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CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION PAGE NO.

FORWARD iv

PREFACE vi

CORRECTION SLIP viii

CONTENTS x

INTRODUCTION 1

BASIC CONSTRUCTION 3

OPERATION 10

TYPES & DIFFERENCES 12

POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTS 13

EARTHING 13

TESTING 14

MAINTENANCE 16

TOOLS 19

PRECAUTIONS 19

DISTRIBUTION LIST 22
CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 2

DOUBLE LINE BLOCK INSTRUMENT


1. INTRODUCTION

 This instrument is used for double line block


working. One pair of instruments is provided
between two station i.e. for one side block section.
One station will have two block instrument, one
for station in advance and another for station in rear
as shown in Fig .1 for station B .
STN A STN B STN C
BLOCK BLOCK
INST INST.

UP LINE
DOUBLE LINE SECTION

DN LINE
Fig No.1

 The instrument is simple, compact and robust in


design. It requires simple regular maintenance &
scheduled overhauling to ensure its trouble-free
working.

 It is a 3 wire, 3 position block instrument. It shows


three positions of block section for each line

 In NON-RE area, it requires 3 wire (min.) along


with earth return for its working.

 One for Top indicator.


 One for Bottom indicator.

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CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 3

 One for Block bell and Telephone.

 In DC traction area instead of earth return, metallic


return is used to avoid interference from stray
current.

 In RE area, it requires two Phantom lines along


with earth return and two pair of cable, one for bell
code exchange and other for block telephone.

♦ One phantom for Top indicator.


♦ One phantom for Bottom indicator.
♦ One pair for telephone.
♦ One pair for bell
(A 150 Hertz Oscillator feeds the line
for bell working. This in order to
avoid the time lag in DC bell code
transmission.)

2. BASIC CONSTRUCTION
The block instrument mainly consists of two parts :

2.1 Indicators and commutator assembly.

2.2 Bell Unit consisting of Bell Relay, Bell coil and


their termination.
A telephone is also connected as an external part
of Block Inst.

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2.1 Indicator & Commutator Assembly

This unit is divided into two parts, viz. top and


bottom. The top portion consists of two indicators, one for
controlling Up trains and other for controlling Dn trains.
The bottom portion is made up of cast iron and consists of
commutator, bell plunger and S.M’s key.

Sealing & double locking arrangements are


provided on the back side of the block instrument.

UPPER
NEEDL
E

TRAI LINE
N ON
LINE CLEA
LINE
R
CLOSE
D Upper Portion

LOWER
NEEDLE

TRAI LINE
N ON
LINE CLEA
LINE R
CLOSE
D

COMMUTATO
R

SCREW Bottom
Portion

BELL
SM’s PLUNGER
LOCK

Front view of Block Instrument


Fig.No.2
2.1.1 Top Indicator

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CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 5

It deals with train going into and out of block


section at train sending station. It indicates three positions
of block section i.e.-

 Line Closed
 Line Clear
 Train On Line.

The indicator is shown in fig.-2. It is a polarised


Galvo indicator. It consists of a permanent magnet having
adjustable pole pieces and an electro-magnet coil. The coil
is wound to a resistance of 140 Ohm and requires 17-25
mA currents for its operation. A needle is pivoted at the
center of soft iron drum, placed in between the permanent
magnetic poles. The needle deflects leftwards or
rightwards, depending upon the direction of current in
electromagnetic coil. This indicator operates in series with
bottom indicator of the adjacent block instrument through
line wire between two stations. The needle operation is
controlled by the distant station.

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CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 6

N
INDICATOR
COIL

N NP S
RP
RP
NP
S N

PERMANEN
ADJUSTABLE POLE S T
FACE ON PERMANENT MAGNET
MAGNET

Line
Train on clear
line
Line closed
DIAL
Top Indicator
Fig. No. 3

2.1.2 Bottom Indicator

It deals with train arriving at a block station. It


indicates three positions of block section i.e.-

 Line Closed
 Line Clear
 Train On Line.

The design of this indicator is identical to the top indicator.


It is placed nearer to the commutator & gets operated
when ever the commutator is turned. It is connected
electrically with the top indicator of block instrument at
station in rear.

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CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 7

2.1.3 Bell Plunger

This is threaded through the middle of the


commutator. The metallic ring of this plunger rod
normally bridges two springs.

