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. .

(

)

2011

517.98(075.8)
182
:
(
- , . . );
- , . . ( )
.. : . . : - , -. 2007. - 188 .
ISBN
.
.

.

, 2007 ISBN ?????-????-? . . ^ 2007


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1.
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1. , , .....................
2. ................................
3.
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5. ..................................
6. ...
7.
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8. ............................................

10
17
21
26
27
32
41
44

2.

55
9. ...
55
10.
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11. .........................
60
12. . .
62
13. .........................
65
14.
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67
15. .......................
69
16.
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17. ...
76
18. ......................
77
3.
81
19. .
81
20. ........................
86
21. ...................................................
88

22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.

38.

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( ) .
, .
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....................................................................
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90
94
98
101
107
115
117
123
127
131
139
142
147
152
156

158
163

4.
171
39. >()............................................................ 171
40.
............................................................................ 175
41. ............................................................. 180
42. S, S', , ' .................................................... 183
5.

187
43. .......................... 187
44. 191
45. , ,
4

........................................................................

196
202

,
" ".
( , ) ,
, . , ,
, .
.
.
: = = : , .
, , ,
N, Z, Q, R . Z+:=NU{0}.
R .
( ) X , .
< X , T Z >, X , a TZ
, X.
, , , ,
, []]
[a,; b] ( ).
f ( x ) () / , /() / (
, /).
/ : D ( f ) X Y , 1 / := /((/)).
, ,
{ } &

U Fa { } (J Fa .

< { } > { } .
5k,n ~ .
, ( - )
() ( ( - ) ) .
, , ,
.

.
,
.
,
.
.
.
:
(18431896) ;
(18471912) ;
(18921945) ( 1924 . );
(17841846) ;
(18041889) ;
(18741935) ;
(18151897) ;
(18601940) ;
(18211881) ;
(18521937) ;
(18621943) ;
( 18901914 .) , ;
(17931841) ;
(18451918) ( );
(17891857) ;
(19031987) ;
(18231891) ;
(17361813) ;
(18751941) ;
(18321903) ;
(18091882) ;
(18641909) ;
(. 1905 .) ;
. . (17551836) ;
(18261866) ;
(18801956) ;

(18861969) ( . );
(18641926) ;
(16851731) ;
(16011665) ;
(18901962) , ;
(18661927) ;
(18781973) ;
(18791943) ;
(17681830) ;
() (18791954) ;
(18681942) ;
(19061993)
;
(18961943) ;
(. 1915 .) - ;
(18761959) ;
(18871972) .

,
.
1


1. , ,

. :

X,
1 . { , ) = 0 <=? = .

2. (,) = (,).
3 . ( , ) ^ ( , z ) + p ( z , )
.
. X, { , ) ^ 0 .
. X, < X, >
.
. < X, >.
X ,
.
1.1. X : = R , ( , ) := \ \.
1.2. X ,

/ \ ( 0, = , { , ) : = < -
.

1.3. < X, > , \


X , < X i , > ,

.
1.4. X, X
:

P i ( x , ) = 1

> ):= (> ) , ! }

1.5. pi Xj ( = 1,2),

{{1,2),{1,2)) -=pi{Xi,yi) +2{2,2),


{{1,2),{1,2)) :=max{pi(a;i,2/i), 2{2,2)},

P{{Xl,X2),{yi,y2))-= \/p2i{Xl,yi)

+( 2, -

\ 2.

. X .
|| || : X-R X,
1. |||| = 0<^==> = 0.
2. |||| = || |||| ( , ).

3. ||+|| ^ |||| +112/11 .


. 11 11

X,

1
.
2

< \\~\\ < INI + II2/H-

. || ||
3.
X, < X, 11 11 >

.
. < X, 11
11 >. X ,
.
1.6. :=, ||||:=||.
1.7. A+=Pfc, |||| :=max{ \ x i \ : = 1 , 2 , . . . , } .
<, | | || > .

:=

1.8. += j {} PN : {} |,

\\ : N }. := < X, || || >

|| |

1111

:=sup{

1.9. :=|{} PN : {} :=sup{ \

: N }. := <

X, || >.
1.10. X
:= {.,J : lim
=

3>N

:=sup{ || : N }. 0 := < ", || - >.

1.11. :=|(-) : [,; ] : ( - ) [,;&]


||(-)|| :=sup{ \x{t)\ : t [; 6] }. [;] :=
< X, || ' >.
1.12. :=|(-) : [; ] : ( - ) [;]
||(-)|| :=max{ |()| : t [; ft]}. [\] :=
< X, || ' >.
1.13. :=|(-) : [; ] : ( - )
1
[,; ] , ||(-)|| := max{ \x^{t)\ :

i=

t [a; ] } ,

[-}

:= < X , || || > [; 6] :=[;].

1.14. X :=Pfc, ||.t||i := \Xi\. l\ := < A, || ||i >.

i=l

L
oo

00

1.15.

{} PN : \xn\

n=l

-1

/i:= < A, || ||i >.

ra=l
1.16. X:= |(-) : [; 6] P : x(-) [ a ; b}\,
||||i := / |.r(t)|dt, Li[a;b]:= < X, 11 ||i >
" 1.1. || || X, p ( x , ) : =

11 11 X.

>+

. 1.
,
.
2. .
3. .
4. []] [ -

,].
. X .
(, ) : X 2 X,
1. ( , ) ^ 0.
2. ( , ) = 0 -<==> = 0.
3. ( + , z) = ( , z ) + /(, z)

.
4. ( , ) = ( , ) .
. = R, , , .
, (, ) .
= , ( z , + ) = X ( z , x ) + ~ f i ( z , y ) .
(, ) .
. .
. [6] [8]

,
. [8]
.

1.17. { , ) : = Xiljt

:=. 1:= < ,(-,-) >.

=1

1.18. ( ( - ) , ( ) ) : = f x ( t ) y ( t ) d t -

X [a,; b]
P. -2[; b] : = < X, (, ) >.
1.1 ( ). X

,
\ ( , ) \ ^ /(, X) /{, ) .
. ( , ) = 0,
.

( + (, ) , + (, ) )
, .
. X ,

|||| := /(, )

X.
" 1.2. X ,

\ { , ) \ = / (, ) \/ ( , ) .
, /(, ) /(, ) 0,
,
: + (, ) = 0.
1.1. X .
, ||
+ \ \ = |||| + ||||.
. 1. ,
, , , .
2. ,
.

/ N < \ 2 \ 2, (1-1)
=1
V =1
V i=l
2[; 6]

/ |)| \y(t)\dt < W/ |()|2 d t - J f \ y ( t ) \ ' 2 d t . (1.2)


" 1.3. ' ^ |,|2 ^ ||2 ,
= 1

= 1

^ |,| |,|
=1

W \\ < W 2 w 2- (1-3)
=1

V =1

V =1

,
(1.1).
00

1.19. X := < {} PN : ||2


=1

{ , ) = 7- = < , (, ) > .
=1
1.2 ( ). , q : > 1, q > 1 +

q~l = 1.
/\(\
=1

E N P (1-4)

\=1

\=1 /

. 1.
, ^ 0, v ^ 0 >
-------- 1 --- ^ v.

/ \ / \ V
2. = |\\ , = \Vi\*
= V = , (1.4) .

f\Xi\Y + I ( > N
\AJqVJ-
1


.
. , q : > 1, q > 1, _1 + q~l = 1.

1.

=1

\\ ,
=1

\\
=1
'|

/ \ 1/ /

W \\ < Wp E W - ( 1 - 5 )
=1

\=1

\=1

\ 1/9
/

'.
2. |(-)| ( - ) ! 9 [,; ] ,

(
\ 1 / { \1/q
j \ x ( t ) \ - \ v ( t ) \ d t ^ ( / > ( * ) N*
a
\a.
J\a

- (1.6)

.
. = q = 2
.
1.3 ( ). > 1,

\ 1/ / \ 1/ / \ 1/

+(| U-7)

( \ 1/
. - = I Ixi +\ )
= \+\~1\+\ <

<
/

=1

+\~1\\

=1

+ \ + Vi\P~l\Vi\ <
=1

\ 1/(< ( / \ 1 / / \ Vp\

(1.4)

< [ E ^ + y^-^j n E N p J + [

) J

. > 1.
1/

( \

1. ||||:=( \\ ) ~ X = Pfc. :=

<

,\\

\ \

>

\ 1/

2. ||||:=( \\ ) ~ X := < {} ^

= 1

I p : = < X, || || >.
>
(
\1/

3- ||(-)||:= / \x(t)\p dt X
[a,; b] P. Lp[a-,b} := <
X, || || >.
. Lp(a]b):=
[a,; b]
(-) , |(-)| [,; ], \

1/

( \

\\\ := f / \x(t)\pdt

( - ) , a (-) ~ ( - ) < = ^ > x ( t )

y(t).

2.
. X .
1. : = ( , ) : = { X : ( , ) < } .
2. : = [ , ] : = { X : ( , ) ^ }.

15

" 2.1 ( ). X - , ,\ X, ,2 X .

> 0.
1 . , , 1 [ , 2 , ] , [,\,] [ , 2 , 2 ] . [ 2 , }
[2].
2 . , [ ( , ] [ 2 , 2 ] 0, [ , ] [ 2 ,
6].
3 . , > 0, 2 > 0, B [ a , i , r i ] [ , 2 , 2 ] [ , 2 , ]

\ B[a,i,ri] 0, < 22.


4 . , ,
, , .

1-3,

. [IF]. [ \ , ] [ , 2 , 2 ] ( ,
a , i) ^ .

( , ,2) ^ ( , a,i) + (, 1, ) + ( , 2 ) ^ + + 2
= 6.
. X .

1. X D G :=
V G 3 > 0 ( , ) G.

2. :=
> 0 ( 0 , ) .

3. , xq '= U ( X q ) := ,
.

4. 8- , := U ( x q , 8 ) : = B ( x q , 8 ) .

5. :=
.
6. ,
V r > 0 ( ( 0, ) \ {0}) 0.

7. ,

Vr > 0 B ( x q , ) 0.

17

8. M' := .
9. X D F := F' F.
10. M:=MUM' (

).

11. S [ a , ] : = [ , ] \ ( , ) .
. 1. G

G .
2. .
.
" 2.2 ( ).

X
:
1. Ga =(J Ga

2. G i , . . . , G k = | Gi =1

.
3. Fa = | Fa

4. F i , . . . , F k =(J Fi =1

.
5. X 0 .
6.
\ ; X \
.

7. =

: G M , G } , .
:
8. =
F ^ M , F }

, .
.

= .
18

= ;

. < X, >
.
. ( ) : = { G : G } ,

.
" 2.3. X .
1. ( , ) .
2. [ , ] .
2.1. < , > ( \ \ > 1) (, 1) = {a}, a [ , 1] = X ,
. . (a,, 1) [ , 1].
2.2. < [1;
+) , { , ) - . = \ ~ 1 - ~ 1 \ >
(21, 0.3) {5, 0.2), . .
.
2.3. < , > 5[,0.5] = 0.
2.1. X X {0}.
, > 0 :
1. ( , ) = [ , ] .
2. 5[,] 0.
3. B ( a i , r { ) -(2,2) =>ri ^ 2.
. U ( M ) X X, :

3Ge ()

19

G U(M).

" 2.4.
:
1 .,: (),() U(x) U(y) = 0.
2. ^ F F , 3 U ( 0 ) ,
U(F) U(0) U(F) = 0.
3. F\, F-2 F\f]F2 = 0, 3
U(Fi), U(F2) U(Fi) U(F2) = 0.
. []. U { x ) U ( y ) ( , ) ( , ) , = ( , ) / 3 .
^ F => F =>
3 () > U ( , 1 ())^ = 0. U ( x q ) U ( F )
( , ) (J ( , ) , = ()/3.

xeF
U ( F i ) : = U ( , 7 ' j ( x ) / 3 ) (i + j = 3),
xeFt
U(x, , ()) Fj = 0.
. xq ^ F X F
,
( , F ) := inf{ ( , ) : F } > 0 .
. X
, [ , ] a, X
> 0.
2.4. < , > .

3.

. 1. X , { } X
X. lim = X q := :=
>

VU(x0) 3N N V n > N U(x0).


X

{ }

2.

. X Y , / : X

- Y.
1. X, lim /() = :=
X

V U ( y o ) 3 U ( x o ) V x [/() \ {} /() 7(/0)2. / xq X,


yU(f(xo)) 3U(xo)Vx [/() /() [/(/(0)).
3. / X, /
.
. {} X
N : = N U {} X, N
: ( , ) := 1/, ( , ) : = |-1 ~1\ ( ) .

.
" 3.1 (

).

X Y , / : X - .
:
0 (, 0) ^ 0.
^ ^
*^*
{ } => { } .
lim f ( x ) = { ] ( ^

( lim /() = y i lim /() = 2 ) ==>j/i =

/ xq

f(xn)

V { } ( 0 => /() /(0)).


(-, ) X 2 .

X . =>
| |, 11 | | 11, . . X
.
X , { } , { } X ,
* X Q , > X q , { }, { } , ->0, ->0.
+ 00 + 0, . .


.
X , { }, { } X , ,
{, ) >(, Xq), . .
X 2 .
" 3.2 (
).

1. X Y Z, X , Y , Z , /
x q , a g /(). g { f { ) ) x q .
2. / : X > Y , X , Y . /
X
) \)().
3. / : X > Y , X , Y . /
X
V F Y (F =>

).

" 3.3 (
). X X .
1.
(( > ) => 3 V > ).
2. -<==> (({ } >

).

= X q

3.1. , . . ( 1
. . . , ,) = = (, . . . , %0)
V?' < 1 , Xiji X i f i -

3.2. C[ar,b] [a,; b]


.
3.3. ( -^ < X, >) -<==> 3? V? > = = 0.
3.4. { ( - ) } [ ; b ] ( - ) [ ; ] .

( - ) - ( - ) , ( - ) 0(')[\
Li []
( nt, < t < 1/, 3.5. x n ( t ) = < 2 nt, 1/
^ t ^ 2/,
[ 0,
2/ < t < 2.
||(-)||1[0;2] = 1/ 0, ||(-)||[; 2]

= 1-

3.6. < X, > ,


==>

. 1 2 ,
X.
1. , 1 2 (2 ) ,

? >* ? 1
2
2. , 2 (2 ) , ^
{ } , > , />X q .

Pi

3. , 1 2 , 2
^ , . . > ^=> >.

3.7. .
3.8. , || ||[;]>
, || ]^.^.
3.9. , lk , .

23

3.1. , X, (., )
1 ( , ) : = - - - - ----- 2 ( , ) : = { ( , ) , 1 }
-

1 +
{ , )
.

3.2. ,
.
" 3.4. 2 X.
1. (pi 2) <^=>r(pi) D (2).
2. ( 2) <==?{1) = (2), . . Pi 2

.
. " " "
"" ""
, . , ||-||[;]
I I - H lm " 3.5. ||-||i - ~ ~ -

X. :
1. (||-||i ||-||2j
> O V x X ||||2 ^
2. || ||i 11 112
,
.
. 1. => . .
{} X ,
11 > 111 /11 112 . /||,||1 > 0
,
1Mb
.

111

/>
ll-lli

. < X, > < , >


., - / : X Y
,

1,2 X
pY(f(x1),f(x2)) =
( 1,2).
.

25

. < X, || -||_y > < , ||


|| > , / : X
, /
V.rel ||/()|| = IMU.
= .
4.

. 1. X
, = X, . .

X V U ( x ) U ( x ) 0,
( )

XV > : {,) < .


2. X

, ( = 0).

" 4.1. < X, > .


VG G () \ {0} 0 .
4.1. R Qk . 1
Qk + iQk .
. ,
.
4.2. 1 .

4.3. C[ar,b], lp, .


4.4. , :=|{,} : {0,1}|
, ( = > || \ \ = 1).
" 4.2.

.
. { }
< X, >.
,

{(, 1 /) : , N}.
1. X > 0. 8.6
. 2.1.1

() : 2/() < (,) (<) (,1/()) " ==>


B{an[x.r), 1 /()) (,2/()) (,).
2 . eG {) {) > 0 {, r{x)) cG^-

3 m ( x ) , n ( x ) ( ( ) , 1 / ( ) ) ( , ( ) ) G=>
G = |J {[),1/{)).

