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The textbook is devoted to basic problems and aspects of CAE/CAD/CAM systems. Main
approaches to design procedures including methods and algorithms for modeling, simulation and synthesis are considered. The information about workstations, networks, design frameworks and CALS
components are given.
The book is intended to students of technological universities, it may be recommended to postgraduates and industry specialists using CAE/CAD/CAM in their activity.

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( AutoCAD, Microstation
, Windows- DDE
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;
, ;
, .. , .

, CALS-.
CALS- STEP, Parts Library,
Mandate, SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange For
Administration, Commerse, Transport) . SGML , , ..,
EDIFACT .
CALS- Computervision.
EPD (Electronic Product Definition) .
CALS- , . , CALS .
EPD :
CAD ;
CAM ();
CAE ;
CAPE (Concurrent Art-to-Product Environoment) (oncurrent
ngineering);
PDM , ( DBMS
Data Base Management System);
3D Viewer - ;
CADD ;
CASE ;
.
EPD CAD PDM, CADDS5 Optegra .
EPD Optegra. -

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Dj;
,
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. ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning). , , , .. , MRP-2 (Manufacturing Resource Planning). ERP, ,


PDM. PDM , MRP-2 , .
MES (Manufacturing Execution System).
R3 ( SAP) Baan IV
(Baan), MANMAN/X (Computer Associates CIS), lite Series (Tecsys Inc.), Mapix (IBM) . , , , .

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Oracle, Ingres, Informix, Sybase; ODBC (Open Data Base Connection), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), DDE (Dynamic Data
Exchange); /.
.
2. - ,
( 100).
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5. , , .
,
CALS- , , .

,
.
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Control and Data Acquisition), , . , SCADA , .. CASE-. 0"#8")//'"7$/., %#*&"#44$"#( ( PLC Progrmmed Logic
Controller), , .
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1. ;
2. , ;
3. ;
4. ;
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, .
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IEC 1131-3.
, , , ,
(NC Numerical Control).
.
C9-4/:-+?+849:001. ,+,-./1 5.D4384+?945,-9: (C*O). ,
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, ;
;
;
, .
.
off-line,
on-line.
(E-mail), ,
, E-mail .
, .
, -. , , , , SQL- Web-. , ,
- , .. ,
.
Lotus Notes, Docs Open, -96
. Windows NT.

P38:L0.0+> + 94384,1 5D> ,:/4740-84D>


1. .
2. ?
3. , .
4. , , .
5. .
6. ?
7. CALS-?
8. , CAE, CAD, CAM.
9. ?
10. .
11. : , , , .

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M8.B49:0+> 7 M$ *C"%. (hardware), ,


, , ,
(, ), .
:
1. , ;
2. , ;
3. , .

.
- .
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+$&5.
,
(. 2.1). Q64)/' ( ) , )(&#/)&'6'"#()**./' ")2#1'/' /$+&)/' () ")2#1'/' +&)*='9/' (WS Workstation),
(), . .
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.
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, .
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. , , .
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. (. 2.2) (bus),
(ring), (star). .


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, 0#-+$&9/', . ( ). , , #0#"*#; ( ), .
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, Internet.

. 2.3.

, %4'$*&-+$"($". , +$"($")/', , ( )
, %4'$*%+,. 2.3.
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. 2.3.).
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, (,
).
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(LLC Logical Link Control). LLC , .
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.
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384.7-+849:0+> + <38:9D.0+>
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- ,
, , , .
, Pentium III 16 , 256 , - .

(, -, ) - /.
(, PCI
133 /) , , , ..
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, (, , , .) . (3D)
,
104. , . . () , .
( RISC-),
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Wintel (.. Intel Windows). , , , , , , , ..
: , - , -, / 1-2 /.

, , .. , .
( )
. :
1724 ( 58 %
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. , 75 .
. , , (, ). ,
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82 95 .
".8+H.8+201. <,-842,-9:.
.
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.

+%)*$". . . . 300 800 ( dpi). , , TIFF, GIF, PCX, JPEG,
, , DXF.
. (3, 4), .
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: 1) ( , OS-9, QNX, VRTX .); 2) , ( , , , , ); 3) , , , ; 4) ; 5)


.
.
() () .
.
VME-bus (Versabus Module Europe-bus) PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect).
VME-bus (, , -).
( 21 ),
, .. ,
. 32- , 64- . 320 /.
PCI , . 264 /, 232 () 64, . , CompactPCI, .
(, ) . ,
OLE. OPC (OLE for Process Control).

2.3. E.-451 54,-<3: 9 D47:DF016 91A+,D+-.DF016 ,.->6


E04L.,-9.0012 54,-<3 , 740-84D./ 0.,<R.2 + 4B0:8<L.0+./ 740HD+7-49. () . , , . ,
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; +$4$%&#"*#8# #0"#+) (
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2.4. G47:DF01. 91A+,D+-.DF01. ,.-+ Ethernet


*4,-:9 :33:8:-<81.
Ethernet, Xerox. /.
Ethernet IEEE 802/3.
IEEE 802/4, .
Ethernet . , 1996 . 85% Ethernet.
, . , . .
.
(, ), , , .
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( , ,
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3$8)(+#+,# 5)+.")(/+67 5)1 (4) >

. ,
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,
.
%:?049+504,-+ ,.-.2 Ethernet. Ethernet . Ethernet, , , .
1. Thick Ethernet (>'*) + &#4+&./ %)2$4$/); 10Base-5,
10 10 /, 5 ( ), .. 500 . : 5; 100;
2,5 . +$8/$*&#/ ,
(&$"/'*)&#".)
.
2. Thin Ethernet (>'*) + &#*%'/ %)2$4$/, cheapernet); 10Base-2: 5; 185 ;
30; 0,5 ; 10
/.
3. Twisted Pair Ethernet; 10Base-;
, , (hubs).
. 2.4.
(AH) (PH) (active and passive hubs), .
8, 12 16. 10Base-T 600
30 ,
100. 10Base-T
.
/,
( )
, ,
, , . 10Base-T
Ethernet. %+,. 2.4.
10Base-T ,

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4. Fiber Optic Ethernet ( ), 10Base-F; -, ,
. 2...4 . , , ,
. () -
() , , .
, - , . .
5. RadioEthernet ( IEEE 802/11). , .
,
, /, . : , , , ?, ?
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.
, . t .
t ,
,
? ( - ), t<T.
6. Fast Ethernet, 100BaseX 100Base-T ( IEEE 802/30). 100 /. /.
( ),
10Base-T 200 . 100
/ , , 100/10. 10 /, . 250 , 1024. Fast Ethernet, Ethernet 10 /, . : 100Base-TX,
5, 100Base-T4 5, 100Base-FX .
7. Gigabit Ethernet 1000Base-X. .
IEEE 802.3z 830 1270
(1000Base-SX 1000Base-LX ) 550 5
(1000Base) 25 . 1 /.
.
. ( ) 10
/ (switches) 10/100, 100 /,
, 100/1000. , 1000
/, , -, , -, 5- (, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2 ), -, 8b/10b ( . ). 250 /
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2.5. *.-+ 74DF=.942 -434D4@++.


*.-F Token Ring.
: 1) Token Ring ( IBM
IEEE 802/5); 2) FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) .
IEEE 802/5 :
< 9*"$+,-,.#(/ (0) '8"$:(#+,# 1)2.'8)% (0) $1"#2 +$3+$-#+,4 (6)
$1"#2 ,2.)-+,5$ (6) 1$++6# (>=0) 5)+.")(/+67 5)1 (4) )*"$+,-,.#(/ (0)
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). , .
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%+,. 2.5. Token Ring: :) ; B)

Token Ring :
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, .
. 100 /. 200 , 2 . 500. 1300 .
.
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1. 2 4
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5 100 ,
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100 24 , 10 100 7 .
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$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

, Lpq = -1 .
Lpq = 0.
. 3.6 E- . 3.1
$,4B.004,-+ T79+9:D.0-016 ,6./ /.6:0+A.,7+6 4BU.7-49.
.
( ). , , ,
.
,
; , ,
; , .
.
. 3.7,)

, K, I1, I2 :1, :2. .
3.7,2

,
,
, ,
; ,
. 3.7,2 .

