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-

( )

.. , .. , ..




..

53(075)
22.37
64
.., .., ..
. : / . .. . .: , 2008. 248 .
, ,
. .

. .
-
,
.
. -. , . ..

ISBN 978-5-7262-0912-8

.. , .. , .. , 2008
-
( ), 2008

...........................................................................................4

1.
- .
. .......5

14

112

2. .
.......................................................17

22

120

3. .......28

33

134

4. . ........................37

41

141

5. :
, ,
...........................45

58

149

6.
....................64

66

165

7.
: ,
, .......70

76

173

8. .
...........................................................80

87

180

9.
.
...................................................91

100

193

10.

105

205


-
().
.
. 45 %
-
.

. , , ..
, , .
.

, ,

.
, , . ,
( - )
.

. :
, .
.
. (
) .
,
.
, ( , ) .

1

- .
.

, , , ,
,
.
(
*) .
, ,
: - . (, , ) , , . , , , , .
, , , , **. , , , , . ,
*

,
.
**
.
5

.

.
,
- . , * . . ,
, , - , ,
, . , NA = 6 1023 ,
, ,
, NA
.
. ,
.
,
. .
,
, (
) . ,
X Y :
X NAmX mX
,
=
=
N A mY
mY
Y

(1.1)

X Y X Y; mX mY . X Y , mX mY ,
(1.1) . (1.1) ,
, , ,
*

moles .
6

, (...).
.

( ...), , ,
. , ,
mH 1 ..., , (
) H 1 /, 2
H 2 2 /. mO 16 ..., O 16 /,
O2 O 2 32 /.
H2O H 2O 18 /.
,
:
He ():

He 4 /;

C ():

C = 12 /;

N ():

N 14 /;

Fe ():

Fe 56 /

( , . 1.4).
.
,
,

( , /3).
,
.
7

. m -
,
=

m
N
,
=
N

(1.2)

N , m.
, , .
.*
1.1. : 4,5
23 ? ?
. , .
,
.
, ,

m H 2O
H 2O

4,5
= 0,25 ,
18 /

(*)

, , :
N H 2O = 0,25 N a = 1,5 10 23 .


m Fe
23
=
= 0,5 ,
Fe 56 /

(**)

, , ,
NFe = 0,5 NA = 3 1023 .

, .. , .
8

, 23 , 4,5 .
1.2 (, 2005)*.
m = 1 m = 4
.
2H2 + O2 = 2H2O
(*)
, . ?
. .
. ;
.
. ,
; ( ).
.
. ,
; .
, , , (*) ,
. , ,
. , ,

O 2 = 32 /, H 2 = 2 /,
N H2 =
*

mH 2 N
H2

= 3 10 23

, , , .
9


N O2 =

mO 2 N
O2

= 0,75 10 23

.
, , ,

2 N O 2 = 1,5 10 23

N H 2 = N N 2 2 N O 2 = 1,5 10 23

.
(*), , , . N H 2O = 2 N O 2 .
,
N H 2 + N H 2O = N H 2 2 N O 2 + 2 N O 2 = N H 2 =

mH 2 N
H2

= 3 10 23

.
XIX . . , , ..
,
,
. ,
, ,
. . ,
, ..
m 2

= 3 kT ,

(1.3)

(m 2 / 2)
; T ; k , 10

, k = 1,38 1023 /. (
3/2 (1.3) .
(1.3),
3/2. 2/3.)
(1.3) , T T = 0,
. (1.3) T (..
), t
T [K] = t [C] + 273 C.
(1.4)
*.
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, , () .
. , 1 = 1 / 2 = 2 /. ? ,

=

1 + 2
= 1,5 /.
2

(1.5)

, .
,
=

12 + 22
= 1,581 /
2

(1.6)

1 2 . ,
.
= 3

13 + 23
= 1,6509 /.
2

(1.7)

(1.5) ,
, (1.6) ( ) *

, , -

.
11

, (1.7) . , , - . ?
, (1.5), (1.6), (1.7) .
,
, .
-
.
,
.

(1.3) ( )
() , ,
. .
1.3.
t = 27 C = 515 /. m = 10 ?
. , , m,

m
N = N .
(*)

. (1.3)
m0 2 3
(**)
= kT ,
2
2
m0 ; T .
(**) ,
m 0 N = ,
=

3kN T

3kN (t + 273 C)

2
2
= 0,028 / = 28 / .
12

(***)

,
. (*) (***), ,
m 2 N
m 2
=
= 2,1 10 23 .
N =
3kN T 3k (t + 273 )
,
,
, (1.3),

, . n (
) T, t
S
N=

n St
6

nSt
6

3kT
[].
m

(1.8)

k ; T ; m
. (1.8) .

2m , p
p=

N 2m
St

2
nm

2
n( E ) = nkT .
3

(1.9)

(1.9) .
(1.9), , p = (2/3)nE,
- . (1.9) .
.
1.4. (.. p = 1 = 1 105 t = 0 , T =
= 273 ).
. (1.9)
n=
13

p
.
kT

n ,

V1 =

1 kT
.
=
n
p

V1, ,
, a :
a = 3 V1 = 3

kT
= 3 10 8 .
p

1.1. , , .
1.2. V .
. .
1.3 (, 2004). = 0,9 /3.
( )
n = 27 1025 1/3. ?
1.4. ?
? , ,
NA = 6 1023 1.
1.5. : ? ?
: H 2O = 1 /3, Hg = 13,6 /3; : H 2O = 18 /, Hg = 208 /;
V = 0,2 .
1.6. m = 10 ?
?
1.7. C2H5OH? H2
?
14

1.8. O3.
. , , ?
1.9. ,
? (p = 1 = 1 105 ,
T = 273 ).
1.10. (T = 273 ). , = 29 /.
1.11. . ( ) ?
1.12. , 1, 1 .
, 2, ?
1.13 (, 2006 2007). T .
, ? .
1.14.
t1 = 30 t2 = 40 ?
1.15.
S = 1 2 t = 1 . t =
= 27 , n = 2,4 1025 3.
1.16. (
)

(p = 105 , T = 273 ), d =
= 3 1010 , n = 3 1025 3.
1.17. (
)
(p = 105 , T = 273 ), 15

1
= 9 109. = 44 /.
1.18. , , , ?
1.19 (, 2003, 2006). , R, , . ,
n .
? .

16

2
.

, , .

,
.
, ( ),
(
, , ,
; , ). ,
, ,

.
,
,
, , , , , .
.

pV =

m
RT = RT ,

(2.1)

,
. (2.1) p
, V , m ,
, T , = m/ (
).

(2.1)

R=
17

= 8,3 /( ) ,
k NA : R = kNA.
(2.1) , (2.1), :
pV = NAkT = NkT, p = nkT,

(2.2)

N ; n = N/V
, .
(2.1) (2.2)
(,
p) ( V, T
) - ,
, , .
, , ,
,
. (, V
N), : p
, T p, V N .
.
2.1. S m . , h . p0.
. ,
( ),
( ) p.
, , , . ,
r
. : mg , r
F , ,
18

r
F0 ,
(. ).
r r r
mg + F + F0 = 0 .
(*)

r
F1

r
F0

(*)
F0 F
p0
p,

r
mg

mg
,
(**)
S
S .
. , V = Sh (**),
pV p 0 Sh + mgh
.
T=
=
R
R
2.2 (, 2004 2006). , ,
m = 1 , V = 1 3
t = 27 , p = 5,6 104 .
.
, ,
.
p = p0 +

pV =

m
RT ,

p ; V ; m
; ; R ; T ,
19

mRT
.
pV

(*)

(*) , ,
,

R=
= 8,3 /( ), , T = t + 273, ,
= 44 /.

CnOk, n k ,
. C =
= 12 /, O = 16 /, n k

12n + 16k = 44.

(**)

(**) n k: n = 1, k = 2 (
). CO2, .. .
(2.1) (2.2) .

, , , . , ,
, , , ,
, .
,
, .
- , : , ( ), ( ).

20


( ) .
T = onst
:
pV = const.

(2.3)

(2.3) .
V = const :
p
= const .
T

(2.4)

(2.4) .
p = const :
V
= const .
T

(2.5)

(2.5) -.
.
2.3 (, 2005 2007).
p1 T1.
,
T2 ? S.
.
p1V = RT1,

(*)

V ,
. .
;
.
p2V = RT2,
21

(**)

p2 .
(*) (**), :
p1 T1
=
p 2 T2

(***)

(, ).
. , , . , ( ) .
,
, :
p2S p1S = mg,
m ; g .
p2, (***)
m,
m=

p1 S (T2 T1 )
.
gT1

2.1. . , . ?
2.2. (p =
= 105 , T = 273 ). ,
= 29 /.
2.3 (, 2007). T . .
22

2.4. , , T = 1 , -
( = 0,004).
2.5. T =
= 250 = 1/7,
= 1/2 . ?
2.6. , , , S = 2,5 2. , ,
, F = 12 ?
p = 100 , T =
= 270 .
2.7. .
:
) ,
15 % ;
) , 30 %;
) ,
25 %?
2.8 (, 2005).
V = 3 n = 40 ,

= 150 3. pa = 105 . , .
2.9 (, 2007). V1 V2, p. .
2.10.
T1. T2? .
2.11. . m.
, 23

k ,
n . ?
2.12 (, 2005, 2007). . V1 1 T1.
V2 T2, .
2.13 (, 2004 2006).
V1 = 2 V2 = 7 .
, , ,
p1 = 1 105 p2 = 0,52 105 ? .
.
2.14.
, . 1
, 2 ,
. ,
.
p. . .
2.15. ,
.
m1 = 3 , m2 = 21 . ? .
2.16 (, 2006).
. , ( )
, . , . l = 32 .
2.17 (, 2003).
V T, T0.
? . p0, .
2.18. m = 716 ,
(C3H6O)n,
V = 243 3. t = 200
24

p = 105 . n. ,
, , : H = 1 /, C =
= 12 /, O = 16 /. , .
2.19 (, 2003 2006). , , m = 1
, V = 1 3
t = 27 , p = 5,6 104 .
2.20 (, 2006 2007).
S
V p (p > p0).
, ? , p0,
.
2.21 (, 2005, 2007). ,
. p1 p2 (p2 > p1) ,
V1 V2. .
2.22 (, 2007). V = T2.

V1 V2?
2.23 (, 2007). P = T2.
V1 V2?
2.24 (, 2006 2007).
, . p. , p. , . ,
, . . .
2.25. , .
25

p. , p. ,
, .
.
2.26 (, 2004).
.
n = 2 ,
m = 1 . , k = 3 ?
.
2.27 (, 2005).
S1 S2
(S2 > S1) . ,
T0
. .
? ?
2.28. , r
F
,
.

. F.
? l. T.
.
.
2.29. , l. ,
. , .
.
. .
2.30. l l/2, . ,
26

x. . .
2.31. l, ( ),

( ).


. pa.
.
2.32 (, 2003). .
,
. T1.

T2?
.
2.33. - . p1 p1 (.. p1 / g , ). p2
p 2 ,
l? .
2.34 (, 2006). l

, n + 1
(. ). T0, . T1, T0.
?

27

, .
, , . , - ,
. (
),
. .
3.1. ,
p T, V T p V. , ?
. : T = const, .
p T V T .
.
,
pV = RT,

(*)

, , . . 1, ,
p T V T
28

,
( ).
,
, p T V T .
. 1, , . ,
V T T, .
p T , .
p

V
T

. 1

p V, ,
(*) ,
p=

,
V

(**)

= RT = const . (**) p V .
, ,
, , ,
. . 1,
p V
. ( ).
, .

(V = const),
V T p V , , .
(*) , 29

, . V T
p V . 2, , ( , ).
p

. 2

p T .
(*),
p = T,

(***)

= R/V = const .
(***) , .
. ,
, .
p T , , , (. 2, ).
p

V
T

. 3

, ,
, (***)
. , ,
, , 30

.
p T . 2, (
, ).
(p = const) (
), . 3.
,
.

, .. ,
. . .
3.2. ,
V = /T,
,
.
,
.
. ,

p=

RT RT 2
= T 2 ,
=
V

(*)

. ,

p=

RT R

= 2 = 2 ,
V
V
V

(**)

. (*), (**) ,

p T, p V V T : ,
(
). .

31


, (
). .
,
,
.
3.3.
,
p2
-
( 2
3
1
3 , . 1).
V
p T V T
.
. 1
.
: 1 2, 2 3 3 1.
, 1 2
. p
T V T : , (. 3.1), , , ( 1 2 . 2).
p

2
1

3
T

. 2

2
T

32

2 3 (
) (.
. 1). p T V T : p T
V T ( 2 3 . 2).
. 1, 3 1 , (. . 1).
: p T ,
,
V T. , 1 2
3 1, ,
. , 1 ( 3 1 . 2).

3.1. p

,
. ,
? ,
?
3.2. p
, . ,
? ,
?
3.3. - V
, . ,
33

?
, ?
3.4.
,
p
2
- .
3
np


p
1
V
. V
kV
, k n .
3.5. V
2
,
1
3
.

T
. 3,
1 p1, 2 V2.
.
3.6. p
1 2 3 1,
2
3
p T . p V V T
1
T
. ,
, T3 = nT1. ,
0,
V0.
3.7. p
, 2
3
- ( 3 4 ).
, , 4V
1
0, p0 T0 ,
p
n .
.
2
3
3.8 (, 2007).
1
p V 1
V
34

2 3 1, .
1 T1, 3 T3.
2? .
3.9 (, 2003 2004). ,
p

.
T
. V(T) .
.
3.10.
, - p
, . ,
1
.
,
T
?

1?
3.11 (, 2003 2004). ,
V

. T
? p V .
.
3.12. ,
p = V, , . , .
3.13. p V p 2
, . ,
3
1
2 3 1 4 .
V T. 4
V
, 1 V1,
35

3 V3, 2 4 .
2 4. .
3.14 (, 2003).
p 2
2 p0


1
.
3
p0
.
V

V0
2V0
.
.

36

4
.


,
. .
,
, , ,
.
.

( , V) ,
p
p = p1 + p 2 + p3 + ... =

1 RT 2 RT 3 RT
+
+
+ ... =
V
V
V

= (1 + 2 + 3 + ...)

RT
,
V

(4.1)

R ; T ; 1, 2, 3
. p1, p2, p3, ...
(4.1) .
(4.1) , ( ,
)
: ,
pV = RT,
37

(4.2)

. ,
, .
(4.1)
. (4.1)
, R = NAk, NA
( ), k , (4.1)

pV = (1 N A + 2 N A + 3 N A + ...) kT .

(4.3)

iN i- Ni, (4.3)

pV = ( N1 + N 2 + N 3 + ...)kT = NkT ,

(4.4)

N .

, ,
. , , .
.
4.1. p = 105 t = 27 , . .
.
pV =

m
m
RT +
RT ,
O2
N2

(*)

V ; m ;
R ; T , T = t + 273 . (*)

38

m=

pV O 2 N 2
( O 2 + N 2 ) RT

(**)

, 2m, = 2m/V:
=

2 p O 2 N 2
( O 2 + N 2 ) RT

(***)

(***) , O 2 = 32 /, N 2 =
= 28 /, :
= 1,2 103 /3.
4.2 (, 2004). , , t1 = 727 . ,
( )
( ) , t2 = 127 . , O 2 = 32 /.

