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Chemical Engineering 6453

Heat Transfer
Prof. Geoff Silcox
Spring 2005
Solution to Homework Assignment 9
Due Wednesday, 23 March, by 17:00.
Problem 1
Problem 3-91, p. 260-1 of text. Solution is attached.
Problem 2
Problem 3-93, p. 261 of text. Solution is attached.
Problem 3
Estimate the heat losses by natural convection and radiation for an undraped
person standing in still air. The temperatures of the air, surrounding surfaces,
and skin are 19, 15, and 35C. The height and surface area of the person are
1.8 m and 1.8 m
2
. The emissivity of the skin is 0.95. Discuss your results in a
paragraph or two and pay particular attention to the relative importance of
convection and radiation.

For vertical walls, Churchill and Chu, [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 18, 1323
(1975)] recommend, for laminar and turbulent flow on isothermal walls with
height L,


( )
2
1/ 6
8/ 27
9/16
0.387
0.825
1 0.492/Pr
L
L
Ra
Nu


= +



+

(1)


where the fluid properties are evaluated at the film temperature, T
f
=(T
s
+T
e
)/2.
This correlation is valid for all Pr and Ra
D
. For vertical cylinders with boundary
layer thickness much less than their diameter, this equation is still applicable.

The film temperature is (19+35)/2 =27C. The Rayleigh number, evaluated at
the film temperature, is


( )( ) ( )
( )
3
3
9
5 5
1/300 35 19 9.81 1.8
8.53 10
1.589 10 2.25 10
L
TgL
Ra x
x x

= = =

From (1) with Pr =0.707, the Nusselt number is 240 and the average heat
transfer coefficient due to natural convection is


2
0.0263
240 3.50
1.8
L
k W
h Nu
L m K
= = =

The radiative heat transfer coefficient is given by


( )( )
( )( )( )
2 2
8 2 2
2
0.95 5.67 10 308 288 308 288 5.71
R skin skin sur skin sur
h T T T T
W
x
m K

= + +
= + + =


The total rate of heat loss is


( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( ) 3.50 1.8 35 19 5.71 1.8 35 15 306
skin air R skin sur
Q hA T T h A T T
W
= +
= + =



At these conditions, radiation is nearly twice as important as natural convection.