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ASTM E8M Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials

These test methods cover the tension testing of metallic materials in any form at room
temperature, specifically, the methods of determination of yield strength, yield point elongation,
tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area.
NOTEThese test methods are the metric companion of Test Methods E 8. Committee E-28
was granted an exception in 199 !" the Committee on #tandards to maintain E8 and E8M as
separate companion standards rather than com!ining standards as recommended !" the $orm
and #t"%e man&a%.
NOTEThese metric test methods are essentia%%" the same as those in Test Methods E 8' and
are compati!%e in technica% content except that gage %engths are re(&ired to !e )* for most
ro&nd specimens rather than +* as specified in Test Methods E 8. Test specimens made from
powder meta%%&rg" ,-.M/ materia%s are exempt from this re(&irement !" ind&str"wide
agreement to 0eep the pressing of the materia% to a specific pro1ected area and densit".
NOTEExceptions to the pro2isions of these test methods ma" need to !e made in indi2id&a%
specifications or test methods for a partic&%ar materia%. $or examp%es' see Test Methods and
*efinitions 3 45 and Test Methods 6 ))M.
NOTE7oom temperat&re sha%% !e considered to !e 15 to 488C &n%ess otherwise specified.
This standard does not p&rport to address a%% of the safet" concerns' if an"' associated with its
&se. 9t is the responsi!i%it" of the &ser of this standard to esta!%ish appropriate safet" and hea%th
practices and determine the app%ica!i%it" of reg&%ator" %imitations prior to &se.
Referenced Documents
ASTM Standards:
A 356/A356M Specification for Steel Castings, Caron, !o" Alloy, and Stainless Steel,
#eavy$%alled for Steam Turines
A 3&' Test Methods and (efinitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel )roducts
* 55&M Test Methods of Tension Testing%rought and Cast Aluminum$ and Magnesium$
Alloy )roducts +Metric,
- . )ractices for /orce 0erification of Testing Machines
- 6 Terminology 1elating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
- 2 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
- 34 )ractice for 5sing Significant (igits in Test (ata to (etermine Conformance "ith
- 23 )ractice for 0erification and Classification of -6tensometers
- 3.5 Test Methods of Tension Testing of Metallic /oil
- 647 )ractice for Conducting an 8nterlaoratory Study to (etermine the )recision of a
Test Method
- 7'73 )ractice for 0erification of Specimen Alignment 5nder Tensile !oading
Definitions9The definitions of terms relating to tension testing appearing in Terminology - 6
shall e considered as applying to the terms used in these test methods of tension testing.
Additional terms eing defined are as follo"s:
discontinuous yielding9in a unia6ial test, a hesitation or fluctuation of force oserved at the
onset of plastic deformation, due to locali;ed yielding. <The stress$strain curve need not appear
to e discontinuous.=
lower yield strength, LYS9in a unia6ial test, the minimum stress recorded during
discontinuous yielding, ignoring transient effects.
uer yield strength, !YS9in a unia6ial test, the first stress ma6imum <stress at first ;ero
slope= associated "ith discontinuous yielding.
yield oint elongation, Y"E9in a unia6ial test, the strain <e6pressed in percent= separating
the stress$strain curve>s first point of ;ero slope from the point of transition from discontinuous
yielding to uniform strain hardening. 8f the transition occurs over a range of strain, the ?)- end
point is the intersection et"een <a= a hori;ontal line dra"n tangent to the curve at the last ;ero
slope and < = a line dra"n tangent to the strain hardening portion of the stress$strain curve at
the point of inflection. 8f there is no point at or near the onset of yielding at "hich the slope
reaches ;ero, the material has ' @ ?)-.
uniform elongation, Elu, #$%9the elongation determined at the ma6imum force sustained y
the test piece Aust prior to necBing or fracture, or oth.
Discussion95niform elongation includes oth elastic and plastic elongation.
Significance and !se
Tension tests provide information on the strength and ductility of materials under unia6ial tensile
stresses. This information may e useful in comparisons of materials, alloy development, Cuality
control, and design under certain circumstances.
The results of tension tests of specimens machined to standardi;ed dimensions from selected
portions of a part or material may not totally represent the strength and ductility properties of the
entire end product or its in$service ehavior in different environments.
These test methods are considered satisfactory for acceptance testing of commercial
shipments. The test methods have een used e6tensively in the trade for this purpose.
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