%+,. 3.7. :
: - ; B -

N:8:7-.8+,-+7: /.-4549 H48/+849:0+> EE*. (3.1) (3.2) ,


. )48$2")'6)='<
, , . , , ,

dV/dt | n= (Vn Vn-1) / hn,


Vi V i- ; hn = tn tn-1 .
t (
t tn),
F(Zn, Vn, tn) = 0,
(3.15)
F(Vn) = 0,
Zn= (Vn - Vn-1) / hn
c Vn Zn, Z = dV/dt. , ,
.
2+, ( , ,
), . ,
( )
.
&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

58

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

. 2)6'+*./'.
.
/$&#-7 0$"$/$**., +#+&#9*'9 ( ,
), W 0$"$/$**., +#+&#9*'9.
, . , ( , Mu2/2), , .. ,
. ,
, .. ,
dW/dt W, .
.
, .
764#(#8# /$&#-) 764#(.$ 0#&$*=')4. (.. , , , ). -1, . , , .
/#-'E'='"#()**.; 764#(#;
/$&#-.
P?D4942 /.-45. E . . , . , , (3.13) (3.14)
U + M = 0,
(3.16)
T
(3.17)
M I = 0,
U I- .
, ,

(3.18)
In = GnUn + Cn,
Gn , tn; Cn ,

tn. ( ) , .
, (3.18) (3.16) (3.17):

MTIn = MT(GnUn + Cn) = - MTGnMn + MTCn = 0

Vnn = Bn,

(3.19)

Vn = MT GnM , Bn = MTCn . , M (-1), Gn , (-1) (-1).


(3.19) +'+&$/#; 4'*$;*., )48$2")'1$+%', 7")(*$*';, &.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

59

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

, . ,
.
, .
, R.

.
n-

in = Cdu/dt |n = C(un -un-1) / hn,


g =in/un : = const
g = C / hn.
an = gun-1.
:
un = L(in -in-1) / hn

L = const
g= hn /L, an = in-1.
,
dU/dt |n = n Un n,
n , n U .
. ,
( ) , , , , .
, - , . /#-'E'='"#()**./ 764#(./ /$&#-#/.
, E . E
(. 3.2), : U(I) , ; E(t) ; I(I) M:BD+=: 3.2
, ; L
U(I)
E(t)
; Mij

i j.
U, I, E, I -
M11
M12
M13
M21
M22
M23
. , L
- I(I)
M31
M32
M33
, .. I, #+#2./' . ( ) *$#+#2.$. : IL ; I, U, ; G,, GL,
GI , , .
(3.17)
(M11)T I, + (M21)TIL + (M31)TI = 0.
I, (3.18), I &.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

60

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M


I = KI,
K = (I/I) . (3.16),
U, = - M11 - M12U - M31E = - M11 - M12 (U/I) I - M31E
, I IL:
-(M11)TG,(M11 + M12RI) + (M21)TIL + (M31)TKI = G,M31E + (M11)TA,;

(3.20)

IL = - GL(M21+ M22RI+ M23E) + AL;

(3.21)

I = - GI(M31+ M32RI + M33E) + AI,

(3.22)

R = (U/I). .
' 6 B .F 6 9 0 N :

1. , AL .
2. , , ,
(I/U) G6, .
3. , , , E , (3.19) (3.21).

3.3. E.-451 + :D@48+-/1 :0:D+?: 0: /:784<8490.


(1B48 /.-4549 :0:D+?: 94 98./.0042 4BD:,-+.
. K*)4'6 (# ("$/$**#; #24)+&' (
) , ,
, . K*)4'6 (
1)+&#&*#; #24)+&' , , ,
, , , , ..
,
, ():
F(dV/dt, V, t) = 0.
, . ,
(3.15), , .
, . .
( ,
), (,
). .
9(*#8# /$&#-) F;4$")
tn:
dV/dt | n = (Vn+1 Vn ) / hn,
; hn = tn+1 - tn (
hn ). *$9(*#8# /$&#-) F;4$") &.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

61

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

:
dV/dt | n = (Vn Vn-1 ) / hn,
hn = tn - tn-1.
:
dV/dt = AV
(3.23)
V0 0 h.
C ; V .

(Vn+1 - Vn ) / h = A Vn

Vn+1 = (E + hA) Vn,


& . Vn+1 V0:
Vn+1 = (E + hA)n V0.

(3.24)

B = E + hA
(

(3.25)

( = T-1diag{Bj}T,
M , diag{Bj} - Bj
( . ,

(n = T-1diag{Bjn}T.
, , , . (3.25)
Bj = 1 + hCj.
(3.23) V(t) 0 t , ,
Vn+1 0 n ,

(E + hA)n V0 0,
V0 0, (E + hA)n 0, M 0, Bjn 0
-1 < |1 + hCj| < 1.

(3.26)

, . Cj (
(3.23) ), 0#+&#9**.$ ("$/$*' E'6'1$+%#; +'+&$/.
j = - 1 / Cj,
(3.26)
-1 < |1 - h/j | < 1

0 < h < 2min,

(3.27)

min . , min (3.27), .


&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

62

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

(3.27), , ,

. , .
(3.27) . , min (3.27) , , min , min .
(3.27) . #27+4#(4$**#+&' .
, ?
, ..
max.
= ? / h max / min.
= max/min ")62"#+#/ 0#+&#9**., ("$/$*' 1'+4#/ #27+4#(4$**#+&'.
, .
, > 105 . .
.
(3.24)
Vn = (E - hA)-n V0

-1 < |1/(1 + h/j)| < 1,
h > 0. , K-7+&#;1'(#+&5<.
+ - 0 B .F 6 9 0 . . K-, h > 0.

K-
. , .
: -, , -, , , K- .
.
CD@48+-/ A+,D.004@4 +0-.@8+849:0+> *$OP.
, /$&#-) &")0$=';, . , .
, "- , .. ,
n- ,
= c||V(p+1)()|| hp+1,
V(t) , , ,
||V(p+1)()|| ("+1)- V(t), - , t .
n- , .. , h .
&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

63

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

V(t) tn+1, (n+1)-


V(tn ) = V(tn+1) - (dV/dt)h + (d2V/dt2)h2 / 2! - (d3V/dt3)h*3 / 3! + ...,

(3.28)

(n+2)-
V(tn+2) = V(tn+1) + (dV/dt)h + (d2V/dt2)h2/2! + (d3V/dt3)h3/3! + ...,

(3.29)

h ' h , tn+1.
(3.28) (3.29), h = h = h :
V(tn+2) = V(tn ) + 2(dV/dt)h + 2(d3V/dt3 )h3 / 3! + ...,
.. , (3.28) (3.29) , h3. , .
, , . , ,
.

. , () , .
, , , .
E.-451 8.I.0+> ,+,-./ 0.D+0.2016 :D@.B8:+A.,7+6 <8:90.0+2.
.
, .
, ().
.
(), ,
(3.19).
.
,
, , . (3.19) .
.

F(X) = 0.
(3.30)
F(X) Nk,
F(X) = F(Xk) + (F/X)(X-Xk) + (X-Xk)T(2F/X2)(X-Xk) / 2 + ... = 0.
, N :
Vk(X - Xk) = - F(Xk),

(3.31)

Vk = (F/X)|k. (3.31) (3.30), Xk+1.


X0 , ,

|Nk| = |Xk - Xk-1|,


c .
.
, &.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

64

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

. . , 0"#-#4@$*'$/ "$>$*'9 0# 0)")/$&"7.


, ,
= 0 N=0 (3.30) , 0 N N=0 .
, , .
, ,
. h. , h = 0 . h
.
, .
E.-451 8.I.0+> ,+,-./ D+0.2016 :D@.B8:+A.,7+6 <8:90.0+2.
.
. k- xk

AX = B

(3.32)

aij i>k j>k


aij = aij - aik akj / akk.

(3.33)

n-1 , n (3.32), ,
.
, xn.
(3.32) n3. , ,
.
, C (3.32).
")6"$@$**#;, .
, , -, (3.33) , aik akj , -, .
, , , , n1,2.
, C, , .
.

a11x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 + a14x4 + a15x5 = b1;
a21x1 + a22x2 = b2;
a31x1 + a33x3 = b3;
a41x1 + a44x4 = b4;
a51x1 + a55x5 = b5..
(3.33) , , , *)+.A$**#;. &.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

65

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

M:BD+=: 3.3

, , (&#"'1*./' *$*749/'. 3.3 .


+ + + + +
. + +
.
.
.
3.3 3.4, +
.
+
.
.
+. , , .
+
.
.
+
.
,
+
.
.
.
+
#0&'/)45*#8# 70#"9-#1$*'9 +&"#% ' +&#42=#( .

. M:BD+=: 3.4
+
+
, ,
.
+
+
L$&#-#/ ")6"$@$**., /)&"'= +
+
( ) + +
.

