T0

u (t ) , U 1 () u (t ) .
k = 1,11; k = 2 ; k = 1.

1
k =
U1

U k2 .

k =2

( U 0 = 0)

k =

1
1 k 2 .
k

5. 2.
5.1

(. 5.1).
: U m = 10 , -

u (t )
U max

f = 1000 , t = T 4 .

t T

2T
. 5.1

1
1
T= =
= 10 3 .
f 1000
64

3T

u(t )

U , 0 t t ,
u (t ) = m
0, t < t < T .
k k. k = 9,
9

u (t ) = U 0 + U km sin( k
k =1

2
t + k ) .
T

1T
1 t
1
U 0 = u (t ) dt = U m dt = 10t 04 = 2,5 .
T
T0
T 0
:

2T
2 t
B1 = u (t ) sin t dt = U m sin t dt =
T0
T 0
T
2U m

T
2 10
cos t 4 =

+
= 3,183 ;
cos
cos
0

=
0

T
2

2T
2 t
C1 = u (t ) cos t dt = U m cos t dt =
T0
T 0

2U m
=
T

T
2U m T

2 10
sin t 4 =
= 3,183 ;

sin
sin
0

=
0

T
2

2T
2 t
B2 = u (t ) sin2 t dt = U m sin 2t dt =
T0
T 0

2U m
=
T

T
U

10
2T
Um
cos 2t 4 = m cos
=
cos
0
=
(
1
+
1
)
= 3,183 ;
+

4
2

2T
2 t
C2 = u (t ) cos 2t dt = U m cos 2t dt =
T0
T 0

2U m
=
2 T

2U m
=
T

T
2U m

2T

sin 2t 4 =

sin
sin
0

= 0 ;
0

2
4

2T
2 t
B3 = u (t ) sin3 t dt = U m sin 3t dt =
T0
T 0

2U m
=
3T

T
2U m

cos 3t 4 =
0

3T

10
3T

U
+ cos 0 = m =
= 1,061 ;
cos

4
3

65

2T
2 t
C3 = u (t ) cos 3t dt = U m cos 3t dt =
T0
T 0
T
U

sin 2t 4 = m sin 3T sin 0 = 1,061 ;


0

2T
2 t
B4 = u (t ) sin4 t dt = U m sin 4t dt =
T0
T 0

2U m
=
3T

U
cos 4t 4 = m
0

4T
2T
2 t
C4 = u (t ) cos 4t dt = U m cos 4t dt =
T0
T 0

2U m
=
4T

2U m
=
4T

4T

+ cos 0 = 0 ;
cos
4

U
sin 4t 4 = m
0

4T

sin 0 = 0 .
sin
4

, :

5 = 0,637 ; 5 = 0,637 ;
6 = 1,061 ; 6 = 0 ;
7 = 0,455 ; 7 = 0,455 ;
8 = 0 ; 8 = 0 ;
9 = 0,354 ; 9 = 0,354 ,

2
t + k )
T
k =1
U& km = Bk + jC k :
U& 1m = 3,183 + j 3,183 = 4,502 e j 0,785 ; U& 2 m = 3,183 ,
U& 3m = 1,061 j1,061 = 1,501 e j 0,785 ; U& 4 m = 0 ,
U& 5 m = 0,637 + j 0,637 = 0,9 e j 0,785 ; U& 6 m = 1,061 ,
U& 7 m = 0,455 j 0,455 = 0,643 e j 0,785 ; U& 8 m = 0 ,
U& 9 m = 0,354 + j 0,354 = 0,5 e j 0,785 .
9

u (t ) = U 0 + U km sin( k

. 0,785 . =
45,
u (t ) = 2,5 + 4,502 cos(t + 45o ) + 3,183 cos 2t + 1,501 cos(3t 45o ) +
+ 0,9 cos(5t + 45o ) +1,061 cos 6t + 0,643 cos(7t 45o ) + 0,5 cos(9t + 45o ) .

66

Mathcad.
.
U1m

10

1000

1
f

T = 1 10

tim

1 .. 9

tim

1.