SG

.
.

5.

. { }
,
,

Vt > 0 3 N NV??,, > N ( , ) < .


" 5.1. .

:
1. = > { } .

2. { } =>{ } .

3 - ( { } ; >0) => ?
4. {,} <==? lim (,) = 0.
,>+

. 1.
,
(. .
).
2.

.
3.

.
5.1. l k , lp, , , .
5.2. [,] Lv[ar,b] .
5.3. < Q, | | >
, { (1 + 1/??,)} ,
Q.
5.4. L\[ 1; 1]
, {,(-) }:

-1, -1 < t < -1/,


x n ( t ) : = < nt, 1/ ^ t ^ 1/, [ 1, 1/ < t < 1
, L\[ 1; 1].
" 5.2. < , >
X. < , >
.
. ,
, 1(,):=| | 2 { , ) '= | arctg
arctg \ R, < R, > , < R, 2 >
.

28

5.1 ( -
).

,
,
, . .
( N B [ a n + i , r n + i ] [ , ]) ( - 0) ==>

| [ , ] 0.
=1

. | ==> |. {-\-,) ^ 0 , {
} => 3 oq : => (+,) ( 0 , ) ^

=>,0 [ , ] .
>

| -4= |. { } .

3{

(,) ^ 2~.

. 2.1.2 { [ , 2 2_fc] }
, =>

[,
=1
^ Xq .

2 ' 2~ fc ]- , ^0

. 5.1
> 0 (. [12, 3.2, ], [15, 6.10]).
5.1. ,
0.

29

5.2 (). X ,

{ } .

U / X.
=1

. ,\ X \ > 0.
\ , 0 B{a\,i\) \ \ ==> 3 ,2
X, '2 < i/2; [ 2 , ] B ( a i , r { ) \ .
{[,] } :

[+1, ?Vi+i] { ) 0 =>

[, ] => 0^.

=1

.
.

5.3 ( ).
X Y
Y\ , X = Y\ Y = Y.
. 1. Y
X
:

{ } ~ { ' } := (,') 0.
2. Y :

( { } , { z n } ) : = lim ( , z n ) .
>

3. { }

* \ X f i }. Y\ := < {} :
X f ( x ) : = {} X Y\.
4. = { } Y t > 0. ' : = { / 2 ) }

( , ') < , . . Yi = Y.

5. { } Y .
Y \ Y 3 { ' } Y\ : (,') < 1/
X : ' = {}, { }
X.
: = { } .

n>N(s)
^ { , ) = lim { , ) ^ t =>
>

( , ) ^ - 0 ^ { , ) < { , ) + { , ) ^ 0 ,
. . ^ -
. Y
5.3 , X.
. 1. (
).
2. X Z, X X Z.
3. X ,
(

).
4. X ,
(

).
5. ,

.
5.5. < Q, | |
> < R, | | >.

31

5.6.
L p [ a ; b } [ ; ] .

5.2. , || ||i || || X < X, 11 111 > ,


< X, || > .

6.

. 1. X

( ), ()
X .
2. ( ), ( )
, .
6.1. < X, >
X.

G a ( ) (J Ga D ==> 3 . . . ,

. X
.

k
U GQi D .
=1

"
6.2.

, 4.2
.
6.1. / : X Y , X , Y , / X X D . f { M )
.

32

6.2 ( ). X

, / : X / X X D
. /
.
. f ( M ) R => /()
.
. {-F} ,

k
...,

- ) / .
=1

6.3 ( ). X
X. ( )
, ( )

.
. | ==> |. { Fa }
==?Ga := \ Fa .
{ Fa }

. . . , \ |J GQi = f| (FQi M) 0
=1

=1

{ Ga } - => 0 \ (J Ga = ( f| Fa) .

^'
| <=\- Ga (J Ga . Fa '= X \ Ga
. 0 = \ { j G a = ( f| F a ) , { F a }

^ '
=>

..., 0=
( f | F a . ) n M = M\|jGai.
=1

=1

. X
,
V { } 3 { }, 0 0.
6.4. X X.

<=> .
. | ==> |. {,} . F k : = { : ^

6.3 ( F k ) .

k=1

F\, \ : ( 1 , ) < 1.
Fni+\ => 2 : 2 > \ ( 2 , ) < 2-1.
{ } : ( , 0 ) < 2 ~ , . .

| -4= |. { Fn }
. { Fn } : Fn := | Fk
fc=i

_
//, //, fc=l fc=l
{} : F n , 3 { } , :

^
..
~
> F n > '

0 { F n ) . .
= 1

. ,
.
" 6.3. F, X ,
F , F = 0. > 0,
F U ( K ) = 0,

U(K)

:= (J ( , ) - .

" 6.4 (
).

< X, >. ,
34

, < , >
.
. 1. X ,
. 5.2 < , > - .
2. ,
, .
. X .
1. X - X ,
U e ( A ) , . . : ( , ) < .
2. X ,
> 0 t- .
" 6.5. .

1. { \ , . . . , .} - ,
{ \ , . . . , } , 2- . ,
" " .
2. < , \ > , < ,2 > , \ 2 X.
< X, \ >
< X, 2 >.
3. .
.

. , ( , ) : = \ \
2 { , ) := | arctg arctg | R, (.

. 29), R < R, 1 >, < R, 2 >


.
6.1.
.
6.2. < , >
.
6.3.
).

6.5 () (
). < X, > X.

<=> < , >


.
. | => |.

IJ ( , ) = >

3 X I , . . . , : (J ( , ) .
=1

2~'-

. -

(J < , > =>

=1

< , > => < , >


.
, < , > .
{ } . { } Ui/2( A i ) , \ \ :
[\, 1/2}
{ } . [\,1/2} U i / 4 ( A 2), ,2 2 : [\,1/2} [,2,1/4]
{ } . { } : [+ i,2_fc_1] [ , 2 ~ }
{ } .

36

( ??.2) { [ , 3 2_fc] } , . <


, > ,

[ , 3-2 ] fc=i
{ }, 3 { } :
[ , 3-2"fc] 0 ^ ( , 0 ) ^ ( , ) + ( , ) ^ 0 .
. :

1. " " " " " .


2. X X, (
<=> ).
3. X X ,
( <=> ).
6.6. / : X Y
X Y
X. f ~ l Y.
. ,
F X /-1
. F X F .
F , 8.3
(f ~ 1 ) ~ 1 ( F ) = f ( F ) , , , .
. X
, .
" 6.6. X

X. .
V{

37

} 3 { ; }, 0 X : Xrik *

" 6.7. X
X. :
1. ..
2. .
3. V { } { } .
6.7 ( ). X, Y
. / : X Y
X, / .
" 6.8. / : X >Y X, Y

. /
X, f ( M ) .
.
()
:=

X X
||/(-)||:=sup|/(.T)|.

&

6.1. , ( ) .
. X . ( ) : =
X X ||/(-)|| :=|/()| (

( ) ) .
6.2. , ( ) .
. [ ; b ] ( )

( = [;}).
. 1. X
,
( ) , . .

38

3 > 0V / X |/()| < .


2. X
< X, >
, Vt > 03$ > 0 V / \,2 X { { i , x 2 ) <

6=>\f{xi) - f{x2)\ <t).


6.8 () ( [ ; 6])).
[a,; b] D / <==?
.
6.9 ( ) (
( ) ) . X . { X ) D
.

.
. | ==> |. 1. { , . . . ,

1-

=> 8.4 X =>


3 > 1,(1) \ ( ) \ < ==> V/ |/()|
<\ f ( x ) - g k { f ) ( x ) \ + \ { ( ) \ < 1 + .
k ( f ) : \ \ f - g k { f ) \ \ < 1.
2. {1, ..., ()} t- . 6.7
X. /

|f(xi) - f(x2)I < \ f(xi) - gk[f){xi)| + \gk(f)(xi) gk[f){x2)\ + + \( - f(x2)I < 2e

\gk(f)(xi) -

gk[f){x2)I,
11^(. .)(fc/3) ) k l /3)
| -4= |. P = R.
6.5 ( ) .
> 0.

^(.

.)()

1. 8 = ^(. .)
X = (J (,8), X ,

3xi,...,

&

= (, 8).
=1

\\= B ( x \ , 8 ) , X k + i - . = (+\,8) \ 1J X j . =1
, , ' , ( , ' ) <28 = ^(. .
2. [ , ] - = 0
< y i < . . . < = , \+1 - \ < .

:={{-) : 1, n3j 1, mV {) = yj }.
X X
R. ^ , . . . , ' : ' . + \ := + /2.
7 : :
(/)() = { , I : f{x'k) [yv,yi+1).

XdX).
\ f ( x ) - 7 T ( f ) ( x ) \ < ^ | f { x ) - /(4)| + \f(x'k)-yi\ < 2 e , .
. A 2- M ( X ) = 4-

().
" 6.9. X .
( ) D supw(;<p,X) >0.
" 6.10. R D X , Cl(X) D , ,
{(' : Lp } .

.
7.

. / : X
X.

40

X Y

1. / ,
Vt > 0 3 > 0\/1,2 { { i , x 2 ) < 5 = = > p Y ( f ( x i ) , f ( x 2 ) )
< ).

2. /

w(<S;/,M):=sup{p r (/(a:i),/(a:2)) : 2

, px(xi,x2)

}-

" 7.1. / : X , X
X. :
1. / .
2.
/, ) - 0 5 - +0.
3. V { } , { ' }
( { , arj,) 0 = > p Y { f { x ) , f { x ' n ) ) ^ 0).

" 7.2. / : X , X
, / X X D {, }
. { f { x n ) } .
, 0 ^
p Y ( f ( X n ) , f ( x m ) ) ^ t o { p x { x ) );/,) 0. .
,>

7.1 (
). \
X: \ = X,
/ : \ \.
/ : X /,

X.
( 5 ; / , X) ^ ( 5 + 0; /, Xi).

. X . 3 { } \ :
* X q = > { } . 7.2
{ f ( x n ) } Y
==> 3 lim f ( x n ) = : f ( x 0 ) .

. X .
/ : X X ,
[0;1)\/2 X pY(f(xi),f{x2)) ^ (1,2).

/ : X
X ( ; f , X ) ^ 8 .
"

7.3.

X.

/, /(*) = *.
7.2 (). X
, / : X X .
/.
. xq X. {} : ,+1 : = f ( x n ) .
n
1- ( +1, ) ^ a p(xi,x ).
2. {-\-, ) ^ ( \ , ) / (1 ) . =>{ }
=> 3 * X : > * .
3. ^\ = f { x n ) X * =
f(x*).

4. * *: * = /(*) * = /(*).
(*,*) = (/(*),/(*)) ^ (*,*) ==> (*,*) = 0=>* = *.
. * / : X
,
(/ := /, /+1(-) :=/(/"('))
" 7.4. / : ^ . fk

,
/ .

42

. fk / : X X

, /
.
. 1.
f ( x ) =

.
2. X .
, * / : X X , \ : = \ {*}, / : \ \ /
\, / \ .
3. / : ^ , X
, / : X X /
X (. 7.1).
f ( x ) = X.
" f ( x ) = " .
. / : X X

1 , 2 X ( x i '2 => p ( f ( x i ) , f ( x 2 ) ) < p ( x i , x 2 ) ) .


.
. , / : [1; +) >[1;
+), f ( x ) = + 1/,
, [1; +) .
7.3. X ,
/ : X X .
/.

43

. < : X R ,
< { ) = p ( x , f ( x ) ) .
, * , < { * ) = <().

* /(*)
*: (/(*),/(/(*))) < (*,/(*)).

7.1. / : -> [0; 1) R |/'()| ^ ^ < 1.


/
.
7.2. / : R2^R R2 -
, . .
' > 2 \ f ( x , y i ) - f ( x , y 2 ) \ < \ ! - 2 \ .
7],

: [ 7; + 7] [ 7; +

( ( ( - ) ) ( ) : = f f ( , y ( 0 ) d >
.
27 < 1.

8.

. >(A) D X,
, 0 .

Ga ^ .

G i , . . . , G k => .
=1

.
, , < ,
> .

8.1.
= ( ) .

8.2. T d ' - = B { X ) = ( )

X.
8.3. '-={, 0} X.
8.4. X := R ( ), :={ G X

: G = 0 V X \ G }.
8.5. X:=R ( ), Tf :={ G X : G =
0 V X \ G - }.
8.6. < X, > ,
X. :={G : G } . < , >

X.
. < X, > ,
X , < , >, ,
<

,() >.
. < X, > ,
X.
1. U ( x q ) xq '=

3G

0 G

U { x ).

2. , ,
.
3. " " " " "
"
"
" "
,
B ( x q , 6 ) U ( x q ) .
, xq ,

VU(x) (U(xo) \ {}) 0,


a U ( M ) , :

McGcU(M).
.
8.1. 1. X Y Z, X, Y, Z
, / X Q , a g
/(). g { f { - ) ) X Q .
2. / : X > Y , X , Y .
/ X V G /-1() . / : X Y, X, Y . / X V F ( Z Y ( F => /_1(-F)
).
. 1.
, ,
< X, > V { } IV X , U( 0) = X.
2.

(), .
8.7. < R, > ( *) 3? V > = -

( > => 3 V > )


, ,
, < R, >
, , {1,2}.

. < X, > < , >


, - / : X > Y
, / /-1 X Y .
. 1. .
2.
.
" 8.1. 2 X. p i ~

2
I ' ^ < , { 1 ) >
<,(2) >.
I X, . . Vi X
/() = .


. \ 4 .

Ti : V.T, { => 3 U ( x ) U ( x ) ) .
'2 ( ):

, ( = > 3 ( ) , ( ) U ( x ) ( ) = 0).
: ^ F F =>
3 U { 0), U { F ) U { 0) [/(F) = 0.

^ : F\ f] F2 = 0 A F\, F2 =>
3 ), U{F2) U{Fi) n U{F2) = 0.
. 1. ,
2, .

47

2. ,
\ , .
3. ,
\ 4, .
8.8. < , > \.
8.9. < X, > < X, > -2" 8.2. :
1. Ti- {} .
2. -<==> VJ7() 3 U i ( x o ) U ( 0 ) .
3. , -

.
. []. X \ {} =>
3 U ( ) : 0 <jL U ( ) U ( ) X \ {0}.
1. =. & F : = X \ () 3 U\(xo), U ( F ) : L h ( x o ) U ( F ) =
0 => L h ( x o ) X \ U ( F ) = >
U i ( ) X \ U ( F ) X \ F = U (0) U ( x 0 ) .
1. F ==> 3 U ( x o ) : U ( x 0 ) F = 0 ==> 3^(0) : Ui() /(0)
=> Mo)nF = 0 => F \^(0) =: *7(F) U i ( x o ) U ( F ) = 0 .
2.4 ,
.
,
, D [3 ,

V G e T : G ^ 0 3 { W o } c / 3 G = {jWa.

8.10. X { ( ,
); G X , G Q, > 0 } .

48

8.11. ( = R) { (, ) : a , G Q k , G
Q, > 0 } , .
8.2. ( ) D X

,
1. G X 3 W G/3 x G W .
2. \ W2 G / G W \ W 2 3 W s G /3 x G W s W \
W2.
. | |. := j |J Wa : Wa G /3 j U{0},

w1nw2= |J W7.
w1cw1nw2

8.12. X = W { f , t i , . . . , t k , ) := { g ( - ) G :
Vi l j \ g { U ) - f ( U ) \ < } . p : = { W ( f , t i , . . . , t k , e ) : f G
PM , k G N , U G M , e > 0} - 6a- "
" .
8.13. ( 3 : = { [ ; ) : , G R, ^ } "" R.
. ( ) D u ( x q ) X q
xq )
< X, >,
1. W G u ( x q ) => W X Q .
2. y U ( x 0 ) 3 W G ( 0 ) W U ( X 0 ) .
8.14. X {B(xo,r) :
Q, > 0 } ,
.
(

8.15. ( ) ,
() : = { W : W ()} ,
(

( ) ) .