. , .

p0 =

m RT1
,
O2 V

(*)

p0 ; m ; O 2 = 32 / ; V ; T1 (T1 = t1 + 273 ).
,
,
p0.

39

(m / 2) (m / 4) RT2

+
,
p0 =
O
V

x
2

(**)

m/2 m/4 ; x ; T2
,
T2 = t2 + 273 . (*)
(**) V m,
R,
T
T1
T
= 2 + 2

O 2 2 O 2 4 x

(***)

(***),
x =

O 2 T2
2(2T2 T1 )

, x = 4 /. , .

.
, .

. :

(, ). .
4.3 (, 2002). X
Y . p0, 40

T0. nX + mY XnYm
XnYm. T1 = 3T0 X Y .
p1 = (3/4)p0.
XnYm (.. n m). .
.

p0V = (NX + NY)kT0;
p1V = NkT1,
(*)
V ; NX, NY N X, Y
XnYm.
XnYm
(**)
nX + mY XnYm
XnYm n
X m Y. NX = nN, NY = mN,

(***)
p0V = (n + m)NkT0.
(***) (*)
,
n + m = 4.
,
X Y:
XY3, X2Y2, X3Y.

4.1. m1 = 4 m2 = 32
t = 7 p = 105 .
4.2 (, 2006). , n = 3 . p = = 105 , T = 300 . .
41

4.3. V0 = 60 3
k = 5 : 1 p0 = 800 .
, V = 2 .
p1 = 6670 , p2 = 2670 .
? ,
.
4.4. V = 10 T = 300 : 1 = 0,2 (H2),
2 = 0,3 (O2), 3 = 0,4 (CO2).
.
4.5.
V = 0,5 .
. ,
(N2) 1 = 76 %, (O2) 2 = 23 % (Ar)
3 = 1 % ( ). Ar =
= 40 /. t = 27 , p = 105 .
4.6 (, 2006 2007).
. p1 p2,
N1 N2 . .
, , .
4.7. V1 V2. 1
, 2
.
. . .
4.8. .
,
. .
,
. . .
42

4.9 (, 2005 2006).


.
1 1,
2 2 1.
, .
2. ? .
4.10 (, 2004 2005). V = 0,5 3
m = 1 . t = 1000
p = 105 .
J2 .
. J2
= 254 /.
4.11 (, 2003 2005).
. = 3
= 3,15 . ?
4.12 (, 2003). V = 1 103 3 N2 m = 0,28 . T = = 1500 . = 0,3
. .
4.13. . - , p1. n ,
-
( > ). .
4.14 (, 2005, 2007). 1 = 2
2 = 1 T1 = 300
p1 = 103 . T2 = 10000 ,
.
T2. .
4.15 (, 2007). V0 T0 p0 ,
O3. . T
V p0,
. .
43

4.16 (, 2005). .
T1, ,
, p1. T2 (T2 > T1), , p2.
.
4.17. 1 2
T1 p1. T2, .
. .
4.18. (O3). -
(O2), p.
,
- .
.
4.19. p0 .
. ,

. .
.
. .
4.20 (, 2005). , ,
m1 = 2 (H2) m2 = 32 (O2)
t0 = 27 . ,
H2O, t = 127 p = 105 .
.
. .
4.21. V = 1 CO2
m = 0,1 . T = 2500 CO2 O2
CO:
2CO2 2CO + O2
p = 5,5 104 .
CO CO2 .
44

5
:
, ,

- ,
, ,
, .


.
,

.
(, , ),
.

m 2
m12 m 22 m32
U=
+
+
+ ... = N
2
2
2
2

(5.1)

1 , 2 , 3 , ... ; (m 2 / 2)
; N .
(1.3) (5.1)
N = N (N ),
U=

3
3
NkT = RT ,
2
2
45

(5.2)

k ; R = Nk .


. - . .
, , ...
(-, -, ... ),
.
-, -, ... ( (5.2)),
. ,
. 100 (, , ) (5.2),
, (5.2), 5/2, 1500 (
) , (5.2), 7/2. , , (5.2) 5/2.
,
.
. -, .

.
, . ,
,
Q, .

U = Q,
46

(5.3)

U ( ) ,
*.
U
( ), ( ),
Q > 0, , Q < 0, .

(5.4)

.
,
, , , A ,
,
. , (.. ), . :
U = A ,

(5.5)

A , .
A , :
A > 0, , A < 0, . (5.6)

( , - ,
),
U = Q A , Q = U + A .

(5.7)

(5.7),
, (
) .
( ).
. , , .. ,
*

( !) .
47

(5.2) (
, ). ,
, , . ,

U = U U.
, . , - ,
, . , . Q A , ( )
- , . , , , Q A.

(5.7) U,
Q, , A,
.
. ,
(5.2) :
U =

3
RT ,
2

(5.8)

T ( , ). ,
. .
5.1.
, V p.
.
, T1
T2?
. U

48

U=

3
RT ,
2

(*)

; R ; T .
(*) pV = RT, p V .
U=

3
pV .
2

(**)

( )
, , (**), 5/2.
(
)
( ),
U = 0.

(***)

, , RT .

. . ,
, p.
x;
V = Sx (S , +
, ). ,
.

A = Fx cos = pSx cos = pV ,

49

(5.9)

, , ( cos = 1 ,
cos = 1 ).
.

V1 + V2 + V3 + ... ,
A = p1 V1 + p 2 V2 + p3 V3 + ... ,

(5.10)

pi
,
Vi.
pi
(5.10) .

V
Vi

(
. 5.1
. 5.1). ,
(5.10),
. Vi ( ,
). pi , Vi.
pi Vi Vi (
. 5.1). , (
+ , ). , , , , .. ,
, p(V). ,
, . ,

50

A = pV,

(5.11)

p ( ); V = V V (V V
).
, , . .
5.2.
V1 V2
, , . ?
?
. , - p
1
, 2

3
V1
V2
V
. , p(V) ( 1 ).

p=

,
V

(*)

= RT. (*) ,
, 1,
( 2 ).
,
. ,
( 3 ).
.
51

,
( ), , , . . ,
p V , ( ) ,
(. . 2),

p(V) , ,
(.. 2 ).
,
( ):
p=

V 5/3

(**)

= const. (**) ,
, (*) ( 3 ).
(. ) , ( )
( ), (
)
Ap > AT > A,

(***)

Ap, AT A , , . ( . ,
- , , ,
. , Cp , ;
CV ..
.)
52

,
. .
, UT . ,
QT = AT,

, AT QT .
, ( pV, ). Up > 0. (. (***)),

Qp = Up + Ap > QT = AT.
,
(Q = 0), , , ,

Qp > QT > Q.

. -, , ,
. -,


. . .
5.3. , n = 2 ,
k = 3 . ?
53

p0 = 105 V0 = 100 .
. :
Q = U + A.
(5.2) ,
U =

3
3
RT = (RT1 RT0 ) ,
2
2

(*)

; T0 T1
.
p 0V0 = RT0 , nkp 0V0 = RT1

(**)

( (**) , n , k ). (**) (*),



U =

3
p 0V0 (nk 1) .
2

p
np0

p0
V0

kV0

, p V.
.
54

, .. , .
A = np 0 (kV0 V0 ) = np 0V0 (k 1) .

U A ,
,
3
p 0V0 (nk 1) + np 0V0 (k 1) =
2
3
5
= p 0V0 nk n = 115 .
2
2
, :

Q=

C=

Q
,
T

(5.12)

Q , ; T Q.
, , ( - ),
(, , , ). Q T ( , )
. Q T (5.12) , : T
(5.12) ,
Q,
. Q, , , T ,
. ,
Q T, .
55

. ,
m T Q, (, , 2m)
T 2Q, 2m
m. ,

c=

Q
.
mT

(5.13)

,
. ,

.
,
. :
1) Q ( , ); 2) A, ; 3)
T; 4)
(5.12), Q .
.
,
.
() .
.
5.5 (, 2004).
, P = V. .
56

. Q.
T.
Q = U + A =

3
RT + A ,
2

(*)

. T (*), .
p
V1
V0
V0

V1



, T. , , .
, , , . V0, V1.
p0 p1
,
(. )
p0 = V0, p1 = V1.
( V0 V1
V1 V0), T:
V0 + V1
V12 V02
.
A=
(V1 V0 ) =
2
2
57

(**)

( V0) ( V1)
.
RT0 = p 0V0 = V02 , RT1 = p1V1 = V12 ,

T0 T1 .
(**),
A=

1
R T .
2

(***)



. (***) (*), T
Q
T =

Q
2 R

( , T Q). T
C = Q/T,

C = 2R.

5.1 (, 2006 2007). PV2 = const.


n = 2 . T0 = 300 .
5.2. PVn = const (n
). ,
?
5.3. S = 100 2 h = 10 58

m.
. P0 = 105 .
. .
5.4 (, 2006). T.
n .
, .
5.5.
V = 10 p = 105 .
n = 1,5 .
?
5.6. T1
T2 (T2 > T1) , ,
( ). ? ?
5.7. : ,
. , .
5.8. , , . .
5.9.
T ,
. , .
5.10 (, 2003). n , . , .
5.11.
,
Q = 30 ?
5.12 (, 2003). . 59

A = 103 . ,
n = 2 . ?
5.13. ,
,
T.
5.14. m = 6 ,
t1 = 5 t2 = 155 ?
5.15. = 1 t = 27 . ,
n = 3 ?
5.16. = 2 , ,
q = 2 ,
T1 = 300 .
5.17.
p0 = 105 , V0 = 3 3
T0 = 300 .
A = 90 (, , , .. A ). .
5.18 (, 2005).
T0.
m. , n ? .
5.19. 1 2 ,
n = 1,5 .
T. A = 0,83 . T.
5.20. T1 T2, T2 T3. , , c.
60

5.21. . 1
T1, 2 T2 (T1 < T2).
?
, ?
5.22. V1 V2
n. T1, T2.
, ? ? .
5.23.
P/V = const. , n ? p0 V0
.
5.24. , ,
.
5.25. cV cp 1 2 .
U = (5/2)RT.
5.26.
,
V = f(T), f .
, T0.
5.27. CV,
, :
) V = T2;
) p = /T3;
) p = V.
p, V, T , ( ) ; .
61

5.28. ,
p = V.
.
5.29 (, 2003 2004). r
r

m .
T. 2 (. ).
. .
. , .
.
5.30 (, 2005).
1 T,
. . ,
. . , .
5.31 (, 2007). p.
. -

.
. T. (5/2)RT.
5.32 (, 2007).
. T1 ,
T2. -

. .
. (5/2)RT.
62

5.33 (, 2005, 2007). S


h .
.
V0 ,
.
, ,
? p0.

63


, .. ,
, .
.
:
, , .
, - .
.
6.1. . 1
V
3
4
1 2 3 1 4 3 2 4, .
1 2
T
?
. 1
. ,
(
).
1 2 3 1 1
64

2, 2 3
3 1 ( , 3 1
V T ,
). 1 2 3 1 p V . 2, . 4 3 2 4
4 3, 3
2 ( 2 3
) 2 4 ( , V
T, ). 4 3
2 4 p V . 2, .
p

. 2
1 2 3 1.
1 2 , . 2 3
, . 2,
2 3, .
3 1
, . 2,
3 1, .
1 2 3 1
1 2 3 1 p V.
4 3 2 4 4 3 2 4 p V.
1 2 3 1 4 3 2 4
,
65

p V ,

1 2 3 1 (. 3),
1 2 3 1
4 3 2
4, , ,

.

. 3

6.1. ,
(,
3 ). ,
, ;
, ; , .

6.2. ,

. ,
, ; , ; , .

T
1

T
2
66

T
3

6.3. ,

. ,
, ; , ; , .

T
1

T
2

T
3

6.4 (, 2003 2006). , ,


Q A, Q
A .
6.5 (, 2003 2006). , ,
U A, U
A .
6.6 (, 2003 2006). , ,
U Q, U
Q
.
p
6.7 (, 2005).
3
2
, p V (1 2
3 4 , 2 3 4 1 ).
1
4V
1 3 T1
T3, 2 4 .
, , ,
1 2 3.
67

6.8. ,
( 0 3).
0


1
3
( 1),
2
( 2).
V
0 3? ?
?
6.9. , p
2
,
. T1
1
T2 . V
?
6.10. ,
p

1
5
4
2

5 6 1, 2

3
( 1 2, 3 4 5 6 1
6
, 2 3, 4 5 6 1

p
p2
p1

V1

V2

4 T

). , p5 p2 =
= p2 p1, V3 V6 = V6 V1.
6.11. 1 2 3 1,
( 2 3 , 3 1 , 1 2
). p1 p2 V1 V2 .
, .
6.12. 1 4 ,


68

( 1 2 3 4 ). , , , 1 3, 2 4 .
, T4 T1 = T.
6.13. 1 V 1
2
4 , 4 T
3
(
1 2 3 4 ). , , ,
1 3, 2 4 . , T4 T1 = T.
6.14 (, 2005, 2007).
, . p
3 1 ,
1
2

. 1 2 , 2
3 . 3
, ,
V
1 2 3 1 A,
1 T1?
6.15. 1 2 3 1 (. ),
1 2, p
2 3
3 1. , 1

A21 .
3 V
2
?

69

7
:
, ,

. ,

.

,
-
.
,

. (
) Q,
T, Q:
Q = CT,

(7.1)

C ,
. , . ,
m T Q,
2m
.

C = cm,

(7.2)

c , . c,
, ,
70

,
.
() . (6.2)

Q = cmT.
(7.3)
(7.3) ( ) ,
, ,
, .

,
,
, . , , , .
.
, ,
. , .
, , , ,
,
. .
7.1. T1, m1 , m2 T2. . C.
c. .
. Tx. (7.3)
, ,
(7.1)
Q1 = cm1(Tx T1), Q2 = cm2(Tx T2), Q3 = C(Tx T1)

71

(*)

( (*) ,
). (*)
,
, .
(Tx > T) ,
(Tx < T) . ( )

(**)
Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0.
(**) , (*),
Tx:
cm1(Tx T1) + cm2(Tx T2) + C(Tx T1) = 0.

(***)

(***),
cm T + cm 2T2 + CT1
.
Tx = 1 1
cm1 + cm2 + C
,
, , . :
, .
( , , ),

*.
: , ,
*

, , . ,
, , .
.
72

,
. , . ,
, , ,
Q = m,
(7.4)
m ; , . (6.4)
, . (7.4).
(
).
Q = rm,
(7.5)
m ; r .
. (7.5).
, , . ,
( . . 7). .
T

7.2. ,
. .
73


, ?
. , , , , , , , . , , -.
: , , , , .
, , ,
, .

. , , .
, .
, . ,
, ,
.
7.3. ,
T1, m2 T2.
m3 , .
m1. c1 c2
. . .
. , ,
, .

, ,
T0 = 0 .
74

Q1 = c1m1(T1 T0).

(*)


T2 T0
m2 m3 ,
Q2 = c2m2(T0 T2) + (m2 m3)

(**)

. (*)
(**) ,
m1 =

c 2 m 2 (T0 T2 ) + (m 2 m3 )
.
c1 (T1 T0 )

-
.