U0 = 2.5
U1m dt
T 0
tim
tim
.
.
2
2.
2
. t dt C
.
. cos k. 2 . t dt
U1m. sin k.
U1m
k
T
T
T
T
0
0
.
Bk j Ck Umk
uk
k arg uk

U0

Bk
uk
uk

Umk

3.183 3.183j
3.183
1.061 1.061j

4.502
3.183
1.501

9
6.761j. 10
0.637 0.637j
1.061
0.455 0.455j

9
6.761. 10
0.9
1.061
0.643

0.785
0
0.785
1.571
0.785

6
9.215j. 10
0.354 0.354j

6
9.215. 10
0.5

0,

T
100

.. 2. T

u( t )

1.988. 10
0.785
1.571
0.785

15


u( t ) .

U1m if t < tim


U1m if T< t < T

,
.

U 0.
.

tim

0 otherwise
9
uf( t )
k=1

2. .
t
Umk. sin k.
T

uf (t ) .

U0

15
10
u( t )
uf( t )

5
0
5
0

4 10

8 10

0.0012

0.0016

67

0.002

u( t )
uf (t ) .


,
.

5.2

:
u (t ) = 10+ 14,1 sin 314t + 14,1 sin 942t ; i (t ) = 1+ 1,41 sin(314t 30o ) .
, .

14,12 14,12
U = 10 +
+
= 17,3 ;
2
2
2

1,412
I= 1 +
= 1,41 .
2
2

k =

P P
=
.
S UI

P = 10 +

14,1 1,41

cos 30o = 10 + 8,66 = 18,66 .


2
2


S = 17,31,41= 24,4 .

k = 0,765.
5.3

. 5.2 u (t ) = 10 + 14,1 sin t + 14,1 sin 3t .


i1 ,

R = 10 , u (t )
X C = 30 ,
X L = 30 .

i1

i3
i2

u (t )

. 5.2

i10 U0 =10 .
, L .

i10 =

U 0 10
=
= 1 .
R 10

.
68

u1 (t ) = 14,1sin t .


U& m1 = 14,1 .

Z LC1

jL j

j 30 ( j 30)
C

=
=
= j ,
1
j
30

j
30
jL j
C

I&1m1 = 0 ( L C ).

u3 (t ) = 14,1 sin 3t .

U& m 3 = 14,1 .

Z LC 3

j 3L j

j 90 ( j10)
3C

=
=
= 11,25 j .
1
j
90

j
10
j 3L j
3C

I&1m 3 =

U& m 3
14,1
=
= 0,94 e j 48, 4 .
R + Z LC 3 10 11,25 j

i13 (t ) = Im I&1m 3 e j 3t = 0,94 sin(3t + 48,4o ) .


i1 :

i1 (t ) = 1 + 0,94 sin(3t + 48,4o ) .


5.4

. 5.3 u(t ) = 10 sin 314t (. 5.4).


i1 u23 . , . : R1 = 15 ;
R2 = 200 ; L = 0,15 ; = 200 .

69

i1

u( t )
10,0 B

R1

u( t )

u23

R2

5,0
0

. 5.3

0,01

c
0,02 t

. 5.4

u(t ) . u(t ) ,
U0 Ck cos kt . = 0,01 . =
1

2
= 628 1. , = 20 ,
T

0 = 314 .

u(t ) = U0 + C1 cos t + C2 cos 2t + C3 cos 3t + K =


= U0 + C1 cos 20t + C2 cos 40t + C3 cos 60t + K .

1T
1 0, 01
U 0 = u (t ) dt =
10 sin 314t dt = 6,366 .
T0
0,01 0
:

2T
C1 = 10 sin 0t cos 20t d t = 4,244 ,
T0
2T
C2 = 10 sin 0t cos 40t d t = 0,849 ,
T0
2T
C3 = 10 sin 0t cos 60t d t = 0,364 .
T0
,

u(t ) = 6,366 4,244 cos20t 0,849 cos 40t 0,364 cos 60t .
U 0 = 6,366 .