+ + + + +
.
( ) .
. , 200200 320 . 9
,
28 .
'*&$"0"$&)='' (3.33) aik 0
akj 0 , ,
(3.33). ,
, .
%#/0'49='' ,
. (3.33) . .
, .
, .
C0:D+? 9 A:,-4-042 4BD:,-+. . , d/dt j.
, ,
. k.
. , -,
, ..
E04@49:8+:0-012 :0:D+?. N Q
. , .
/*#8#()"')*&*.; )*)4'6, .. ,
, 0"#+&")*+&(#/ )"87/$*&#(.
, N Q,
. &.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

66

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

#24)+&' ")2#&#+0#+#2*#+&',
, , () , ..
+ - 0 B .F 6 9 0 . . ,
, ..
.

. 1, , . .
)*)4'6 17(+&('&$45*#+&' .
N ,
yj. N - ,i ( X Q),
, xi,
, yj

Aji = (yj - yj ) / xi

Bji = Aji xi / yj.


/$&#-#/ 0"'")A$*';. , , N+1 .
,
Aji Bji.
+ - 0 B .F 6 9 0 . . , , .

&)&'+&'1$+%#8# )*)4'6) ()
. yj
xi, xi.
, (. 3.8).
S yj, yj<Tj,
,
yj.

/$&#-#/ L#*&$-O)"4# ( ).
N %+,. 3.8.
, -
, -. xi. , N , :
;
:

, , , .
, -,
, N ,
. , -,
&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

67

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

- xi.
, xi , xi xi
xi ( ).
/$&#- )*)4'6) *) *)',7->'; +471);. ,
. m , m - .
,
yj, j [1:m]. , yj<Tj (.. sign(Bji) = 0) yj>Tj sign(Bji) = 1,

xi = xi + xi,

xi = xi - xi.

, , , , , ,
, , .
$8@:0+?:=+> 91A+,D+-.DF04@4 384=.,,: 9 <0+9.8,:DF016 384@8://:6 :0:D+?: 0: /:784<8490.. . 3.9 - . -
(dV/dt, V, t) = 0.


F(X) = 0
.

VX = B.
:
V0(t0) ;
h h
;
U(t) ;
N N ;
;
,
;
m1
;
m2 .
&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

%+,. 3.9. -


+($*,#&($"!)&*

68

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

, N N
. , [m2, m1] .
N, m1, m2, , h .
V ( , . , .
. 3.10.

%+,. 3.)0.

( )
.
. , .
, .
,
, ,
.
,
V (,
(. . 3.9). (. . 3.10) , . 3.9. . , .. .
,
, - ..

3.4. E:-./:-+A.,74. 4B.,3.A.0+. :0:D+?: 0: /+784<8490.


E:-./:-+A.,7+. /45.D+ 0: /+784<8490.. , . , &.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

69

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

. x1, x2, x3 t.

.
:
1)

C T / t = div ( grad T) + g,
: , , ? , t , , g
, ;
2)

N / t = div (D grad N) ,
N , D ;
3) , :

" / t = - (1/q) div Jp + gp ,


n / t = (1/q) div Jn + gn ,

div E = / ( 0),
p n ; q ; Jp Jn ; gp gn - ; &
;, ; 0 .

, , ,
.
E.-451 :0:D+?: 0: /+784<8490.. - .

.
, +$&#1*.$ .
:
() (). , .. . .

LV(z) = f(z)

MV(z) = (z),
L M , V(z) , z = (x1, x2, x3, t) , f(z) (z) .
/$&#-$ %#*$1*., ")6*#+&$;
- .
.
, .
. 3.11. , . ,
. , , , . ,

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

70

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

V/x k,

h(V/x) = Vk+1 - Vk; 2h(V/x) = Vk+1 - Vk-1; h2(2V/x2) = Vk+1 - 2Vk + Vk-1,
h ,.
. 3.11 - :
-

h22V = :2(2V/x12 + 2V/x22) = Vk+1,j + Vk-1,j + Vk,j+1 + Vk,j-1 - 4Vk,j,


-

2h22V = Vk+1,j+1 + Vk-1,j+1 + Vk+1,j-1 + Vk-1,j-1 - 4Vk,j,


-

4h22V/x1x2 = Vk+1,j+1 - Vk-1,j+1 - Vk+1,j-1 + Vk-1,j-1.


Vk,j V (x1k,x2j); h .

L$&#- %#*$1*., B4$/$*&#(


,
V(z). ,
qi
(3.34)
U(z) = Q(z),
Q = (q1, q2,...qn)- - - %+,. 3.)).
, (z) - %##"-'*)&*., ( ) ,
, .
,
U(z) (, (z) ). U(z)

(3.35)
(z, Q) = LU(z) - f(z) = L(Q(z)) - f(z),
Q.
( Q) :
1) /$&#- %#44#%)=';, , (3.35), n Q:
L(Q(zi)) - f(zi) = 0, i = 1, 2,...n,
n ;
2) /$&#- *)'/$*5>', %()-")&#(, (3.35) n ;
3) /$&#- V)4$"%'*),
.

. , ..
( ). , .
E'Q 9 384@8://:6 :0:D+?: /.6:0+A.,742 384A04,-+. ( ), , , .

.

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

71

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

= 0,5

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

dR,

(3.36)

T = (11, 22, 33, 12, 13, 23)T - , = (11, 22, 33, 12, 13, 23) - , R . ij
(3.37)
ij = 0,5(Wi /xj +Wj /xi),
Wi ,i,
= 0,5 SW,
(3.38)
S (3.37) .
D, , . 3.5:
= D.
(3.39)
, , , .
M:BD+=: 3.5
(3.39) (3.38) (3.36),
0
0
0
0
+2
T
T
= 0,5 W S DSW dR,
0
0
0
+2

W(X), X = (x1, x2, x3).


0
0

(3.34), 0
0
:
0
0
U(X) = NQ,
N , Q
. W(X) U(X),
= 0,5
K =

(SN)

Q
R

M DSN

T N ST DSN

+2

Q dR = 0,5 QT( (SN) DSN dR) Q = 0,5 QT K Q,


R

(3.40)

dR .


/Q = /Q - /Q = 0
, (3.40),

KQ = B,

(3.41)

B = /Q . , , ,
(3.41).
, (3.41) .
+ - 0 B .F 6 9 0 . . , .

*-8<7-<8: 384@8:// :0:D+?: 34 E'Q 0: /+784<8490.. , , .


C'24'#&$%' %#*$1*., B4$/$*&#( () . , ( , , ..), (, ), .
0"$0"#=$++#") ,
&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

72

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

.
() , .. .
S$>)&$45 , () (3.41) .
!#+&0"#=$++#" . . (
) , , , ..
,
.
- - Nastran, Ansys, Nisa, Adina, Cosmos.
, , , , . ,
, . , Ansys , , ,
. - ,
. () Ansys .

3.5. E:-./:-+A.,74. 4B.,3.A.0+. :0:D+?: 0: H<07=+40:DF04-D4@+A.,74/


<8490.
E45.D+849:0+. + :0:D+? :0:D4@4916 <,-842,-9. - , ,
.
. ,
.
- , +'8*)4)/'. , ..
,
.
-
.
-, ..
(3.42)
V = f(V),
V V .
, (3.42) V V .
, (3.42) ,
, .. . , (3.42) . , , , ". (3.42) , V(") V("),
() .

V(") = h(p)V("),
h(p) .
, : .
-
. , &.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

73

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

(3.42).
, : ,
.
.
(. 3.12),
h1(p), h2(p) h3(p). :
V2 = h1(p)V1;
V(p) = h2(p)V2;
V1 = V(p) + h3(p)V(p)

V(p) =H(p)V(p),

%+,. 3.)2.

H(p) = h1(p) h2(p) / (1 - h1(p) h2(p) h3(p))


, :
1) ,
, ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) ".
E:-./:-+A.,7+. /45.D+ 5+,78.-016 <,-842,-9. -
. , , , . ( 1)
( 0), . . - . .
- , . , , , () y = a or b, () y = a and b, () y = not a, y- ,
a b . .
. 3.13.
%+,. 3.)3.
, , , .
.
:'*,"#**)9 ,
, .
%+, 3.)4. RS-

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

74

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

, (. 3.14):
B = not (R and C); Q = not (B and P); P = not (A and Q);
A = not (S and C).
K+'*,"#**.$ /#-$4' , .
(3.43)
y(t+t) = f(X(t)),
t ; f . (3.43) ,
y , X(t),
t+t. , .
.

() . ,
. , , .

. , , , . ,
, "'+%)/' +2#9.
.
. 3.15,

, . 3.15,2. ,
,
,
, . 3.15,, %+,. 3.)5. :
, : - ; B -
. . M:BD+=: 3.6.
.