.

.

" 8.3. 1. {] , ( ) : = { W
: X Q W } X Q .
2. X ( )

, < X, >,
( 5 : = ( J ( ) .
&

" 8.4. X ,
( ) X Q .
W = {xo}.

W&ui(xo)

, xq => 3 U ( y ) , W l j ( x o ) : U ( ) H W
= 0 ==> W_C X \ U ( ) ==> W X \ U ( ) = = > U ( y ) C \ W =
0 ^y^W.
. 1. ,
,
.
2. ,
,
.
8.16.
.
8.17. 1 , .
. 1.

, . .
(.
3.3).
2. / : XX Y , X
, "

50

" " " , .


. 3.1.5 3.1.7.


,
.
2.
() ,
.
"

8.5.

1.

. 1. X
, = X, . .

XVU(x) U(x) 0.
2. X

( = 0).
" 8.6. < X, > .' .'

..
VG \ {0} G 0.

8.18. < , >


.
8.19. 1 R Qk . 1

Qk + iQk .
8.20. , \,
.
.

,
.
.
.
8.21. 1 .
8.22. [,}, 1, .
8.23. m , :=|{,} : {0,1}|
, ( = > || \\ = 1 ) .
"
8.7.

, .
4.2 ,
.
, "" .
8.1.
.
8.2.
, .

,
, ,
.
. 1. X
( ), ()
X .
2.
( ), (
) , .
" 8.8. < X, >
X. <=>
k
G a U G a D = > 3 . . . , (J Gai D .

=1

. X ,
.
" 8.9. X
, X .

.
8.3. / : X > Y , X , Y
, / X X D . f { M )
.
8.4 ( ). X
, / : X /
X X
D . / .
.

( 6.3) .
. {-F} ,

. . . , f|(/;,; '.\/) / .
53

=1

8.5 (
). X X.

( ) ,
( )
.

( ).
.
" 8.10. X
, X D , .
. . X Q
, X Q ^ . U ( X Q )
X Q .
8.4 IJ X \ W = X \ {} , . .
{\/ }wsw(.to) .

, __ \

i=l

^ =1 '

X \ W i = X \ \\> , f ] W t ) 0 .

i=l

9.

. X ,
Ml, 2 X, , a, X, .
1. M l + 2 : = { X I + 2 : X i 2 2 }.
2. Mi - 2 :={ 1 - 2 : 2 2 }.
3. Mi + : = Mi + {,}.
4. Mi :={ : , Mi }.
5. fj, Mi :={} Mi.
" 9.1. X , >
0, 1 > 0 2 > 0. :

1. (, ) + = ( + , ), [, r] + b = [ + ,
].
2. B(abri) + B(a2,r2) = B(ai,n) + [2,2};
B ( a , i , r i ) + - [ , 2 , 2 ] = (\ + a,2,ri + r 2 ) ; B [ a i , r i ) +
- [,2, 2} = [\ + ,2, + 2 ] .
3 . - B ( a , r ) = B ( X a , \ X \ r ) , X [ , ] = [ , ||].
. ( , ) ( , ) = ( 0, 2 )
" 9.2. X

, , . X, X,/ . :
1 . ( + ) + .
2 . ( + ) = + .
3. + = U ( + ).

55

. X , X D
, X +
.
. X
X.
,
VA (|| < 1 = > - ).
9.1.
.
" 9.3 ( ).
X ,
. :
1. || < ==> AM .
2.
3.
4.
5.

|| = ==> = jxM.
|| = 1 ==> .
- = .

. X
X.
1. ,

a , b e [; ] : = { (1 - ) + b : X [0; 1] } .
2. ,

a , b e , (|| + \\ < 1 = > + ) .


" 9.4. X
, X.

V [0; 1] (1 - ) + = .

56

" 9.5. X
, X. ,

.
" 9.6 (
). X .
1. (

) ( )
.
2. ( ) ,
( ) .
3. ( )
( ) .
4. , 0 [0; 1], -
.
5. ,
VA,ju < + / = (|| + \(i\)M.
. 5 . = 0 V / = 0,
. 0 / 0,

+, W, .\/VT"-!U / .
|| + || +

9.2. ( , ) , [ , ]
, ( 0 , ) , [ 0 , ]
.
" 9.7. X
X. ( )
_______

, ( )
.

" 9.8. X
. :
1. .
2. .
" 9.9. X

R. :
1. .
2. .

10.

. X
X.
1. ,
^ OVp ( ^
2.

,
> 0 V A e P ( | | <=>0 + \ ).
3.

: .
3. 0, ,
" 10.1. X
X.
( ) 0 .
" 10.2.
:
1. .

( + ) = + .
([>) {J'l,
" 10.3. .
10.1. , ()'

.
" 10.4. 1.

, xq , \ ,
[) 1) :=[0;1] \ {!} .
2.

, xq , \ , [;1) .

. : 1.

N.

) =.
2.

0, = .

. []. () ,
. xq
X,
3 t 0 > O V A (|| < = > + \ ) .
10.4.1

[, + ) .

0/2 + (0 + )/2 = 0 + (/2) , . . 0 (^ .

2 . ,
. xq , \ ,
> 0 , \ + A(.Ti ) .

10.4.2 [, (1 + )1 ) . : = 1/(1 +
). (0; 1),

( 1 ) + ( ( 1 + A).Ti ) = \ .

11.

. X .
: X R ( ),

1. ( + ) ^ ( ) + ( ) .
2. ( ) = || ( ) .
. X .
: X R
, VA ^ 0 ( ) = ( ) .
. X .
: X R ,
Va [0; 1] Va:i,a:2 " ( ( 1 )\+2) ^ ( l a ) p ( x i ) + a p ( x 2 ) .
" 11.1. ( - )
, ( 0 ) = 0 , { ) = ( ) , { ) ) 0 ( - ) .
. { - ) -

, ( - ) .
" 11.2. ( - )
X, V : = { X : ( ) ^ 1}
.
60

. V
X. pv : X

p v ( x ) := inf{ > 0 : V } ,
,
V ( V ) .

.
V, (
V)
+.
11.1 V X .
1. p v ( - ) -

.
2. V , p v ( X x ) = | |( ) .
3. V , ( - ) .
4. V , X p v ( x ) .
5. V ,
X

( - )

{ : () < 1 } { : pv(x) ^ 1 }
6. ( - ) X,
V
X , ( - ) = ( - )

. 2 . 0,

pv() = inf <( /j, > 0 : -- V } =

61

= [v := /||, V .] = inf{|A|z/ : v V} = ||().


3_|. LH'-=Pv(xi) (i = 1)2). t >
^, ^ ^ ^ + Xi .

- ? [^] V.

= ^"

pv(x 1 + 2) ^ Pi + 2

+pv(x2).

5 . , (') , 2 3
.
pv(x) < 1 ==> 3 (0; 1) : ; = 1 ==> () <
1.
6 . 11.2 V :={ X : () ^ 1 }
. pv(x) = inf{ >
0 : p-V } = inf{ > 0 : () ^ } = ().
" 11.3. -

X,
Pv(-) -<==> /0 R <f_ V.

12.

e i , . . . , e m
X.

12.1.

k=1

Vfc 1, m

0 ^ .

. | ==> |. zn := ^^ /,. ,,/'/,. 0.


fc=i
62

. , ,
, / := ^

^ > 0.

k= 1

:= \,/ , 7fc,
7fc,o ==>
>
=

= 0

VA; 1, m 7fc,o =

fc=i fc=i

m
= (12.1)

fc=i

m
m
^ |7fc,| = 1> S l7fc,o| = 1- - fc= i
(12.1).

' fc=i

. :
1.

.
2.

.
3.
.
4.
.
. Rfc,
,

<1 || >.
.
.

" 12.1.
, . . -

.
" 12.2. X , \
.

3\ \ (, \) = 11 111.
" 12.3. X ,
2 , X2 . \ +
2 .
. \ +

2 , 2 =< > ^ \.
+
{ } Xi.
1. { } , 3 { } : = >

= - + { + ) - 0 + 0 Xi ==>
= ( ) + \ + < > .
2. { } , 3 { } : =>
11
[ + ) + 0 >

\ .
1

12.1 (. ) ( ).
"

X , \
X Q \.
(0; 1) : |||| = 1 < XQ ,XI > A (, Xi) ^ .

. XQ ^ \ \ , (3 := P { X Q , X \) >
0. (,\) \ : 0 || Xq 11 <

j3/a.

XQ XQ
ea := ---------r? G< , X\ >. G \
1
1
1

_ II _ | - ( X q + ||0 -|| -) | |
Cq j X
ii
||
^^ ||
11 X(y ||

/3

|| ^^ (X. I

|| X(y 11

. \ \ : || 1 = (,\), : |||| = 1
< 0,"1 > (, X i ) = 1.
. :

1. X , \ X Q ^ \.
: |||| = 1 < 0,"1 > p ( e , X i ) = 1.
2. , { , }
{ } ,
Vn |||| = 1, < e - i , . . . , >=< . . . , > (, < e - i , . . . , e _ i
>) = 1.

3.
[ , ] > 0 .
13.

. { } X

. ^ ,

=1

X :

65

77 ^ . ' > =1

" 13.1 (
).

1. 52 6 X =1

., 0 .

2. 52 6 X =1

., 52 , 0 N ^ .
n=N+1

3. 52 52 6 ,= 1

=1

cmee X , V , + )
=4

( + ) = \ 52 +
=1
=1
=1
4.

5. , 52 || ,
=1

^ , ,
=1

^ IW
=1
=
1

. 5
*

. 13.1.5 X = [,;6]
.

.
=1
X ,

||||.
=1

66

13.1 ( ). -


, .
.
. | ==> |. 13.1.5. | -4= |.
I D{ }
X.
{ }, \ \ a;nfc+1|| ^ 2 ~ .

1 + ixnk+1 ) , ,

=1

. 1 + ^2{+1 ~ ) = +1,

= 1

{ } { } .
14.
. X - .
1. { } X ,
Va |||| = 1.
2. { } X ,

< { } > = X.

3. { }

1
X ,
V X 3! { } : - ] \

=1

. ,
.
" 14.1. ,
.
. | ==> |. \ = { : N }
X.
X-2'-={xm : < x \ , . . . , x m - i > } . \ \ 2 -

X ,
.
" 14.2. { }
X.
1- { , } ;
2- { } ;
. .
. [ ; ]

.
" 14.3. X
{ }. { }
X.

, < { } >3) > O M "

X.

1 \\
=1

\\

14.1. 1

{ } : = (0,..., 0,1, 0,.. .)


14.1. .

68

15.

" 15.1 ( ). X
,

, || + ||2 + ||-||2 = 2||||2+2||||2. (15.1)


. X .
1. _L := (, ) = 0.
2. { } ,

, / 3 ( /3 => ) .
3. ,
.
4. { } ,
(Va _L ) => = 0.
5. { X : _L }
: .
6. _L : = .
15.1 (). X , ,
X. _L , || + ||2 = ||||2 + ||||2.
. 1.
, .
2. ,
, . , X = |1 + \2 = 2 =
|1|2 + |?'|2, (, 1) = 0.
. { 6
2


=1
69

= IN-IP

" 15.2.
.
" 15.3.
, .
" 15.4. X , { } X ,
( X . _L , _L { }.
. :
1. X , X. 1-

.
2. ,
.
15.2 () ( ).

, { } X
{ } ,
V N < , \ , . . . , >=< e- i , . . . , > .
. \ :=a:i/||a:i||.

+1 '= xn+i -

, e j ) e j , +\ := en+i/\\+\\ \.
3=1

. ,
, .
. 1. L
X. L
L : ( ) _L L.
2. X X.
: (,
) = (, ).

15.3. L
X X Q X.
xq
L S ,
|||| ^ |||| L X.
( X Q L)
(
X Q L ) .
. 2, => . L, ( ) _L L, ( ) L.

||0 -||2 = ||0 -||2 + ||(-)||2 ^ ||(0 5?)112.


L ( XQ X ) $ L-1-, 3 L : (, ) =
= 1. >
1,2 - 1,2
2 1,2 <2/1|2 11( X Q ) || = 11 11 2ct + ct |||| < ||

12

. L (
) P r L { ) .
15.1. X,
L X X,
L.
15.4.

X. X
X Q .
. { }
|| || > := (, ) .

Vn N ^ \\ ||

2 ^ ||( + )/2 112 (1=1}


= 211( - 0)/2||2 + 2||( - 0)/2||2 - ||( ) / 2 (
)/2||2 = = || - 0||2/2 + \\ - 0||2/2 - || ||2/4.

^ 1 1 - ||2 ^ 2\\ - 0||2 + 2\\ - 0||2 - 42

. {} := lim .

15.5.
X. \ / ( ) X = M ( B M ~ L .
. , ,
1- ( ) .
" 15.5. X .

1- = (< >) ~ = .
" 15.6. X .

^1- = < >.


15.2. X
X, ^1- j- < >.

72

16.

" 16.1. { }

X = .
N = ( , )

||||2

I|2.

=1

= 1

.
. { }
X. X (
{ })

/)/ / (X) / /= 1
/=1

16.1 ( ).

{ }
X,

() Pf' <e i, .. .,e m > ()


/= 1

,
< \ , . . . , >.
, ( ) _L< \ , . . . , >.
. L

, X 3 P r L ( x ) .

16.2 ( ). { ) /= 1

X X,

5>0r)l2<IWI2/=1

(16.1)

. ||||2 = ||( I ) I X'

11

2222

=1
. 52 { )
= 1

X.
1. 1()|2 .
=1

2 - < ( ) > ^ J
..
3.
.
4. ( ). X ,

52 |
=1

, |2 = > 3 X : = 52 )
=1

5. X ,

=
1
6.
, .

16.1.
, .
. { }

IMI2 = |()|2.
=1

(16.2)

(16.2) .

16.3. { }
. :
1. { } . 2. { } . 3. { } .

. 1 2 . = .

|||2 = |\ -\\2 + \{)\2,


= 1

=1
(16.3)

(16.2) -, . .

X=

= 1

(.
16.1).
2 = 3 14.2. . { } .

3= = >
1

V.rVt > 0 < < {- } > : || -

<|| < t. < < { } >,


3 0 : , < e-i,..., > =: , V

^ %
2
.. /
\ 2/
\ (16.3)
t >\\-,\\ ^ ( , < -1,... , > ) = ( , ) =

(16)

= I M P " |()|2 ^ 0.

= 1
,

t 2 ^ I N I 2 - |()|2 ^ 0=^||||2 = |()|2. .


=1
>0
=1
.
. .

76

"
16.2.


.
. X X -
, { } - X, { }
X. / : X X,

/( 52 ) = 52 1 , =1
=1
.
16.2.
{ } X Q
, 52 {) .
=1

X,

17.

17.1. { 7 }7 (0; +) |7 | > |N|, 3{7} 3/3 > 0 V n e N


1 >/3,

, , 52 - .
= 1
. :
V /3 > 0 { 7 : ^ /3 } .
N :={7 : 7 ^ 1 /} . = (J
=> I7 | ^ |N|
.
" 17.1.

( ) - .
, .

17.1. { 7 }

X.

1. { 7 } X ( , , ).
2. X () : = {7 : (,7) 0 } .
3. X = (,7)7.
7(.)

. []. 0, V7 (, 7) = 0, { 7 } /
{7} U {/||||} , , { 7 }
.
___

\2\. |()| > |N|, 17.1 3jn : 1(,7)|2


=1

, ,
, .
_3_. X := < {7 }7(.) >
< { 7 }7^(.) > , X = ( . { 7
}7<=(.) > , .
18.

. X

,
, . .

1 . \/2 ( + x 2 ) 3 U ( x i ) , U ( x 2 ) :
U(xi) + U(x2) U(xi + x2).
2.

FyU(Xx)3U(x),U(X) :

U(X) U(x) U(Xx).


.

.
18.1.
.
18.2. X X
{0}. < , > , < X, >
.

78

" 18.1. < X, >


, X 0 .
1 . G -<==> G + .
2. G G .
.
.
" 18.2 (
).
1. V * 7 ( 0 )3 * 7 i ( 0 ) * 7 i (0 ) + * 7 i ( 0 ) * 7 ( 0 ) .