In Non RE area, every time the plunger is pressed,


+ ve of Bell battery is applied on the line
completing the circuit through bell relay & earth at
distant station. Thus registering the bell beat at the
distant station.

In RE area, every time the plunger is pressed, 150


Hz AC signal is sent to distant station to operate
bell relay at that station. Thus registering the bell
beat at the distant station.

2.1.4 Commutator

This is mounted below the bottom indicator in the


bottom portion of the block instrument. It has three
positions, “LINE CLOSED”, “LINE CLEAR” and
“TRAIN ON LINE”.

An arrow indicates the position of the commutator.


It is free to be turned from ;

(i) “Line closed to Line clear”.


(ii) “Line clear to Line closed”.
(iii) “Line closed to Train On Line”

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(iv) “Train On Line to Line closed”


(Only when commutator was been
turned from “Line Closed”
position and not from “ Line Clear
” position directly/indirectly.)

The commutator is turned through 20° from normal


position to either “Line clear” or “Train On Line”
position.

The commutator gets locked in “Train On Line”


position when turned from “Line Clear” to “Train
On Line”.

2.1.5 Door Lock Assembly

This is an electromagnetic device mounted


centrally just above the commutator disc.

 The door lock coil mechanism prevents


locking of block handle in “Train On Line”
position, when turned directly from “Line
Closed” position to “Train On Line”
position and thus facilitates block forward
and block back operations without failure of
block working.

 The mechanism economies the power


consumption of door lock coil by holding
the armature mechanically once the door
lock is energized momentarily.

 The displacement of holding pawl distinctly


proves whether the block handle was earlier

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CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 9

turned to “Line Clear” position or not in


case of any dispute.

 When the conditions of lock and block are


fulfilled, the door lock coil is energized and
its armature is lifted out of the notch which
in turn lifts up the releasing bracket thus
pushing the releasing lever upward. This
removes the obstruction at the holding pin
as a result of which the holding pawl swings
back to its normal position, below the
armature and is now ready to catch the
latter when it drops down.

The commutator is now free to be turned


from “Train On Line” to “Line Closed” for
clearing block section.

2.1.6 Bell Unit

The bell unit is made of cast iron body. A bell gong


is fixed on the top of the bell unit. It consists of bell
relay, bell coil and termination blocks. The bell
gong is a single stroke bell worked by a relay,
called a bell relay.

A telephone is placed on a hook provided on the


left side of block instrument’s body.

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2.1.7 Bell Coil

The bell coil is energized through the pick up


contact of bell relay.

2.1.8 Polarised Relay

A polar relay complying to IRS S 31/80 is included


in series with the top indicator to control the last
stop signal & fulfill the requirements of absolute
block system.

 The relay has one arm with three positions.


When there is no current flowing through the
relay the arm remains in the center.

 The relay resistance is 77 Ohm & requires a


minimum operating current of 15-16 m.A. for
it’s operation. The nominal working current is
25 m.A.

 The polarised relay not confirming to IRS


31/80 should not be used.

3. SM’s Key

To prevent unauthorised operation of the block


instrument, a SM’s key is provided on the front
side of the Inst. as shown in Fig No. 2. When SM`s
key is taken out the commutator gets locked in its
last operated position i.e. either in Line Closed or
Line Clear or in Train On Line. In this position bell
beat can be sent & received from the other Station.

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4. OPERATION OF BLOCK INSTRUMENT

Up

A Stn. B Stn.

Dn

Fig.No. 4
A & B are two Stations on double line. To dispatch
a train from Stn. ‘A’ to Stn. ‘B’, following operations are
performed :

 ‘A’ gives LINE CLEAR signal to ‘B’ by bell code


(Pressing Bell Plunger).

 ‘B’ acknowledges LINE CLEAR signal & turns the


commutator of his block instrument to the right by
200.

 This changes the indications of the lower needle at


B & of the top needle at ‘A’ into LINE CLEAR.

 ‘A’ on observing the upper needle in its instrument


now pointing to line clear, takes off last stop signal
(LSS) for the train to start.

