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Nov 12, 2008

Security Level:

Alignment of Microwave Antennas


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Wang Fuzhong Transmission Engineering Dept.


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential

Contents

1. Resources and Tools Required for the Antenna Alignment

2. Precautions for Installing the Microwave Equipment


3. Commissioning Preparations 4. Precautions for the Alignment 5. Method for Adjusting the Antenna Support 6. Procedure for Aligning the Antennas 7. Resolution for Aligning the Antennas 8. Method for Aligning Antennas in HSB/SD/FD Modes

9. Checking After the Alignment

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Resources and Tools Required for the Antenna Alignment

Design document: Includes the site information file and basic data files.
Assembly personnel required: four. Two persons are assigned at each site. Multimeters required (which works better with the BNC connecter): two. One multimeter is provided at each site. Portable computers required: One. The computers are used to configure the radio transmission network (RTN) equipment and to check the received signal level (RSL).

Telecommunication tool: includes interphones and mobile phones. Spanner

Telescope
Magnetic compass

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Prerequisites for Installing the Microwave


Equipment

The microwave equipment must be ready for the telecom (RFT) test.
Security check must be conducted. The antenna must be installed and the outdoor operations must be performed. These operations must be performed in favorable weather. The IF cable and the elliptical wavelength must be installed. The indoor operations, which can be performed during unfavorable weather and at night, must be performed. All the cables and links must be labelled. Grounding must be performed. The installation field must be cleaned after the installation is complete. The power-on operation must be performed.

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Commissioning Preparations

1. According to the network planning document, check the service capacity and modulation scheme of the IF board, and check whether the transmit frequency and power of the ODU are consistent with the actual configuration of the NE. 2. Set the working attribute of the ODU to Transmit.

3. Disable the ATPC function.


4. In the case of 1+1 protection configuration, set the working attribute of the standby ODU to Mute or Forcibly Switched to the Working Board. 5. Check the alarms of the ODU. Normally, only the alarms indicating

that the RSL of the ODU is excessively low are reported.

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Precautions for the Alignment


Grease the nuts so that the antenna can be aligned smoothly and stably. Align the antenna slowly. A delay may be caused in responding to the equipment due to a change in the RSL. When aligning the local antenna, make sure that the elevation and azimuth of the antenna are locked. Do not align the antennas at both ends at the same time. When aligning the azimuth, make sure that the elevation of the local antenna is locked. When aligning the elevation, make sure that the azimuth of the local antenna is locked. Do not fasten the antenna very tightly before the alignment is complete. when you move the antenna, do not apply too much force. Otherwise, the antenna may be damaged mechanically.

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Method of Adjusting the Antenna Support (With a Diameter of 0.3 M, 0.6 M)


You can adjust the elevation of the antenna at point 1, and the azimuth of the antenna at point 2.

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Method of Adjusting the Antenna Support (With a Diameter of 1.2 M)

You can adjust the azimuth of the antenna by moving the support at point 1, and the elevation of the antenna at point 2.

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Method of Adjusting the Antenna Support (with a Diameter of 1.2 M)


Over-head view at point 2

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Procedure for Aligning the Antennas

Step 1 If the distance between the two antennas is more than 2 km, place the two antennas horizontally. If the distance between the two antennas is no more than 2 km, slightly adjust the elevation of the antenna according to the actual situation. Step 2 Connect the multimeter to the port of the local ODU correctly. Then, measure the VBNC of the RSSI port. Step 3 Adjust the azimuth of the antenna.
1. Keep the opposite antenna fixed. 2. Measure the VBNC by using the multimeter. Move the antenna from left to right and make sure that the antenna tracks at least three peak signals of the VBNC. The voltage of the second peak signal should be the maximum one.

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Procedure for Aligning the Antennas


Step 3 Adjust the elevation of the antenna. 1. Adjust the elevation at each peak VBNC so that the VBNC can reach the maximum value. 2. Adjust the antenna to a position where the VBNC reaches the highest value. Then, fix the local antenna. Make sure that the VBNC is of the maximum value when the antenna is fixed. Step 4 Repeat Steps 2 and 3 to adjust the antenna on the opposite side. After the RSL of the opposite antenna reaches the maximum value, fix the opposite antenna.

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Procedure for Aligning the Antennas

Step 5 Repeat Steps 24 two to four times to make the receive signal levels at both ends reach the maximum value. Then, fix the antennas at both ends. Step 6 Measure the VBNC at both ends by using the multimeter. Obtain the current RSL by referring to the curve diagram and

the RSL of the VBNC of the ODUs at both ends.

Step 7 Fasten all the screws of the antenna.

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Resolution for Aligning the Antennas

1. Coarse Adjustment
Lock the antenna at one side and loosen the adjusting nut of the antenna at the other side. According to the network planning design, adjust the azimuth and elevation of the antennas so that the antennas at both ends can be aligned. The RSL is about 80 dB. When one antenna is adjusted, the other antenna is locked. That is, the antennas at both ends are adjusted alternatively.

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Resolution for Aligning the Antennas


Adjusting the Antenna by Using the Multimeter
Correctly connect the multimeter to the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) port of the local ODU. Set the multimeter to 10 V DC. Measure the VBNC of this port.