2. .
3.

. 3 . 0 0 = 0,
V * 7 ( 0 )3 * 7 i ( 0 ) , < * > OV A ( | | < * 7 i ( 0 ) U (0 )) .
U-2{0) := IJ ( Ui(0)) U{0) . ||5
18.3.
(0,)
, { (0, ) : > 0 }
.
.

,
, . .
V J 7 (0 ) 3 > ( \ \ ^ = > p - U (0 ) ).

18.1. X
X. ,
V { } V { } ( 0 => - 0).
" 18.3. U

, U ~
,
U U.
. 18.2.3
U Q U. ?? || = 1
U Q = U Q U, U Q ( U) =: U
|| = 1
U. , U . 0 < <
1 .
AC

UAC

AC

At Uac =

1-4=1

( U a c

' (

.9.6.4

= f ] ( l 3 - U ) = Uac ' Uac, = 1


.
,
, .
. 18.3
,
.
18.4.
.
18.1 () ( ).

< X, > (
X) ,
.
. | ==> |. 13(0,1)
.
[j==]. 1. UQ .
18.3 V
, V UQ . , p v { - ) - .
{-) , . / 0 : R X Q V. V ,
\/[/(0) > 0 : V U{0) => R 0 [/(0) => R [/(0)
X .
2. , .
[^(0) .
V VJ7(0) N : V U ( 0 ) .
5(0; 1) V , U(0), 5(0; 1/) U(0), . . {.(0;1/?);
N } .
. { { - ) }
X
:

U ( 0 ] a \ , . . . , a^, ) : = \ X : max pai () < t Mt > 0)


.
<^=>(\/:() = 0=> = 0).

V{) .
" 18.4.
< X, > ,
.

19.
81

. X Y .
() : D ( A ) C l ^ Y ,
D ( A )

Vxi,x2

D ( A ) V A I, A

(\ixi+\2x2) = \ I A ( X I ) + \ 2A ( X 2 ) .

()

" 19.1. X Y ,

: X Y . :
1. X.
2. = 0.
3. , . .
.
4. 3 ^ 0 V . T X (|||| < 1 => || || < ) .
5. X.
. 2 => 3 . , to =
1 > 0,

I M I < So ==> |||| < 1.


X . 3 R > 0 { 0, R) ==> ( )

B(0,R/5o).

. 1
1 ==>

.
. X Y
. C ( X , Y ) : =
X () X Y .
B ( X , Y ) .
" 19.2. X Y
. C ( X , Y )

( A i + 2 ) ( ) : = A I X + 2 , ( ) ( ) : = .
" 19.3. ( . Y ) .

:= _1(0) = { X : = 0 } X.
" 19.4. X u, Y , X

, : X Y , ( , Y ) .
19.1. X
, { } , { }
. <> : X
:

( ( ) := , V g { } i p ( e a ) : = ,

fc=i fc=i
ip , , ||,|| = = 1,
<() = .
. X Y
. ( , Y ) ,
: = sup . I M K i

" 19.5. X Y
. < C(X,Y), || || > .
" 19.6. X Y
( , Y ) .
1. = sup |||| =sup(||Ar||/|M|) =
||.|| = 1

./0

= inf{ ^ 0 : V . T G X < ' }.


2.

" 19.7. X , \
, Y -
C { X Q, Y ). C ( X , Y ) ,
\ X , . . \ = . = .
7.1.
19.2. : [0; 1] [ ; ] - t t
( A x ( - ) ) ( t ) : = J { )(1 . |((-))()| ^ / \{)\(1 ^

^ 1')||[0;1]2/2 ^ ill(')llc[0;l]- X 0 ( t) = 1
1 ( ' ) 11 [0; 1] = 1 ||(-)[0;1] = 1/2, . . = 1/2.
19.3. ([1; 1], )

( A x ( - ) ) ( t ) : = J sign( ) { ) ( 1 . -l
= 2, {-) [1; 1], ||0()|| = 1 |(-)| = 2. ,

.
19.4. : ( ) X - > Y , X = Y = = [0; 1]
D ( A ) = 1[1; 1],

x n ( t ) = sin ( n t ) , ||,(-)|| ^ 1 ||,(-)|| = , .


. .
" 19.8 ( ). X , Y , Z

, C ( X , Y ) ,
( Y , Z ) .

1. Vx 6 X |||| < |||| ||


2. ||.|||||.||||.
19.1. X , a Y

. C ( X , Y )
.
. {
C ( X , Y ) , . .

Vt > 0 3 N ( e ) N , > N ( ) || - \\ < . (19.1)


1. (19.1) X { }
Y =3 Y : = : A Q X . : X Y
.
2. { } ,
(. 5.1.2), . .
3 ^ OVn |||| < ^ X : |||| < 1 |||| <
||0| .
3. (19.1) : |||| ^ 1
Vt > 0 3N ( e ) N , > N() || - || < t.
,

||Anx - 0|| < ||An - < t, . . ||A - A0|| ^ 0. . X .


{ ) := ( , X ) . { )
, .
" 19.9. X ,

( ) lim ^/|A|||Ara|| < 1. Y,


6 {).

= 1

19.5. X
1
( _ \
) . := ^ , sin := - L-

=0

\ '

' ' (2 + 1)!

=04

cos := ^ ^ ^ (2)\

'

= v '

19.6. X { ) .
x ' ( t ) = A x ( t ) , (0) = X Q x ( t ) =

etAXo.
. X, Y .
1. { } C ( X , Y ) (

C(X,Y))


(
)

0.

C ( X , Y ) (
^ A Q X. ()
.
2. , {

) , X

" 19.10. X, Y .
{ } ( , Y ) , A Q .

86

19.2 ( ). X, Y
, { } C { X , Y ) , { |||| } ,
0 C { X , Y )
A Q , \ X . A Q . X-i

. \
< \ >.
X = < \ >. { } < \ >: m ^
II 0 - 0 0 1| ^
^ || II + H || + ||0 - 00|| ^ < || -||(||,|| + ||0||) +
|| - 0|| < < [ > 0 (|||| + ||0||) ^ ] <
^ \\ ~ X Q

11 + \ \ - 0 | | . 0 ^ lim || || ^ lim

>

^ \\ || > 0.

|| || ^
"

20.

20.1. X u, Y . {

} ( , Y ) [ , ] ( >
0 ) , { |||| } .
. > 0 [ , 7 ' ] N |||| ^ .
, [ 0 , ] N ||( - )|| ^ 2 V : |||| ^
1 ||(2)|| ^ 2 |||| ^ / .
20.1 ( ) (
). X , Y
, { } C ( X , Y ) . ,
X { } ,
{ |||| }.

87

. : {||||} .
{ } .
X Q > 0 . \
[,/'2] \ : ||,11|| > 1. 1
\,

< 0/2 B [ x \ , r i ] : ||,1|| > 1 B [ x i , r i ] [ 0 , 0 ] .


2 [\, ri/2], > \ : ||22|| > 2 [2,2] B [ x i , r ' i ] ,


[2,2]

: ||2|| > 2.


{[,]} , [ ,

] |\\| > .
X , 3 [ , ] = ||Afca;|| > .

, { } .
. X , Y
{ } C ( X , Y ) .
1. , { \ \ \ \ }
A0eC(X,Y).
2. X Q J 7710
X

[2] .

|| - 11 ^ |||| 11 - 0|| + ||0 - 00||-


20.2 ( ). X
, Y . { }

C ( X , Y ) C ( X , Y ) .
, { |||| } X
, \ X . Xi

. | ==> |.
.
19.2. . [14] (
) 20.2
.
21.

. 1.
.
2. ,
X, : &
(, ).
3. X .

X * := ( , )

X.
. 19.1 ,
X.

X*

X&

" 21.1. X . <


X*, || || > .
, 19.1,
.
. X*
.

21.1. 1. i p ( x ( - ) ) : = f < p ( t ) x ( t ) dt. ip -

[,; ], <> ([;])*.


2. 6 ( ( - ) ) : = ( 0), 0 [; ] ==>5 ([;])*.
3. X <{') :={'>) X*.
" 21.2. X .
1. tp & , K e r i p = tp-1(0)

X, . . X : K e r i p < > = X .
2. i p X * K e r i p .
3. Lp X* , <_1() .

4. X & D { ( p i , . . . , < } 3 { . . . , }
X : ipi(e.j) =

5.

< < > 1 , . . . , > "# Ker < f| Ker

6. <Pl,<fil X * , 777-0

=1

A'er = K e r < f i 2 30 / A P = \<fi2. []. e: ip{e) = 1,


<p(x)e Ker (p.
, =. 19.3.
2, . tp ^ "* 3 { } : |||| = 1 i p ( e n ) .
0: i p { e 0 ) = 1, := - <()0 A'ertp ==>
-J -

/ )

/i

-V.

_ ./
- A er ip, - (.
;

3, => . 1. . = 1
. . { ( / ? ! , . . . , +1 }
, 3 { } : ipi{e.j) =

2. : = { 52 >() ' X } .
=1

II
II
, Keripi- K e r i p i ,
=1
"
=1

XQ 52 )- = , => ,
=1

II

II

| - Y^ <Pi(x)e.i : X j = | K e r . (21.1)
= 1
= 1

90

3. (+1 , X

: | = <Pn+i{x)-^2<Pi{x)<Pn+i{ei),

=1

=1

tpn+i{x) = Y1 ^^(), Aj '= (pn+i(e-i), -

= 1

.
4. 3 e n + i :
= 1, a, ipi{en+i) = ,
1 , . ^, 1 , e-i :=e-i <pn+i(ei)en+i. (pi{e.j) = i , j 1 , + 1.
4 . (21.1).
21.1 (
). X . 0
( f G X * , \ \<\\= ((0,?-1(1)))-1.
. 1. i p ~ l ( l ) 1 = |</?()| ^ ||<>|| ||||.
\\\\ > 1 / I M I (^ V I M I - 2.

< \)\-

Vt > 03 : |||| = 1 < \\<\\ -

^ (0,<-\1))
<() ^ ^
(o^-Hi))

X?
7

ip(x

\) \

<
22.

22.1. Pfc, { \ , . . . , } , ,
< (Pfc)#
: = < ( ) , 1 , . , J : ( P f c ) # ^ P f c , J(ip) :={/j,I ,
...,/}
.
"" (Pfc)# Pfc. Pfc
(Pfc)^\ , (1)* = 1 p , q > l , '1
+ q~l = 1; {l\)* = ; ( ) * ^

91

X { } .
,J : X* P N ,
(22.1)

L p X * , { } : = J ( ( p ) =
= 1
(

=Y ~
=

= 1

=1

(22.2)
=1

J
,
: \\{ip(en) }|| =
22.1. :
1. * = .
2. ( h ) * .
3. , q > 1 '1 + q~l = 1, ( l p ) * = lq.
. X : ,
h 1 { } : :={ 8. }, $
. Lp X*

1|. '.=

Y , ( ) 1 () := \\/
= 1

0 (0) = 0. |||| ^ 1, ( ) = \\ ^ ||<||


, X = & |||| ^ 1, (22.2)

= 1
II y

\\

||< ||.

=1

|| ^ 1 \ ( ( ) \ = | ^ ^ ^ |I \Vn\ ^ ^
=1

=1

=1

. . ||tp|| ^ |,| = ^/!- J, = 1


(22.1),

93

J : C q > 11, "" 1i,

Vy = { Mn } Zi ifiy (

"") :=

=1
J=

=1

[~2~|. V?? |||| = 1, \tp(en)\ = \\ < sup|/in| ^ ||(^|| =>


Dip G H y ^ l U <

, = 52
/=1

/=1

< ; 1| < i m i s u p i / i n i
1
/1=1
. . ||</?|| = \ \ < \ \ -

Vy = { } G ( ^ ) := , (Zi)* J= .

=1

/= 1

|~3~|. - = 5 2
/3(/) := \n\q/
I
1/

/
EW

1/
vra=l

71

^ 0 /3(0) = 0.
<^() = 9
<
=1
=1

IWk<IMI-

, = 52
94

=>v<piq
7

/</2 I \ )

/=1

\)\

/ "} I ___

(1.5)
*-

^ IMMM^IMI^IMv

=1

Vy = { / } lq

= 1

')

:=

XI

G J=

/=1

95

(15)

" 22.1. , q > 1 up l + q 1 = 1. J :


L q [ a ] b] >(Lp[a; 6 ] ) * ,
( J (ip) ) ( x ( - ) ) := J x ( t )ip( t ) dt, L q [ a ] b ]
a
( L p [ a - , b ] ) * , . . ( L p [ a \ b ] ) * = Lq[a\b].
22.2 (
). X .

( X * ,
||||.

X ( ) = ( , ) . || =

. 0 X*.

Lp( )
< ( )

: 0 _L "<=>\/ " - -

. X . X* ^ .
. ( 1 ) * l q ( ( L p [ a ] b ] ) *
Lq[a]b\) J(p) : = { () },
= q = 2 .
22.3 (. ) ( C [ a r , b ] ) .
( [ ] ) *
,

(-) [;} ((-)) = J x(t)d$(t).

, || ? || = \/[].

., , [6, . 6, 6, . 6].
22.4 ( 1[\\).
( (1 [,; ] ) *

V() [;] < { { - ) ) = { ) + J x ' ( t ) d & ( t ) .

., , [6, . 6, 6, . 6]. 23.


23.1 ( ). X
R, : X ( ( + ) < ( ) + { ) )
(. . > 0 ==?(\) = \()) , L Q

X , ( f o L q 2
0 <0()<().
<
(23.1), . .
(

LQ

(23.1)

ip(x) = ipo(x)) ( X <() < ()).

. 1. LQ X, ^ L Q .
L\\=L Q + < > <PQ L\\ <P I ( X 0 + ) := <P Q ( X Q ) + .
, (23.1), . . X Q ( L o V A

( p i ( x + ) = ( ( ) + < ( 0 + ). (23.2)
> 0 (23.2)

ipo(xo/X) + < ( + 0/),

< 0

<(-0/\) - < ( - - 0/).


,

(23.2)

V 2/1,2/2 L 0 <po(2/i) - P i V i - ) < < ( + 2 ) - ^ 2. V y i , 2 L o

<)(+2/1) = <0(2/2+2/1) < p { y 2 + V i e ) < p { e + y 2 ) + p { y i - e ) , ..


sup (<0(2/1)- p ( y i - e ) ) < inf ( ( + 2 ) - ( 0 ( 2 ) ) ,

yi&Lo

V2&L0

.
3. = {(L, <>)},
(23.1), :

(Li,<pi) -< (L2, ip2) :=(Li L2) ( Lx ip2(x) =


<pi(x)).
{(L7,t>7)}

( L , i p ) , L:=1JL7, ( ) = < 7 ( ) L1.


7

(L, <>) . L =

X.
. 1.
.
2. ( - ) X
R, (23.1)

yxeL0 \^()\ < ().


23.1. X .
1. ip # , X < ( ) = < ( ) i i p ( i x ) ,

V
-ip(x) := R e ( i p ( x ) ) , a X r X , R.
f
II
V
V
11
2. !() , i p ( x ) : = i p ( x ) iip(ix) X * .

23.2 ( ).

X , ( - ) X, L Q X,
\()\ < ().

(

LQ

LQ

111
VxeL0

() = ( ) ) ( V X \ ( ) \ < ( ) ) .

. 1. ( ) = 0 ( ) i p 0 ( i x ) .

Lq 0 ( ) < |<()| < |<)( ) | < ( ) .


23.1

3peX^(yxeL0 (() = 0()) ( ()<()).


\()\ <().

(23.3)

( ) : = ( ) ( ) . 23.1 X * . 2.
, X |<()| < ( ) . : :
|<()| > ( ). , ( ) = \ ( ) \ .
:= ~.

\()\ = \((~))\ = \Re(\p(x0)\)\ =

>(0).