 When the train passes the last stop signal, i.e. On


entry of train into block section `A’ sends train
entering signal to ‘B’

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 ‘B’ acknowledges train entering into block section


s ignal and turns the commutator of his block
instrument to the left by 400 indicating TRAIN ON
LINE on lower needle at Stn. ‘B’ and upper needle
at Stn. ‘A’.

 ‘A’ restores the LSS lever to Normal.

 ‘B’ takes off the Home signal. On arrival of the


train into the station puts back the home signal
which has been automatically replaced to ON.

 ‘B’ verifies the complete arrival of train & puts


back the home signal lever to normal. Thereafter
gives train out of section signal & turns the
commutator to LINE CLOSED position.

 ‘A’ acknowledges the train out of section signal.

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CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 13

5. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THREE


TYPES OF DOUBLE LINE BLOCK
INSTRUMENTS(DLBI)

There are three types of DLBI’s:


 Byculla type (SGE) -Byculla make
 IRS type - HWH make
 SR Type -PTJ make

The main difference among them are tabulated below.

TABLE I
S. NAME OF Byculla SR Type IRS type
N PARTS type
O
1. Door lock Mechanical Electrical Mechanical
Mechanism stick stick stick
2. Resistance of 50 ohm 48 ohm 14.8 ohm
electric lock coil
3. Working current 200 mA 250 mA 250 mA
electric lock coil
4. Resistance of bell 500 ohm 400 ohm 400 ohm
relay
5. Working current of 20 mA 25 mA 25 mA
bell relay
6. Resistance of bell 60 ohm 48 ohm 30 ohm
coil

SR type instrument accommodates the following in


the Instrument.

Polar Relay, Bell Relay, Bell Gong, SR Relay etc.

6. POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTS

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Double Line Block Instrument requires following


supply for its working in

a) Non RE area :

 Block Needle battery (9 V + line drop)


 Bell battery (6 V + line drop)
 Telephone battery (3 V to 4.5 V)
 Local Battery ( 12/ 24 V)

b) RE area :

 Block Needle battery (14 V + line drop)


 Telephone battery (3 V to 4.5 V)
 Local Battery ( 12/ 24 V)

Block Battery & Bell Battery shall be separatefor


each Block instrument. No other circuit and/ or
circuit of other block instrument shall be fed from
Block Battery.

Resistance of Various Coils, Rated Current and


Rated Voltage are given in TABLE-I

7. EARTH

 A separate earth should be provided for


Needle and Bell circuit of each block
instrument.
 The resistance of earth shall not exceed 10
Ohm.

 Where more than one earth is used, the


distance between earthing pipes shall not be
less than 3 mts. The conductors leading to

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CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 15

these earthings should be electrically


insulated from each other through out and
also from metallic structures connected to
different earth.

8. TESTING

 Check double locking arrangement on back


cover.

 Ensure that sealing is intact.

 Check that SM`s key is effective &


commutator gets locked in its last operated
position.

 Check all springs for proper tension of 250


+ 5 grams.

 Check for the correspondence between


commutator handle & Indicator ( except
where auto “Train On Line” feature is
provided.)

 Check line battery & telephone battery


voltage & also measure the working current
of block instrument and compare with the
standard value.

 Check single stroke bell for its efficient functioning.

 Check door lock assembly for perfect working


including force drop arrangement.

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 Check full notch & half notch on locking plate, they


should be correctly shaped and are in square. Holding
pin is not worn out, full notch should be square and
half notch should be beveled.

 Ensure that LSS can not be taken “OFF” without


obtaining line clear from receiving station.

 Ensure that LSS assumes “ON” aspect automatically


when FVT is occupied by first vehicle & it could not
be retaken “OFF” on same line clear.

 Ensure that commutator could not be turned back


from Train On Line to Line Clear position when
turned from Line Clear to Train On Line directly,
unless the train sequentially operates the two track
circuits & after the passage of train, all reception
signals have been put back to “ON”.

 Check that Sealing of polarised relay is intact.

 Check wiring of instrument, no loose wires get


entangled in the moving part.

 Measure earth resistance. Value should not be more


than 10 ohm.

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CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 17

9. MAINTENANCE

 Needle indicators must be properly


maintained so that they operate fully and
return to the normal position, when the
commutator is brought to Line Closed
position.

 It should be ensured that the commutator


movement is smooth while turning it from
one position to another position.

