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. . , . .

2003

537.86(075.8)
22.33673
70

:

(.  .. , . . . );
. . . (.
)

70

. .
. . , 
: . . . /
. . , . . . .: 
, 2003. 256 c.
ISBN 5769513136
, 
, , , 
. 
.
.
, 
.

537.86(075.8)
22.33673
ISBN 5769513136

. ., . ., 2003
, 2003

....................................................................................................................... 3
1. ........................................................................ 5
1.1. K .............................................................. 5
1.2. .................................................. 7
1.3. . ............. 10
1.4. .
........................................................ 14
1.5. ....... 15
1.5.1. ............... 15
1.5.2. ......................... 16
1.5.3. ....................... 17
1.6.
..................................................................................................... 18
1.6.1. ............... 18
1.6.2. ......................... 21
1.7. .................................................... 22
1.8. . ..................... 25
1.9. A. .................................. 29
................................................................................. 30
2. .................................................................... 47
2.1. ................................................... 47
2.2.
................................................................................................ 50
2.3. .................................................... 52
2.4. .
........................................................................ 54
2.5. ........................................................................................ 57
2.6. (
) ..................................................................... 61
2.7. ................................................... 64
................................................................................. 65
3. ........................................................................................... 80
3.1. , .................................. 80
3.2. .
................................................................................. 83

252

3.3. . ...................... 86
3.4. ........................................................................................... 87
3.5. ......................................................................................... 90
3.6. .................................................................. 92
................................................................................. 95
4. ................................................................... 106
4.1. ........................................................................... 106
4.2. ........................................ 108
4.3. .............................. 112
4.4. .
......................................................... 114
4.5. ............................ 116
............................................................................... 117
5. .......................................................................... 126
5.1. ................................. 126
5.2. ........................... 128
5.3. ,
.................................................................................... 131
5.4. ,
................................................................................................. 135
5.5. ...................................... 140
............................................................................... 145
6. .................................................................................... 161
6.1. ........................................................... 161
6.2. . ......................................... 162
6.3.
( ) ........................................................................... 165
6.4.
( ) ................................................................. 168
6.5. .
..................................................................... 171
6.6. .................................... 175
6.7. ...................... 177
............................................................................... 181
7. ................................................. 194
7.1. .................................. 194
7.2. .................. 195
7.3. ................................................................................... 198
7.4. ........................................................................................ 199
7.5. .................................................... 200
............................................................................... 202
8. ................................................................................ 207
8.1. . ............. 207

253

8.2.
............................................. 210
8.3. .................. 212
8.4. .......................................................................................... 216
8.5. .................. 217
8.6. .......................................................... 220
8.7. ........................................ 222
8.8. ....................................... 224
8.9. ................................................... 226
............................................................................... 228
.................................................................................................................. 242
.............................................................................................. 247



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, 
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: www.miem.edu.ru ( ).
: trofimova@miem.edu.ru.

1.1. K
K , 
.
,
, .

. 

.

. 
(. 1.1, ) f (t), 
, t
f (t + T ) = f (t),
T ( . 1.1, T
).

(. 1.1, ). f (t + T ) f (t),
.
,
, 
. 3
, :

1
.
(1.1)
T
(1 
, 1 ).
:
( ) , 


(, );
n=

. 1.1

, 
;
,

;

, 

,
.

:
, , ,
;
, 
, ,
(. 1.2), 
. 
. 1.2
. 
.

?

? ?
? 
?

1.2.
, 

.

x ( 
), x
(. 1.3)
x = A cos (w0t + j),

(1.2)

A = x max , 3
(. 1.4); w0 ( )
; (w0t + j) ,
, 
; j , 

( t = 0 x = A cos j).
T (. . 1.1) 
2p (. 1.5), . .
(w0t + T ) + j = (w0t + j) + 2p.

T=

2p
w0

(1.3)

w0 = 2pn
(, n =

(1.4)

1
) [. (1.1)].
T

. 1.3

. 1.4

. 1.5

p
,
2

(1.5)

a = -Aw20 cos(w0t + j) = Aw20 cos(w0t + j + p),

(1.6)

v = -Aw0 sin(w0 + j) = Aw0 cos w0t + j +



;
Aw0 Aw 20;
p
; 
2
(.
. 1.6).
, 
m,
F = ma = -m w20 x

(1.7)

[ (1.2) (1. 6)]. : 1) 


; 2) 
. ,
.
. (1.7) .
,
, .