(0) = \~\(0) = ( 0 ) .

|1 = 0)| > () = (),


(23.3).
. < X, || || > .
1. (
). (< 0, ||
|| >)*,

3 < * ( ( ) = ( ) ) (I M L y- = 1 1 0*)2. 0 3 < X *


= \\) ( I M I = 1 ) .
3. \ , 2 : ,\ ' 2 3( X* ( (\) <(2).
4. ' \
X, -2, X = \
99

2 , . . .

.
5.
X,

0 3 ip X* (0 Ker < i p { x 0 ) = 1).


. []. ( ) := ^^ ||||. |~2~|. Lo'-= < >
i p o ( X x o ) := |||| ipo X
.

[4j. \ =< e - i , . . . , >, a <fij (52

=:

=1

tpj () X*, j 1 , . < P j ( - ) <Pj () X


.

f"
'2'-= \ 52 :
L j=i
X x = 5 2

(21.1)

n
.7 =

*] (21.1) "
^ = K e r t p j J j=i
,
n
\
+ ( 5 2 f i { x ) e j )
V

.7=1

3=t

'

3=

. 1. X\ :=Xo+ < X Q >


Lp : V . T 6 l 0 V A e P Lpo( + 0) := A.
tpo{x) = 0 2. , <> \.
,
3 { } 3 { } 0 : ( ) (| | + 0| | < 1).
{ + )/ = 0 + / 0 ==> / -0 -
X Q ^ 3. <> X .
24.

.
R.

. , 0 7- ip X& . (
.) N X, inf ( )
^ s w p t p ( N ) (inf ( ) > supp ( N ) ) .
. N, ( ) N .
" 24.1. X , X , N

X , & . :
1 . () . . N.
2 . ( ) . N . { 0 } .
3 . V X () . XQ . N X Q .
" 24.2. .
X . & ,
sup ( ) = sup ( ) , ( ) = inf ( ) .
. =
5 * : = s u p y j ( M ) < supyj(M) =: S.
.\ . -
10.4.1 [ ; 1 ) ,
S * ^ s u p 9 ? ( k o ; i ) ) = sup ((1 - )() + a p ( x i ) ) ^
[0;1)

^ (1 - ) ( ) + a p ( x i ) > < p ( x i ) ,
>1
. . S* ^ sup (.\) = S. X!

101

. -

X, N X ip () N, <> {)
N.
24.1. -
X, 0 ^ . Lp
{}. 0 , . { ' )
. , { ' ) ,
{ ' ) .
< > ( ( ) : = ( ) VA ( ( ) ^ ( 0 ) ,

3 Lp * X Lp(x)

^ { )

( ( ) = ( ( ) = ( ) -
V < ( ) ^ ( ) ^ 1 =>sup<(M) ^ 1.
, { i) < 1, \ , ^
(0;1). , X\ J 10.4
\ [0;1 / / ) . ^ , ( )

^ 1.
24.1 ( ). , N


X, 0 N = 0, Lp
'
N.
. 1. , \ :

- 0 , N i : = N - 0 Mi =
2. iV"i, := \ N\ + -
= ( U ( M i - y + y o ) ) ' ? U ( - + =
7 yeJVi
yeJVi
= U ( M i - y + yo) .

V&N!

3. n N = 0 ==> Ml n JVi = 0 => Ml - JVi ==>

Mi - iVi +0 = = > 0 .
4. 24.1 , =
Mi N\ {0} => Mi N\ =>
N.

" 24.3. , N

X, / 0 N = 0 ,
X * , N.
. 1. 10.4

= , X * : sup ( ) ^ inf p ( N ) = : . 2. ,
.

0 . 3 < 5 > 0 ; ( 0 , 5 ) .

s u p p ( B ( x 0 , 6 ) ) = ( ) + s u p p ( B ( 0 , 6 ) ) ^ sup ( ) ^ = >
s u p < p ( 5 ( 0 , < J ) ) < " - <(0).

( 0 , 8 ) ,
sup \ ( ( 0 , <5))| ^ ( ) .

, N
X, N = 0, ., N ,
X * , N.
"

24.4.

. 1. N (.
6.3) 3<S > 0 : U $ ( M ) N = 0.
U $ ( M ) N ,

X* : sup p ( U s ( M ) ) = sup ( + ( 0 , 6 ) ) < inf p ( N ) .


2. : < ( ) = s u p < ( ) .
: |||| < 8 () > 0
0 + + 5(0, 5) ==> supy?(M) = <^() <
<(0+) ^ sup ?(+5(0, )) ^ inf ^(iV).
103

25.

. X .

. _ Y*** * _________ ( * * ) *
" 25.1. X , X
[] : X *

< * [ ] ( ^ ) : = ) . [] * ||[]||-**
= ||||-.
. X .
[] : X * * .. , X
, [ X ] X * * .
. [X] = X**, X .
" 25.2. X , X = X * * X

.
. X
, X = X**. [22].
25.1. 1. X
, X . 2. .
25.1. > 1, 1 .
. 22.1 Jpq ' (lp)*
> l q , J p q ( p ) : = { ( ) },
( l p ) * lq. ~1 + q~l = 1.
1. , q 1, lq

: < , > : = 5 2

=1
\ f x e l p e l q e l * e l * ( ) = < , J p q ( p ) > ,

( ) = < JqpW,V >

V 1 V y

lq (J~p(x))(y) = (Jpq1(y))(x) =< X,y >.


104

2. i;*. ( J ~ q l ( - ) ) I * , a J q p ( 4 > ( J ~ q l ( - ) ) ) lp.


, [JqP(^(J'1 ()))} = .
3. Jpq (lq) = I p i
J~^(y).

[Jqp (Jpq1 ()))}( JpqHy)) =

( Jpq' ( ) ) ( Jgp ( Jpq ('') ) ) )

=
= < j q p ( 4 > ( j ; q l ( - ) ) ) , y > = (( J; q l ( -)))(v) = ^(Jpq'm.
25.2. .
1. 22.2 J : X * ,
( - ) = ( - , J ( p ) ) .
X* X

J ( p 1 + 2 ) = J ( p i ) + J ( p 2 ) , J(\tp) = A J ( p ) .
2. X* ( p i , p 2 ) *
:=(J(p2),J(pi)).
{<,<)* = (J(p),J(p)) = \\J(p)\\'2 = \\<\\2, . .
X* ,
. , J* : X * *
X * ,
V f e T * (-) = (, 7*())*.
3. , [] = JHT1( J_1(.t)). , Lp
X*

( J- W))) ^) = {4 >, UK \J-\x))) )* = fa J' Hx ))* =


= {J{J~l{x)),J^)) = (x,J(<p)) = <p(x) = -
" 25.3. X , X* .
. j*** ^ 0 Lp X*,
L p ( x ) :=([]). , = .
, ([]) = < ( ) = [](?) = [<>]([]),
X** = [X].
105

25.3. X , \ ,

\ .
. :

J : X * J L p : = L p , . . x i \ ( J ( < p ) ) ( \ ) = < ( i ) ;
F : Xf ^**, 1 1*< X*

:=1(^));

7 : X * * X X**, . . \/
X7() = [], a 7Ti \ X".
, X 7
.
1. , ~ 1 { F { X I * ) )
:
1 : 7_1(^(1)) := ^ \.
5 3 <> X*

<( ) = 1 LP = 0 . J ( i p ) = 0 X I .
-Yi

0 = ! (J(<P)) =

106

= ))(<) = ) = 1,

.
2. , V 1 7Ti(7r_1(F^i))) = 1

V { 3 < X* : J(tp) =
XI xi ^Tr-^Wi)) Xi ==>
-^!)))^!) =

= ))(.Tl) = <P( X 1 )

= ((1)) = (!)) = !(7) = fl(J(^l)). .


25.4. X
, X* .
. | -4= |. X* , X** ,
X** D [X] = X .
25.5. X . X*
, X .
1. 4.2 S* :={ < X* :
||<>|| = 1} ,
X*. 3 {ipn } S* :

{ < } = S*.

2.
X,
|||| = 1 \ { ) \ > 1/2.
3. , { } X.
: < { } > = : X .
5
ipo S*, Ker ipo

\\(~\ =

SUP

\{< - ( ) \ ^ | { < - < ) { ) \ =

\\\\ = 1

= \Vn{xn)\ ^
. . { ( } S**, { ( } . 104
. X . X
, X* .

. :
< , > : = ( ) .

* X* ||*|| = sup | < ,* > | (


IMK1
).
X |||| = sup | < , * > | (2-
| | . *| 1

).
" * X* < *, [] >=< , * > ( []).
| < , * > | ^ |||| ||*|| ( ).
X ==> * X * < , * > < 0,* > (
).
5. "*
*

X < ,* > <


0,* > ( ).
. < , > X *,
,
*() < -,* >
.
< ,* > "" X *,
< , * > ,
,
*.
. X X .
:={ * * : < , * >= 0 }.
. 1. , ( )
1-
, (
* ) . 1- - .
2. X, X*, - X**. "" ^1- =
[ ] (. .
M^ = [ ] ) .
3. , [6],

() =< , X > .
. * X*.
108

: = { < X : * * < , * >= 0 }.

. -'"* " " *,


. . ^* = * .

.'

" 25.4. X , X
* X * .
1. 1- = < > X * .
2. -'"* = -L(< * >) X.
" 25.5. X ,
X * X*.
1. ( ) = .
2. [] = .
3.
4.
5.
6.

J~L[M]

= .
[-LM*] =^[].
[] = MJ- [X].
(-LM*)-L d *.

. 1 => .
* < , * > = 0 ==> 0 X ( M J
-4= . ^ , 5 -
:
< 0, >= 1 K e r , . . MJ ^ ( ) .

[ 2 ] . * [] ^^ V M 0 =< * , [ ] > = < , * > 4 = * -1.


0. (,) ^
* * 0 = < 0 , * > =< * , [ 0 ] > [ 0 ] [ X ] .

5 => |. =>
* M L = < 0 , * >= < * , [ 0 ] > = > [ 0 ]

<'== . ^ , 5
: 1 = < , >=< *, [] > ^, [] M-L-L . X .

1. X, - = [ ] .
2. * X * , ["'"*] = .
3. * X * , (^*)1- = * .
. 3 . ^ -* 5
3 "** : D * < , * > 0.
109

X X Q : * = [ 0 [ . *
* 0 = < * , [ 0 [ > = < 0 , * > = => -'"*. 0
< , [] >=< , > => ^ ^ .
25.1. X
* X* , (^ * .
26.
. X .
, { } X X Q X
,
,
--- ( X Q ),

'

* X"* < ,* > > < X Q ,X* > .

" 26.1. X , { }

X - XQ .
. 1. X

<==> V , X ( , ) ( , ) .
2. <(), X

W(e, \ , . . . , * ) = { X : max | < , % > \ < }

k l ,N

( ), X,
( ( ) s(X) , .
3. X ( ) .
" 26.2. X { }
X.
1. - ^ [,] ^[] ( . . X**).

X*
2. -^ => { , } .
3. ( -> ) (

-> X Q )

==>(0 = ).

4. ( ) ( - ^ ) ^

, ( + ) 0 + 110

26.1 ( ). X .
}
* X I < , * > < , * > ) , Xj*
X* .
,
( 20.2), { [,] }.
" 26.3 ( l p ) . X
{0, , > 1.
}

X Q ).
. X = lp = { Skn } lq ( '1 + q~l
= 1). { * }, * = J_1(e) ( J - 22.1),
(1)* , , .
^ , > , ^ ^ , > .
26.1. 1. > 1, = { 6 } 1. 0, /- 0.
2. { , } -
. 0, /-+ 0.
" 26.4. 1\ .
. [15, 13.13].
" 26.5. [\] ( - ) - ^ ( - ) ,
{||,(-)||} V t [,; ] (t) > ( t ) .
. [4, . 8, 3, 3].
" 26.6. X
* X Q . |||| ^ lim ||||.
. 2
X*, = 1 < X Q , X Q > = = ||||.

|||| ^ | < , > | | < 0, > | = ||0||.


111

26.2. X , 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 .
. \\ ||2 = ( , ) = = ||||2 (0,) - (,0) + ||0||2.
" 26.7.

X, .
26.3. X , X D
. .
. : 3 { }

0 ^ .
1. = R, 24.4
X* < , > > sup < X ,X Q > =: S.

< , XQ > < , XQ > > S.


3 V > < , > > S => ^ .

2. = , 24.4
()* < , > > SUP < > % > = : S .

X*, 23.1: <


, > := < , > < ix,xg > .
< , * 0 > = Re(< , > ) ^ R e ( < X Q , X Q > ) = = < ,
> > S.
26.4 (). X -
^ . { , } ( { , } ) , ^
( { , } ) { }
, 26.3
( { } )
112

" 26.8. X , \
, { , } \. ( <
X, || || >) (
< \, || || >).
. X * * = ( X * ) * , X * *
, X* . , [X]
X**, X* (
), X** [X].
. X . ,
{ * } X* * X Q X*
* |

X ft ^ XQ , \/ X dz . , .^ ^ ^ , XQ ^ .

. 1. X* *
X.
2. X , * X*
.
3. <*(*),
X*

W ( e , 1 , . . . , ) = { * X"* : max | < X k , * > | < t }


kl,n
( ), * X * ,
<*(*) s ( X * ) , .
4. X* * * ( * ) .
5. * ( * ) ( * ) .
" 26.9. X .
0,

, ,

, CYT / ,

* V ^ ________ V * ______ V ^

II I I , "1 II VB | |

V *

V *

________ V --- < ________1 "

. . O/Q . .AJQ ^ '' ----------------------- ^ I K 0 I I iiiii 1 1 ^ n 1 1

( * ). { * }
V \ < , * > < , > ,
2.

\ -

*
X , * .

113

3. X , .

26.5 (). X
, X* D [ * , ] * .
. { } X
{ * } [ *, ].
,
\ / , | < ,* > | ^ ||e-i

* || ^ =: ||*|| + . (26.1)

1. (26.1) ai {* } {* } ,

< e-i,* > > \.


-2 (26.1) 2
{*)} {*}
, < -2, * > -^-2-

,
{ * , ) }

{*,^, }, < , * ( ) > 2.


{* (fc) }.
Vm N {* }

Vm < ,*{) >


).: '

(26.2)

3.

Vm < em, > :=

114

:= < { } > (
) .

0 \\\\ ^ I < x,x*nik) > I = ( X

()
1k

= 1
()

'> I '

nk

()
,

(26.2) I ^

< , (fc)

= 1

> / . < / ^ ^'Q > ,

= 1

. . -
= X.
^

4. , * ( ) - + X q .
, *

()

* , , , (26.2)
Vm < ,*() > =< ,
> ,
. . X . * , X*
5. 26.9.1

^
()

-+.

| | * 1 1 ^ lim ||*{) * 1 1 ^ .

26.6. , X
.
. 1. X . X** = = [X]
. (. 25.3 ) X* .
26.5 [ [ , ]] = = [ [ \ , ] X**.
2. X .
{ , } [ , ]
\ := < { , } >.
25.3 < Xi,|| || >

115

3 { } , 0 X i : - ^ 0
< \, || || >, (. 26.8)

.
. X , X D
. X
.
,
.
26.7 ( ) [18, 21].
,
,
.
., , [3, . 201203].
, 26.6 26.7,
* .
26.8 (). X
. X* D [ * , ] * .
., , [11, . 80].
. [20]
: V

X,
{* * : V \ < , * > 1} *

.
26.9.

, .
., , [4, . 241242].
27.

116

. X, Y
C ( X , Y ) . * Y * < ( - ) , * >
X. * : Y* X*

XV* Y* < ,** >=< ,* >.


* .
" 27.1. X, Y . C ( X , Y ) , * ( Y * , X * ) \\*\\ =
\\\\.
. ||*|| = sup ||**|| =
1
= sup sup | < , ** > | = sup sup | < A x , * > | =
iiriKiNKi
NKiiiriKi
= sup |||| = \ \A\\. ,
IMKi
" 27.2. X, Y . C ( X , Y ) -1 C ( Y , X ) ,

3 (*)-1 (X*,Y*) (*)"1 = ("1)*.


" 27.3. X, Y, Z
, , ( ( , Y ) , X , C ( Y , Z ) .

( + )* = X* +*.
[ ) * = **.
. * * : = ( * ) * .
, C ( X , Y ) , ** C ( X * * , Y * * ) .
" 27.4. X, Y
( X , Y ) . X **[] = [ ] .