0, 1 ,


. 0 1
0 1
0 1
, ,

0
0 0 0
0 1
1 0
. 3.6.
0
1


,
1
1 1 1
0 1
,
.
, , (
) ( ) . , : 0-0-0, 1-1-1,
0--1, 1--0. 0--0 1--1 , .. .
&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

75

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

(. 3.15,))
. 3.7.

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

M:BD+=: 3.7


1
0
0
. 3.16.
-

, 0
1
0
, -
.

,
{0, 1, , , },
,
,
.
,
: 0-0-0, 1-1-1,
%+,. 3.)6.
0--1, 1--0. 0--1 1--0 .
. y(t+t) =
f(X(t)) t1 X(t1) , t1+t
y. , t [t min, t max] , , t1+t min
t1+t max y .
.
E.-451 D4@+A.,74@4 /45.D+849:0+>. () .
0#>)8#(#/ /$&#-$ t0, t1, t2... ..
, .
+#2.&';*.; /$&#-. .
: #2")A$*'$ % /#-$4' 4#8'1$+%#8# B4$/$*&) 0"#'+,#-'& &#45%# ( &#/ +471)$, $+4' *) (,#-),
B&#8# B4$/$*&) 0"#'6#>4# +#2.&'$.
2-3% , ,
.

. ,
.
(. . 3.14). . 3.8 M:BD+=: 3.8
R
S
C
B
Q
P
A
-

0
0
0
1
1
0
1
.
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
( ) - ( 0)
- 1
0
1
1
1* 1
0
0*
,
2
0
1
1
1
1
1* 0
B, Q, P, A,
. - 3
0
1
1
1
0* 1
0
4
0
1
1
1
0
1* 0
-

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

76

5@!"! 3

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$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

R, S C. , , .

, , .
, , .
, , .
.
S)*@'"#()*'$
: 1) ,
(); 2) (
) 0; 3)
k, k-1.
, (. . 3.14) Q
Q1, : R, S, C, Q1 0, K I
1, S 2 Q 3. :

A = not (S and C). B = not (R and C); P = not (A and Q); Q = not (B and P).
.
P, , , .

. - , .
(. . 3.14)
: 16- , . 3.8, 5 . . 3.8 , . , , 0 S C, K I.

3.6. E:-./:-+A.,74. 4B.,3.A.0+. :0:D+?: 0: ,+,-./04/ <8490.


$,04901. ,9.5.0+> +? -.48++ /:,,494@4 4B,D<L+9:0+>. , ,
, , ..
6)9(#% ( &"$2#()*'9/' &")*6)%&)/'). , ( ) , () , .
, , , , , . , , ,
.
, , . ,
+'+&$/. /)++#(#8# #2+47@'()*'9 ().
, , , , ,
..
(),
#2+47@'()<A'/ )00)")&#/ (), . &.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

77

5@!"! 3

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$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

. +&)&'1$+%'$ #23$%&. , "$+7"+)/'. ,


.
, , -'*)/'1$+%'$ #23$%&. . , .
. ,
, true () false
(), , . , ,
.
, , -'+='04'*#; #2+47@'()*'9, , , 0"'#"'&$&#/. 2$+0"'#"'&$&*., -'+='04'*), . FIFO ( ), LIFO ( ) .
0"'#"'&$&*., -'+='04'*), . , . , .
)2+#4<&*./ 0"'#"'&$&#/, , . #&*#+'&$45*#8# 0"'#"'&$&) ,
. .
, .. , , , '/'&)='#**./ /#-$4'"#()*'$/ . ,
. +#2.&'$/
.
, , )*)4'&'1$+%'/ '++4$-#()*'$/ . .
, ,
.
,
- ,
, . ,
, . , , .

, .
() . . (,
), . , .
&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

78

5@!"! 3

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$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

C0:D+-+A.,7+. /45.D+ *E$. , . .


-, , , FIFO.
-, .
-, 0"#+&$;>'/' , .. , , ( ), .

. %#*$1*./' /)"%#(+%'/' =$09/'.
S,
( ).
, , , ( ) ( ).
, Vij = lim Pij(t1) / t1 t1 0, Pij(t1) Si Sj t1.
Vii = - Vij,

j i

Vij = 0.

(3.44)

j=1

N . . 3.17 S1,...,S4, . 3.9 .


M:BD+=: 3.9

%+,.3.)7.

S1

S2

S3

S4

S1

-V12-V13-V14

V12

V13

V14

S2

V21

-V21

S3

-V34

V34

S4

V42

-V42

, , .. ()
. , . , , 7")(*$*'9 O#4/#8#"#().
.
Pi Si t1 Si Si t1, ..
Pi(t) = Pi(t+t1) - Pi(t) = Pji(t1)Pj(t) - Pik(t1)Pi(t),
jJ

kK

(3.45)

Pi(t) Pj(t) Si Sj t, Pji(t1) Pik(t1) t1;


&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

79

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

Pji(t1)Pj(t) Sj Si, , ; J K
Si .
(3.45) t1 t0,
lim Pi(t)/t1 = (lim Pji/t1)Pj - (lim Pik/t1)Pi,

t0

j t0

t0


dPi/dt = (Vji Pj ) - Pi Vik.
j

dPi/dt = 0 , i-

(VjiPj ) = Pi Vik.
j

(3.46)

ViiPi (3.46) (3.44),


N

j=1

k=1

(VjiPj ) = Pi Vik =0,

..
N

(VjiPj ) = 0,
j=1
Pj .
"8+/.8 :0:D+-+A.,742 /45.D+. ,
, , . Nav , , Qav , ?av , ?or .
. 3.18 , Sk k
. . 3.10.
M:BD+=: 3.)0
P0 + P1 = 0,

S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
...
P0 - (l+)P1 + P2 = 0,
S0
0
0
0
...
-

P1 - (l+)P2 + P3 = 0,
P2 - (l+)P3 + P4 = 0,
S1
0
0
...
--

.....
S2
0
0
...
--

%+,.3.)8.

S3

--

...

S4

--

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

, PW, i = 1,2,3..., P0.


P1 = P0/ = aP0,
P2 = ((l+)P1 - P0) / = (1+a)P1 - aP0 = a2P0;
P3 = (1+a)P2 - aP1 = a 2P1 = a3P0 ..
) = /. ,
) < 1.
&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

80

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

Pi = 1,
i=0

P0 = 1 - Pi = 1 - P0 (a + a2 + a3 + ...) = 1 / (1 + a + a2 + a3 +...) = 1 - a.
i=0

Nav = Pk k = P1 + 2P2 + 3P3 +... = a (1-a) (1 + 2a + 3a2 +...) = a (1-a) / (1-a)2 = a / (1-a).
k=1

Qav = P2 + 2P3 + 3P4 +... = (k-1)Pk = P0 a2 ( 1 + 2a + 3a2 +...) = a2 / (1-a).


k=2

:
Nav = Tav ,
Qav = Tor
:
Tav = a / (1-a) / = 1 / ( - ),
Tor = a2 / (1-a) / = a / ( - ).
!/+-:=+4004. /45.D+849:0+. *E$. ,
. . , , ().
.
- .
( +$&$(./' '/'&)='#**./' /#-$49/' ) ,
. , SMPL . , SOL, GPSS.
- , . ,
GPSS , , ..
, , , , .
D+&#1*'% (,#-*#8# 0#&#%) 6)9(#% , tk . . , , . tk .
Q+&"#;+&() () . .
, .
, , .
G)%#0'&$4' , ,
. , , &.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

81

5@!"! 3

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$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

, ()
.
Q64. , , , , , , ..
, , (). , , .
, , . ,
, tk.
, , , , .. , .
,
.
*4B1-+2012 /.-45 /45.D+849:0+>. +#2.&';*.; /$&#- . ,
.
() , . ,
(, ), . , , .
.
, .. .
. (), ().
, (), , . .
,
. (), .
, .
. ( . 3.19):
1) ; , , ,
;
2)
,
%+,. 3.)9.
, ,
&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

82

; ;
3) , , , ;
, , ;
;
4) .
, tk, , ,
.
GPSS. GPSS (General Purpose Simulation System), , . () GPSS ( ), , . GPSS , , , .
GPSS :
<> < > < > [<>]
, , , , .
, , , B, C,... , , (). , . , , 1 , FN , P ( L , L =12),
K , RN1 , [0, 1], S
, F , Q .
<>$<>
, Q$ORD ORD FN$COS COS.
, .