.
,
, , (
). .
7.4. , m = 200 , P = 50 .
T = 55 . T = 1
? c = 4,2 103 /( K), .
. ,
. ,
, ,
.
.
.
,

.
75

, ,
, , .
,
P = w,

(*)

w ( ,
).
,
( ),
, . , ,
(*). , , .
t
, (*),
cmT = wt = Pt.

(**)

(**) ,
T
t =

cmT
= 17 .
P

7.1. ,
t = 0 . ?
7.2. , ?
7.3. t = 36,6 .
25 C 37 ?
76

7.4. ,
5 10 , .
?
7.5. ?
7.6. , , . (. ) ,
.
.
7.7. m = 100
T0 = 10 T1 = 90 t = 5 . .
.

c=
= 4,2 103 /( K).
7.8. T0 = 300
m = 0,2 T = 500 .
p0 = 105 , V = 1000 3.
c = 450 /( ). .
.
7.9. ,
m = 100 t = 20 . c = 4,2 103 /( ),
q = 4,6 107 /.
= 10 %.
7.10 (, 2007). : m1 t1,
m2 t2 m3 t3. .
7.11 (, 2004). m1 t = 0 m = 1,5 t = 30 , ? c = 4,2 103 /( ), = 3,35 105 /.
77

7.12. ,
m = 50 , ,
t1 = 32,4 . t, C = 2,8 / t2 = 17,8 ?
c = 4,2 103 /( ).
7.13. , m = 10
t1 = 10 ,
t2 = 100 . ,
, t3 = 60 .
,

t4 = 50 ? c = 4,2 103 /( ),
r = 2,3 106 /.
7.14 (, 2007). , T0 = 0 , ,
t = 10 . ? c = 4,2 103 /( K). r = 2,3 106 /.
T1 = 100 C. ,
.
7.15. m1 = 0,5
m2 = 2 t1 = 20
= 30 %.
P = 5 103 .
m = 100 ? c1 = 9
102 /( );

c2 = 4,2
103 /( );
r = 2,3 106 /.
7.16. , m = 575
t = 0 , ,
. .
r = 2,5 106 /, = 3,4 105 /.
7.17. , m1 = 100 t1 = 0 ,
m2 = 100 t2 = 100 . 78

?
c1 = 4,2 103 /( K), r =
= 2,5 106 /, = 3,3
105 /. ?
7.18. m1 = 2 t1 = 5 m2 = 5 t2 = 40 .
. . c1 = 4,2
103 /( K), c1 = 2,1 103 /(
K), = 3,3 105 /.
7.19 (, 2005).
P = 50 .
T = 1 C t1 = 100 . , T
t2 = 200 . ?
c = 4,2 103 /( K), .
7.20 (, 2005).
P. T
t1 = 10 . P/2, T
t2 = 21 .
T,
2P?

79

8
.

, , .
,
( ),

. , , ,
, , .
, *.
, , ,
.
.
8.1.
?
. , , , .
, ,
,
. *

, , , ., , , .
80

,
,
. . , V,
pV = NkT,
(*)
N ; T .
(**)
pV = (N1 + N2)kT,
N1 ; N2 .
(*) (**) , , .
. ,
, , - ,
, , , . ,
,
29 /. , 29 ... 18 ... ,
.
, -
.
. ,
, . (, ,
) 81

. , . ,
, .
( ) , , , -
,
, . ( ) ,
. , ( )
( ,
) . ( )
.
, ,
. , (, ,
),
,
,
.

,
.
.
( )
( )
.
,
p:
p

(8.1)
= = .
p
82

.

. .
8.2. V = 120 3 t = 15 = 60 %.
,
p = 1,7 103 . , , t1 = 10 ? t1 = 10
p ,1 = 1,2 10 3 . t2 = 2 ? -

t2 = 2
p ,2 = 0,7 10 3 . .
. -
. ,
,
p V =

m
RT ,

(*)

m ; ,
= 18 /; T , T = t + 273 K.
(*) , m/V:
m=
=

p V
= 920 ,
RT

= 7 ,7 3 .
RT

(**)

-. ,
83

, ,
, -
,
. ,
(**) .
,
.
, ,
. ,
, (

), ,
. , , 100 %. (
,
.)

, , , ,
. ,

.
,

, .
t = 10
(
p - ):
p ,1 = 1,2 10 3 > p =
84

p T1
= 1,0 10 3 .
T

(***)

,
(**).
( (***)) , ..
1 =

p T1
= 83 % .
p ,1T

t2 = 2 . , :
p ,2 = 0,7 10 3 < p =

p T2
= 0,97 10 3 .
T

(
) ,
. , t2 = 2
2 = 100 %.
,
,
2 =

p ,2

RT2

= 5,3

, m2 =

p ,2V

RT2

= 636 .

,
t2 = 2 m = 284
.
,
, ,
, ..
. ,
v = m/ = 2,84 104 3 V = 120 3.

85

( ) ,
, . . - , .
, , p
,

p = p.

(8.2)


, p, , (8.2) .
,
, . , ,
,
. ,
( ), .. . ,
p = p.

(8.3)

, , ,
.
100 ,
t = 100 , .. p (t = 100 C) 105 .

86


8.1. ?
8.2. ?
?
8.3. , ,
, . .
8.4. .
, .
, ?
8.5. , ,
?
8.6.

t1 = 0 1 = 95 %
t2 = 35 2 = 40 %? p ,1 = 4,6 . .
p ,2 = 42 . . .

, t3 = 20 ?
t3 = 20 p ,3 = 17,5 . .
8.7. T p .
, .
p.
8.8. V = 10 3, , m = 1 .
t = 20 , p = 2,3 103 . ?
8.9. V = 1 3 t = 20 = 30 %.
87

m = 5 . .
t = 20 p =
= 2,3 103 .
8.10. V
T 1.
,
2? .
8.11. V1 V2 ,
. 1,
2. . . .
.
8.12.
t = 100 = 40 %.
V = 1 . t1 = 20 .
, ?
t = 20 p =
= 2,3 103 .
8.13. 1
T1. V1.

T2 V2?
T1 T2 p ,1 p ,2 .
8.14.
V = 10 3 , m = 10 .
t = 100 ,
. ?
8.15. p = 100 t = 0
, , , . ,
V = 1 3 , t1 = 82 ,
p1 = 180 .
88

8.16. . = 2 , , ,
n : m (n = 4, m = 3). ,

. ?
. ,
.
8.17.
.
8.18.
m = 5 . S = 600 2,
pa = 105 . , . ?
8.19. l = 100 ,
,
. , H = 45 . , p0 = 105 ,
= 103 /3. .

l/2
H

8.20.
T. m
. ?
89

8.21. , ,
x = x0

, .
x=0
.
x(T). ,
, x = x0
(. ).
8.22. pa = 105 t0 = 0 . ,
t = 100 . , . :
) V = 20 , m = 19 ;
) V = 30 , m = 15 .

90

9

. .

,
, () - .
, () ,
,
A,
(..
: U = 0). , ,
Q,
:
Q = A.
(9.1)
, (9.1) ,
, (, , ).
, , , -
. .
- ,
,
- , -

.
,
,
91

, . .
.

, , , , ,
,
.
,
, , *. , ,
, , .
p 3
.
,

(
4
2
1
1 . 9.1).
,
V
. 9.1
( 1 2
. 9.1).
.
, ,
1 2 .

, ,
,
.
92

( 2) . ;
.
, , , ( 2 3 . 9.1).
, ,
. ,
( 3 4 . 9.1).
, , , .
.
-
. : , ( 4)
. , ( 4
1 . 9.1). ,
, *.
, ,
(. 9.1). 2 3 , 4 1 , .
(, ,
) ? 3 4 ( , -

1876 . .. .
93

, ).
4 1 , .. *!
? , . ,
. -

, .. . ,
,
, , . ():
=

A
,
Q

(9.2)

A , ; Q , . -.
, , , , .. A = Q Q,
=

Q Q
Q
A
=1 =
Q
Q A + Q

(9.3)

(, , , Q
, ,
, , , , ).
.
9.1. , , (. ).
Q1, Q2, Q3. .
*

, - , . .
94

. 3
p
, 2
1 2
2 3
1
Q > 0. ,

V
, , ,
,
.
A > 0, U > 0, . ,
1 3 ,

( ).
,
3 1 (Q < 0), ..
, .
, ,
,
Q = Q1 + Q2,

(*)

, ,

Q = Q3 .

(**)

,
: U = 0. Q1 +
+ Q2 + Q3 .

Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = A,

(***)

A ,
. (9.2) :

A Q1 + Q2 + Q3
=
.
Q
Q1 + Q2
95

, , , , , , ,
.
.
1. , ,
, .
, ,
p V.
2. , .
, p V, ,
. (9.2)
(9.3) .
.
9.2.
p
2
2p
1 2 3 1,
3
p 1
( 2 3 , 3 1 V
2V
V
, 1 2 ,
1 2 ). .
. , ,
. 1 2 , , , : A12 > 0 .
(
1
2), U 11 > 0 . ,
96

Q1 2 = U 12 + A12 > 0 ,

, , .
2 3 , ,
: A23 = 0 . , U 23 < 0 . , 2 3
Q2 3 = U 2 3 + A2 3 < 0 ,

.. .
3 1
Q31 < 0

, .
,
. ,
Q = Q1 2 = U 12 + A12 .

(*)

1 2
U 1 2 =
=

3
3
RT = (RT2 RT1 ) =
2
2

3
9
(2 p 2V pV ) = pV ,
2
2

; R
; T2 T1 2 1.
1 2
p V. , ,
A1 2 =

3
p + 2p
(2V V ) = pV .
2
2
97

(*)
Q =

9
3
pV + pV = 6 pV .
2
2

.
V p,
A=

1
pV .
2

A
1
= .
Q 12

,
, 1 2,
,

.

p 1

. , ,

2
, 4


3
. V
( 1 2
. 9.2
3 4 . 9.2)
( 2 3 4 1 . 9.2)
.
K,
=

T T
T
=1 ,
T
T

98

(9.4)

T T . , , (9.3) (9.4), : (9.3) ; (9.4)


(, ) ,
, , .
,
, (9.4). .
9.3. ,
(. . 9.2). :
A, , 1 2, Q12 , T1.
.
. ,
=

A
,
Q

(*)

A Q ,
. A , Q .
,
1 2, Q = Q ( 2 3 4 1
, 3 4 ).

=

A
.
Q

, (9.4)
T
=1 1 ,
T2

(**)

(***)

T1 T2 . (**) (***) ,

A
T2 = 1 T1 .
Q
99


9.1.
, p2
p V ,
(. ). ,
p1
V1
V2
V
Q,
( ). .
. ab, a b
.
9.2. , ,
, n . .
9.3. , , , n ,
. .
9.4. , , ,
, A.
T. . .
9.5. ,
, :
T
T?
9.6. ,
, ,
p
2
,
, ,
2 1, n:
1
A / Q21 = n .
9.7 (, 2007). V

100

1 2 3 4 1 ( 1 2, 3 4 , 2 3, 4 1 ),
p
. 2
3
2p
0
.

p0
4 V
1
, ,
V0
2V0


p
.
3
2
9.8. 1 2 3 kp0
4 1, , p0
1
4 V
(. ). ,
V0
nV0
n , k . .
9.9. V T
V
, 4
3
(1 2 3 4 1
, 2 3 4 1 ).
2
1 T1,
T
3 T3. .
9.10.
1 2 3 1,
p

2
3
( 1
2 , 2 3 ,
3 1 1
). , , 2 3, n
V
,
3 1. .
9.11.
1 2 3 1,
101

9.10 ( 1 2 , 2 3 , 3 1 ). ,
n . .
9.12 (, 2004). p

2
1 2 3 1,
3
( 3 1 ,
1
V 1 2 2 3 , V nV nV

1 2
2
). .
9.13 (, 2004).
p

1 2 3 1,
2
3
( 2 3 1
, 1 2 3 1
V
,
1 3 V0 2V0 3V0
).
. .
9.14 (, 2004).
1 2 3 1,
p

2
3p0
( 2 3
, 1 2 3 1
2p0

3
1
, 1 2 p0
V
).

. .
9.15 (, 2006 2007). 1 2 3 4 2 5 1, p V ( 1 5 2
102

p
4 , 3 4 2 5 3
). ,
2
4
n 2 1 3 .
1
.
5
V
9.16 (, 2005 2006).

, ( 1 2
), ( 2 3)
P
1
( 3 1). ,
2
.
, .
V
3
9.17. ,
( 1 2 9.16), (
2 3) ( 3 1). ,
.
.
9.18 (, 2006). , p 1
,
( 1 2 ),
3
( 2 3) ( 3 1). 2
, ,
2 3, A,
V
T.
9.19.
1 2 3 4 1 .
p
2 3 6 7
5 6 7 8 2p
5.
p
, 8
1
4 5
.
V

V 2V 3V 4V
.
103

2
1

9.20 (, 2005). 1 2 3 4 1,
(. ), .
1 2 3 1.

104

10

10.1. H .
y
x
x
, , ,
, ,
y (y < H)? p0, .
.
. ,
.
10.2 (, 2004 2006). r1 ,
r2 . .
. . , , : p = /r.
10.3. U- , (. ). ,
.
m, , S,
h. p0.
. .
105

10.4. U- , (. 10.3).
,
.
m, , S,
h. p0.
. , .
. -

: pV 5 / 3 = const .
10.5 (, 2003). ,
3
l
2
1
S S ( > 1), .
, ,
.
,

p3/p1 = . Q , ,
.
?
10.6 (, 2003).
,
p = V2, .
. , ?
10.7 (, 2006 2007).
T0, . , . , . , ?
.
106

10.8 (, 2006 2007).



h
x

. h ,
. , . x

, ?
. .
10.9 (, 2005 2007).
m S . h
.
, . h. ,
2h? pa.
10.10 (, 2004). m ,
T1 T2 .
. T1 ( T1 < T1 ) T2 ( T2 < T2 ).
? c.
10.11 (, 2003). , , , T1.
, T2.
,
n ? .
10.12. t0 = 100 ,
t1 = 20
107

t2 = 30 . ,
?
10.13 (, 2003 2004). t1 = 20 . , t 2 = +16 . t 3 = 24 , P = 0,5 .
. . ,

.
10.14 (, 2005 2007). R, T. 2R. ,

,
.
10.15. ,
p = f(V), f
. , V.
10.16. ,
p = V2,
. .
10.17 (, 2003 2005).
,
.
, . , . .
, .
10.18. , 108

C = R (T02 / T 2 ) , ;
T0 . ?
10.19 (, 2006).
h
H H
.
, (. ),
.
p
, 2
h = 11H/24. 2p0
.
10.20 (, 2004).
1
3
p0
1 2 3
V
1, p
V0
2V0
V .
. .
p 1
10.21.
, 2
. 1 2 3 4 4
, 2 3 4 1 , 1 3 3
. 1 2 3 1 1,
V
1 3 4 1 2.
1 2 3 4 1?
10.22 (, 2005). ,
p
2
1 2, 2 3
3 1, 1, ,
1
3 1, 3 4 4
3
1, 2. ,
V
1 2 3 4 1.
4
.

109

2p0

p0

2
3

2
1
V1

3
4
V2

10.23 (, 2006).
(. ), (1 2),
(2 3) (3 1). ,

. .
.