117

. 1 Y*

1 0.
118

< *,**[] > = < **, [] > = < ,** > = = < ,
* > = < *, [] > .
27.1. X, Y :
X > Y . :
1. ? ? AXQ .
2. ? ? AXQ .

_________ I <
7 '* i\X)i 7 .'/'<).
. , =
0.
. 0 , 0 .
1:
0 , 3 t 0 > 0 3 { } V || 11 ^ 0.

/-

+.

(27.1)

(27.1).
C { X , Y ) ,
* . -^0 * Y * .
< , * > = < , ** > -^0.
. 1. : X Y
(s(X), s ( K ) )
(s(X), c r ( Y ) )

(a(X),a(Y)).
2. '> ^ ? A X Q
. I

X, { }

to

. 0, 1 =
/-+ 0.

119

. 1.
.
\, 2 .
: 2 II1
: II \ 2,
V.T #i V # 2 ( , . 1 / / ) , = ( , )2.
* , *
2,
(
j* \ | ) ) <
, >, (, ) . <
, > , (, )
. ()* = * , ( ) = .

* .
2.
.
28.

28.1 ()

( ).

X, Y
Im = Y.
A(G) s(Y).

, C ( X , Y )
, . . V G e s ( A )

. Vn := [ 0 , 2 ~ ] , Z+.

1. , A(Vn) 0.

_____
( ) = Y , Y = (J ( - A ( V n ) )
= 1
(. 30), 3 0 3 Y 3 r > 0

( , ) A(Vn) => (0/0, /0) A ( V n ) .


2. , A ( V n ) .
A{Vn+l) - A{Vn+l) = A { V n )
120

A(Vn+l) - A(Vn+l) A(Vn+l) - A(Vn+l) = A(Vn)


B ( 0 , 2 r / m o ) = (/0,/0) - (/0,/0) A ( V n ) .
3. , V z A(Vn) Vn : z Ax A ( V n + i ) .

0 * - A ( V n ) = z - A(Vn) => 8 > 0 5 ( 0 , 5 ) ( z - A ( V n ) ) 0 A ( V n + 1 ) r i ( z - A ( V n ) ) ^ 0 = > 3 x V n : z - Ax A(Vn+1).


4. , A ( V i) A ( V 0 ) .
z i A ( V i ) 3 x i Vi : z2 := Zi - Axi A ( V 2 ) 3 x2 V2 : z3 := 22 -

Ax2 A(V3) =>


3 { zn }, { xn } ; xn Vn zn A(Vn) zn-\-\ zn Axn.
A{Vn) B[0,2~n\\A\|] = B[0,2~n\\A\\],
oo
||zra|| ^ 2_ra||A|| => 52 zn (Y n=1
00

). xn Vn, 52 xn (X = 1
00

).

Xq:= 52 Vo- = 1

, Axq

= 52 = 52 (Zn Z n + l ) =
= 1

= 1

= 52 zn - 52 zn = zi ,\).
7== 1 Ti2

5. . 2 . 4 3 8 0 > 0 : 5(0, 8 0 ) A ( V 0 ) .
6. G s ( X ) , G 0 := 0 A ( G ) .
3 77, : 0 + - VQ G ==> + - A(V0) A(G) ==>

( , So/n) A ( G ) .
28.2 () ( ).
X, Y , C ( X , Y ) ,
A-1 ( Y , X ) .
. G s { X ) ( _ 1 ) _ 1 ( ) = A ( G ) s ( Y ) .
28.1 ( X ) .

Y , Y* \ Y* X =
G r ( p ) : = { ( , ( ) ) : Y} \\( , < ())\\ : =\\\\ +
121

) I- : X ^Y ( , ( ) ) : = .
C(X,Y), ~ 1 { ) = ( , ( ) ) .
28.2 ( Y ) .
: [0; 1] ^ [0; 1] t
( A x ( - ) ) ( t ) : = J ( ) dr. X = [0;1], a Y := ( )
[0;1]. C ( X , Y ) . ( - ) = ( - ) , ( - )
y'(t) = x ( t ) . X Y
( A ~ 1 y ( - ) ) ( t ) = y ' ( t ) . .
. X, Y .
: D ( A ) X Y ,

{ } D { A ) ==> 0 D { A ) 0 = " 28.1. X, Y .


: D ( A ) - Y G r ( A ) X Y.
" 28.2. X, Y .
1. {, Y )
= .
2 . ( , Y ) K e r = { 0 } '1 .
28.3 () ( ). X, Y
. : X Y .
C(X,Y).
. X Y , a
G r ( A ) , G r ( A )
( X Y ) .
\ : G r ( A ) X ,
\(, ) : = ( ).
.
||(, )|| = |||| ^ |||| + |||| = ||(,)||, pr 1
. , 2
. ,
, \1 C ( X , G r ( A ) ) .
= '2{[\1()).
. :
D ( A ) C I X > Y , X

Y, X.
122

. : D ( A ) X Y
,
, X

D(A) = X.
. X , \ 2
, X = \ 2. P r X l : X
^ X i , P r X l { x \ + 2 ) ' - = \ { \ , '2 2 ) ,
\

2.
" 28.3. X , \ 2
, X = \ 2 . P r X l
.
.

J : Xi 2 - X,
J ( x 1,^2) ' - = X i + 2 - J
\ 2 X. J-1 ( X , X i
2 ) P r X l = pr\(J~l) .
28.1 ( ). X, Y, Z ,
, C ( X , Y ) , C ( X , Z ) , I m = Y
. , C ( Y , Z ) , = .
. :

:=(~1({})).
1. , ( ) = Y , = \
= 2 , { 1 2 ) = 0 => ( 1 2 ) = 0, 1 =
22. VG s ( Z ) C ~ l ( G ) = A ( B ~ l ( G ) ) B ~ l ( G ) s ( X )
, a A ( B ~ l ( G ) ) s ( K )
.
. Z = , ,
, : Im .
,
Y o : = I m , A ,
Y.
123

28.4. X, Y ,
(, Y).
1. (1,)1- = * .
2. ( 1 , * ) = .
3. ^ - ( * ) = .
4. ( )1- * .
5. . X, Y ,, ( ) = * .
6. , X, Y , , ,
( )1- = Im, * , , Im, * .
. []. * ( ) 1 V Im, < , * >= 0 X < , * >=< , *

* >= 0 ^^ * * . - ( * ) =

(())

[ 25.4
25.5.1] = .

Jj. x* I m A * ^ * Y * : x * = A*y*
Ker A < x,x* >=< x,A*y* >=< Ax,y* >=< 0 ,y*
> = x * ( K e r )-1. 25.4.1 ( K e r A)1-
.
5_|. L m A * = [ 25.4.1 ] = ( ( I m A * ) ) = [
2 25.5] = ( [ ( I m A * ) ] ) = ( [ K e r A ] ) = =
[ 25.5.2] = ( K e r A)-1-.
6_ . ( K e r A ) , K e r g .
( X, Y, ,
* ) * Y* : = *0 .

X < , >= ( ) = ( ) = < , j/g >=< , * > .


= * I m A * .
. X, Y

(, Y).
1. I m A * = X* => K e r = { 0 } .
2. I m A = Y ==> K e r A * = { 0 } .
. X, Y .
: D ( A ) - Y
, A-1 A-1 C { Y , X ) .
124

" 28.4. X, Y . : D ( A ) C l ^ Y
Lm = Y 3 > 0 V D() \ \\ | ^ | || |. ||
-11| ^ -1.
. X, Y :
D ( A ) - Y .

D ( A ) |||| ^ -|||| ^^
"1 ( < ImA, || || > , ) .
" 28.5. X , Y

, ( X , Y )
> X |||| ^ - ||||.

125

, .
. Im, A D { } .
3 { } X : = \\ - \\ ^ ^ \\ ~ \ \ / ^ - { }
=>30 X : > = = .
29.

. X .
{ } X, { * } X*
( < { } , { * } ),

< , ^ > $/3-

29.1. X .
1 . , { 0 } X , { * } X * ,,

, , .
2 . , { 1 , . . . , , } X , , {
\ , . . . , * } X * { , \ , . . . , } .
3 . , { ^ , . . . , * } X * , , { , \ , . . . , } X { \ , . . . , * } .
. [2]. x i ^ X := < 2 , , > ,
5 \ X* : < ,\, \ >= 1,
< 2, \ >= 0 , . . . , < , \ >= 0 .
3 . 21.2.4.
29.1. X
V

, , { , } . ||.r||i:=sup 52

fc
=l

= 5 2 ^kek , X, k=i
< X, || ||i > .

126

fc=i

. P v [ 52 ^kek) '= 52 ^kek1. VI/

NV.T

k= l

\\Pvx\\ ^ ||. ||i ==>


t

|||| = lim \\Pvx\\^ ||||1 A V/x,z/ N ||(P,t - Pv)x\\ ^ 2||.r||i.

2. { xn } 11 111.

> 2 \Xn<v - Xm<v\ = || ( P v - P v _ i ) ( x n - xm)\\ ^ 2\ \xn - xm ||i, TO {


Xn,v } v. 3 { 0,, } Vz/ N
>
3. , > N ( s ) := N v
N

V+t-l
V+t-l
52 'V/./. < /, 52 ^, = \\{Pv+n - Pv+l) { X n
k=v+l
k=v+l

- )|| ^

< 2||(-)||1 <2,



V/j,I/gN Vn >
X(t)
(29.1)
< 2t.

4. (29.1) N V n > X(t)

V+l-l
52 ^-
k=v+l

< 2 +

V+l-l
52 -efc
k=v+l

n -

/, / , 52 ^& -------- -

52 ^, || ||. fc=l

127

5. (29.1) Vz/ NV??, > N(e)


V

II{ - 0)|| = V/,' /, - ,,./ /, ^ 2, =1 fc=l


V? > N(e) || 01 = sup||PI/(a;n )|| ^ 2t, . .

11 111
. 11 11 11
111 , *,
0

()Afeefe,e*) = A,
fc=i

(29.2)

.
. I : < X, \ \ 11 \ > > < X, \ \ 11 >
X X. ||/|| = = |||| ^ 11
I < X, || ||i >
< X, || || >.
1~1 , . .
> OVx X ||||1 = ||/_1||1 < ||||.
| < , .* > | = |\( - Pn-i)x\| ^ 2||.r||i ^ 2||||.
29.2. X - {}.
{ * } X*, * (29.2),
{ * } q := < { .* } >.

X

Xq 0* = Y^ < ek, 0 > 4- fc=l

. 1. := < > ek ^ -
fc=i
{ } , \/ X *, - {
\\\\ } .
2. V.T e XV * <E X*

/ ^^ ^ ^ Xj , ^^ *
k= 1

T. e. P*x* = 52 < e k,x* > e*kfc=i


.
128

KaK

X} Py^X ^^i

11^*11 = 11 Pn 111 TO { ||P,*|| }

3. XI :={x* X* : {P*x* } }. Xj* -


Vfc N X j \
XV * X* < , ** >=< ,* > < , * >, * * >*.

:* *\

< ,\ > -1 ^ < , * > *,

= 1 fc=l
. . { * } ^.
4. , Xj* X*.
XI *^*01
- {**0\\ < ||*( " - +
+

? \\ + ii*( ~

) ^ ^ * || +

+ ||-,** -/**||, . . { * X Q } , ,
-

5. N * {, 0* {. V \ { *\^\
{*\} X*, \ Xq.
. X {},
{ * } , { * } - X*.
. : X q X * .
5
* X * * : *0*

0*

*0*.

X : * = [].
, N X q, 0 =<
|.,* >=< *, [] >=< ,* >.

= 52 < x 0i e *k > = 0, . . " = 0, fc=i


*.
30.

: D(A) ^ , X
X. ,

) = .

. X R :
D(A) Cl^I .
X

X , -

129

X, :

X := X + , (xi + ) + (2 + 2) :=(i + 2 ) + i(yi + 2 ) ,


( + i f i ) ( x + ) :=( - /) + ( + /),
|| + \\ := sup 11 cos < + sin Lp\\

>

( , X ,

( x i + \,2 + 2 ) :=( 2 ) + (yi,y 2 ) + i (yi , x 2 ) - i{xi,y 2 )


, ),

D { A ) : = D { A ) + i D { A ) ( + ) := + .

X
() .

()

. X :
D(A) (Z. X ^ X .
1. ,
( - /)"1 ( - /)"1 { ) .
2.
( ) .
3. ( ( ) : = \ { ) .
4. ,
\ X , \ 0 \ = .
,
X.
5. R A ' ()^(),
R A ( X ) \ = { /)-1, .
" 30.1. X

R, : D { A ) C l ^ I u .
1.

.
130

2. ( - /)"1 { ) ^ ( - /)"1 { ) .
" 30.2.
, ( ) .
.
(
) ( T d { A ) ( ()).

() := (() \ <JD{ A ) .
. () :
() , ( ) : = { () \ () : I m ( X I ) = X }
( ) : = { X ( ) \ ( ) : I m ( X I )
X } [8].
30.1. { C k ) ^ a { A ) = a d { A ) .
30.2. ([0; 1]) ( A x ( ) ) ( t ) : = t x ( t ) . ^ [0; 1] (. X 1 ) =
[0; 1], x ( t ) = y ( t ) / ( t X )
INOII^IIyOII-ma^lt-AI"1,
. . { ) . [ 0 ; 1 ] , ( 1 ) =
[0; 1] (-) = 1, < ( ) .
= : = 0. ,
() = <() = [0; 1].
" 30.3. ( ) 0, .
30.1. X . ,

) |||| < 1. (I - ) ~ 1 ) ,

=0
. ||A"|| ^ ||||, 52 ||,||

=0

52
=0

131

____

52 II-<4 II lim \/||Ara|| < 1,


=0

(I ) .
30.1. X :
D(A) X ^ . ( ) , (()

VA0 ( ) R A ( X ) = 5 2 ( - X 0 ) N R A ( X 0 ) N + 1
=0

. { ) .

X I = ( 0/) - ( - )/ = { - X 0/)(/- ( - X 0 ) R A ( X 0 ) ) .
||( )()|| < 1 30.1 / ( X
X O ) R A { X O ) ,

RA() = (/ - ( - XO)RA(XO)T1RA(XO) =
= ](-,4(+1. .
=0

* * (;,*):= < R a( \ ) X , X * > (30.1)


( ) .
" 30.4. X .
) || > Tim \/||'||, { ) , . .
sup |cr(A)| ^ Tim

< 11-411-

, R a { ) - ] ~~1.
=0

. X I = ( I _1). . X

. ) , * X* lim
(;,*) = 0,
(;,*) (30.1).

>

" 30.5. X .
) , ( ) .
132

. ( ) = 0, X * X*
(;,*), (30.1),
30.4 .
(;,*) = 0, . . R A { ) = 0, .
30.1. , )
(-) :=lim -\/||'||.
. ' ( )
, max || = ( ) (. [6, . 596 -()
597]).
31. ( )

. X, Y .
1. : X Y , VM X

( => ( ) ).
2.

.
. 1.
, ""
" " .
2. : X >Y ([0,1]).
.
X Y c o m p ( X , Y ) .
" 31.1. X, Y .
1. d i m ( X ) < + , c o m p ( X , Y ) = C ( X , Y ) .
2. ( X , Y ) d i m ( I m A ) < +, (, Y ) .
.
, d i m ( I m A ) < +.

(X,Y)

31.1. J : 1 [,; \ : >[(,\ (. .


( - ) 1[,\ ,
133

[ , } ) , ,
, | ) 11 (jl [] = i | '(') i \[] + + ||(-)||[;] ^ !>
: (||(')||[;] ^ 1) ( J { B [ 0,1])
) ( 1 1 " ) 1 1 ^ 1) ( (8,) ^ 511'11 ^ 8, .
. J ( B [ 0,1]) ).

