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# 1. What is conduction?

Heat conduction is a mechanism of heat transfer from a region of high temperature to a region of low temperature within a medium [solid, liquid or gases] or different medium in direct physical contact. 2. State Fouriers law of conduction. The rate of heat conduction is proportional to the area measured normal to the direction of heat flow and to the temperature gradient in that direction. Q _ A dT / dx; Q = -kA dT /dx Where, A Area in m2. dT / dx Temperature gradient, K/m; k Thermal conductivity, W/mK. 3. Define Thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity is defined as the ability of a substance to conduct heat. 4. Write down the equation for conduction of heat through a slab or plane wall. Heat transfer, Q = _ Toverall / R; Where, _ T = T1 T2; R = L / kA Thermal resistance of slab L Thickness of slab; K Thermal conductivity of slab; A Area 5. Write down the equation for conduction of heat through a hollow cylinder. Heat transfer, Q = _ Toverall / R Where _ T = T1 T2; R = 1 / 2_Lk in [r2 / r1] Thermal resistance of slab L Length of cylinder; k Thermal conductivity; r2 Outer radius; r1 Inner radius 6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity? a. Moisture b. Density of material c. Pressure d. Temperature e. Structure of material 7. What is meant by free or natural convection? It is fluid motion is produced due to change in density resulting from temperature gradients, the mode of heat transfer is said to be free or natural convection. 8. Define Grashof number [Gr]. It is defined as the ratio of product of inertia force and buoyancy force to the square of viscous force. Gr = Inertia force x Buoyancy force / [Viscous force]2 9. Define Stanton number [St]. It is the ratio of Nusselt number to the product of Reynolds number and Prandtl number. St = Nu / Re x Pr. 10. What is meant by Newtonion and non-newtonion fluids? The fluids which obey the Newtons law of viscosity are called Newtonion fluids and those which do not obey are called no-newtonion fluids. 11. What is meant by laminar flow ? Laminar flow: Laminar flow is sometimes called stream line flow. In this type of flow, the fluid moves in layers and each fluid particle follows a smooth continuous path. The fluid particles in each layer remain in an orderly sequence without mixing with each other. 12. Define Convection. Convection is a process of heat transfer that will occur between a solid surface and a fluid medium when they are at different temperatures. 13. Define Reynolds number [Re]. It is defined as the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. Re = Inertia force / Viscous force 14. Define Prandtl number [Pr].

It is the ratio of the momentum diffusivity to the thermal diffusivity. Pr = Momentum diffusivity / Thermal diffusivity 15. Define Nusselt Number [Nu]. It is defined as the ratio of the heat flow by convection process under an unit temperature gradient to the heat flow rate by conduction under an unit temperature gradient through a stationary thickness [L] of metre. Nusselt Number [Nu] = qconv /qcond 16. State Newtons law of convection. Heat transfer from the moving fluid to solid surface is given by the equation. Q = h A = [Tw - T]; This equation is referred to as Newtons law of cooling. Where h = Local heat transfer coefficient in W/m2K. A = Surface area in m2. Tw = Surface [or] Wall temperature in K. T = Temperature of fluid in K. 17. What is forced convection? If the fluid motion is artificially created by means of an external force like a blower or fan, that type of heat transfer is known as forced convection. 18. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection? 1. Reynolds number [Re]. 2. Nusselt number [Nu]. 3. Prandtl number [Pr]. 19. What is fin? Fins are extended surfaces used primarily to enhance the heat transfer rate between the solid fins and an adjoining fluid 20. List out the Fin types. 1. Straight fin of uniform cross section 2. Straight fin of non-uniform cross section 3. Annular fin 4. Pin fin 21. Mention Stefan boltzman contant. _ = Stefan Boltzman constant = 5.6697 x 10-8 W/ (m K4) 22. Define Stefan boltzman contant. Stefan Boltzman law states that the total emissive power of a perfect black body is proportional to fourth power of the absolute temperature of black body surface; Eb = _T4; _ = Stefan Boltzman constant = 5.6697 x 10-8 W/ (m K4) 23. Define Emissive power [Eb]. The emissive power is defined as the total amount of radiation emitted by a body per unit time and unit area. It is expressed in W/m2. 24. Define monochromatic emissive power. [Eb_] The energy emitted by the surface at a given length per unit time per unit area in all directions 25. What is meant by absorptivity? Absorptivity is defined as the ratio between radiation absorbed and incident radiation. Absorptivity, _ = Radiation absorbed / Incident radiation. 26. Define Radiation.