: pV 5 / 3 = const .
10.24.
, V
(1 2 3 4)
(2 3 4 1).
.
.
-

: pV 5 / 3 = const .
10.25. p

2
np0
1 2 3 4 1 (.
1
), (1 2 3 4)
(2 3 4 1). , 3
4

V
n. .
. : pV 5 / 3 = const .
10.26. ,

V = 100 . , . T = 373 .
, :
) m1 = 74 , m2 = 10 ;
) m1 = 74 , m2 = 74 ;
p0

110

) m1 = 36 , m2 = 2,8 ?

H 2O = 18 /,
H 2 = 2 /,

CO 2 = 44 /,

N 2 = 28 /.

10.27 (, 2002).
1
.
2
3
. ? 0
. p =
= (T T)2, T ; .
, , : T,1 = 300 , T,1 = 400 ,
T,2 = 300 , T,2 = 380 , T,3 = 250 , T,3 = 350 . -

, p = 105 .

111

1. - .
.
1.1. , , ,
( ). , , .
. V. N .
V1 =

V
.
N

(1)

(1) m0
NA. Nm0 m , m/V , m0NA , (1)
V1 =

.
N

(2)

(2),
,
d =3

,
N

(3)

(3) . , NA = 6 1023 1/, ,


, = 1 /3, = 18 /, (3)
112

d 3 108 .
1.2.
=

m m0 N m0 N
=
=
=
,
V
V
V
V

m ; V ; m0 ; N
; NA ( ); , = m/.
1.3.
= m0 N = m0 N

N
NV m0 N V
mN
=
N =
N =
= 2 /.
NV
V N
V V
n

, H2.
1.4. m0 ( ) 12 ..., 1/12 :
(1)
mC = 12 ...

:
C = 12 .
(2)
NA , (2) , ... (1) .

(3)
mC = C = 2 10 23 ;
N
C = mC N = 7,2 10 24 ...

(4)

1.5. N m0. ,
N=

V
.
m0
113

(1)

(1)
NA , = m0NA,
VN
.

N=

(2)


H 2O
H 2O

Hg
Hg

(3)

(3) ,
H 2O
H 2O

= 0,055

Hg

Hg

= 0,065

(4)

, 0,065/0,055 =
= 1,18 ( ).
(2). ,
N H 2O = 6,7 10 24 , N Hg = 7,8 10 24 .
m
m
N = 3,3 10 23 , = = 0,55 .

1.7. NA = 6 1023 C2H5OH. 6 ,


3,6 1024 , 1,8 1024 H2, ..
.
1.8. ( ) :

1.6. N =

m
.

114

, . ,

2O3 = 3O2
. , ,
1,5 .
1.9. (. (1.6)
. 1):
n=

p
.
kT

(1)

(1) , , 1 3 ,
. (1) ,

(2)
n = 2,6 1019 3.
(2) , ,
.
1.10.
:
m 2 3
= kT ,
2
2

(1)

m ; ; k , k = 1,38 1023 /; T . (1)


NA , = mNA,
=

3 N kT
= 483 /.

(2)

1.11. , .
115

( ) , .. , , .. , .
, .
1.12. 2 = 1 1 / 2 .
1.13. m.

T
m 2 = 3kT , m( + ) 2 = 3k (T + T ) ,

(1)


T. (1) ,
2m = 3kT m 2 .
(2)
T .
m( + 2) 2 = 3k (T + T + T ) .

(3)

(3) (1)
(2),
T = T +

2m 2
2 2
= T +
3k
3kN

( , = mNA).
1.14. (t 2 + 273 C) /(t1 + 273 C) = 1,016 .
1.15. (1.5) S t
N=

n St
6

nSt
6

3kT nSt
=
6
m

3kN T
,

(1)

n ; ; k ; T ; m
; .
116

(1)
29 /,
N = 2 1027.
1.16. l
, ,
V0, V1, r
,

2d

l
,
.
, 2d (d
) l (. ):
V0 = d2l.

(1)

V1, ,
V1 =

V
1
= ,
N N

(2)

V ; N ; n , n = N/V. (1) (2),

l =

1
2

d n

= 1,2 10 7 .

1.17. t,
1
=

1 1 3kN T
= =
,
t l l

117

; l ; T ; .

1 3kN T
l=
= 1,4 10 8 .

1.18. , ( 78 % , 21 %
1 % ). , , :
=

3kN T

(1)

( ). ( = 2 /) (T = 273 ) (1)
H 2 = 1850 /;

(2)


N 2 = 460 /.

(3)

, 2 =
= 11,2 /, (
, ) , .
,
, , (1). ,
,
2 , , .
2
, ,
, , .
.
118

2 = 2,4 / , . , , .
1.19.
.

.
S. t,
,
N = nSt
(1)

. m0, m, t:
m = nm0St.

(2)

(2) V
h t:
m nm0 St
=
;

(3)

V nm0 t nt
=
=
S

(4)

V =
h =

( (4) , m0N = , NA ). (4) , h/t ,


, ,
:
h
n
.
(5)
=
=
t N

t=

R RN
=
.

n
119

2. .
2.1. ,
,
l1. H , :
p0l0S = (p0 + gH)l1S,

(1)

H=

p0
g

l0

1 ,
l1

(2)

p0 ; l0 ;
. (2) ,
p0/g (2)
p0 = 105 10 . ,
,
10 ;
, 40 ..
2.2.
V,
pV =

m
RT ,

(1)

m . (1)
= m/V :
=

p
= 1,28 /3.
RT

2.3. -
V
2V
=
.
T T + T

(1), : T = T.

120

(1)

2.4. , .
:
p p1 p(1 + )
.
=
=
T T1 T + T

(1)

(1),
T=

T
= 250 .

2.5.
,
,
pV p1V1
,
=
T
T1

p, V T , ; p1, V1 T1 , .
T1 = T + T, p1 = p(1 + ), V1 = V(1 + ).
T=

T
= 350 .
+ +

2.6. :
r
F
r
F
r
F (. ).

r
F

r
F

r
F


p0S + F = pS,
p . p, (V = const) , p = p0T/T0 T, ,
121


F
= 405 .
T = T0 1 +
p 0 S

2.7. ) 1,18 ;
) 1,43 ;
) 1,33 .
2.8. , ,
m:
m =

p
,
RT

; T .

:
p=

m
nm
= 2 10 5 .
RT =
V

2.9. p = pV2/(V1 V2).


2.10. m/m = (T2 T1)/T2, m ,
; m .
2.11. m = (n k)m/n, n > k.
2.12. , ,
, .
.
,
1 RT1 2 RT2
.
=
V1
V2


2 =

T1V2
1 .
T2V1

2.13.
1 2 . :
122

p1V1 = 1RT, p2V2 = 2RT,

(1)

T . (1)
1 =

p1V1
p V
, 2 = 2 2 .
RT
RT

(2)

,
, , , ,
, , (2):
p V
pV
p(V1 + V2 ) = (1 + 2 ) RT = 1 1 + 2 2 RT = p1V1 + p 2V2 , (3)
RT
RT

p , .
(3)
p V + p 2V2
= 0,63 10 5 .
p= 1 1
V1 + V2
2.14. ,
2/2 . ,
1 + (2/2)
.

p 2V = 1 + 2 RT ,
(1)
2

V ; T .
,
:
(2)
p1V = 1RT,
p1 . (1) (2) ,
2 1 p
p1 =
.

1 + 2
2
123

2.15.
.
:
m1
m2
,
=
H 2 V1 N 2 V 2

(1)

V1 V2 , . (1) ,
:
m1 N 2
V1
2
=
= .
V1 + V2 m1 N 2 + m 2 H 2 3

2.16. l1 = N 2 l /( N 2 + He ) = 28 .
2.17. m = p0V(T T0)/RTT0.
2.18. , ,
:
= (3 C + 6 H + O )n ,

(1)

mRT
.
pV

(2)

(1) (2),
n=

mRT
= 2.
pV (3 C + 6 H + O )

2.19. = mRT/pV = 44 /
(T = t + 273 K). , CO2.
2.20. h = (V/S)((p/p0) 1).
2.21. V = (p2V2 p1V1)/(p2 p1), (p2V2 p1V1 > 0).
2.22.
.
124

pV = RT

(1)

V T .
T = V / ,
p=

R 1

(2)

(2) (V = V1) (V = V2)


,
p2
V1
=
.
p1
V2

2.23. p2/p1 = (V1/V2)2.


2.24. p,

p, p p. V1 ,
:
pV = (p p)V1 V1 =

pV
,
p p

V . , 2.13, p1
:
p1 =

pV + ( p p)V1 2 p ( p p )
.
=
2 p p
V + V1

2.25. p1 = p + (p/2).
2.26. M, pa.

paS + Mg = pS,

125

(1)

S ; p .
,
(1)
p +

Mg RT
=
,
S
V

(2)

T ; V . m,
mg/S, ,
n , :
p +

Mg mg nRT
+
=
.
S
S
V

(3)

(2) (3),
mg
RT
.
=
V
S (n 1)

(4)

, k ,
m1.
:
p +

Mg mg m1 g knRT
.
+
+
=
S
S
S
V

(5)

(3) (5) (4),

m1 =

n(k 1)m
= 4 .
n 1

2.27. , (. ).
: ,
r
r
, F,1 F,2
r
r
F,1 F,2 .
126

r
r
r
r
F,1 + F,2 + F,1 + F,2 = 0

(1)

pS1 p S1 + p S 2 pS 2 = 0 ,

(2)

p . (2)
p(S2 S1) = pa(S2 S1).

(3)

S1 S2, (3) , :
p = pa. ( , (3) (S1 S2)
, .)
(
), , , , , . , ,
(
), .

r
F,1

r
F,1

r
F,2

r
F,2


2S2l (l ), S1l + S2l, -
S1 l + S 2 l 2 S 2 l
=
T0
T1

127

(4)


T1 =

2S 2T0
.
S1 + S 2

(5)

T2,
,
T2 =

2S1T0
.
S1 + S 2

(6)

2.28.
.
, , ,
. ,
(, ,
), , ,
.

r
F,2

r
F,1

F,2

F,1

r
F

r
: F r
r
F,1 F,2 (. ).

:
r
( F,1
r
F,1 , ),
128

r
( F,2
r
F,2 , -

). ( , )
ma = F + F,1 F,2 , ma = F,2 F,1

(1)

(m , ). (1) p2 p1
:
p 2 p1 =

F
,
2S

(2)

S .
, . l.

p1 =

RT
,
(l / 2 + l ) S

p2 =

RT
(l / 2 l ) S

(3)

(,
). (3), (2) l:
RT
RT
F

= ,
(l / 2 l ) (l / 2 + l ) 2

(4)


:
l 2 +

4 RT
l2
l
=0.
4
F

129

(5)


l =

4 R 2T 2

2 RT
+
F

F2

l2
4

(6)

( (5) ). (6) : F 0

, , l 0, .. , , . F
, , l l/2. ,

,
( ).
2.29.
,
. r
r
: mg (m );
F2
r
r
F1 F2 (.
).
r
F1

r
mg

p2 p1 = gl,

(1)

p1 p2 ; ; l .
p1 p2 , .
p1 =

pV
,
V

p2 =

pV
,
V

(2)

p ;
V ,
; V V
. V = 2V. ,
. ,
130

.
2
4
V = V , V = V .
(3)
3
3
(2)
p1 p2 ,
(1).
p=

4
gl .
3

2.30. pa = 2gx(l x)/(l 2x).


2.31. ,
, x. ,
x.

(1)
p = pa + gx,
p , . p
:
(2)
px = pal.
(1), (2)
pa(l x) = gx2.
(3)
(3)
x=

p
+
2g

p 2
2

4 g

p l
g

( ,
).
2.32.
mg
+ p1 = p 2 ,
S
131

(1)

m ; p1 p2
. ,
,
, (1)
mg RT1
=
,
(2)
S
2V
V .
T2
mg RT2 RT2
,
(3)
=

S
V2
V1
V1 V2 . V1 + V2 = 3V, (2), (3)
3T1
T
T
(4)
= 2 2 .
2(V1 + V2 ) V2 V1
V2 (4)
x = V1/V2, (4)
3T1
T
(5)
= T2 2 .
2( x + 1)
x
(5)
x:
3T
(6)
x2 1 x 1 = 0 .
2T2
(6)

x=

V1 3T1
9T12
=
+
+1
V2 4T2
16T22

( ,
).
2.33. p1
132

p1 = gh + p 0 = gh +

RT
,
S (l h)

(1)

h , p1 = gh ; T ; S . (1) , :
RTg
= ( p1 p1 )(gl p1 ) .
(2)
S

p 2 (2) :
p 2 = p 2 +

(gl p1 )( p1 p1 )
.
gl p 2

2.34. ,
.
, .
, , , ,
. ,
x, 2x, 3x, ..., nx.
, ,
, Sx, nSx, S .
RT0
RT
,
(1)
=
l

x S
+ nx S

n +1

n +1
; lS/(n + 1) . (1),
l (T T0 )
x =
.
(n + 1)(nT0 + T )
133

3.
3.1. , y = /x ( > 0)
y x.
(mRT / )
V
, ,
, m ( T ),
( ).
3.2. , , (
) ( ).
3.3. , , (
) (
).
3.4. , 3, 1. , . 3 ,
, 1 , .
1 3
pV = RT1, npkV = RT3,
; T1 T3 1
3, ,
T3
= nk .
T1
p=

3.5. 1 2 . ,
134

,
1 2 (.
3.1). p T p V
,
(. ).
2 3 p
p3
3
,
(,
2
2
, 1
1
V
T
).
p T

(. 3.1), (. ). p V ,
(. ).
3 1 , (, ,
). p T , , (. ). p V , (. ).
T3 3
. 2 3 , T3 = T2
(T2 2). 1 2 , 1 2: p2 = p1.
2,

p 2V2 = RT2 T2 = T3 =

3.6.

.

p 2V2 p1V2
=
.
R
R

3
1 V

135


V
V T
m = maxVmin = 0 max 1 = 0 0 .
T3
n
3.7. = nR0T0/p0.
3.8. T2 = T1T3 .
3.9. ,
1
,
2
1
. , ,
3
2 1
3

p(T) , 3
T
(,
1 . 1).
. 1
3.1,

, .
, , p(T), ,
. , , 2 . 1, , 3. 1 2, 3
, V1 V2 V3 (V1, V2 V3
1, 2 3 ). 3.1 ,
, p(T), ,
V1 < V2 < V3.
, , ( . 1
), .


, . , ,
p = kT + b,
(1)
p

136

k b (
b (), k , ,
(/)). (1) ,
RT
,
(2)
V=
kT + b
; R .
(2) . kT (2) b, , , (2)

R
V=
T,
(3)
b
.. , . , , b kT (2):
RT R
,
(4)
=
kT
k
, , V(T)
T R/k.
V(T)
. 2 (
,
, ,

).
3.10. ( x),
( ) ,
.

V=

R/k

T
. 2
p
y
1
z
x

137

y, , . z, , 1 ,
1.
3.11. .
3.12. p(V), V(T) p(T) . .
:
(V )V = RT , V = T ,
, = R / . p = R T .
p

3.13. V(T) , 1 2
3 4, , V T (. 3.12) . V T .
V3

Vx
V1

3
4
2
1

T1

T2
138


2 4 Vx. 1
2 2 3 , ,
V12 = T , V3 4 = T ,

(1)

; 1
4 T1, 2 3 T2. V1 Vx, (1),
V1 = T1 , V x = T2 ,

(2)

Vx V3 (1)
V x = T1 , V3 = T2 .