GENERATE A,B,C,D,E
,
: 1) [-, +] ; 2) , , ; ; D ; . D , . :
GENERATE 6,FN$EXP,,15
, 15 , 6
EXP;
GENERATE 36,12
, [24, 48].
,
M FUNCTION A,B
,

.. .

83

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

X0,Y0/X2,Y2/X3,Y3/..../Xn,Yn
M , A , B , Xi Yi , . :
EXP FUNCTION RN0,C02
0,0/0.2,0.22/0.4,0.50/0.5,0.6/0.6,0.92/... ..
() EXP, 12- , (RN1), [0, 1];
DDD FUNCTION *4,D6
0,2/2,5/3,00/4,20/5,08/6,02/7,9
(D) 6- , , .

SPLIT A,B,C
. , (
) . ,
. 1, - 2,
3, 4,... ..

ASSEMBLE A
,
-1 ,
GATHER A
, .

SEIZE A
,
RELEASE A
.

ADVANCE A,B
, GENERATE.
+ - 0 B . - 7 . WST a , a [7,11] ,
...
SEIZE WST
ADVANCE 9,2
RELEASE WST
...

ENTER A,B

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

84

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

, () ().

LEAVE A,B
,
M STORAGE A
, .

, . . , .
QUEUE A

DEPART A
.
,
.
TEST XX A,B,C
, , ,
, {E,NE,L,LE,G,GE}, E- , NE , L , LE , G , GE (XX 13 14).
+ - 0 B . - 2 . , 4, .
...
TEST LE Q$STR,K4,LBL
QUEUE STR
SEIZE POINT
DEPART STR
ADVANCE 50,06
RELEASE POINT
...
LBL TERMINATE 0
...
2
TERMINATE A
.
.
,
START A,,C
, . .
+ - 0 B . - 3 . GPSS
SIMULATE
<, >
<, >

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

85

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

START A,,C
END.

TRANSFER ,B
, .
TRANSFER. :
TRANSFER P,B,C
, .
TRANSFER FN,B,C
, .
TRANSFER PICK,B,C
, [B,C].

TRANSFER E,B,C
, 1 - .
+ - 0 B . - 4 . , [20,40],
WGR1, WGR2 WGR3, . WGR1, WGR2 WGR3 0,05, 0,1 0,125 . , 1000 .
:
SIMULATE
EXP FUNCTION RN0,C02
0,0/.2,.22//.4,.50/.5,.6/.6,.92/.7,0.2/.8,0.60/.9,2.3/.95,3/.99,4.6/.999,6.9/0,0000
GENERATE 30,00
SEIZE WGR0
ADVANCE 20,FN$EXP
RELEASE WGR0
SPLIT 0,MET0
SEIZE WGR2
ADVANCE 00,FN$EXP
RELEASE WGR2
TRANSFER , MET2
MET0 SEIZE WGR3
ADVANCE 8,FN$EXP
RELEASE WGR3
MET2 ASSEMBLE 2
%+,. 3.20.
TERMINATE 0

START 0000,,0000

END

P(t) = exp(-T),
.
T

F(T) = p(t)dt = 1 - exp(-T).


0

. 3.20 , b ?, , a,
[0,1] ,

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

86

5@!"! 3

%!#*%!#&F*:,$*

$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

= (1/) ln(1/(1-))
(3.47)
. (3.47) ADVANCE (. 4)
1/.
GPSS.

ASSIGN A,B
, .
ASSIGN A+,B
,
ASSIGN A-,B
. ,
LOGIC_X A
= S , X= R ;
GATE_XX A,B
XX = LR = 1 = LS = 0 (
GATE, ), XX .
M VARIABLE A
,
3 VARIABLE K206-S$MEM2
3 216 MEM2. , , ,
LBL MATCH NUMB
,
NUMB MATCH LBL
.

*.-+ ".-8+. :$&' !$&"'


( ).
<P,T,I,O>, % M , I $ . ,
, 0#6'='9/ , , 0$"$,#-)/ , ; I , , $ .
, : /$&%)/' (/)"%$")/')
.
/)"%'"#(%#;.
. +#2.&'$/, . ,
.
&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

87

5@!"! 3

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$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

. +")2)&.()*'$ ( ) , . .
(. 3.21), : ,
NiX Ki, Ni i- , Ki , i- ; i-
Ki, j- Mj, Mj , %+,.3.2).
j- .
. 3.21 ,
(2,2,3,1). :
(1,0,1,4).
,
. , , , . () , , . ("$/$**#; +$&5<
!$&"'.
,
+&#,)+&'1$+%#;.
. , . 3.22 , p t1, t2.

.
%+,.3.22.

, - , ..,
E7*%='#*)45*#;.
,
.
, . ; . =($&*#;.
'*8'2'&#"*.$ , , () .
, , .
.
+ - 0 B . - 7 .
WS WS .
. 3.23.
: t1 WS, t2 , t3
, t4 ; "4
WS: "4 , WS t2; , "4 , , "1 %+,. 3.23. 1
t3.
+ - 0 B . - 2 .
, L ; ;
, -

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

88

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$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

, . . 3.24
. ,
, L,
L , L.
L "2 .
: t1 , t2
, t3 , t4 .
, "2 t1
, , %+,. 3.24. 2
. t1 "1 t2, "6, ,
. t2 ,
. "3 , (
"4), t3, "2, "5 "6 ,
. t4 .
, , . , "1.

C0:D+? ,.-.2 ".-8+. , .


.
.
, . , , , , , .
U8")*'1$**#+&5 ( O-#8")*'1$**#+&5) ,
O. O
.
.
C$6#0)+*#+&5 , 1-. , , .
:#,")*9$/#+&5 , ..

AiNi = const,
Ni i- , Ai .
N#+&'@'/#+&5 Mk Mj Mj , Mk.
Y'(#+&5 .
, , ,
.
)*)4'6 -#+&'@'/#+&'.
E . E,
. Ei Ej Mi Mj t.
. , (, Mk . Ek). &.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

89

5@!"! 3

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$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

- , .. .
- .
.
+ - 0 B . - 7 . . 3.25.
, .
, , .

%+,. 3.25. 1
+ - 0 B . - 2 . . 3.26.
, , , .

%+,. 3.26. 2

3.7. E:-./:-+A.,74. 4B.,3.A.0+. 345,+,-./ /:I+0042 @8:H+7+ +


@.4/.-8+A.,74@4 /45.D+849:0+>
'4/340.0-1 /:-./:-+A.,74@4 4B.,3.A.0+>. () -. , , , .. , ,
(, ,
..).
, ( ), , . .
, , . .
(2D) (3D) .
2D
, &.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

90

5@!"! 3

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$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

. 2D, 3D
, , ..
3D (), ,
().
O)"%)+*)9 /#-$45 ,
. .
,
.
!#($",*#+&*)9 /#-$45 , , , .
,
+%7450&7"*./' 0#($",*#+&9/'.
(, , ), , ( ,
), .
U23$/*.$ /#-$4' , .
.
1. , , .
2. O'*$/)&'1$+%'; /$&#-, ; .
3. !#6'='#**.; 0#-,#-,
() , ;
.
4. 2)6#(., B4$/$*&#( E#"/. () - .
, , , , , , . - , , . ,
.
/$&#-#/ %#*+&"7%&'(*#; 8$#/$&"''. -.
, .. , .
. , .
")+&$"'6)='9 .
, , ($%&#"'6)='$;. , , .
K.4/.-8+A.,7+. /45.D+. . , , , . .
, . :
1) , ( ); , &.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

91

5@!"! 3

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$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

.
2) , .
,
.
I-.
, .
+ - 0 B .F 6 9 0 . . , , , .


x(t) = axt3 + bxt2 + cxt + dx ,
(3.48)
y(t) = ayt3 + byt2 + cyt + dy ,
3
2
z(t) = azt + bzt + czt + dz ,
1 t 0. , ..
(3.48).
( ) .

. I- (.. ) , , . , .
(3.48) , -, (3.48)
t=0 t=1 P1 %4 , -,
dx/dt = 3axt2 + 2bx + cx ,
dy/dt = 3ayt2 + 2byt + cy ,
dz/dt = 3azt2 + 2bzt + cz ,
t=0 t=1 %2 %3,
(. 3.27).
x(t) = TMGx,
y(t) = TMGy,
(3.49)

z(t) = T MGz,
T = ( t3, t2, t, 1) -, M . 3.11,
Gx S,i P1, %2, %3 %4, Gy, Gz
Syi, Szi .
I- n ,
P0, P1, P2,Pn. Pi Pi+1 I-, Pi-1, Pi, Pi+1, Pi+2. I-
-1/6
[Pi, Pi+1] , 1/2
(3.49),
x(t) = TMGx,
y(t) = TMGy,
z(t) = TMGz,
&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

%+,. 3.27.
M:BD+=: 3.))