I 10 =

U0
= 0,03 , U 230 = I 10 R2 = 5,922 .
R1 + R2
70

.
k = 1, 2, 3.
k
j

U& m k = Ck e .

k = k 20 :

Z1k = R1 + jkL ; Z 2 k = R2 ; Z 3k =

1
;
jkC

1
jkC
; Z k = Z1k + Z 23k .
Z 23k =
1
R2 +
jkC
R2

U&
I&1m k = m k ;
Zk
U& 23m k = I&1m k Z 23k .

:
I1m k = I&1m k ; i1k = arg( I&1mk ) ,

U 23m k = U& 23m k ; u 23k = arg(U& 23mk ) .


:

I1m k
;
2
U 23m k
.
U 23k =
2
I1k =

:
i11 (t ) = I1m1 sin(t + i11 ) ;

i12 (t ) = I1m 2 sin(2t + i12 ) ;


i13 (t ) = I1m 3 sin(3t + i13 ) ;
u 231 (t ) = U 23m1 sin(t + u 231 ) ;
u 232 (t ) = U 23m 2 sin(2t + u 232 ) ;
u 233 (t ) = U 23m 3 sin(3t + u 233 ) .

I1 = I10 2 + I112 + I122 + I132 ;


71

U 23 = U 230 2 + U 2312 + U 2322 + U 2332 .


, ,
2
U 23
2
P = I1 R1 +
.
R2
Mathcad.
Um

10

2. . f

50

2. 0 T
6
200. 10


k.

0.01

R1 15 R2 200 L 0.15 c
2. 0
u( t )
k 1 , 2 .. 3
Um. sin( 0. t )
T
T
1.
2.
U0
u( t ) dt Ck
cos( k. . t ) . u( t ) dt
T 0
T 0
U0 = 6.366
Ck

4.244
0.849
0.364

U0

I10

R1 R2
U230 R2. I10
umk

j .
2

Ck. e

I10 = 0.03
U230 = 5.922


k.

umk
4.244i
0.849i
0.364i

z1k
zk

j . k. . L z2k

R1
z1k

z23k

z1k
15
15
15

i1mk

R2 z3k

1
z23k
j . k. . c

z23k
94.248i
188.496i
282.743i

umk
zk

zk

0.316
0.079
0.035

u23mk

7.945i
3.977i
2.652i

15.316
15.079
15.035

z2k. z3k
z2k

z3k



k.

86.303i
184.518i
280.091i

i1mk. z23k


k.

72

i1mk

u23mk
0.048

3
8.461i. 10

3
4.57. 10

4
3.734i. 10

3
1.295. 10

I1mk

5
6.952i. 10

i1mk

U23mk

u23mk

0.048
4.585. 10

3
1.297. 10

I1mk

I1k

3
1.847. 10

0.018i

4
2.299. 10

3
3.432i. 10

arg i1mk

uk

arg u23mk

U23k


(
)

U23mk

uk

0.385
0.018

1.786
1.672
1.638

2.966
3.06
3.088

0.376i

i1k

i1k

I1mk

0.082

3
3.44. 10

U23mk

3
II1

I10

II1 = 0.045
P

Pe

Pe

2.

II1 R1

U0. I10

U0. I10

I1k

UU23

U230

U23k

k=1
UU23 = 5.928

k=1

UU23
R2
1.
2
1.
2

P = 0.207

3
Re umk. i1mk

Pe = 0.207

k=1
3
Re umk. i1mk

Pe = 0.207

k=1

u( t ) u (t )
u 23(t ) 0 < t <2 T.
T

.. 2. T
100
uF( t ) U0 C1. cos( 1. . t ) C2. cos( 2. . t ) C3. cos( 3. . t )
Um. sin( 0. t )
u( t )
u23( t ) U230 U23m1. sin 1. . t u1 U23m2. sin 2. . t u2
t

0,

73

U23m3. sin 3. . t

u3


, .