(3)

(2), (3) ,
Vx
V1
T
T
= 1 ,
= 1 .
Vx
T2
V3
T2

(4)

(4),
2 4:
V x = V1V3 .

3.14. , V

2
2V
0
, : 1 2 Vm
1
, 3 1 .
V0
2 3, ,
3
2
Tm T
3 (
2T0
T0

),
. p(V) (. 3.1),
, .
1 2 3 1, 2 3.
1 2 3 1 :
1 2, 139

, 3 1 (. ).
1 2 3 1 , 2T0
(T0 = p0V0/R).

2 3, ,
.

p
(1)
p(V ) = 0 V + 3 p 0 .
V0

p

p
RT = 0 V + 3 p 0 V = 0 V 2 + 3 p 0V ,
V0
V0

(2)

T =

3p
p0
V2 + 0V.
RV0
R

(3)

(3), T(V) (3) .


V(T) , , , T,
(3) .
, ,
2 3 , Tm, 2T0.
Tm ,
Vm,
, (3) . .
:
9
3
Tm = T0 , Vm = V0 .
4
2

140

4. .
4.1. p
p1 p2,
,
( )
RT m1 m 2

,
p = p1 + p 2 =
(1)
+
V 1 2
V ; T , T = t + 273 ; 1
2 , 1 = 2 /
2 = 32 /. = (m1 +
+ m2)/V. (1)
=

(m1 + m 2 ) p
= 520 /3.
RT ((m1 / 1 ) + (m 2 / 2 ))

4.2. = P(n + 1) N 2 O 2 / RT (n N 2 + O 2 ) = 1,24 10 3 /3.


4.3. 10 20

p0 =

10 RT 20 RT
+
V0
V0

(1)

10 = k 20 .

(2)

(1), (2),
10 =

k p 0V0
,
k + 1 RT

(3)

20 =

1 p 0V0
.
k + 1 RT

(4)

1 2
:
141

1 =

p1V
p V
, 2 = 2 .
RT
RT

(5)

,
N Ne =

1 k + 1 p1V
=
= 333 ;
10
k p 0V0

N Ne =

2
k + 1 p1V
=
= 667 .
20
1 p 0V0

,
N = NHe = 333 .
4.4.
p=

RT
(1 + 2 + 3 ) = 2,2 10 5 .
V

(1)

,
, ,
, .
m = m1 + m2 + m3 = 11 + 22 + 33,

(2)

m1, m2 m3 , ; 1,
2 3 , (1)
RT 11 + 2 2 + 3 3 RT
=
( 1 + 2 + 3 ) ,

V
V

(3)

. (3)
=

11 + 2 2 + 3 3
.
1 + 2 + 3

(4)

1 = 2 /, 2 = 32 /, 3 = 44 /, (4)

=30,7 /.

142

4.5.
N=

2 pVN A

RT O 2 1 + 2 + 3
N
2 O 2 Ar

= 2,5 10 21 .

4.6.
V1 =

N1 kT
N kT
, V2 = 2
,
p1
p2

(1)

V1 V2 ; T ; k
. V1 + V2 N1 + N2 .
p(V1 + V2) = (N1 + N2)kT.

(2)

(2) V1 V2 (1),
p=

( N 1 + N 2 ) p1 p 2
.
N1 p 2 + N 2 p1

4.7. , , ,
V1 1 = 1V1 /(V1 + V2 ) ,
V1: 1 = 1V2 /(V1 + V 2 ) .
V2. V2
2 1 .
V1 1 . ,
,
p1V1 = 1 RT =

1V1
RT
V1 + V2

p1 =

1 RT
;
V1 + V2

p 2V2 = (1 + 2 ) RT = 1 2 + 2 RT
V1 + V2

143

p2 =

1V2 + 2 (V1 + V2 )
RT ,
V2 (V1 + V2 )

T . ,

1V2
p1
.
=
p 2 1V2 + 2 (V1 + V2 )

4.8.
V1
= 1,
V2

m1 1 1
,
=
m 2 2 ( 1)

V1 , ; m1
; V2 , ; m1 ; 1 2 .
4.9. V1/V2 = 1/1 2.
4.10. ,
N=

m
NA ,

(1)

, = 254 /; NA
.
J2 . N ,
N1 = N N + 2N = N + N.

(2)

(- )

pV =

N1
N + N
m
N
RT =
RT = 1 +
RT ,
NA
NA

T ; V .

144

(3)

(3) :
N pV
=
1 = 0,2 .
N
mRT
4.11. N (N ) : (1 )N
2N .


(1)
p0V = NkT0, p1V = ((1 )N + 2N)kT1,
p0, T0 p1, T1
; V ; k . (1) ,
pT

1+ = 1 0 = .
p 0T1

= / 1 = 0,05.
4.12. p = (1 + )mRT/V = 1,9 105 .
4.13. ,
, N, T. N N
, 2N . T
N (1 + )
(1)
p1V =
RT ,
NA
V . nT

N (1 + )
(2)
p 2V =
RT .
NA
(2) (1) ,

n(1 + ) p1
.
p2 =
(1 + )

145

4.14.
p1V = (1 + 2)RT1,
(1)
V .
T2 , H2
H,
22.
p2V = (1 + 22)RT2.
(2)
(1)
(2),
p T ( + 2 2 )
p2 = 1 2 1
= 0,44 10 5 .
T1 (1 + 2 )
4.15.
1 .
p 0V0
(1)
= + 1 .
RT0

(2)
2O3 = 3O2
, 3/2 .

p 0V 3
(3)
= + 1 .
RT
2
(3) (1) ,
2 p 0 V V0

.
=
R T T0
4.16.

Na
2 p1T2 p 2T1
.
=
N 2( p 2T1 p1T2 )
146

4.17.
p2 =

p1T2 (1 + 2 2 )
= 0,44 10 5 .
T1 (1 + 2 )

4.18.
N.

(1)
2O3 = 3O2
, -

3
1
N = N + N
(2)
2
2
. , - ,
N N +

pV =

N (1 + (1 / 2))
RT ,
NA

(3)

V T . -
N (1 + (1 / 2))
(4)
p1V =
RT .
NA
2+
p.
2+
4.19.
p0V = 2RT,

(4), (3) p1 =

(1)
V T ; ( ).

2H2 + O2 = 2H2O
. ,
,
.
147

, /2 ,

3/2. ,
3
p1V = RT ,
(2)
2
p1 . (2) (1),
3
p1 = p 0 .
4
4T p
4.20. p 0 = 0 = 10 5 .
3T
4.21. N1 , N2 .
(1)
2CO2 2CO + O2

,
: N1 , N2
N2/2 .
N + (3 / 2) N 2
(2)
pV = 1
RT .
NA
, CO2

N1 + N 2 =

m
NA ,

(3)

, = 44 /. (2), CO2 CO :
N1
2( pV RTm)
=
= 0,5 .
N 2 (3RTm 2 pV)

148

5. : ,
,
5.1. U T.
U =

3
RT ,
2

(1)

. .

RT = p1V1 p0V0,

(2)

p0 V0 ; p1 V1
. V1 = nV0, p 0 = const / V02 , p1 = const / V12
(const , ). (1)
RT = p1V1 p 0V0 =
= p 0V0

const const const 1 n

=
=
nV0
V0
V0
n

1 n
1 n
.
= RT0
n
n

(3)

3(1 n)
RT0 = 1,9 .
2n
, .
5.2. n = 1 , n > 1 .
5.3. U = 3(mg + P0S)h/2.
5.4. , .

U:
U =

Q = U.

(1)


U =

3
RT ,
2

149

(2)

; T .
T :
T =

1
(m12 m02 ) ,
3k

(3)

k ; 1 0
. 1 = n0 ,
(3)
T =

m02 2
(n 1) = T (n 2 1) .
3k

(4)

(1), (4) :
Q=

3
RT (n 2 1) .
2

5.5. Q = (3/2)pV(n 1) = 0,75 103 .


5.6. (AV = 0),
,
Ap > 0 ( ), (AQ < 0). (
, U = AQ . , U > 0
.)
Ap > AV > AQ.

(1)

, . ,
QV Qp , :

(1)
Qp > QV.
5.7. , ,
.
150


Q = AT,
AT .

Q = U + A p =

3
3
5
5
RT + pV = RT + RT = RT = A p ,
2
2
2
2

U ; ; T ; p ; V
. ,
AT 5
= .
Ap 2

5.8.
(Q = 0)
U Q = A .

(1)

, (5.11)
U p =

3
3
3
RT = pV = A p .
2
2
2

(2)

(1), (2)

U p
U Q

3
= .
2

(3)

,
(Ap > 0) (Up > 0), (AQ > 0)
(UQ < 0) .
5.9. QV/QP = 3/5.
5.10.
151

Q p = U p + A p =
=

3
RT + pV =
2

3
5
5
RT + RT = RT = A p ,
2
2
2

(1)

Qp, Up, Ap ,
, Up = (3/2)RT
Ap = pV = RT; p ; V T ; .
,


(2)
QT = AT,
QT AT
. (1) (2) , Ap/AT = n,
Q p 5n
.
=
2
QT
5.11. Q U A, :
Q = U + A.

(1)


U =

3
RT ,
2

(2)

; T .
A = pV = RT.
(1) (3) , Q = (5/2)RT, , ,
3
U = Q = 18 .
5
152

(3)

5.12.
Q = A,

nQ = U + A1,
nQ ,
; U A1
. 5.7,
3/5
, 2/5.
A1 =

2nA
= 800 .
5

5.13. A = 3RT / 2 .
5.14. A = pV

:
m
A = pV = pV2 pV1 = RT2 RT1 = RT = RT = 3750 .

V , V = V2 V1 (V2 V1 ); ; T2 T1 ; T , T = T2 T1;
m ; .
5.15. , (A = 0).
3
RT ,
2
T .
Q = U =

p T 1
= =
p1 T1 n

(p, T p1, T1 ) T = T(n 1).


153

Q=

3
RT = 7,5 .
2

5.16. A, ,

(1)
A = p(V2 V1),
p ; V2 V1 . V1 V2 n (V = N/n) ,
q ,

N N
A = p
=
n 2 n1

qN N pN (q 1)
p
=
= pV1 (q 1) . (2)
n1
n1 n1


,
A = (q 1)RT1 = 5 .

5.17. , , (
(5.7) ). .
, , , (
)
, . ,
,
, ,

,
:
A = A .

A , (5.7).

A = U .
(1)
154

,
U =

3
3
3 p 0V0
RT = R (T1 T0 ) =
(T1 T0 ) ,
2
2
2 T0

(2)

T1 ( (2)
).
(2) (1) ,

2A
T1 = T0 1 +
3 p 0V0

= 360 .

5.18. Q = (5/2)mRT0(n 1)/.


. , ,
.
5.19.
n , ,
, n .

T/n T.
p(V2 V1), p ; V2 V1 .
,
A = p (V2 V1 ) = pV2 pV1 = RT R

T RT (n 1)
,
=
n
n

T=

An
= 300 .
R(n 1)

5.20. Q = (c(T2 T1) + (c + R) (T3 T2)).


5.21.

. , , , . ,

155

3
3
3
3
1 RT1 + 2 RT2 = 1 RTx + 2 RT x ,
2
2
2
2

(1)

Tx . (1)
Tx =

1T1 + 2T2
.
1 + 2

(2)


,
.. :
Q12 =

3 (T T2 )
3
3
,
2 RT x 2 RT2 = 1 2 1
2
2
2( 1 + 2 )

(3)

, , , .
(3) : , .
,
:
, .
, (1) -
, .
, , ..
(2).
, ( (3)).
, , .
5.22. T = (V1T1 + V2T2)/(V1 + V2),
E12 = (3 / 2)nk (T1 T2 )V1V2 /(V1 + V2 ) .
5.23. Q = 2p0V0(n2 1).
.
, .
.
156

5.24. :
C=

Q
,
T

(1)

Q , ; T
Q.
.
.
.
,
Q = U,

(2)

U .
, U = (3/2)RT ( ),
Q=

3
RT ,
2

(3)

2Q
,
3R

(4)

T =

(1) :
3
CV = R .
(5)
2
.
pV,
Q=

3
3
5
RT + pV = RT + RT = RT .
2
2
2

(6)

(6) T (1),
:
Cp =

5
R .
2

157

(7)

CT CQ (1):
CT = , CQ = 0.

(8)

( , , , .
, .)
5.25. Q,
T, .

(A = 0)
Q = U =

3
5
5
3
1 RT + 2 RT = 1 + 2 RT .
2
2
2
2

(1)

T Q:
T =

Q
,
5
3
1 + 2 R
2
2

(2)

:
5
3
cV = 1 + 2 R .
2
2

(3)

A,

5
3
Q = U + A = 1 + 2 RT + A .
(4)
2
2

158

A = pV = (1 + 2 ) RT .

(5)

(4), (5)
7
5
c p = 1 + 2 R .
2
2

(6)

5.26. ,
Q,
T, ,
.

Q = U + A,

(1)

U A
Q. ,
U =

3
RT ,
2

(2)

; T . Q , , , ,
, ,
A pV,

(3)

V .
(, (3)
: pV = RT,
. p, V T
p, V T :
(p + p) (V + V) = R(T + T),

159

(4)

pV + pV = RT

(5)

( pV
pV Vp ,
(5)). , (3)
pV =
= RT pV, , , .)
(2) (3) (1)
T,
C=

Q 3
V
.
= R + p
T 2
T

(6)

V T , V/T . , ,

V = f(T),
C=

3
RT dV (T )
.
R +
2
V (T ) dT

(7)

(7),
, , .
-
, .
(7) , ,
V(T) = T,
. ,
C=

3 + 2
R
2

. ,
, .
160

5.27. ) (7) (
CV, 1 1)
C = CV + 2R
( C = 7R/2).
) ,
V=

R 4
T

( = 1 1). (7)
C = CV + 4R
( C = 9R/2).
) ,
V=

RT

( = 1 1). (7)
R
C = CV +
2
( C = 2R).
5.28. p(V) ,
RT
.
(1)
V = +1

(7) 5.26
C=

(5 + 3)R
2( + 1)

( C = 2R).
161

(2)

(2) , (. 5.24): C = = 1 ( ) C = 0 = 5 / 3 ( ). , , (2),


5 / 3 < < 1 (,
) .
5.29. , , , ,
.
, , .
, , , ,
. , . ( 1 ) . ,

m + m 2 = 2m1 ,
(1)

3
.
(2)
2

.
, ,
1 =

2m12
m 2 m(2) 2 3
3
,
(3)
RT +
+
= RT1 +
2
2
2
2
2
; T1 ,
, .. .
( (3)
.) (3),

T1 = T +
162

m 2
.
6 R

5.30.
:
3
3
1
RT = RT1 + kx 2 ,
2
2
2

(1)

T T1 ;
; k ; x .
, (1):
3
3
1
pV = p1 2V + p1V ,
2
2
2

(2)

p1 ( (2)
, p1S = kx, x = V/S, S ). (2) ,
p1 =

3p
.
7

(3)

:
pV p1 2V
.
=
T
T1

(4)

(4) p1 (3) ,

6T
T1 =
.
7
5.31. N . E0
E0 =

3 N
RT ,
2 N

(1)

NA ; R .
N/2
N/4 .
163

E1 =

3 N
5 N
RT1 +
RT1 ,
2 2N
2 4N

(2)

T1 .