-1

-3

-6

-3

M:BD+=: 3.)2

1/2

-1/2

1/6

-1

1/2

-1/2

1/2

1/6

2/3

1/6

92

5@!"! 3

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$I*:+*F*)&* !)!@&'! +($*,#)KH (*L*)&M

E . 3.12, Gx, Gy, Gz Pi-1, Pi, Pi+1, Pi+2.


, , I-. -, [Pi, Pi+1] , [Qi, Qi+1]. ,
Qi+1 t=1
dx(t)/dt|t=1 = [3t2,2t,1,0]*M*[xi-1,xi,xi+1,xi+2]T = [3,2,1,0]*M*[xi-1,xi,xi+1,xi+2]T = (xi+2-xi) / 2;
d2x(t)/dt2|t=1 = [6t,2,0,0]*M*[xi-1,xi,xi+1,xi+2]T = [6,2,0,0]*M*[xi-1,xi,xi+1,xi+2]T = xi-2 xi+1+ xi+2.
[Qi+1, Qi+2] Qi+1 t=0
dx(t)/dt|t=0 = [0,0,1,0]*M*[xi, xi+1,xi+2, xi+3]T = (xi+2-xi) / 2,
d2x(t)/dt2|t=0 = [0,2,0,0]*M*[ xi, ,xi+1,xi+2, xi+3]T = xi-2 xi+1+ xi+2,
..
. , xq x Qi+1 [Qi, Qi+1]
xq = [1,1,1,1]*M*[xi-1,xi,xi+1,xi+2]T = (xi+4 xi+1+xi+2) / 6
xq, [Qi+1, Qi+2], xq xi+1
.

I- , (3.48) .
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; -
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, [A,B] [A,D1], [C1,B] [C1, D1],
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Xk+1 = Xk + h grad F(X) / |grad F(X)|,


h .
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K- ,
F(X) , , N .
+ - 0 B . - .

Xi = Xi-1 + hSi.

(4.8)

Si+1 Si

Si+1 = - gradF(Xi) + wiSi,

(4.9)

wi . ,

Si+1 KSi = 0

(4.10)

gradF(X) Ni

grad F(Xi+1) = grad F(Xi) + K(Xi+1 - Xi).

(4.11)

h , , -,

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Xi = Xi-1 + hwi-1 Si-1 - h grad F(Xi-1),


F/h = (F(X)/X)(X/h) = grad F(Xi) grad F(Xi-1) = 0.

(4.13)

(4.9),

|grad F(Xk)| < .


wi (4.8)-(4.13) (4.10) Si+1
(4.9) Si (4.8)

Si+1TKSi = (wi Si - grad F(Xi))T K(Xi Xi-1) / h =


= (wi Si - grad F(Xi))T KK -1 (grad F(Xi) - grad F(Xi-1)) / h = 0;

(wi Si - grad F(Xi))T (grad F(Xi) - grad F(Xi-1)) = 0,

wi SiT (grad F(Xi) - grad F(Xi-1)) - grad F(Xi)T grad F(Xi) + grad F(Xi)T grad F(Xi-1) = 0
(4.12) (4.13)

wi SiT grad F(Xi-1) + grad F(Xi)T grad F(Xi) = 0.


,

wi = grad F(Xi)T grad F(Xi) / SiT grad F(Xi-1)

(4.14)

S1 = grad F(X0) N1. (4.14) w1, (4.9) (4.8) S2 N2 ..

L$&#- 0$"$/$**#; /$&"'%' ( --)


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(4.16)

(4.16) . Nk+1 Xk+1 = Xk - K-1(Xk) grad F(Xk).


, ,

|Xk+1 - Xk| < .
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.
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Xk+1 = Xk + N grad F(Xk).
:

dgk= grad F(Xk) - grad F(Xk-1);


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Nk+1= Nk + Ak TBk,

Ak = dXk dXk T / (dXTdgk),


Bk= Nk dgk dgkT NkT / (dgkTNk dgk).

Nk+1 = E + Ai Bi.

i=0
i=0
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grad F(X) = 0.
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(4.17)

,
m

grad F(Q) + ui grad i (Q) +


i=W

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j=W

(4.18)

m , L , aj > 0.
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XR

R = { X | (X) = 0 }.
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(N,V) = F(X) + i i (X),


i=W

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i=W
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m ;
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m

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, C-(=U , U U,
(C) = UTU + ((B)+(grad (B)) TU);
/C = 2U + (grad (B)) = 0;

(4.21)

(4.22)
/= (B) + (grad (B))TU = 0.
(4.21)
U = - 0,5 (grad (B)),
(4.22),
(B) - 0,5 (grad (B))T grad (B)= 0;

= (0,5(grad (B))T grad (B))-1(B).


, (4.21),
U = - grad (B)(grad (B))T grad (B))-1 (B).
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(S,,q) = (grad F(A))TS + (grad (A))TS + q(STS-1),
q ;
/S = grad F(A) + grad (A) + qS = 0;
(4.24)
/ = (grad (A))TS = 0;

(4.25)

(4.26)
/q = STS-1 = 0.
(4.24) ,
S = -(grad F(A) + grad (A) )/q;
S (4.25),
(grad (A))T grad F(A) + (grad (A))T grad (A) = 0,

= - [(grad (A))T grad (A)] -1 (grad (A))T grad F(A), S =


= - {gradF(A)-grad(A)[(grad(A))Tgrad(A)]-1(grad(A))TgradF(A)} / q =
(4.27)
= - {E - grad (A)[(grad (A))T grad (A)]-1 (grad (A)) T}grad F(A) / q.
,
% = E - grad (A)[(grad (A))T grad (A)]-1 grad (A))T
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max min Zj (X),


X

Zj j- yj, .
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Zq(X) - Zk(X) = 0,

(4.28)

Zq(X) (4.28).

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(Simple Type), (Aggregation Data Type), (Defined Data Type), (Enumeration
Data Type) (Select Data Type) .
*<R04,-+ + :-8+B<-1. :7A*#+&5 , , .
)&"'27&#( (Attributes). , .
.ntity, , , :
entity < >;
< >:< >;
...
end_entity;
, (line) 0 1 ( point) :
entity line;
p0,p1: point;
end_entity;
, ,
, 3D x,y,z:
entity point;
x,y,z: real;
end_entity;
Express-G ,
(. 6.21).
, *$#296)&$45*./ (optional) )&"'27&#/.
optional
%+,. 6.2).
Express-G
< >: optional < >;
Express-G . 6.22, , , , , - - ,
optional . , . . .
.
%+,. 6.22. Express-G
, , 0#"#@-$**./'
(derived), derive . , ,
, , :

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

173

5@!"! 6
entity point;
x,y,z: real;
end_entity;
entity circle;
center: point;
radius: real;
derive
area: real := pi*radius**2;
end_entity;

%*#$A&,&

+($*,#&($"!)&P !"#$%!#&'&($"!))KH :&:#*%

-- center, radius
(* area*)

, (* *) %#//$*&)"';
. , (--).
"84,-1. -+31 5:0016. 0"#+&./ &'0)/ -)**., :
integer ;
real ;
number , integer real;
logical true, false unknown ();
Boolean true false;
binary 1 0;
string .
Express-G . 6.23.
binary string , , 24- , :
: string(24);
24 ,
: string(24) fixed;
,
%+,. 6.23. Express-G
: string;
binary, [5:7] 5- 7- .
. R'&$")4. (, ), , (true, false, unknown), ( ). :
( %)
%100101110

1052
( )
34.-3 0.034
( )
first name
C@8.@:-+9012 -+3 5:0016. K8"$8)M:BD+=: 6.)
&'(*.; &'0 -)**., .

array
, . 6.1.
array array

bag

list
.

set
, .
:
F1: array[2:8] of real;
(* F1, real , 2*)
F2: list[1:?] of integer;
(* F2 , , integer*)
matr: array[1:10] of array[9:12] of atrac;
(* matr 10 , atrac*)

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

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174

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%*#$A&,&

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array[2:8] list[1:?] Express-G