134

31.2. X
, .
31.1. (,) ( [ ; } 2 ) .

,([; \),

(Ax(-))(t):= J K(t,s)x(s)ds,

.
. ( - ) = ( - ) ,

\ y ( t ) | = f K,(t, s ) x ( s ) d s

\y(ti)-y(t2)\ = f(/C(t1}s) K.(t2,s))x(s)d,s

<

^ \\(-)\ - t^lC^a^}2) (b - a ) .
/ [,; ]2, /
(]!, []2) 0.
<5>+0
sup ||(-)|| < ||/(-,-)|| ( [ )
IW-)IKi

--)

sup |w(<5; (-), [a,; b])| ^ u(S; /, [; ]2) (b ).


1-)11
([0,1]) 6.9 .
31.2. = { ( t , s ) : t [a,; b] As G [ a ; t ] } /(-,
) ( ) . ,

(Ax(-))(t) := J K(t,s)x(s)ds,
. 132

. ( - ) = ( - ) ,

\y(t)\ = f K,(t, s ) x ( s ) d s <

\y{ti) -

1(') ' ll^(')


' ) l l c ( A ) ' ( b ,)

11^2

+
f /C(ti, s ) x ( s ) d s
tn

tn
f (K(ti,s) -K(t2,s))x(s)ds

. 1. /(-, -),
31.1,

.
2. 31.2 -

.
" 31.2. X, Y .
c o r n p C ( X , Y ) ,
( ( ) , s ( Y ) ) , . . - > 0 ) .
, \ ? 0
. *- C ( X , Y ) ,
27.1 ^Axq. , /-> A X Q .

30 > 0 3 { ) } : || , - 0|| ^ to { (1)} , Y 3 { x (2)}

(2)

. , = A X Q ,

(31.1).

136

(31.1)

31.3. X (

, ).

(, Y) <^==>(

---
0 :
137

^).

. | -4= |. { } ( [ 0,1]). 3 { }
[0,1] : = . 26.6 - [0,1]
. - [0,1]
3 { } : ==> = ~^ = 0.
. X ,

X , , (, Y ) . ( )
.
" 31.3. X, Y .

, ( c o r n p C ( X , Y ) ,
V , + , , Y ) .

31.4. X , Y
, { } cornp(X, Y) .

cornpC(X,Y),
.
.
comp{X,Y)
C ( X , Y ) .

. , ( [ 0 , 1]) - .
{ } [ 0,1] = .
1. {\ } , 3{ }

{ } ,
{ \ (1)} . { 2 } ' 3 {
(2) }
{ (1) } , { 2 (2) } .

, { () }
, { (,) } -

" I:

" l:

{ (- } { (.) } .
2. , < ) = A Q X ( ) .

I I ( ) - m|| ^ ||0 ( ) - ( ) I I + I I ( ) -
) || +
ni ni
+ 1 1 ( D - A qx id 11 ^ 211 - \\ + I I ( )

138

(I) 11.

> { }

{ (,)}.

" I:
\\ () - (i)|| - 0 0 < || { ) - || <

1 ,1>

fc,z

" 31.4. X, Y, Z, W

, coriip(X,Y), ( W , X ) ( Y , Z ) .
comp(W, Y) , Z ) .
. X
, a Y .
1 . c o m p ( X , Y ) = {0}, ~2 .
2 . X ) , 0 { ) .
31.1.

= (0,1,2/2, ... ,/,.. .).


, = {0}.
31.5 (). X, Y
{, Y).
A G ( , Y) -<==> * c o m p C ( Y * , X * ) .
. | => |. {* } * [0,1]
,Ln "

**
'

__________________________

1. * * '= ([0,1])
Y . - (.
39), {* } C ( Y Q ) .

V ) \ = I < , * > I < \ \\ < 11^11


{ } .

V 2/ 2/2 \ ( 1 ) - \ = I < \ - 2 , > I < \\1~2\\=>


135

{ } .
2. { * } C ( Y Q )
{* }.

0 ( , ) = max\*() - *1()\ = max | < , y*fc - *{ > \ ^


^ sup I < ,*)! -* > I = sup I < , *(* -* ) > I = (-[]) ||.|1
II
=

< <

< < I I ______ I I *

II ~ II

iFrifc ~~ I I

*II

, , {* }

X*.
| -4= |. * cornp(Y*, X * ) .
** * * , Y * * ) ==> **([-[0,1]]) = = [
27.4] = [(13-[0,1])] Y * * . , [1]
Y * * , Y \ Y.
{ } Y i =>3{[yJ}, Y * * { [ ] }
Y * * = > { }
Y = > { } Y . , ( [ 0 , 1])
Y .
31.6. X ,
( ) , 4 6 > 0 ^ d i m ( K e r ( X I ) ) < +.
||>

. :
3 { } 3 { } X || ^ 6, =

{ } .
(. 64)
{ } ,

:= < x i , . . . , >=< e - i , . . . , > ( , X n _ i ) = 1.


= \\ + ... + , = + xn-i, xn-i X_i.
\ \\\ an-iXn-ixn-i .) = --- -------------- h

----------------------- b = i + ,
Afi
Afi
An xn-i Xn-i. >

\\{/) (/\)\\ = \\

+ xn~i ,Tm_i|| ^

^ ( , X n _ i ) = 1.
{ ( / ) } , { /\ } .

140

. X , ( ) .

1.
X, || ^ 8 > > 0,
.
2.
, (
) .
31.7. X , { )
X 0 , I m ( X I ) , . .
X.
. 1. ( X I )
, 4
\ : X = { X I ) \.
, \ . S

:=( XI)

Xi

XI \. S { \ , ) I m S = I m

(- XI).
2. , :=inf{ ||5|| : \ |||| = 1 } > 0.
:
3 { } Xi : | \ 11 = 1 Sxn = > 0.

, 3 { } 3 $ X : ^ X Q .
^ \. , ( ) ( ; ) =
( ; ) , A X Q =
Sx = 0=> = 0. || = || ||0||, . . ||0|| = || 0,
X Q = 0.
3. 28.5.
31.8. X , ( ) ,

( ) X 0 . a d ( A ) .
. 0 ^ ad(A).
\ := ( X I )
X.
141

1. \ = X, XI
X .
( /)-1 ( ) , . . ( ) .
2. , \ X .
: \ X.
:=1( X 1). - XI Xn+i
Xn+i .

( i) \, \
, \
XI \ 31.7. -2
\ , ,
X. , ,
X.
,
||,|| = 1 (,+\) ^ 1/2. { }
( 1) +\. >

|| - || = ||( - X I ) - { - 1) + - \\ ^
^ |A|p(em,Xm+1) ^ ||/2,
. . { } .
. X
{ X ) , ( ) = a d ( A ) U {0}.

142

" 31.5. X , ( X)

\ 0,
K e r ( - X I ) = {0} l m ( - X I ) = X .
. | => |. K e r ( X I ) = {0},
(), ( /)-1 { ) ( X I ) = = X.
l m ( - X I ) = X , {0} = X 1 - = ( l m ( -

X I ) ) 1 - = [ 28.4.1] = = K e r ( - X I ) * =
Ker (* - XI),
^ ( * ) . * ( X * ) , ( * ) .
lm (* - X I ) = X *
{0} = * = (1 (* - X I ) ) = [ 28.4.2] =

= Ker (-XI).
. 31.5 , (),
X 0, : = X I
: =
( ) X,
= 0
.
32. ,
. . , .
,
.
X ( ) .
:

( 1 ) = + . ( 1 * ) * = ** + * . (1) z = Az.
(1*) z* =
32.1 ( ).
:
1. ( 1 ) , . . I m ( I ) = X .
2. (1) , . .
Ker(I-A) = {0}.

3. ( 1 * ) * , . . I m ( I * ) = X * .
4. (1*) , .. .

Ker (I - *) = {0}.
. 1. (1) <^=>(2) (3) <^=>(4)
31.5.
2. (3) ==>(1) 28.4.1.
31.7 I m ( I ) , (1)
=>(3) 28.4.6.
. , , 1 { ) 1 { * ) .
32.2 ( ). (1) (1*)

, . .
dim(Ker (I )) = dvm(Ker (I *)).
. K e r ( I )
K e r ( I * ) (. 31.6).
1. { e - i , . . . , }
K e r ( I ) , { \ , . . . , * } K e r ( I
* ) , {<?[,...,<=*} {ei,...,em} { e- i , . . . , } {
\ , . . . , * } , . . < e-k, e-i >= 1 < , 7* >= 6 .
, < .

:=^2 < x , e l > : = + .


= 1
, ,
.
2. (I A ). ( I A ) = .
j < ( I - ) 0, * >=< 0, (/ - * ) * >=< 0,0 >=

< (/ - )0, * >=< 0, * >= < 0 , * > < , * > =


k= 1
= < 0, * >,
Vj < < , ] >= 0.

(32.1)

= 0. , xq (IA),

xq = . = < ,* > = 0,
fc=i
144

(32 .1)

. . = 0. ,

( I ) = {0}.

(32.2)

3. (I - ) * = ((/ ) ) * = ( I - * ) - 1*,
V i e X < , ( I - ) * * >=< , ( I - * ) * - ** > = ,
, ^^

~* . , ~ * ^ > _

< , > < , > = 0.

fc=i
(/
= 0, . . * K e r ( I *),
(32.2).
4. , d v m ( K e r ( I )) ^ d v m ( K e r ( I * ) ) ,
ilimi < (I - * ) ) ^ ilimi < (I - * * ) ) .
d i m ( K e r ( I A * * ) ) ^ d i m ( K e r ( I A ) )
27.4, d v m ( K e r ( I )) = d i m ( K e r ( I
*)).
32.3 ( ).
1. (1) ,
, (1*) z*
< , z* >= 0, . . I m ( I - ) = ( K e r ( I -

*)).
2. (1*) * ,
, (1)
z < z , y * > = 0, . . I m ( I - * ) =
( (I -)^.
. 31.7
(I ) I m ( I * ) ,
28.4.3,
28.4.6.
33.

145

" 33.1. X , \

.
||/:=inf{||a;|| : := + Xi}

/\.
. < /\,\\ ||/ > -
X \.
" 33.2. X , \
, /\ .
. 7 : X /\
, . . 7():= = + \. 7(-) ,
, ||7()||/ ^ ||||.
{} X/\.
3 { } ; \\ - xnk+1\\f < 2 ~ . /\
3 { } X : ( ) = - + 1 A ||.|| < 2~ =>

0 := 52 . fc=i

( ) = 5 2 ( ) = lim 5 2 ( - + 1 ) = lim ( 1 - + 1 ) ,
= 1

- k=l

{ } => { } .

^ -

" 33.3. X , X D
\ . dim (/\) = N, 0 :
dim{0) = X = 0 .
. < \,..., >= X / X \. =
= < e-i,..., >, V 1, .
" 33.4. X, Y .

( X , Y ) dim(Y/ImA) < , .
. 1. 33.3 3Yi : := dim{Yi) =

dim{Y/ImA) : Y = @ I m A .
146

Y\ , Y\ .
2. : ( X / K e r A ) > Y ,
( 7 ( ) ) = , : X X/
. (7r(.Ti) =
T T ( X 2 ) ^ A ( X I - 2 ) = 0), I m = I m A ||!|| ^ \\\\. ,
33.2 X/Ker .
3. : ( X / K e r ) Y\ -^Y,
( , \ ) = +
,
.
I m A = ( 1 {0}) .
. C ( X , Y ) , Y/Im

: CokerA.
" 33.5. X , 2
, X = \ 2 d i m ( X i ) = . dimiX^-) =

.
. < \ , . . . , >= \.
5 1 , * X* :

< * >= 1 * ( X 2 U < { }|" \ {ej >).


* ( 2 ) , * := < , * > * ( ^ .
= 1
V X 3 ! \ \, 2 2 : = \ + 2 =>

< \ + 2 , * > = < X I , * > = < 52 / /,../' >=


fc=i

fc=l

= 1

= < , * > - 52 < , * > < ., * > ) = ,

. . * = 0. * = 52 < ,* > *.
=1
147

33.1. X , Y .

C ( X , Y ) , d i m ( K e r ) = , a dvm(Coker ) = , d i m ( K e r * ) =
, a dvm(Coker * ) = ?.
. 1. dvm(Coker ) = ,
3 3 3

33.4 1 ' ==> '

Y = Y i I m d / , / / ( ) ) ) = ^43-5 (/m a)-L ^


28.4 ( I m A ) 1 - = K e r * = d i m ( K e r * ) = .
2. I m A , 28.4 I m A *
( K e r )1- = I m A * .
{e-i,... , } Ker , , \,..., * }
.

* X* Ker < 52 / /.'' - 52 < ,* > * >= 0,

fc=l
= 1
. . * - < -,* > * ( ) 1 - = ImA* ==>
= 1
( * ) < ( \ ) , . . . , ( * ) >, 7(-) X* X*/ I m A * , . . { ( \ ) , . . . , 7(*) }

*.
. 1. X, .
C ( X , Y ) (
), .
2.

i n d ( A ) : = di:m(Ker ) dvm(Coker ) .

(33.1)

3. ,
.
" 33.6. X, Y .
( , Y ) , * .
ind,(A*) = -ind(A).
, 33.1.
" 33.7. X, Y

(, Y).

148

I m A , dvm(CokerA) < dvm(Ker * ) < .


d i m ( C o k e r A ) = dvm(Ker * ) .
33.1. A
.

C ( X , Y ) '1 C ( Y , X ) ,

33.2. X, Y
c o m p C ( X , Y ) , ( I ) .
" 33.8. X, Y, Z ,

C ( X , Y ) , C ( Y , Z ) , .
ind(BA) = ind(A) + ind(B).
" 33.9. X, Y , { ,

Y ) , cornp(Y, Z) , + .
( + ) = ind(A).
33.2. X , Y { ,
Y ) .
= Y
, ** = 0 ,
** = * * X*
, = 0 .
=
Y, ,
** = 0 < , * >=0.
** = *
* X * , ,
= 0
< ,* >= 0.
. 1. dim(Ker ) ,
, =
.
2. dim(Coker ) ,
, = .

149

33.3 (. . ) ( - , .
[14, 21.5]). X , Y

( X , Y ) . , = +
, ( X , Y ) , c o r n p ( X , Y ) .
. [5], [16], [9, 17] ,
, [8] [14].
34.

, *
.
34.1 { 2).

1 . ( ) * = \ * , ** = .
2 . ( I m A ) 1 - = K e r A * , ( K e r )1- = I m A * .
" 34.2 ( ) ,

= Ker Im * = Ker * 1 .
. , ( ) , * = , . . , ( , ) = ( , ) .
34.1 ( ) * = ,
1. (,) .
2. ( ) .

. 2 . = + i/ /3/0.
1. , K e r ( X I ) = { 0 } .
( 1 ) = 0, =

||0||2 = (, ) = ( 0 , 0 ) = ( 0 , 0 ) = ( 0 , 0 ) = ||0||2.
= 0.
2. , Im ( X I ) .
150

| | ( - /)||2 = ( ( - 1 ) , ( - 1 ) ) =
= ||(A- al)x||2 + \\i/3x\|2 - ( ( A - a l ) x , i/3x) - (i/3x, (A- a l ) x ) =
= \\(A - al)x\\2 + \\i/3x\\2 ^/32\\x\\2.
, Vx H 11(A XI)x\\ ^ \f3\ ||||, 28.5 ( X I ) . 3. ^ R,
= { - X I ) I m { * - X I ) * = {0} I m { - X I ) ,
. . I m ( X I ) = . , ( X I )
.
(. 117) { /)-1 ( ) , . . ( ) .

. ( ) , * = , \ = Aiei, 2 =
= '2-2 \ - \ _L -2 34.2 (
). { ) * = , |||| =
sup \(,)\. IMKi
. 1. -

: = sup \ ( , ) \ ^ sup (|||| ||||) ^ \\\\.


IMK1

2. 0,

\(,)\ = || ||2|( /|| ) , /||)| < ||23. > 0.


4||||2 =
=

(( + ~1),+~1)-((-~1),-~1) |

< || + _1||2 + :|| _1||2 = 2(2||||2 + "2||'||2).