N/4 N /4,
.. , , , (2) (1) :
3 N
5 N
3 N
RT1 +
RT1
RT = N /4.
2 2N
2 4N
2 N

(3)

(3)
T1 = T(12/11 + 2 /(11kT)),

(4)

k = R/NA .
p1
N
N
p1V =
+
2N 4N

RT1 ,

(5)

V . (5)
T1 , pV = (N/NA)RT,

p1 = p(18kT + 3)/(22kT).
, .
, . ,

. ,
, 164

.
(, ,
, ),
. , .
5.32. N1/N2 = (2 + kT2)/[5k(T1 T2)], k .
. .
, (3/2)RT,
(5/2)RT.
5.33.
5
3
Q = p 0 Sh + ghV0 + 2gh 2 S .
2
2
. p(V) = p0 + g(V V0)/S. p(V), . .
6.

6.1. , . , , , , . , 3, , .. ,
,
.
, 2. ,
pV = const.
165

, p V
const
,
(1)
p(V ) =
V
, ,
. p
,

p V,
.
,
V
,
, , T1 < T2 < T3.
: ( , , ),
. : , . (,
,
. ,
.)
, :
, , - , , , , , ,
. ,
, ,
, .
, 1 3 , 2 .
, ,
,
T1 T2 T3

166

. , , .
Q = U + A,

(2)

Q, U A , ,
. ,
1, U A (. ),
Q .
, 3, U = 0 A > 0, , Q > 0 .
2:
A < 0, U , .
: (
10.20).
6.2.
1 U > 0, A > 0, Q > 0;
2. U < 0, A > 0, Q , ;
3. U > 0, A > 0, Q > 0.
6.3.
1. U > 0, A > 0, Q > 0;
2. U < 0, A > 0, Q , ;
3. U > 0, A = 0, Q > 0.
6.4. , Q, U
A
Q = U + A.

(1)

(1) Q A .
. U =
= (3/2)RT, ; T ; R , 167

, ..
U = 0, (1) , ,
, :
Q = A.

(2)

Q A (2)
,

.
2
Q A A
, 45 1
. Q
4
A (2) 3
1.
. ,
Q

Q = 0.

(3)

Q A (3) 2.
.
, :
A = 0.

(4)

Q A (4) 3.
. A = pV, p ; V .

A = RT.

(5)

U = (3/2)RT,
(1), (5) ,
Q = (3/2)RT + RT = (5/2)RT = (5/2)A.
Q A (6) 4.
168

(6)

6.7. , , ,
p V.
A = (p2 p1)(V2 V1),

(1)

p2
2 3; p1 1
p
2
3
4; V1 1 p2
2; V2 3 4
(. ),
. - p1
1
4

V
.
V1
V2
(1) :
(2)
A = p2V2 p2V1 p1V2 + p2V1 = R(T3 + T1 2T2)
( , T2 = T4). T2 . 1 2 3
4 , 2 4 ,
p 2 p1
p 2 p1
;
.
(3)
=
=
T2 T1
T3 T2
(3) ,
T3 T2
,
=
T2 T1

T2 = T1T3 .

(4)
(5)

T2 (5) (2)

A = R (T1 + T3 2 T1T3 ) = R ( T1 T3 ) 2 .
(6)
, 1
2 3,
Q = U + A,
169

(7)

Q , ; U
; A , . .
,
1 2 3 :
3
U = R(T3 T1 ) .
(8)
2
, 1 2 3, .

(9)
A = p2(V2 V1) = p2V2 p2V1 = R(T3 T2)
( ).
T2 (5) (9),
(7), (8), (9):
3
5
3
R (T3 T1 ) + RT3 R T1T3 = RT3 RT1 R T1T3 .
2
2
2
6.8.
0 1,
, (. 6.1). .
0 2 , Q = 0
U + A = 0.
(1)
0 3 ( p(V)),

0 2 ( ). 0 3
U + A > 0.
(2)
(2) , , Q > 0, ,
, 0 3 .
, 0 3 , . , , , ,
, .
Q=

170

( ,
, . 10.19).
6.9. Q = 2R(T2 T1).
6.10. A = 0.
6.11. 1 2 3 1 : Q = A (
, ). p V,
1
Q = ( p 2 p1 )(V2 V1 ) .
2
6.12.
1 4:
Q = U + A,
(1)
U ; A
. :
3
3
U = R (T4 T1 ) = RT .
(2)
2
2
,
p

1
2
p V
. 3
(V1, V2 = V3 V4 4
V
1, 2 3, 4).
V1 V2 = V3 V4

A = p1(V2 V1) + p4(V4 V2).
(3)
(3)
,
A = p1V2 p1V1 + p4V4 p4V2 =
= RT4 RT1 + RT4 RT1 = 2RT.
(4)
7
(1), (2), (4) Q = RT .
2
171

6.13. Q = (1/2)RT.
6.14. 2 3 ,
1 2 3 1
A = A12 + A31 ,

(1)

A (1) .
A31 A1 2 .
1 2 ,
A1 2 = pV = p (V2 V1 ) ,
(2)
p 1 2; V
1 2, V = V2 V1.
V2 = nV1 1,
A31 = A RT1 (n 1) .
6.15. 3 1 ,
2 1 3 2
T21 = T32 .

(1)

, 1 2
3
A21 = U 21 = RT21 ,
(2)
2

3
Q32 = U 32 + A3 2 = RT3 2 + pV3 2 =
2
3
5
= RT3 2 + RT3 2 = RT3 2 .
(3)
2
2
(1) (3)
5
Q32 = A21 .
3

172

7. :
, ,

7.1. .
. ,
.
, ,
t = 0 .
7.2. .
, t = 100 .
7.3. ,
,
, .
, ,
.
7.4. .
, .
, t 36
36,6 C. ,
t 10 15 C.
,
. ,
, ,
.
7.5. r =
= 2,3 106 /, c = 4,2 103 /(
). 173

5 ,
100 .
7.6. m2 > m1. , ,
, , cm1( t1) = cm2(t2 ), c , ; m1
m2 ; t1 t2 ;
. , ( t1) (t2 ). m2 2m1.
7.7. P. t Q = Pt ,
.
Pt = cm(T1 T0).

cm(T1 T0 )
[].
P=
t
7.8.
.
CV(Tx T0) = cm(T Tx),
(1)
CV ; Tx ; R
. ,

,
.
cV = (3/2)R,

3 M
,
(2)
CV = R
2
M .
(2), (1) MR/,

MR p 0V
,
(3)
=

T0
174

Tx,
Tx =

cmT + (3 / 2) p 0V
.
cm + (3 / 2)( p 0V / T0 )

(4)

p
(V = const):
p = p0

Tx
3 p 0V + 2mcT
= p0
= 1,66 10 5 .
T0
3 p 0V + 2mcT0

7.9.
M=

(5)

cm(t k t )
= 7,3 .
q

7.10. :
Qi = cmi(t ti),

(1)

c ; mi ti
i- (i = 1, 2, 3); t ( -
Qi , -
).
, .
m1(t t1) + m2(t t2) + m3(t t3) = 0.

(2)

(2),
t=

7.11.
m1 =

m1t1 + m2 t 2 + m3t 3
.
m1 + m2 + m3
cm(t t )
= 0,56 .

7.12. . - , ,
, 175

, .

( )
, .
t,

cm(t t1) = C(t1 t2).

C (t1 t 2 )
t = t1 +
= 32,6 C.
mc
, - , , 32,4 C,
32,6 C.
7.13.
cm(t 4 t1 )
m =
= 0,68 .
r + c(t 2 t 3 )
7.14. t1,
t2. , t1 t2
, .
t1 cm(t1 t 0 ) c(t1 t 0 )
.
(1)
=
=
t2
mr
r
(1) t1 + t2 = t , ,
t2 =

tr
= 8,5 .
r + c(T1 T0 )

,
,
, .
7.15. :
Q1 = c1m1(t2 t1) t1 = 20 t2 = 100 ;
176

Q2 = c2m2(t2 t1)
t1 = 20 t2 = 100 ;
Q3 = mr m .
T
NT, - .

NT = Q1 + Q2 + Q3

(c m + c 2 m2 )(t 2 t1 ) + mr
= 625 c = 10 25 .
T= 1 1
N
7.16. m , m m
, .
. ,
, , Q1 = m. , , , Q2 = (m m)r.
Q1 = Q2.
rm
= 508 .
m =
+r
7.17. :
Q ,
;
Q ,
;
Q ,
t1 = 0 t2 = 100 . :
(1)
Q = m2r = 2,3 105 ;
4
Q = m1 = 3,3 10 ;
(2)
4
Q = m1c(t2 t1) = 4,2 10 .
(3)
(1) (3) , Q > Q + Q. , t2 = 100 ,
.
177

m .

(1)
Q
= Q + Q ,

(4)

(1)
Q
= mr , -

m, . (2) (4)
m + cm1 (t 2 t1 )
m = 1
= 33 .
r
, m1 + m = 133
m2 m = 67 t2 = 100 .
7.18. . ,
, ,
t = 0 , , , , t = 0 , , . , , Q1, t = 0 , Q2,

t = 0 . ,
(1)
Q1 = c1m1(t1 t) = 4,2 104 ;
5
Q2 = c2m2(t t2) = 4,2 10 .
(2)
Q1 Q2, ,
, . m
(3)
Q2 = c1m1(t1 t) + m m = 1,15 .
, t = 0
,
m 2 = m2 + m = 6,15 m1 = m1 m = 0,85
t = 0 . , t = 0 .
178

7.19. , ,
.
q. ( , , q . , ,
q = const.)

(1)
Pt1 = cmT + qt1;
(2)
cmT = qt2.
(1), (2),
Pt1t 2
m=
= 0,79 .
cT (t1 + t 2 )
7.20. ,

. ,
, .
q.
P P/2:
(1)
Pt1 = cmT + qt1;
P
(2)
t 2 = cmT + qt 2 ,
2
c m .
(1), (2),
P (t 2 t1 )
Pt1t 2
, cmT =
.
(3)
q=
2(t 2 t1 )
2(t 2 t1 )

(3)
2P:
(4)
2Pt3 = cmT + qt3,
t3 2P,
t1t 2
t 3 =
= 4,9 .
3t 2 2t1
179

8. .
8.1.
.

, .
, , -,
(.. ,
), , -,
(.. ).
8.2. ,
,
. , ,

. ,
. , . ,
. , .
8.3.
.
,
, , . - , , , .

,
.
, .
8.4. ,
100 %,
180

, .
, , , ,
100 %. , , .
,
,
.
, , (.. ) . , ( ), ( ,
) .

( ),
, 100 %, 100 %.
, , ,
.
8.5.
. ,
100 % ( ), . ,
, , , .
, , .
8.6. :
2 2 p ,2T2
=
= 3,4 ,
1 1 p ,1T1

T1, T2
, T1 = t1 + 273 K T2 = t2 + 273 K. , 3,4
181

, . t3 = 20 ,
3 =

1 p ,1T3
p ,3T1

= 27 %.

8.7.
, - .

, m1 m2
m1 =

1p V
( p p )V
, m2 = 2
,
RT
RT

(1)

1, 2 , 1 = 18 / 2 = 29 /; V T .
,
m3 =

2 pV
.
RT

(2)

(1), (2)

( 1 )p
m1 + m 2 1p + 2 ( p p )
.
=
=1+ 2
2 p
2 p
m3

8.8. ,

.
, .
, ,
. ,
m = 1 V = 10 3 T = 293 , 182

, :
p=

mRT
= 13,5 10 3 ,
V

(1)

, = 18 /. (1)
p =
= 2,3 103 . m,
, .

m =

p V
= 0,17 .
RT

(2)

8.9. m ,

p=

(m0 + m) RT
,
V

(1)

m0 ; T ; , = 18 /; V . (1) ,

1 =

p
mRT
=+
= 59 %.
p
V

(2)

( (2) 100 %, . (2) 100 %,


. 100 %, .
100 %, .)
183

8.10.
m=

( 2 1 )V
,
RT

.
8.11. ,
1p 2p ( p
), m1 m2
1 p V1 =

m1
RT

m1 =

1 p V1
;
RT

(1)

2 p V2 =

m2
RT

m2 =

2 p V2
,
RT

(2)

.
,
, p
p(V1 + V2) = p(1V1 + 2V2).

(3)

(3)
=

V + 2V2
p
.
= 1 1
p
V1 + V2

8.12. t = 100
,
:
p ,0 (100 C) = 10 5 .

(1)

,
.
, -
(1),
m=

p ,0V
RT
184

(2)

, = 18 /; T , T = 273 + 100 = 373 .


,
.
p V1 =

m
RT1 ,

(3)

V1 ; T1
, T1 = 273 + 20 = 293 . (3)
(2),
V1 =

p ,0T1V
p T

= 13,6 .

8.13.
2 =

1 p ,1V1T2
p ,2V2T1

1 p ,1V1T2

p ,2V2T1

< 100 %,

2 = 100 %,

1 p ,1V1T2
p ,2V2T1

< 100 %.

8.14. t = 100 p =
= 105 . m, t = 100 .
,
m =

p V
= 5,9 ,
RT

, = 18 /; T , T = t + 273 .
, .
,
.
185

8.15. ,

. t = 0 t1 = 82
( ), , t = 0 , t1 = 82 (
, ..
).
m, m.
( ,
):
m
pV = RT ,
(1)

, = 29 /; T , T = 273 .
m m
RT1 ,
p1V = +
1

(2)

1 , 1 = 18 /; T1 , T1 = 355 .
(1) (2),

V ( p1T pT1 )
m = 1
= 304 .
RTT1
8.16. ,
, .
, ,
. , .
186

, , , .
n > m
,
, n.
, .
.
, ,
RT (n + m) RT (n + m) RT (n + m)
=
+
,
(1)
mV
nV
nV
, ; ;
T ; nV/(n + m) mV/(n + m)
(V ). n (1)
n
= + .
(2)
m
,
,
= + ~
,
(3)
,
~

. (3) (2),

= ~
:
( n m)
,
(4)
=
m

(n m)
= 12 ,
m
, = 18 /.
m = =

187

8.17. , ,
( )
RT
.
(1)
V

p
, 4
,
(1) ( 1 2
).
p
3
2
1
, V1
V2
V1
V
.

, ( p).
. .
2 3. , V2, ,

( 3 4 ).
8.18. , .
, , 100
(
). , *.
100 (),
.
p=

,
- , ( , , ). , , . .
188

,
. , ,
100 .
, ,
100 . , ,
m
p Sh = RT ,
(1)

h , ; , = 18 /; T , T = 373 .
mRT
h=
= 14,4 .
p S
8.19. ,
,
p p, pa:
p + p = pa.