A[2:8] L[1:?],
. , - %+,. 6.24.
Express-G
. 6.24.
$38.5.D>./12, 0.A+,D4942, 915.D>./12 -+31. U0"$-$49$/.; &'0
. G$1'+4#(#; &'0 , () . I.-$49$/.; &'0 .
type, . :
type volume = real;
end_type;
entity manual;
name: string;
v1,v2,v3: volume;
end_entity;
enumeration of, . :
type clr = enumeration of (red, green, blue);
end_type;
red red color.red.
. select. , :
type a_c = select (one, two, three);
end_type;
...
proc: a_c; (* proc one, two, three*)
, . 6.25.
, , .
*<3.8-+31 + 345-+31. - - ,
(-) , EXPRESS . +70$"&'0) (supertype), , 0#-&'0#(
(subtypes), . . 6.26 ,
, .
--, 1 b1 b2. b1 b2 size real, b1 vol real, b2 met string. :
entity a1
supertype of (oneof (b1,b2));
size: real;
end_entity;
entity b1
subtype of (a1);
vol: real;
end_entity;
entity b2
subtype of (a1);
met: string;
end_entity;

%+,. 6.25.
Express-G

:
, 1 , oneof and ( andor), ..
:
%+,. 6.26.
Express-G
supertype of (b1 and b2);

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

175

5@!"! 6

%*#$A&,&

+($*,#&($"!)&P !"#$%!#&'&($"!))KH :&:#*%

, ( , ), 1 , , ; subtype of (a1);
supertype abstract, 1 - , .. 1 ;
; ; , , , a1.size.
:
entity device
supertype of (oneof (transistor, diode));
(* device -- transistor diode*)
end_entity;
entity transistor
subtype of (device);
b: real;
end_entity;
entity diode
subtype of (device);
r: real;
end_entity;

$@8:0+A.0+>. , , 0")('4 (rules).


.
, , rule, , for, , , , , .
(uniqueness rules) , (domain rules). , Z X.Y, , , X Y Z,
entity Z;
X: integer;
Y: string;
unique
X,Y;
end_entity;
.
where , true, false unknown. , true. , ,
vect = (x,y,z) , cons:
entity vect;
x,y,z: real;
where
cons: x**2 + y**2 + z**2 = 1.0;
end_entity;

"84=.5<81 + H<07=++. !"#=$-7". E7*%='' . , .


procedure, . :
procedure eq (x,y: real; n: integer; var result: route);
, :
function log (a: real; m: integer): real;

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

176

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%*#$A&,&

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,
local
...
end_local;
.
. :
Abs ; Sqrt ; Exp ; Log, Log2, Log)0 , , ; Sin, Cos, Tan, Acos, Asin, ATan
sin, cos, tg, Arc cos, Arc sin, Arc tg.
: BLength ; HiBound
array set, bag, list; LoBound ; Length ; Odd true, ;
SizeOf ; TypeOf , ; Exists true, , .
Insert Remove .
07+&#; (Null), 0"'+()'()*'9 (Assignment), (.2#") (:ase), +#+&)(*#; (Compound Statement), 7+4#(*.; (if..then..else), ='%4) (Repeat), (.,#-) '6 E7*%='' '4' 0"#=$-7". (Return), 0$"$,#-) *) %#*$= ='%4) (Skip).
, , . ,
real : * , / , DIV , + , - , ** , MOD .
: not , and , or , xor .
logical . a1 in a2 true, 1 2. like . :=:
:<>: .
( bag set) (Intersection), (Union),
(Difference). * (), + (), () . Query ( <* | )
, , , . + () binary string .
, , , : generic, aggregate .
generic , . aggregate
array, bag, list, set. :
function add (a,b: generic: intype): generic: intype;
local
nr: number;
vr: vector;
end_local;
if (number in typeof (a)) and (number in typeof (b))
then nr := a+b;
(* typeof (a) , number,
true *)
return (nr);
else
if (this schema.vector in typeof (a)) and (this schema.vector in typeof (b)) then
vr.i := a.i + b.i;
vr.j := a.j + b.j;
vr.k := a.k + b.k;
(* , vector this schema *)
return (vr);
end_if;
end_if;
end_function;

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

177

5@!"! 6

%*#$A&,&

+($*,#&($"!)&P !"#$%!#&'&($"!))KH :&:#*%

Express-G , .
'40,-:0-1. :
constant
year: integer:= 1995;
start: date := date(12,16,1982);
(*, date , , *)
end_constant;

(?:+/4,9>?+ ,6./. .
use reference. :
schema s1;
entity par1;
name: string;
end_entity;
end_schema;
schema s2; (* s2 name s1.par1 *)
use from s1.par1 ( name as x);
end_schema;
use ,
, reference .
Express-G . (schema level)
. c (entity level) , , , .
. -
. S1.par1. , ( name).
, , Express-G , , .
"8+/.8 /45.D+ 0: >?17. Express. person_organization_schema 41- STEP (ISO 10303.41).
schema person_organization_schema;
entity address;
internal_location : optional label;
street_number : optional label;
street : optional label;
postal_box : optional label;
town : optional label;
region : optional label;
postal_code : optional label;
country : optional label;
facsimile_number : optional label;
telephone_number : optional label;
electronic_mail_address : optional label;
telex_number : optional label;
where
wr1 : exists(internal_location) or exists(street_number) or exists(street) or exists(postal_box) or
exists(town) or exists(region) or exists(postal_code) or exists(country) or exists(facsimile_number)
or exists(telephone_number) or exists(electronic_mail_address) or exists(telex_number);
end_entity;
entity personal_address
subtype of (address);
people : set[7:?] of person;
description : text;
end_entity;
entity person;
id : identifier;

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

178

5@!"! 6

%*#$A&,&

+($*,#&($"!)&P !"#$%!#&'&($"!))KH :&:#*%

last_name : optional label;


first_name : optional label;
middle_names : optional list[7:?] of label;
prefix_titles : optional list[[7:?] of label;
suffix_titles : optional list[[7:?] of label;
unique
ur1 : id;
where
wr1 : exists(last_name) or exists(first_name);
end_entity;
end_schema;

*-8<7-<8: 4B/.004@4 H:2D: 9 ,-:05:8-. STEP (ISO)0303-2)). STEP , P-LIB.


STEP . ( HEADER ENDSEC) :
Entity file_name ;
Entity file_description ;
Entity file_schema , ;
keyword ( ).
( DATA ENDSEC) :
# = keyword ( );
:
#7 = POINT(0.0,0.2,0.5);
(* POINT 1 0, 0.2 0.5 REAL.*)
#2 = WIDGET(.RED.);
(* WIDGET 2 RED.*)
...
#8 = LINE(#7,#4);
(* 1 4.*)
, .

%:,I+8.0+> >?17: Express. Express-C :


event a;
when b c; (* b , b =true*);
end_event;
transaction c;
local d: e;
end_local;
...
end_transaction;
Express- Express-X Express-. , Express- - , 1, 2, 3, - ,
b1, b2, b3, :
shema map B A;
b1 := a1;
b2 := a2;
b3 := a3;
end_shema_map;
, , a1 , b1 ,
b1 := a1*100.

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

179

5@!"! 6

%*#$A&,&

+($*,#&($"!)&P !"#$%!#&'&($"!))KH :&:#*%

P38:L0.0+> + 94384,1 5D> ,:/4740-84D>


1. . ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. IDEF0- .
6. .
7. IDEF1X- , , , .
8. STEP.
9. STEP-?
10. CASE ?
11. , .7 Express.
12. Express.
13. Express, Express-M Express-V?

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

180

+(&@$Q*)&*
E.-45+7+ IDEF

M:BD+=: ".)
)6C4690.

)6C96F.90.