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Resolution for Aligning the Antennas


The VBNC of the RSSI port varies directly with the RSL of the antenna corresponding to the ODU. That is, the higher the RSL, the higher is the VBNC. Adjust the antenna until the voltage reaches the peak value so that the main lobes can be aligned properly. The following curve figure shows the relationship between the VBNC and the RSL.
5 4.5 4 3.5

RSSI Voltage(V)

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -100

-90

-80

-70

-60 -50 RSL(dBm)

-40

-30

-20

-10

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Resolution for Aligning the Antennas

Tracking path at different


elevations

VBNC changes during the


path tracking

Keep the opposite antenna fixed. The local antenna moves left to right at different elevations. Measure the VBNC. Lines AA, BB, and CC are different tracking paths of the antenna. According to the corresponding VBNC change curve, you can learn that line AA is the path wherein the main lobes of the antennas are aligned properly. Three points reach the peak value on the curve. The main lobe is at point 2. The first side lobes are at points 1 and 3.

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Resolution for Aligning the Antennas (Vertically)

Main lobe

Main lobe

Lateral view

First side lobe

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Resolution for Aligning the Antennas (Vertical Alignment)

Not aligned vertically

Ground or mirror reflection

Ground or mirror reflection


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Resolution for Aligning the Antennas (Vertical Alignment)

Aligned properly

Ground or mirror reflection

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Resolution for Aligning the Antennas (Special Adjustment in the Case of Multipath Fading Caused by the Reflection During the Long-Distance Transmission)

Aligned properly

Ground or mirror reflection

After the antennas are aligned properly, raise the elevation of the antennas slightly (by 0.35 to 0.5 degrees, depending on the FNBW). In this manner, the multipath fading caused by the reflection during the long-distance transmission over the water surface is reduced.
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Resolution for Aligning the Antennas (Horizontally)

Vertical view

Main lobe

Main lobe

First side lobe

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Resolution for Aligning the Antennas (Horizontal Alignment)

Not aligned properly

Aligned properly

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Resolution for Aligning the Antennas

2. Small Adjustment
The adjustment sequence is not required. If you adjust the elevation first, fix the opposite antenna, and adjust the local antenna. Adjust the nuts to search for the peak value S0. When the peak value S0 appears, continue to adjust the nuts until the peak value S1 appears. If S1 is more than S0, continue to adjust the nuts in the same direction until the peak signal S2 appears. If S2 is less than S1, S1 is the required point. If S1 is less than S0, you must adjust the nuts in the opposite direction. Now, go back to point S0, and continue to adjust the nuts until the next peak signal S-1 appears. If S-1 is less than S0, S0 is the required point. If S-1 is more than S0, continue to adjust the nuts until the next peak signal S-2 appears. If S-2 is less than S-1, S-1 is the required point. During the adjustment, you need to find three continuous peak signals, and the peak signal at the middle point must reach the largest value. In this case, the middle point is the required point. Adjust the azimuth by using the same method. After the local antenna is adjusted, fix the local antenna, and adjust the opposite antenna. Only several adjustments are required to align the antennas properly.

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Resolution for Aligning the Antennas


Align the antennas by referring to the VBNC of the RSSI port. According to the envelope diagram of the antenna radiation, you can learn that the signals reach three peak values during the antenna adjustment. One peak signal appears when the main lobes of the two antennas are aligned properly. The other peak signals appear when the main lobe of the local antenna is aligned with both the first side lobes of the opposite antenna. The peak signal reaches the highest peak value when the main lobes of the two antennas are aligned properly.

RSSI/VAGC

First side lobe


Main lobe

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HSB Protection Mode

The main and standby ODUs share one antenna.

You only need to adjust the main ODU. If the


microwave link uses the 1+1 protection scheme wherein one antenna is used. Power off the

standby ODUs at both ends before aligning the


antennas. After aligning the antennas, power on the standby ODUs at both ends.

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FD Protection Mode
If one antenna is used, you only need to adjust the main ODU. If two antennas are used, you need to adjust both the antennas. The adjustment sequence is as follows: (1) Power off the standby ODUs at both ends, and then align the main antennas at both ends. (2) Power on the standby ODUs at both ends, and then align the standby antennas at both ends.

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SD Protection Mode
After aligning the main antennas, you need to check whether the RSL of the standby ODUs is almost the same as the RSL of the main ODUs. After aligning the standby antennas, you need to check whether the RSL of the main ODUs is almost the same as the RSL of the standby ODUs. Ensure that the RSL of the main ODU and the RSL of the standby ODU at the opposite end are almost the same, regardless of whether the main ODU or the standby ODU is used.

The adjustment sequence is as follows: (1) Power off the standby ODUs at both ends, and then align the main antennas at both ends. (2) Power on the standby ODUs at the local end, and then fix the main antenna at the opposite end, and adjust the diversity antenna at the local end.

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Checking After the Alignment


1. Set the ATPC to Disabled according to the network planning.

2. If the 1+1 protection scheme is configured, set the working


attribute of the main ODU and standby ODU to Unmute. 3. If the 1+1 protection scheme is configured and the service is being switched, clear the switching so that the main ODUs at both ends are used. 4. Check the alarms, and ensure that no alarm is reported.

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Nov 12, 2008

Security Level:

Thank you !
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