. 1.6

. 1.7

K , 
:

m w02A2
mv 2 m w20A2
sin 2(w0t + j) =
[1 - cos 2(w0t + j)]. (1.8)
=
2
2
4
, 
F [
(1.7)]:
T=

P = - F dx =
0

m w20x 2 m w02A2
cos 2(w0t + j) =
=
2
2

m w20A2
[1 + cos 2(w0t + j)].
4

(1.9)

m w20A2
.
(1.10)
2
[. (1.8)
m w20A2
(1.9)] 0

2
2w0 (. . x 
m w20A2
)
[.
4
. 1.7 (1.8) (1.10)]. 
, (
) ( 
, 
) 
. 

E =T + P =

1
T = P = E ,
2

sin 2 w0t =

1
T

T 2

-T 2

cos 2 w0t dt =

1
T

T 2

1 + cos 2w0t
1
dt =
2
2
-T 2

T 2

cos 2 w0t =

T 2

1 - cos 2w0t
1
1
1
sin 2 w 0t dt =
dt = .

T -
T
2
2
T 2
-T 2
9


( ) , , ,
, .
,

x = 2 cos 8pt +

p
. ,
4

?
, , , 
.

, .

2p?
,
?
, 
k , .
?

1.3. .
(. . 1.2)
(, ,
, ) .
.
O , . K3
, 
(, 
, ). 
, .

s&& + w 20s = 0,

(1.11)

s = A cos(w0t + j),
s [ . 
(1.2)].
( 
): , 
.
(. 1.8) m,

.
10

F 

x (. 
. 1.7):
F= -kx,

(1.12)

k .

m x&& = -k x ,

(1.13)

x&& +

k
x = 0 x&& + w20 x = 0.
m

. 1.8

( )

x = A cos(w0t + j)

w0 =

k
m

T=

2p
m
.
= 2p
k
w0

(. 1.9) 
, m, 
, 
.

Mz = Ftl = -mgl sin a,


a 
; Ft = mg sin a 
; l ; g
.
r r
M a , 
-.


&& ,
Mz = J a
J .

. 1.9

11

, ,

&& = -mgl sin a.


Ja
sin a a. , J =ml 2,

g
&& + a = 0,
a
l
. . a [
(1.11)].
&& + w20 a = 0.
a
( ) 

a = a 0 cos(w0t + j)
a 0 ( , 
),
w0 =

g
l


T = 2p

l
.
g

(1.14)

(. 1.10) ,

, O, 
C . O .

&& = Ftl = -mgl sin a,


M = Ja
J 
, ; a

; Ft = -mg sin a ;
l = OC
.


&& = -mgl sin a.


Ja

. 1.10

12

sin a a,

&& + w20 a = 0,
a

. . a [
(1.11)]
&& + w20 a = 0.
a

a = a 0 cos(w0t + j)
a 0,

w0 =

mgl
J


T=

J
L
2p
= 2p
= 2p
,
mgl
g
w0

(1.15)

J
.
ml
O OC, 
O L, 3
(L > l, ,
). T 
:

.
[(. (1.14)
(1.15)] 
.

L =


? ?
, ? 
?
,
, 
?
mx& 2
kx 2
E =
(m ; k
+
2
2
). .
,
.
?
, ,
, 
?

13

1.4. .


. O
(. 1.11) x
r j, 
, A,
A
r
. A Ox
rx = A cos j.
A , 
r
w0. t A 
Ox (w0t +j), Ox
(1.16)
x = A cos(w0t + j).
r
, A Ox 
, (1.16).

.
(1.16)
:

x% = Ae i( w0t +j) ,
i = -1 . x%, ,
,
x (1.16).

(1.17)
e ia = cos a + i sin a,
(1.17), A cos(w0t + j),
. 
x%,

. 1.11

14

(1.18)
x = Ae i( w0t +j) ,
, 
x 
, 
(1.18) .


(, 
, , 
. .) 


.


.

?

1.5.

, .
1.5.1.

w0, 
:
x 1 = A1 cos(w0t + j1 );
x 2 = A2 cos(w0t + j2 ),

(1.19)

A1 A2, j1 j2
.
(. 1.12), 

(. . 1.4).
r
r
A1 A2 w0 ( 
), (j2 - j1)
( ). 

x = x 1 + x 2 = A cos(w0t + j),

(1.20)

A 2 = A12 + A22 + 2A1A2 cos(j2 - j1 ),

(1.21)

tg j =

A1 sin j1 + A2 sin j2
.
A1 cos j1 + A2 cos j2 (1.22)


( ), . .
j2 - j1 = 2mp (m = 0, 1, 2, ...),

A = A1 + A2 .

, . .

. 1.12

15

j2 - j1 = (2m + 1)p (m = 0, 1, 2, ...),

A = A1 - A2.
, 

(1.20) , , 
(1.21) (1.22).
[. (1.18)]
(. . 1.4)

x 1 = A1ei( w0t +j1 ) ;


x 2 = A2ei(w0t +j2 ) ,
. :
x = x 1 + x 2 = A1e i (w0t +j1 ) + A2e i (w0t +j2 ) .