IDEF0
IDEF1, IDEF1X
IDEF2
IDEF3
IDEF4
IDEF5
IDEF6
IDEF8
IDEF9
IDEF14

(Function Modeling Method)


(Information and Data Modeling Methods)
(Simulation Modeling Method)
(Process Flow and Object State Description Capture Method)
- (Object-Oriented Design Method).
(Ontology Description Capture method)
(Design Rationale Capture Method)
(Human-System Interaction Design)
(Business Constraint Discovery)
(Network Design)

*-:05:8-1 CDIF (CASE Data Interchange Format)


CDIF- .
A. *-8<7-<8: ,-:05:8-49.
CDIF CASE Data Interchange Format Overview EIA/IS-106; CDIF.
CDIF / Framework for Modeling and Extensibility EIA/IS-107; CDIF
/ , , CDIF
, .
.
X. J48/:- 4B/.0: 5:001/+.
CDIF Transfer Format / General Rules for Syntaxes and Encodings EIA/IS-108;
CDIF .
CDIF Transfer Format / Transfer Format Syntax SYNTAX.1 EIA/IS-109; ,
.
CDIF Transfer Format / Transfer Format Encoding ENCODING.1 EIA/IS-110; , .
CDIF Transfer Format / OMG IDL Bindings; Internet CORBA.
(. !0-.@8+849:00:> /.-:/45.DF.
CDIF Integrated Meta-model / Foundation Subject Area EIA/IS-111; .
CDIF Integrated Meta-model / Common Subject Area EIA/IS-112; ,
. . : , ..
CDIF Integrated Meta-model / Data Modeling Subject Area EIA/IS-114; -.
CDIF Integrated Meta-model / Data Flow Model Subject Area EIA/IS-115;
, , , IDEF0.
CDIF Integrated Meta-model / Data Definition Subject Area; , , , ..
CDIF Integrated Meta-model / State Event Model Subject Area; ,
, , , , .. .
CDIF Integrated Meta-model / Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Subject Area; - , UML.
, .
CDIF Integrated Meta-model / Computer Aided Control Systems Design Subject Area; -

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

181

+(&@$Q*)&*
.
CDIF Integrated Meta-model / Presentation Location and Connectivity Subject Area EIA/IS-118; (, , ).
CDIF Integrated Meta-model / Physical Relational Database Subject Area .
CDIF Integrated Meta-model / Project Management Planning and Scheduling Subject Area
, .
CDIF Integrated Meta-model / Business Process Modeling Subject Area .

*-:05:8-1 STEP
( 31 39) IS 10303 .
N=3): General concepts; STEP, (, , ).
N=32: Requirements on testing laboratories and clients; .
N=33: Structure and use of abstract test suites; .
N=34: Abstract test methods; .
N=35: Abstract test methods for SDAI implementations; SDAI .
, 301.
, 100 , ..
N=301 201 ..
(N 41 49) , -

.
N=4): Fundamentals of product description and support; . , , (shape_representation), (action), (application and product context),
(approval), , , , ( ),
, , , .
N=42: Geometric and topological representation; . , , , IGES. , : (axis_placement), (b_spline_curve) (bezier_curve), - (b_spline_surface), - (rational_b_spline_surface) (bezier_surface),
(cartesian_point), (cartesian_transformation_operator_3d),
(geometric_representation_context), (offset_surface),
(surface_of_revolution) .
N=43: Representation structures; . ,
, ..
N=44: Product structure configuration; .
N=45: Materials; .
N=46: Visual Presentation; . , GKS (Graphic Kernel System) PHIGS (Programmers Hierarchical Interactive Graphic System).
, (presentation), (visualization), .
N=47: Shape variation tolerance; .
N=48: Form features; .
N=49: Process structure and properties; .
, N = 101.
N=)0): Draughting; , .
N=)04: Finite element analysis; .
Express . . : (, , );
(, 2D 3D, 2D 3D ), (, , ); ; , ,

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

182

+(&@$Q*)&*
(, , , ), (, ,
), .
. , , ; , ; ; ; ..
N=)05: Kinematics; .
N=)06: Building construction core model; .
N=)07: Engineering analysis core ARM; .
"8+7D:501. 384-474D1. , , Express Express-G.
. (UoF Units of
Functionality). (CC Conformance Classes) .
C%20): Explicit draughting; . ,
, , , .
, , , -, , ..
C%202: Associative draughting; . , . ,
201 UoF :
1) (, , );
2) (, );
3) (2D 3D CAD-);
4) ();
5) ( , , );
6) (, );
7) ();
8) .
C%203: Configuration controlled design; .
. , : ; 3D , ; .
203 Express , .
1. ISO 10303-41, 42 44 . , , , - , , , , , , ..
2. , SELECT .
3. , . 6
. O4)++ W . O4)++ 2 , , . %4)++$ 3 , .. ,
, . O4)++ 4 . O4)++. 5 ' 6 , BREP (Boundary representation).
, () , . 6 , , (, , ), , .
4. , , ,
.
C%204. Mechanical design using boundary representation;
. , , , , ,
(, BREP-), , ..
C%205: Mechanical design using surface representation;

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

183

+(&@$Q*)&*
. , , 204,
, .
C%207: Sheet metal die planning and design; .
C%208: Life cycle management Change process;
( ). (), , , , .
C%209: Composite and metallic structural analysis and related design;
; , , . , 3D
, ,
.
C%2)0: Electronic assembly, interconnect and packaging design; , .
, ,
, ..
AP2)): PCA Integrated Diagnositics and test; .
C%2)2: Electrotechnical design and installation; .
, , . ,
, , ,
. ( , , ). : ,
, (installation_location), , , , , , , (connectivity), . , , .
, . . 4 ( conformance classes):
1 (, , , ) ;
2 1 ( , .);
3 1 ( , );
4 212, .. 1,
2 3.
C%2)3: Numerical control process plans for machined parts;
. , , , ,
, .
C%2)4: Core Data for Automotive Mechanical Design Processes; . , , , ( , ,
) .
19 (Conformance Classes), (, , ), , , .
(, ), ,
214 UoF, . :
G1: wireframe_model_2d, , , , , ,
, -, 2D .;
G2: wireframe_model_3d , 3D;
G3: connected_surface_model, , G2 G8 , ,
, .
G4: faceted_b_rep_model, BREP ,

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

184

+(&@$Q*)&*
. , , G3 G5, , BREP (manifold solid B-rep) .
G5: b_rep_model , . .
G3.
G6: compound_model , , . : ,
..
G7: csg_model, solid model using Constructive Solid Geometry . UoF , , .
G8: geometrically_bounded_surface_model UoF .
UoF :
S2: element_structure , , , ,
, 2D 3D, , ..
S5: work_management , , , , , .
S6: classification , .
S7: specification_control ,
. , , , , , , , , , ..
C%2)5. Ship arrangement: . ,
(, , , , ),
, ..
C%2)6. Ship moulded form; . , , ,
, .
C%2)7. Ship piping; . ,
, , , .
C%2)8. Ship structures; . .
C%220: PCA Manufacturing Planning; . 2D , , , ..
C%22): Functional data and their schematic representation for process plant;
. , , . , , .
C%223: Exchange of design and manufacturing product information for casting parts;
.
: , , ,
, , , , .
C%224: Mechanical product definition for process plans using machining features; . (, , , ), . , ,
.
C%225: Building elements using explicit shape representation;
.
C%226. Ship mechanical systems; . , , , , , , ..
C%227. Plant spatial configuration; .
C%228: Building services: Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning;
, , .
C%23). Process design and process specifications of major equipment; . , , , -

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

185

+(&@$Q*)&*
.
C%232. Technical data packaging core information and exchange; . . , STEP. , ,
, , - .
AP233. Systems engineering data representation
( ), (, , , , , ..),
, , , .
, ( ) .

, N = 501, . :
N=50): Edge-based wireframe; ..
N=502: Shell-based wireframe; .
N=503 (CD): Geometrically bounded 2D wireframe; 2D
.
N=504: Draughting annotation; .
N=506: Draughting elements; .
N=507: Application interpreted construct: Geometrically bounded surface; .
N=5)0: Geometrically bounded wireframe; .
N=5)): Topologically bounded surface; .
N=5)2: Faceted boundary representation; ..
N=5)5: Constructive solid geometry; .

*-:05:8-1 <38:9D.0+> 7:A.,-94/ 3845<7=++


ISO 9000 , .
, 0$"('1*.$ . , ,
. ,
.
ISO :
ISO 900) , , , ;
ISO 9002 ISO 9001 ( );
ISO 9003 .
20 , +'+&$/*./' B4$/$*&)/'. , , , , . , , , .
, , ( ).
I&#"'1*.$ :
ISO 9000 , ISO 9001;
ISO 9004 .
!#--$"@'()<A'$ :
ISO )00)) , ;
ISO )00)2 ;
ISO )00)3 .
ISO-14000 . .
.
( , , , ).

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

186

+(&@$Q*)&*
( ; ,
; ; ; ; ).
( ; ; ; ).
.
, ISO 14001, ,
, , , , . , , , .. .
. ,
. , ,
, , . .
ISO 14001 , , .

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

187

:+&:$,

@&#*(!#R(K

1. G+3:.9 (.(., J+D+049 &.#. . .: , 1997.


2. #48.0749 !."., M8<5404I+0 (.C. .
.: - ... , 1998.
3. $,-8.2749,7+2 (.C. . .: . ., 1997.
4. C : . : 9 ./
. !.".#48.0749:. .: . ., 1986.
5. J4D+ OL., 9T0 OT/ C. : . .
2- . .: , 1985.
6. Y.80.0F7+2 (.E. . .: . ., 1990.

&.+.)$(*),$" . !"#$%!#&'&($"!))$*

+($*,#&($"!)&*

188