(1)


H,
+ p = p + gH ,
p

(2)

p
p
.
, (1) (2) . (2) p
(1),
= p + gH .
p
189

(3)

l
+ H.
p lS = p

(4)

(3), (4),
, , p,
(1)

gH + H
2
= 0,145 10 5 .
= p

l
H

8.20.
A=

mRT
,

.
. ,
.
8.21. ,
x
1
x0
p0
2
pa , T
d 4
3
mg/S, m
T0
T1
S :
p0 = p +

mg
.
S

(1)

, , , p0 (1). x(T). , ,
. ,
190

p 0 Sx =

m
RT ,

(2)

Sx = V ; m ; . (2) ,
x(t) , . T0, (2)
x0:
T0 =

p 0 Sx0
.
mR

(3)

1 2.
. , T1,
(1):
p(T1) = p0.
, (
) ,
(1).
, , (
2 3). , T < T1 , (
, , , ..
x = d = m/S, ). ,
, , x = d
.
3 4.
8.22.
p
p, ,
191

p. : ? m1, , t = 100 .

m1 =

p V
,
RT

(1)

p = 105 t = 100 ( T = 373 ).


) (1)
m1 = 11,6 .

(2)

, (2)
) . , , .. 105 .
p t = 100

p =

p T
.
T0

(3)

:
p = p + p =

p T
+ p = 2,38 10 5 .
T0

(4)

) (1) , ,
V = 30 , , , m1 = 17,5 . m < m1, , , .

p = p + p =

p T mRT
+
= 2,2 10 5 .
T0
V
192

(5)

9. .
.
9.1. , , p V,
A=

(V2 V1 ) ( p 2 p1 )
2
2

A (V2 V1 )( p 2 p1 )
.
=
Q
4Q

9.2. , (T
):
=

nT T n 1
.
=
nT
n

9.3.
,
,
. Q = A,
Q = A, Q = A,

(1)

A A , ,
, .

A
=n
A
(1)
=

Q Q n 1
.
=
Q
n

9.4. , T
. T1
. T T1 193

, ,
, , ,
A,
3
A = R (T1 T ) ,
2

.
T1 = T

2A
.
3R

(9.4) ,
=

2A
.
3RT

9.5. T1 T2.
=

T1 T2
.
T1

(1)

1 2 :
1 =

T1 T2 + T
T T2 + T
, 2 = 1
.
T1 + T
T1

(2)

, 2 > 1, (2) , .
9.6. , 1 2 , 2 1 . 1 2 ,
2 1 . ,
Q = Q21

(1)

( , Q21
, ,
194

2 1 , Q21
).
, ,
Q = Q21 + A ,

(2)

( A / Q21 )
A
A
n
.
=
=
=
Q Q21 + A 1 + ( A / Q21 ) 1 + n

9.7.
=

A
,
Q

(1)

A ; Q ,
. .
, p V.
A = p0V0.

(2)

, 1 2 2
3, 3 4 4 1. 1 2.
( ),
( , ). U ,
Q = U + A

(3)

, , 1
2, , .. . 1 2 3 4 1.
, , 1 2 3,
,
195

Q = U 1 23 + A123 .

(4)


U 1 23 =
=

3
3
R(T3 T1 ) = (RT3 RT1 ) =
2
2

3
9
(2 p 0 2V0 p 0V0 ) = p 0V0 .
2
2

(5)

1 2 3 ,
p(V) :
A1 23 = 2 p 0V0 .

(6)

(4) (6)
Q =

13
p 0V0 ,
2

(7)

(1), (2) (7)


=

2
.
13

(8)

(8) ,
2/13 , 1 2 3, . 11/13
3 4 1.
, , , . , 3, 1
(
). , ,
(9)
Tmax = 4Tmin.
196

(9)
Tmin 3
4T
= min
= .
4Tmin
4
, ,
, ,
,
, .
(n 1)(k 1)
.
9.8. =
(5 / 2)kn k (3 / 2)
9.9.
p V ( p
3
2
,

1
4
) ,
.
V

2 4 ( ), 2 4 ( ).
2 4 T24.
,
1 2 3 3 4 1.
1 2 3

3
Q1 23 = R (T3 T1 ) + p 23 (V3 V2 ) =
2
5
3
= RT3 RT1 RT24 ,
(1)
2
2
p23 2 3; V2 V3 2 3 ( (1) ).
3
4 1, Q3 41 ,
(, , ):
197

3
R (T1 T3 ) + p14 (V1 V4 ) =
2
5
3
= RT1 RT3 RT24 ,
(2)
2
2
p14 1 4; V1 V4
1 4.
, , , Q1 23 + Q3 41 , (1), (2),

( T3 T1 ) 2
Q
+ Q341
.
(3)
= 1 23
=
Q1 23
(5 / 2)T3 (3 / 2)T1 T24

Q341 =

T24. 1 2 3 4
p 23 p14
p 23 p14
,
.
(4)
=
=
T24
T1
T3
T24
(4) , T24 = T1T3 .

=

( T3 T1 ) 2
(5 / 2)T3 (3 / 2)T1 T1T3

(5)

9.10. 3 1
Q. 2 3
A = nQ. , 3 1.
3 1
p = V, ( ), :
1
(V12 V32 ) ,
(1)
2
V1 V3 1 3 ( (1) , p(V)).

A31 =

198

3
3
3
R (T1 T3 ) = ( p1V1 p3V3 ) = (V12 V32 ) ,
(2)
2
2
2
T1, p1 T3, p3 1 3
.
3 1
Q31 = U 13 + A31
(3)
U 13 =

,
Q31 = Q ,
1
3
(V12 V32 ) + (V12 V32 ) = 2(V12 V32 ) = 4 A31 . (4)
2
2
, 3 1
A31 = Q / 4 . , 1 2
, A = A23 + A31 =
= nQ Q / 4 = (4n 1)Q / 4 . 3 1, Q = Q, (9.3)
Q=

=
(n 1) 2

A
4n 1
.
=
A + Q 4n + 3

(5)

n 1
.
5n 2 n 3 5n + 3
9.12.

9.11. =

A
,
Q

(1)

A ; Q ,
. .
1 p0. p(V) 1 2 ,
, 2 np0.
,
p V.
p V (n 1)(n 2)
A= 0 0
.
(2)
4
199

1 2.
Q :
Q = U 12 + A12 ,
(3)
U 12 ; A1 2
.
U 1 2 =

3
3
3
RT12 = ( np 0 nV0 p 0V0 ) = p 0V0 (n 2 1) ;
2
2
2

A1 2 =

( p 0 + np 0 )
1
(nV0 V0 ) = p 0V0 ( n 2 1) .
2
2

(4)
(5)

(1) (5) ,
,
Q = 2p0V0(n2 1)

(6)

n2
.
8(n + 1)

9.13.
=

A
A
,
=
Q A + Q

(1)

A ; Q ,
; Q ,
.
, p V. , V0, 2p0 ( p0
1).
A=

p 0V0
.
2

(2)

, 1 2
2 3, 3 1. Q.
200

3 1
Q31 = U 31 + A31 .
(3)


U 31 =

3
15
3
R (T1 T3 ) = ( p 0V0 6 p 0V0 ) = p 0V0 ,
2
2
2

(4)

T1 T3 1 3;
. 3 1
p(V) :
A31 = 3 p 0V0 .

(5)

(3) (5) Q31 Q:


Q31 =

21
21
p 0V0 Qx = Q31 =
p 0V0 ,
2
2

(6)

(1), (2) (6)


1
.
=
22
9.14.
1
.
=
16
9.15.
( n 1)
.
=
8( n + 1)
. ,
3
1 n .
9.16. 1 2 A1 2 , 3 1 U 31 . 201

3 1 ,
:
A31 = U 31 .

(1)

2 3 ,
A = A12 + A31 = A1 2 U 31 .

(2)

1 2, 1 2 3 1 :
A U 31
A
.
(3)
=
= 12
Q1 2
Q1 2
1 2 , Q12 A1 2
(. 6.4):
5
A1 2 .
(4)
2
(4) (3),
U 31
5
=1 .
A12
2
9.17.
A
5
2
= .
U 3
3
9.18. ,
, 2 3, 1. T
3 1.
,
Q1 2 =

3
RT ,
(1)
2
( (1) ,
).
Q31 = U =

202

3 2 , A,

Q32 = A .

(2)

1 2
,
Q = Q31 , Qx = Q32 ,

(3)

(1), (2)

Q Qx
2A
.
=
=1
3RT
Q
9.19. , .
,
. 1 2
3, 5 6 7. ,
3
9
13
Q1 23 = RT123 + A123 = pV + 2 pV =
pV , (1)
2
2
2
; T123 1 2 3; A123
( (1) p V). 5 6 7 8 5

19
Q567 =
pV .
(2)
2
, 5 6 7 8 5 19/13
, 1 2 3 4 1 , , 13/19
13
: 1 = .
19
203

9.20. 1 2 3 4 1 1
3 4 1
=

(1)

( A / 2)
,
Q13

(2)

Q1 23

1 =

A , 1 2 3 4 1;
Q1 23 Q13 , . (1), (2) , , 1 3 4 1,
1 2 3 4 1, 1 2
3 4 1 1 2 3, 1 3
4 1 1 3.
Q1 23 Q13 .
Q1 23 = U 1,3 + A123 ;

(3)

Q13 = U 1,3 + A13 ,

(4)

U 1,3 ; A123 A13


1 2 3 1 3 .
(3) (4) ,
p
V, A1 23 A13 123,
.. A/2,
Q1 23 Q1 2 = A / 2 .
(5)
Q12 (5), (2)
(1), 1 3 4 1
1 =

( A / Q1 23 )
( A / 2)
,
=
Q1 23 ( A / 2) 2 ( A / Q1 23 )

1 =

.
2

204

(6)

10.
10.1. -
,

. x
. ,

h
x,

:
gV = gSh Mg ,

(1)

M S ; V h , x.
, ,
Mg = gSy.

(2)

(1), (2)
, ,
h y.

(3)

, , x,
y. .
, ,
pSy = p 0 SH .

(4)

, ,
.

(5)
p = p0 + g(x + y).
p (5) (4),
(6)
p0H = p0y + gy(x + y).
205

(6), x,
,
x=

p0 ( H y)
y.
gy

10.2.
, ,
p1 =

,
r1

p 2 = p1 +


= + ,
r2 r1 r2

(1)

p1 r1 ; p2 r2
.
,
(1)
1 RT =

(V1 V2 )
V 2 V 2
, 2 RT =
,
+
r1
r1
r2

(2)

V1 V2 ; 1 2 ; T .
(2),
(1 + 2 ) RT =

V1 V2 4 2 4 2
+
= r1 + r2 .
r1
r2
3
3

(3)


, .
1 + 2, ,

(1 + 2)RT = p3V3,

(4)

p3 ; V3 . , p3 = /r3 ( ); V3 = (4 / 3)r33 (r3 ),


(1 + 2)RT (3), (4)
r3 = r12 + r22 .
206

10.3. , , ,
*.
x, ,
( ) x; .

x (. ). x
x

2xSg ( , S )
.
. ,
.
, , ,
,
. (p0 p)S, p ; p0 .
F = 2xSg + (p0 p)S.

(1)


( ):
p0V0 = p(V0 xS),

(2)

., : . . I. / .. , .. , .. , .. . .: , 2004.
207

V0 ,
, V0 = hS, h . (2)
p p0 =

pxS px
.
=
V0
h

(3)

x.
(3) - x, , ,
,
(3) , .. , p, (3), p0:
p p0

p 0 x
.
h

(4)

(, p p0
(3)
( ) . , .)
p

F = 2g + 0 Sx .
h

(5)

,
x (2g + (p0/h))S. ,
=

(2g + ( p 0 / h)) S
.
m

10.4. , (
), . ,
208

,
(2),
(3) (.
).
const
(1)
p(V ) = 5 / 3 ,
V
. ,
( ), , ,

p
p (V ) ,
V

(2)

p (V ) . ,
(1) ,
x:
p =

5 const xS
.
3 V 5/ 3 V

(3)

, ,
.
(3)
p =

x
5
p0
.
3
h

(4)

(4) ,
,
, 5/3
.
209

(2g + (5 p 0 / 3h)) S
.
(5)
m
, . (T = 2/)
. , () ()
, ,

, .. .
, .
, .
, ? ,
. , ,

,
. , , . , , .
10.5. , , : p1S, p2S , p2S, p3S
(. ). :
=

p1S + p2S p2S p3S = 0.



p3
=
p1

p 2 1
.
=
1
p1
210

(1)
(2)

(3)

, , , V1 = lS/2 (
), V2 = lS( + 1)/2 ( ) V3 = lS/2
( ),
lS
( p1 + p 2 ( + 1) + p 3 ) = RT ,
2

(4)

; T
.
(2), (3),

p1 =

( 1)RT
lS ( 2 1)

(5)

. ,
, , , (1)
. , , ,
. ; (3) .
, , .
,

.
T =

2Q
,
3R

(6)

(5)
p1 =

2( 1)T
3lS ( 2 1)

10.6.
. V1, 211

p1 = V12 . ,
V << V1 ( ).
Q V1: ,
Q > 0, V1 ,
Q < 0 .

Q = U + A,

(1)

U A
. ,

U =

3
3
RT = (( p1 + p)(V1 + V ) p1V1 ) ,
2
2

(2)

p , ,
p = (V1 + V ) 2 ( V12 ) =
= 2 V1 V V 2 2 V1V

(3)

( V V1 , ,
V2, ). (2)
, V p , ,
U =

3
3
( p1V + V1p) = (( V12 )V 2 V12 V ) =
2
2
=

3
( 3 V12 )V .
2

(4)


.
, 212

*, :
A p1V = ( V12 )V .

(5)

(4), (5) ,
,
Q =

3
( 3 V12 )V + ( V12 )V =
2
=

1
(5 11V12 )V .
2

(6)

(6) , (V > 0)

V1 =

5
11

(7)

, , , . V1 (7), Q , , ,
.
10.7. , , , . .

. ( )

E1 =

3
3
RT0 = pV ,
2
2

(1)

, , V.
, V1, .
213

; p V .
,
p = mg/S, m ; S .
(1)
:
3
E1 = mgH ,
(2)
2
H .
( ,
) , ..
E 2 = 3mgH .
(3)
, . x , T1, *:
3
3
(4)
3mgH = mgx + RT1 = mgx + p1V1 ,
2
2
p1 V1 ,
p1 = mg/S ( ), V1 = S(H + x).
(4)
3
3mgH = mgx + mg ( x + H ) .
(5)
2
(5) x:
3
x= H
(6)
5
E :
E=

3
12
mg ( x + H ) = mgH .
2
5

(7)

(4) , .
.
214

(1), (7) ,
E 8/5 E1, , ,
8
T1 = T0 .
5
10.8. , , .

.
:
3
E = mgh + RT ,
(1)
2
(
), ( T ).
( ),
RT
( ) :

RT = pV,
(2)
p V .
,
,
mg
p=
, V = SH ,
(3)
S
m ; S ; H
.
(1)
3
E = mgh + mgH .
(4)
2
215

- , . x .
3
(5)
E = mgx + RT1 ,
2
T1 .
, (5)
E = mgx +

3
mg ( x + H ) .
2

(6)

,
x=

2
h.
5

10.9.