(1.23)

, 
(1.23) :
A 2 = [A1e i(w0t +j1 ) + A2 e i(w0t +j2 ) ][A1e -i( w0t +j1 ) + A2 e -i(w0t +j2 ) ],

A 2 = A12 + A22 + A1A2 (ei( j2 -j1 ) + e-i( j2 -j1 ) ).

(1.24)

(e ij = cos j + i sin j),


e i(j2 -j1 ) + e-i(j2 -j1 ) = 2 cos(j2 - j1 ).

(1.24)
A 2 = A12 + A22 + 2A1A2 cos(j2 - j1 ),

(1.21) 
.
1.5.2.

w1 w2 ( wr2 > wr1)
A1 A2. A1 A2
,
,
. , 
A.
,
, . .
16

x 1 = A1 cos(w1t + j);
x 2 = A2 cos(w2t + j).

(w2 - w1)t
(1.21) (j2 - j1), , 

A 2 = A12 + A22 + 2A1A2 cos(w2 - w1 )t ,

(1.25)

. .
.
, 
,
(1.25).
1.5.3.

w1 w2, w1 - w2 = w1, w2.
, 
(.
1.13, ).

x 1 = A cos w1t ,

x 2 = A cos w2t.

x = 2A cos

 w -2 w t  cos w +2 w t .
1

(1.26)

. 1.13

17

w2 w1, w1 - w2 
w1 + w2. , 
(1.26) 
w + w2
1

2

A = 2A cos

 w -2 w t  .
1

(1.27)

. 1.13, 
(1.26), 
(1.27) .
w1 - w2, 
, 
. w1 - w2
. p,
w - w2
1
T = p,
2
p
.
T =
w1 - w2/2

(w1 - w2 = w1, w2), A [. (1.27)]
.


? ?
? ? ?
. 
( , , ).

, p. 2 : 1.
.

1.6.

1.6.1.

(
x y) w,
:
18

x = A cos(wt + j1 );
y = B cos(wt + j2 ),

(1.28)

x y ; A B, j1
j2 
.
[
(1.28) t]:

y2
x 2 2xy
cos(j2 - j1 ) + 2 = sin 2(j2 - j1 ).
(1.29)
2
A
AB
B
, 
(. 1.14). 
, 
.

j2 - j1. 
.
1. j2 - j1 = 0, . . j1 = j2 = j. (1.29)

x y
A B

= 0.

y=

B
x.
A

(1.30)

, 
0x a, B/A (. 1.15, , ).
s :

s = x 2 + y 2 = A2 cos2 (wt + j)+ B 2 cos2 (wt + j) = A2 + B 2 cos(wt + j).


, 

. 1.14

A2 + B 2 .

. 1.15

19

2. j2 - j1 = p. (1.29) :

Ax + By 

= 0,

B
x.
(1.31)
A
,
. 1.15.
A2 + B 2 .
1 2 .
p
3. j2 - j1 = . (1.29) :
2
x2 y2
+
= 1.
(1.32)
A2 B 2
y =-

, 
,
(. 1.16).
p
j2 - j1 = , 
2 p
, j2 - j1 = - . ,
2
p
(1.28)
j2 - j 1 =
2
:

x = A cos(wt + j);

y = B cos wt + j +

p
= -B sin(wt + j).
2

t = 0 
1 (. 1.16). 
, x , y . 
, .

. 1.16

20

. 1.17

p
4. j2 - j1 = , . (1.29)
2
:
x 2 + y 2 = A2 .

(1.33)

A (. 1.17). 

, .

x = A cos wt ;

y = A cos wt +

p
,
2

(1.34)

x = A cos wt ;
y = -A sin wt ,

(1.35)

A 
w, . 
, A 
w 
, (1.34)
(1.35).
1.6.2.

,
.
, ,
. , 

, 
, 
.
,


, .
, 
.
. 1.18
(2 : 1, 3 : 1, 2 : 3)
p
, .
. 1.18
2
21


,
. 

.

, 
.

, p. 
2 : 1. .

?
, , 
. .
, , 
1 , xy 2 /. : w, n, T,
x(t), y(t).
, 
, : x = A cos wt ; y = B cos(wt + j). 
p
j = 0 j = .
2

1.7.
(.
. 1.1),  
.
() 
, , .

. ,
, ,
. X ,
, , 
(
). 
.
(. . 1.3) m, 
[.
(1.12)] F= -kx, , . .
F = -rv = -rx& ,

r ;
.
22