 It should be ensured that commutator gets


locked, when it is turned from Line Clear to
Train On Line position, before Train On
Line indication contacts are made.

 See that all terminals screws, nuts, lock nuts


and locking screws are tight and all split
pins are opened.

 Inspect the contact surfaces on the butterfly


assembly. If pitted, clean them with
chamois leather.

 Check the resistance of indicator coil, lock


coil and their working currents. If
considerable difference is noted between
subsequent readings, locate the fault and
rectify the same .

 Check the full lock notch and half lock


notch on the locking drum, for their correct
shape & squareness Correct them if
necessary.

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CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 18

 Check that no loose wire get trapped in the


moving parts.

 Check that only correct springs make when


commutator is in “Line Clear” & “Train On
Line” positions.

 Check that the desired springs make when


bell plunger is pressed and that bell beats
are registered properly when bell plunger is
pressed by the adjacent station.

 Check the coil resistance of bell relay, bell


coil and their working currents during
inspections. If considerable difference is
noticed between subsequent readings, locate
the fault & rectify it.

 Check the telephone battery, replace if


necessary.

 All batteries must be kept clean. Terminals


must be free from dirt and corrosion.

 Ensure that for same block instrument,


batteries for Indication & bell circuit are
separate.

 Indication battery for two block instruments


of adjacent section at a station should also
be separate.

■ Ensure that wire connection at the terminals


are firm.

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CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 19

 Check and ensure that earth and earth


connections are effective and in good
condition.

 Ensure that common earth is not used for


indication circuit because in case of leakage
or breakage of one earth, both the
instruments will come in series.

In case of “Train On Line” position


+ve will on line & -ve on earth from the
line battery. At that time for another line
clear the -ve will be on line & + ve on earth,
during this period if earth breaks PR
(Polarised relay) may attract to Train On
Line position & a PD (potential drop) is
created. If the value of PD is more than 5
volts, PR will attract to line closed position
when a train is in the section. This enables
the Last stop signal to be off for 2nd train
which is unsafe hence common earth should
not be provided.

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CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 20

 PERIODICITY OF OVERHAULING
A thorough periodical overhauling in Workshop is
necessary and the period shall not exceed 7 years.

10. RECOMMENDED TOOLS


 Tension Gauge of 0-500 grams range.
 Multimeter
 Hydrometer
 Cutting Plier 8 inch
 Nose Plier
 Screw driver (small)
■ Megger

11. PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN RE


AREA
The following precautions shall be taken for block
instruments on AC traction:

 A block filter of an approved design shall


be used between the block instrument and
line wire. It is essential that the line & block
instrument terminals of the filters are never
interchanged. The Block filter is a low pass
filter consisting of series choke coils S1 &
S2 in each line & the shunt condenser C1
(see Fig. no.5). The condensers adopted are
4-terminal condensers to prove the
continuity of conductors forming the
condenser. Also two gaseous type
Lightening Arrestors with a flash voltage

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CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 21

of 150 V are provided on the line side for


high voltage protection.
P&T BOX

T
1
V
BELL
1
LINE T
SIDE
V 2
2 TELEGRAPH

LINE V2

TO
BLOCK
C1 INSTRU
S1 P S2 -MENT
w BLOCK
EARTH

P BLOCK
EARTH
EARTH w C2 S2 LINE V 1
S1

Fig No. 5
WHERE
C1 - 4 TERMINAL CONDENSER C=10µF
TEST VOLTAGE = 1000 VOLTS
T1 - TRANSFORMER INSULATED INSIDE
P&T BOX
S1 - PROTECTIVE CHOKE R= 50 OHM
‘Z’ AT 50 HZ =40,000 OHM
TEST VOLTAGE = 600 VOLTS
S2 - PROTECTIVE CHOKE R= 40 OHM
‘Z’ AT 50 HZ =20,000 OHM
TEST VOLTAGa:\seminarE = 50 VOLTS
P - LIGHTENING ARRESTER GASEOUS
TYPE, FLASH VOLTAGE 150 VOLTS

 The block telephone shall be worked on


separate pair of conductors.
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CAMTECH/99/S/SGE BI /1.0 22

 Block telephone is connected across the line


through a condenser when the bell relay is
normal. When the bell relay picks up the
block telephone is cut off.

SGE D/L BLOCK INSTRUMENT JAN` 99

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