10
8
u23( t )

uF( t )
u( t )

4
2
0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

! . .
:

i1 (t ) = 0,03 + 0,048 sin(t 2,966) + 4,585 10 3 sin(2t 3,06) +


+ 1,297 10 3 sin(3t 3,088) ;
u 23 = 5,92 + 0,385 sin(t + 1,786) + 0,018 sin( 2t + 1,672) +
+ 3,44 10 3 sin(3t + 1,638) .
:
I1 = 0,045 ; U 23 = 5,928 .
, ,

5,9282
P = 0,045 15 +
= 0,207 .
200
2

5.5

(. 5.5)

+ U m , 0 < t < T0 / 2
u1 (t ) =
,

U
T
t
T
,
/
2
<
<
m 0
0
3
Um = 10 B, T0 = 10 c ( f0 =
=1/T0 = 1 ).
:

R1 = R2 = R = 10 ,
1 = 0,0022 , 2 = 1 / 2.

C1
R1

R2

ua

u1

u2

C2

u2

. 5.5
, u2 (t ) .
74

u1 (t )
.

Bk =

4U m
.
k

(0 = 10

) ,

4U m
4U m
4U m
sin 0 t +
sin 3 0 t +
sin 5 0 t ,

3
5
0 = 2 T0 .
u1 (t ) =

& m = 4U m .
U1
k
k

, u = 0 . , C2, u2 .

U&am k U& 2 m k

U& 1m k
2
&
1
&
+

=
;
jk
C
U
a
jk
C
U
2

mk
mk
0 1
0 1
R
R

1
1

U&am k + + jk0C2 U& 2 m k = 0 .


R
R

1 2 :

2
1
+ jk0C1 ; Y 12 k = + jk0C1 ;
R
R
1
1
Y 21k = ; Y 22 k = + jk0C2 ,
R
R
Y 11k =

U& 1m k &
&
; J 22 k = 0 ,
J 11k =
R

Y 11k
Y 21
k

Y 12 k U&a mk J&11k

=
.
Y 22 k U& 2 mk J& 22 k

U&a mk Y 11k
&
= Y 21
U
2
k
mk

1
Y 12 k J&11k

,
Y 22 k J& 22 k

U& 2 m k .
75

k
u 2(t ) k = Im U& 2 m k e jk0t .

Mathcad.
f0

0,

T0
100

k.

10

1 , 3 .. 5

.. 2. T0
j . 0. t

Im um1. e

u1( t )

3
10. 10 Um

3
T0 = 1 10
2.
0

2. . f0 T0

C1

6
0.022. 10 C2

1000 C1

Um
4.
k.
2
y11k
j . k. 0. C1
R

j . 3. 0. t

j . 5. 0. t

Im um3. e

Im um5. e

umk

y22k

j . k. 0. C2

uamk

1.

Ynnk

u2mk
U2mk

u2mk

y12k

Ynnk

j . k. 0. C1

y11k

umk

y12k

Jnnk

y21k y22k

j . 0. t

u1( t )

Im um1. e

.
k

180 .

arg u2mk

j . 0. t

88.151
151.376
163.195
j . 3. 0. t

Im u2m3. e

j . 3. 0. t

Im um3. e

j . 5. 0. t

Im um5. e

10

u1( t )

5
0
5
10
15

0.5

1.5

(
) u2(t) .

j . 5. 0. t

Im u2m5. e

15

u2( t )

R
0

9.206
0.49
0.107
Im u2m1. e

Jnnk

U2mk

u2( t )

y21k



.



.

3
t. 10

76

u2(t)
u1(t) .

.

,

.

! . .

u 2 (t ) = 9,206 sin(0t 88o ) + 0,49 sin(30t 151o ) + 0,107 sin(50t 163o ) B.


5. 3.

1.

( 1 . 5.6).
2.
( 2 . 5.6).
3.

B u
12,0

8,0

4,0
0

0,01

0,02

t
c

0,03

. 5.6

i (t ) = 10 + 10 sin(314t 30o ) 10 sin(628t + 60o ) .


4. :
u (t ) = 100 + 100 sin(314t + 30o ) ; i (t ) = 10 + 10 sin 314t 10 sin(628t + 60o ) .
, ,
.
5. u (t ) . 5.2,

i1 = 10 + 10 sin(314t 30o ) + 10 sin(628t + 60o ) .


= 314 1 X C = 60
X L = 30 , R = 40 .
L C.
6.
R

. 5.6
. T = 0,02 ., 0,5,
U = 10 .
u , R = 47
, C = 0,068 .
8.
. . . .

77

R
. 5.6

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