Q = U + A,
(1)
Q , ,
2h; U ; A . ,
3
3
U = RT = ( p1V1 p 0V0 ) ,
(2)
2
2
p1, V1 p0, V0 .
V0 = Sh, V1 = 3Sh,
(3)
S . p1 p0
.
p0 =

mg
+ p .
S
216

(4)


mg + hg
+ p .
S

(5)

3
(2mgh + 3h 2 g + 2 p ) .
2

(6)

p1 =

U =


. ,
. , , ,
,
. ,

p = p +

mg
.
S

(7)

, ,
mg h .

p = p +

mg + hg
pa +
S
mg
pa +
S

mg + hg
.
S

(8)

V
SH

2Sh

3Sh

,
, 217

.
( )
2

mg
h gS

A = 2 p +
.
(9)
Sh +
2
S

(1), (6) (9) , ,


Q = 5h(mg + paS + hg).
10.10. ,
,
Q = cm(T T )
(1)


( , (1)).
, (1) ,
.
,
, , .
i-
li Ti,
Ti .


ml i
Qi = cmi (Ti Ti) = c
(Ti Ti) ,
(2)
l
l ; mi
, mi = li m / l . , ,
cm
(3)
Q=
li (Ti Ti) .
l i
218

(3) .
T(x) x (, T1 T1 ).
;
. , li (Ti Ti)
li, (Ti Ti) , .. , . (3)
T(x), cm/l. ,
T + T2 T1 + T2

Q = cm 1
.
2
2

(4)

10.11. , . , ,
, .
: ,
( ),
(
). , , .
, . , .
, .
, .
. ,
, . ,
,
, , , , . , , :
, . , , 219

n
. .
( ) C0,
C1. t.


C0T1 = C1(t T1),

(1)

T1
. (1) C1

(2)
xT1 = t T1,
x = C0/C1 .
(
C0 + C1) ,

(C0 + C1)T2 = C1(t T1 T2),

(3)

T2 (
)
. (3) C1
(x + 1)T2 = t T1 T2.

(4)

(2), (4) x t,
x=

2T2
T (T1 + T2 )
, t= 1
.
T1 T2
T1 T2

(5)

(

C0 + 2C1) n .

220

(C0 + 2C1)T3 = nC1(t T1 T2 T3),

(6)

T3 (
) n . (6) C1
(x + 2)T3 = nt nT1 nT2 nT3.

(7)

(7) x
t (5) ,
nT2 (T1 + T2 )
.
T3 =
(n + 2)T1 nT2
10.12. . , ,
.

,
.
, C0, C1.
C0(t2 t1) = C1(t0 t2).

(1)

(1)
C0 t 0 t 2
.
=
C1 t 2 t1

(2)

, ,
t2, ,
. C0 + C1,
2C1,
(C0 + C1)(tx t2) = 2C1(t0 tx),

(3)

tx . (3) C1,
221


1 C0

+ 1(t x t 2 ) = t 0 t x .
2 C1

(4)

C0/C1
( (2)), (4) tx.
. (2) ,
C0
= 7.
C1

(5)

1 C0

(6)
+ 1 = 4 .
2 C1

(4) :
tx =

4t 2 + t 0
= 44 C.
5

10.13. . ,
*
P1. ,

(1)
P1 = k(t2 t1),
k ,
: , , .,
.
,
*

, .
222

, , .
, k,
, . , , .
, (1)
P1
.
t 2 t1

k=

(2)

t3, P,

P1 + P = k(t2 t3),
, (2):
P1 + P =

(3)

P1 (t 2 t 3 )
.
t 2 t1

(4)

(4),
P1 =

P (t 2 t1 )
.
t1 t 3

10.14.
( ,
) P
(. 1).

P = T44R2,

. 1

(1)

R ; ,
.
,
,
, 223

. , . ,
, ,
(. 2),
, , , ,
. P
,
.
,


, . 2

P = T14 4( 2 R) 2 ,

(2)

T1 ; 2R .
(1) (2),
T1 =

(3)

,
, ,
. ,
, .
(1) ,
:
T 4 4R 2 = 2T24 4R 2 ,

(4)

T2 .
, ,
:
224

T2 = 4 2 T .

,
.
. ,
, -,
, -, ,
.
, , ,
p = T4,
T ; , .
10.15. ,
Q, T ,
Q
C=
.
(1)
T
T
Q =

3
RT + A ,
2

(2)

. Q ,
.
A pV,
V . (2)
225

(3)

Q =

3
RT + pV .
2

(4)

(4) T,
. ,
(p + p)(V + V) = R(T + T) Vp + pV = RT

(5)

( pV ; .
5.25). ,

p
f (V ) p f (V )V .
V

(6)

RT = (Vf (V ) + f (V ))
(4)
Q =

RTf (V )
3
.
RT +
2
Vf (V ) + f (V )

(7)

(8)

(1)
C=

Rf (V )
3
.
R +
2
Vf (V ) + f (V )

(9)

(9) , , ,
, ,
.
10.16. (9) ,

5
C = R .
6
10.17. , ,
, , ,
p = f(V).
. ,
226

, 10.15. .

, x x = V/S, S .
, ,
, .

:
p = kV,
k . (9) 10.15,
C = 2R.
10.18. , (10.15, 10.16, 10.17),
.

, , ,
, .

, V(T) ,
,
. , , ,
,
, .
,
, ( ,
), .
, Q
, (
). ,
. , V T
227

, V V (T )T , V (T ) , ,
V (T ) = 0 , .
3
RT ,
2

Q =

(1)

T .
, ,
C=

Q 3
= R .
T 2

(2)

, :
T2
C (T ) = R 02 ,
(3)
T
T1, (3) (2):
R

T02
T

3
R .
2

(4)

,
2
T0 .
(5)
3
, T1 (5) . (3) ,
T < T1 , Q = CT,

T1 =

T02

T >

3
RT .
2

(6)
T
,
, .. . T > T1 2

228

, Q = CT, (6)
T2
3
R 02 T < RT ,
2
T
, , .. .
, T1 , , , T1 .
10.19.
. ,
.
,
, , .
,
, , , ,
, .

:
p = gh,
(1)

V = S(H h),

(2)

; S .

(2) (.. ). , , . , ,
, .
V
(2).
229

, ,
.
: ,
, ,
, , ,
. . .
V h = V/S,
gV/S. p
const
(3)
p = 5/3 .
V
,
p
p (V ) ,
V

(4)

p (V )
(3). ,
p =

5 const
5 p
5 gh
V =
V =
V ,
8
/
3
3V
3V
3 S ( H h)

(5)

(1), (2). ( (5) , ; (5).)


, ,
gV 5 ghV
.

S
3 S ( H h)

(6)

(6) h , , ,
h

3
H.
8

230

(7)

h (h = 11H/24) 3H/8 (7), .


. , (9)
9.15. , ,
.
x,
g
p = gx = g ( H l ) = hH
V,
(8)
S
l , ; V ,
V = Sl. (8)
. (9) 10.15,
( = 1):
V

R H
3
S
C= R+
.
2V
2
H
S
, V = S(H h), (9):

(9)

(8h 3H ) R
.
2h H
(1) h = 11H/24,
C=

8
C= R,
3
..
h = 11H/24 , ,

.
,
h = 11H/24 ( ) ( 1 ) ( 2).
231

(10)

(11)
p

2
1
V

, ,
h = 3H/8 p(V)
. ( ),

h = H/2. h (h = 11H/24)
3
1
H <h< H ,
8
2

(12)

. , (10) 5.24 .
h = 3H/8 , , (10), .
h = H/2 ,
.
10.20.
=

A
,
Q

(1)

A ; Q ,
.
, p V, ,
:
p V
(2)
A= 0 0 .
2
, 1 2, 3 1.
1 2 , , , , , :
Q1 2 = U 1 2 =

3
3
3
RT1 2 = (2 p 0V0 p 0V0 ) = p 0V0 .
2
2
2
232

(3)

2 3. ,
(, , ), (, ,
).
V* ,
V ( ), Q,
,
V* ( 10.6).
, ,
(
, A A p*V):
Q = U + A =

3
RT + p* V ,
2

(4)

U
; p* . , p (
) V, (3)
Q =

3
(( p* + p)(V* + V ) p*V* ) + p* V =
2
=

3
(V* p + p* V ) + p* V .
2

(5)

2 3
:
p(V ) =

p0
V + 3 p0
V0

(6)

( ), p*
p
233

p* = 3 p 0

p 0V*
p V
, p = 0
.
V0
V0

(7)

p* p (7) (5), ,

Q =

p 0 V
2

8V
15 * .
V0

(8)

(8) , (Q > 0),


V* < 15V0/8, (Q < 0), V* > 15V0/8, .. 2 3 V0
V1 = 15V0/8 ,
V1 2V0 .
Q,
V0 V1.
Q=
=

3
( p1V1 2 p 0V0 ) + A =
2

( p + p 0 )(V1 V0 )
3
,
( p1V1 2 p 0V0 ) + 1
2
2

(9)

p1 = 9p0/8 ,
V1, A = (p1 + p0)(V1 V0)/2

. (9) p1 V1, , 2 3,
Q=

49 p 0V0
.
32

(10)

, ,
(3) (5)
Q =

97 p 0V0
.
32

234

(11)

,
(11), , (2), (1),
=

16
.
97

(12)

10.21. 1 2
Q12 , 2 3 Q23 . 3 1
,
Q
(1)
1 = 1 23 .
Q12

Q
(2)
2 = 1 3 4 ,
Q41
Q41 Q34 , 4 1 3 4 .
2 3 4 1
, ,
Q41 = Q23 .

(3)

q
(1) (2) Q12 Q34 .
Q1 2 =

q
, Q34 = q(1 2 ) .
1 1

(4)

1 2 3 4 1 4 1
1 2 2 3 3 4.
1 2 3 4 1
=

Q41 + Q12 Q23 Q3 4 Q1 2 Q34


.
=
Q41 + Q12
q + Q1 2

(5)

(5) Q12 Q34 (4),


q
235

1 + 2 1 2
.
2 1

10.22. = 1 + 2 12.
10.23. (.
. 9)
Q Q
,
(1)
=
Q
Q ,
; Q , .
2 3 p
, , ,
2
2p0
,

p0
1 2 3 1. ,
3 V
1

V0
V1
1 2, 3
1.
Q = Q12 , Qx = Q31 ,

(2)

Q12 Q31 , 1 2 3 1.
1 2 .
Q1 2 = U 1 2 + A1 2 .
(3)
1 2 ,
A12 = 0 .
Q1 2 = U 1 2 =

3
3
RT12 = p 0V0 ,
2
2

(4)

p0 V0 1. , 3 1,
V3 3. 2 3
,
236

2 p 0V05 / 3 = p 0V35 / 3 .

(5)

V3 = 2 3 / 5 V 0 .

(6)

(5)

, 3 1,
, :
Q31 = U 31 + A31 =
=

3
5
RT31 + p 0 V31 = p 0 V31 =
2
2
5
p 0V0 (1 2 3 / 5 )
2

(7)

( ).
, 3 1
5
Q x = Q31 = p 0V0 (2 3 / 5 1) .
(8)
2
, , (1),
=

8 5 23 / 5
0,14 .
3

10.24. 1 2, 3 4.
=

Q12 Q34
,
Q1 2

Q12 , 1 2;
Q34 , 3 4. 1
2 3 4 , .
237

p2
p1
p3

(1)
p
2
1
3

p4
V1

4 V
V3

Q1 2 =

3
3
RT1 2 = V1 ( p 2 p1 ) ,
2
2

(2)

T12 = T2 T1 ; T1, p1 T2, p2


1 2. , 3 4
Q34 =

3
3
RT43 = V3 ( p3 p 4 ) ,
2
2

(3)

T43 = T3 T4 , T3, p3 T4, p4


3 4.
2 3 4 1.
2 3 ,
p2 =

const
V15 / 3

p3 =

const
V35 / 3

(4)

const ,
2 3: pV5/3 = const. 1 4
const
const
p1 = 5 / 3 , p 4 = 5 / 3 ,
(5)
V3
V1
const ,
4 1: pV 5 / 3 = const (
2 3). (4),
(5) (2) (3),
,
3
Q1 2 = V12 / 3 (const const ) ,
2
3
Q34 = V32 / 3 (const const ) .
2

(6)

(1) (6)
( ( const const ),
, )
238

V
= 1 1
V3

2/3

(7)


.. ,
1876 . ( . . 9).
(7), ,
( )
4 1 1 2. V3/V1 812,
( ,
,
(7)
2/3 2/5 = 0,4): 0,560,63.

-
.
.
pV5/3 = const ,

TV2/3 = const1,

(8)

const1 . (8) , , -,

2 3 4 1 :
T2 T1
,
=
T3 T4

pV

5/3

(9)

, , ,
= const ( ).
239

-, (7)
, ..
=1

T
T T3
T4 T1 T4
.
=
=1 3 = 2
T1
T1
T2
T2

(10)

(10) , , , , ,
.
; , (10),
,

.
10.25.
1
=1 2/5 .
n
10.26.
( ,
, ), .
. m1 = 74 ,
m2 = 10 .
T = 373
, mmax
m max =

H 2O p V
RT

= 58 ,

(1)

p = 105 T = 373 .
m1 = 74 , .
, ,
, , , ,
.
, . 240

, , ,
105 . , ,
p=

m 2 RT
= 1,55 10 5 ,
H2 V

(2)

.. ,
. , . ,
,
p (2), .
.
, , ,
.
p = 105 , ..
T = 373 . ,
m2 = 74 V = 100 T = 373
p=

m 2 RT
= 5,2 10 4 ,
CO 2 V

(3)

. V1, p = 105 .

:
m 2 RT
V1 =
= 52 .
(4)
CO 2 p
V2 =
= V V1 = 48 . m3, .. ,
m3 =

H 2O p V
RT
241

= 28 ,

(5)

m1 m3 = 46
( , , , , ..
).
. :
, ,
, . , p T = 373 , .. p = 105 . . ,

pV1 =

m1
H 2O

RT

pV2 =

m2
RT
N2

(6)

( V1 V2 ,
),
m
m
p = 1 + 2
H O N
2
2

RT

= 0,9 10 5 .
V

(7)

(7) T = 373 ,
.
10.27. .
-
, . ,
, p

(1)
p = p.

, 242

p, , (1) .
,
, .
, , , . ,

( ), .. . ,
p = p.

(2)

, , ,
.
, . ,

. , ,
.
(, i- j-), ,
:
p = p(i) + p(j).

(3)


: 1 2 2 3, ,

:
p(i) + p(j) = p.

243

(4)

, (4) i j:
(i )(T (i, j ) T (i )) 2 + ( j )(T (i, j ) T ( j )) 2 = p ,

(5)

T(i, j) , i- j- .
, .
(1), (2)
(k ) =

p
(T (k ) T (k )) 2

(6)

(i) (j) (6) (5),


T(i, j):
(T (i, j ) T (i)) 2
(T (i ) T (i)) 2

(T (i, j ) T ( j )) 2
(T ( j ) T ( j )) 2

=1.

(7)

.
1- 2-
(7), T(1, 2)
(T (1, 2) 300) 2
100 2

(T (1, 2) 300) 2
80 2

=1

(8)

( 300, 100 80 ).
(8),

T (1, 2) = 362 .


(T (2, 3) 300) 2 (T (2, 3) 250) 2
+
=1
(9)
80 2
100 2
244

( 300, 250, 100 80 ).


(9),
T(2, 3) = 338 K

(10)

( T(1, 2) =
= 238 T(2, 3) = 223 ,
). (9), (10) ,
2 3
T = 338 .

245




..

..
- ..
05.05.2008. 6084 1/16
.-.. 15,5. .. 15,5. 2000 . . 007-1
-
( ).
.
115409, , ., 31