0,
= ||||/|||| 4|||| ||||. ||||2 ^ ||||||||, . . ||Ar|| ^ ||||, ^ .
2

151

. ( 2 ) , ||||2 = \ \*\\.
. * ,(\) ,
||||2 = sup \(,)\= sup \(*,)\. IMKi
1
34.3 (
). ( ) * = ,

( = 0

||

= \\\\), . . |||| = max\ad(A)\.

. 1. = 0 .
2. 0.
\\\\= sup \(,)\. IMKi
3 { } [ 0,1] : \ ( 1 ) | *
[0,1]
( 26.6),

3 { } 0 [ 0,1] :

(34.1)

, .
( , ) - > ( 0 , 0 ) =: 6 R, 0 0
\\\\.

||

| | | | = .
3. , = -
2

^ \\ - \\2 =

||A

t J |

||.

t J |

2(,) ^

^ 2||||2 2 ( , ) > 0 ,
0. (34.1) , ,
=
. ( ) * = , 0 4 ( A ) 0.

152

34.1. (2(0; 1)),

( A x ( - ) ) ( t ) : = f ( ) dr.

. 1. 31.1 ,
.
2. C(L2(0; 1)), ( A x ( - ) ) ( t ) : = t

x ( t ) ,
.
34.4 ( ) (
-

).
( ) , -

* = , { } -
.
. 1. = 0 .
0.
2.
3 Ai 3 e-i : |Ai| = |||| ||ei|| = 1 \ = Aieb
\ := < \ >_L.

1 ( , \) = ( , Ae-i) = (, \\ei) = 0.
(\) \, \ : =

1
\
,
\.
2 2 ; |2| = ||Ai|| ||2|| = 1 2 = Aie2 = 22.

2 := < ei,e2 >_L. A\(H2) 2,


=
, . .

2 := \ 1
150

3.
= 0, = = < \ , . . . , >
{ e - i , . . . , e - n } ^,
.
4. 0, |Ara-|_i| ^ |,|
31.6 ||>0. ^ : = { } . ,
( , ) = ( , ) = 0. ( ) -
|| || ^ |,| 0, . . =0.

= - .
{}
, .
.

= ^\-,
=1

(34.2)

{ } , ,
<
>, { }
, { } .
(34.2)

.
, , ,

: = f X d E \ , \

( ., ., [7, .
7, 5] [12, . 4, 2, . 11]).
35.


154

x(t) = J K(t, s)x(s) ds + y(t)

(35.1)

x ( t ) = J tC(t, s ) x ( s ) d s + y ( t ) .
a

(35.2)

.

C[ar,b] ( 31.1 31.2).
35.1. (,) L 2 { { a ; b ) 2 ) .

1 . Var(-) L 2 ( a ; b )
L2(a;b).

( A x ( - ) ) ( t ) : = J JC(t, s ) x ( s )

ds

2 . ||A||2 ^ J J \ K.(t, s)\2 dsdt = ll^ll!2((a;5) 2 ) . .

3. A e cornp(L2(a;b)).
. [].

f f\/C(t,s)\2dsdt = f dt J \ K ( t , s)|2 d s = J d s J \ K ( t , s ) \ 2 d t
aa
aa
aa
, , t [a,; b] lC(t, ) L 2 ( a ] b ) . -

/C(t, - ) ( - ) 2 ( , ; ) ( A x ( - ) ) ( t ) : = f K,(t, s ) x ( s ) d s
-

t.

( 1.1)

155

\(Ax(-))(t)\'2

2
< / \lC(t, s)| ds J>(s)|2ds <

^ 11a?112 f |/C(t, s)|2 ds, |(Ar(-))(t)|2


a.

[g; b], . e. Ax(-) 2(0; 6).


L2{a~,b) :
2
2
J KL(t, s)x(s) ds dt < J\\x\\' dt j \}C(t, s)| ds =

||(-)||2 = /

= IMI2/ / |AC(t, s)|2 ds dt.


3 . 1. { e n (-) } 2(0,; b).
{ e n (t)e m (s) } L2((a,;6)2).
00

lC(t, s) = 52 oc n<m en{t)e m {s).


n,m= 1 N
2. / := 52 c ^n,m&n{t)&m{s), a A N
n,m= 1
oo
K,N. Vx(-) = 52 fin&n{-)
n= 1
bfN

\ / 00

{A N x{-)){t) = / 52 a n , m e n (t)e m (s) ( 52 Pme m (s) J ds = a \ra,m=l


J \m=l

= I ( E e-n(t)( 52 tt n ,mem())] ( 52 Pme m (s) \ ds =


.

\ra=l

' J \m=l
N

,N

52 52
N

= E e n(t)[ 52
n=1

i 52 An^m(') )

< e -i (- ), , ( -) >,

'
. e. A N .
3. / ||->((;)2) ~
>0, 31.4

cornp(L2(a;b)).
. /(-, )
L2((a,;6)2) .
156

. = { ( t , s ) :
/(, ) L2(A2). /(-,
: /C(t, s) = /C(t, s)
( t , s ) . (-, ) L 2 ( ( a ; b ) 2 )

t (,; b ) s (0; t ) }
), (,; )2
(t, s) /C(t, s) = 0

_
t
\/(-) L 2 ( a , ; 6 ) / lC(t, s ) x ( s ) ds = f /C(t, s ) x ( s ) ds.
a
a

.
" 35.1. 1? (L2(a,;6))
l C ( t , s ) , *
l C * ( t , s ) = l C ( s , t ) .
" 35.2. \, 2 (L2(a, ; 6 ) )
]\(t,s) /C2(t,s) ,
2 \
]C(t,s) = f /C2(t, C)^-i(C) s)
a.

ll^llL2((a;b)2) ^ ll^l||L2((a;b)2) ' 11 1 |i2 ((a;6)2)


.
, ,
, .
, [; b],
.
35.2. (
L 2 ( ( a , ; 6 ) 2 ) , ,
, ),
, . . || || < 1.
. 1. ( t , s ) (a,; )2

\JC(t.,s)\ < ( A x ( - ) ) ( t ) = J J C ( t , s ) x ( s ) d s .

157

( A 2 x ( - ) ) ( t ) = J l C ( t , s ) ( f l C ( s , Z M O d A d s =
a.

\a.

t ft \ = f I f / C ( t , s ) / C ( s , ) d s , v
J
t
2 K , 2 ( t , ) = f )C(t, s)/C(s, ) ds.
S
\lC2{t,0\ < 2 - { t - 0 - t
f K,2(t, s)/C(s,) ds A3

, ,

2. 35.1 ( 2 ( ] ) )
^ <n^(v)iic(A) <

(35.3) ( - )'

A(n(:1;)

3 [;] Vt [; ]
158

>

t
Kn (b - a)n
(n - 1 ) !

(35.3)

'

K n ( b _ ci)n

II A II ^ ^ ----- - -------- 0.
(n 1)! ra>oo

. -

.
,

( 7.4).

|('-))| =

t
f )Cn(t, s ) x ( s )
ds
a.

159

36.

, s) = 52 k{t)^k{s), { {1) } fc=i


. (35.1)

x ( t ) = 52 k(t) / ( s ) x ( s ) d s + y ( t ) .
= 1

f ( s ) x ( s ) d s , ( - )
.

x ( t ) = 52 <>/.(1'/I)
= 1
,
{ . } .

x(t)=y(t) + f(t)Jg(s)x(s)ds
.

fx y(t)\' . . . . . . - ) =9\t)x, { )
={).

= + I
= ( I X ) ~ 1 .

< 1, = 52 .
=

36.1. ( L - 2 ( a ; ) )

u, || ^ ^-^
' ) ~ ~
, () , (I
)-1 = I + ().
160

. /,(-, ) ,
35.2 /^^^.^, ^ .

:=\\\L2((a;M2)-

52 ',(-,-) L2((a,;&)2)
=0

/(-, )> ().


. (I ) = (~ 1 1 ) ,
(I )-1 ,
|| < ~1.
, (I
X ) = { ) .
L2(a;6)

Vt, s [a,; b] lC(t, s) = /C(s, t ) ,


.

{ } U { ' }, { } ,
, {' }
.
{ } { ' } = +
= 52 & + 52

, , = /( 1
- ), ' = '1 = 52 +

52 '-

37.


, /2(056)
: D(A) ~. = ,,-) ' ,-)
[,; ] ( ) = ( ) = 0}, (Ay(-))(t)
:=(p(t)y'(t)y, (-) >;] Vt [; + p(t) > 0.
= . (-) [;],
161

vW = ~

a.

- P ( s ) ) x ( s ) d s + f ( P ( t ) - P ( s ) ) x ( s ) ds =:
a

(.(, meP(t)=f^j.
a
, ,
-2{]) .
(2,,\)) .
(. 150) { ( - ) }
-2{]),
.
V.r(-) /2(0; b) (-) ,
{-) = {-), (-) D,A) ==> {-) = (-), -
(), = 1/ ()

('P(t) e nY = , -() = () = 0.

(37.1)

.
37.1. ( - ) Cl[ar,b} u V t [a,; b ] p { t ) > 0,

{ , () } -2{;
) , { - )
(37.1) .
. !! -
{ ,() } -2{]) {,},
(37.1), - .
,

u ' t ( t , x ) = ( p ( x ) u ' x ( t , x ) Y x , t (0;+), ( ;


), u(t, ) = u(t, ) = 0, t (0; +00),
(0, ) = <(),
(; ),

' = , , 0) = <
2(0; 6).
{ , () } 2{,\)
(37.1),

u{t,-) = 52 U n { t ) e n { - ) . i p ( - ) = 52 tpne-ni-), 162

=1

=1

u n ( t ) u ( t , - ) { ,() } : u'n(t) = X n u n ( t ) , (0) = ipn. Un(t) =


<Pn^nt- ,

u ( t , x ) = J2^neKten(x).
(37.2)
= 1

, = ( . ) = J ( ( ) ( ) ' ( ) d x =
.

= ()(()\ - J ( ) \ ( ) ' \ 2 d x =
.

= - f {)\{)'\2 dx ^ 0.

(37.2)
, u ( t , )
, ip(x)

. ,
, (37.2).

q{x)u't{t,x) = {p{x)u'x{t,x)Yx,
q { - ) C[a-,b] [ a , ; b ] q ( x ) > 0,

( u , v ) = f q ( x ) u ( x ) v ( x ) dx.
a

.

37.2 ( ) ([23]).

163

7 (, ) ()
() ,

L M 1 . > 0 , \ ( , ) \ < |||| \\\\,
L M 2 . |(,)| ^ ||||2.
V/* * 0 ( , 0 ) = < x , f * > .
. 1. ,
22.2 3 / V.T < , / * > = ( , / ) .
2. L M 1 ( - , ) *,
22.2 : > , 7( , ) = ( , )
. ,
= /.
3. ||-|| = sup \ ( , ) \ = sup \(,)\ ^
IMKi
IMK1
< sup ICINI 111 < \\\\, Be ) |||| < . IMK1
160

LM1

4. LM2
Vy |||| II2/H ^ |(,)| = \{,)\ > \\\\2,

|||| ^ |||| = {0}


28.5 Im .
5. \ ( * , ) \ = \ ( , ) \ , * = {0}.
= ( *)1- = I m B . = /
.
. 1. ,

, /* .
2. 7 (, ) , (, ) = ( , ),
-
,
, , ,
(,).

164

- ^. {" ; ' { - r ] JJ7) + {) = /()'


i,j= 1 '
1

Rn

37 3

- - -)

Q dfl, C(Q), a-ij G

C'^Q).
v(-) Q = 0, ,
(37.3) v, Q

>: / - ) ^ * =
ij=in
>:
i,j=in

165

3;

^dx+fv(x)(x)dx,

Z f
i,j=in

dx

+ I a0(x)u(x)v(x) dx =
n

(37.4)

= f f ( x ) v ( x ) dx.

, (37.3)
(37.4) v(-) .
(-) , v(-)
(37.4), ""
(37.3), (37.4)
.
, (37.4) ,
.
. (37.4)
(37.3).
: V v ir(v, ) =< v, / >,
7( v , u ) = f
d x + f a 0 ( x ) u ( x ) v ( x ) d x ,

i j = 1
'J

^ 2 1 ( 0 ) : = ( 1 ( ^ ) , \\\\ =J\u(x)\2dx+ Zf

(
)

, W^Q) . dxi
(37.4) W^Q)
w^Q).
W^Q)

> 0V.T Y, ( > ||||2 0 { ) ^


=1
7(, ) , (37.3)
.
, W^Q) W^Q)
"".

166

38.

. W k [ a ; b ] : = < C k [ a ; b ] , | | \\, >,


|||(-)||, := ||()( (- -

=0

. W k ( a ; b ) .
" 38.1. = 2 W^a^b)

, ,
=

,
W^a^b) .
. W^a^b) Hk(a;
).
H l ( a \ b )
R. 1 ( )
-2{; ).
1 ( \ ) . 1(\) (.
5.3)
^] . {,(-) }
.
||(') m(-)||l,2 = 11 (') (')||,2 + (') ~~ ('),2 ^
^ {||(-) -(-)||,2.1(0 -.} ,
{,(-)},

/2(056), ( - ) , ( - ) /2(056),
( - ) > ( - ) '(-) > (-). -

2()

2()

( - ) ( - ) ((-)} ( Wr21[o; 6]
( - ) ( - ) /2(056)). ,
1(\)
-2{]).

167

. ( - ) 1[,;6], { ( - ) }
Wr21[a; b ] , 1(]),
, ((-); '(-)).
. = ((-); (-)) H i ( a ; b ) , ( - )
( - ) "
. . (-) :='(-).
, ' ( - ) () .
38.1. ( - ) , ( - ) 2(0; 6). ( ( - ) ; ( - ) )

H 1 ( a , ; b ) ,
V^(-) 1 [ - ] ( ( - ) - ) ) = -(*(), <?'()),

(38.1)

1 [,; ] :={ i p ( - ) >;} : < { ) = ) = 0}, (-,-) 2 { ] ) .


. | => |. ((-)} 1 [,; ] :
{ - ) ( - ) '(-) % { ' ) -

2{;)

2()

)1[;] (x>n(-),<p(-))o=fx>n(t)Mt)dt =

= - Jxn(tW(t) dt = --),<'(-))0.
a.


.
[j==]. 1. C[ar,b] 2{,\)
{() } [ ; ] : { - ) ( - ) .

L2 ()

: = f ( ) dr.

'(-) = ( - ) 164

X n { ' ) x ( - ) : = f x ( r ) dr. .(;)

(38.1)
168

((-),<'(-))= ( (-), <'(-)) =


>

= - lim ( x n ( - ) , t p ( - ) ) 0 = - ( ( - ) , < ( - ) ) (3=1} ( ( - ) , < ' ( - ) ) ,


>

Vp(-) ^] ((-),<' ())<> = (-),<'Wo.

(38.2)

2. 0(-) [,;6].

< p ( t ) : = / ^() dr - f 4>(T) d r C1 [a; 6]


.

(38.2) {-) C[a;6]


((-), '0(')) = ((-) + a, ip(-)), =

((-), 1) - ((-), 1)

[\ 6] '2(] 6), ( - ) = ( - ) + .
{(-)} 1 [,;6] : ( - ) : = ( - ) . ( - ) >
( - ) '(-) = { - ) ( - ) . 2 { ; ) 2 ( )
( ( - ) ; ( - ) ) G 1 ( ] 6) '(-) = { - ) .

. 1. 1[,;6] /2(056)
(38.1) ( - ) ( - ) .
, , H1(a,]b)
/2(056),
' /2(056),
Vp(-) 1 [a; 6] ('(-), v?(-))o = ||(-)|||1(;) = ||()|||2(; + ||'(-)|||2(;) 1 ( \ ) .
2. "" ,
"" ,
,
.
38.1. |t| H l ( 1; 1) = sign(t),
169

t p ( - ) 1[1; 1]

(I ^(-))

(3=}

"(I = - f \tW(t) dt =
-1

= - f ( - W ( t ) d t - f t < p > ( t ) d t = -1

= t<p(t) - f <p(t) dt - t<p(t) + f <p(t) dt


0
= -i _i
l
= / sign( t ) < p ( t ) d t = (sign(-),tp(-))o.
-l
38.2. sign(-) L'2( 1; 1)
sign(-) ^ Hl( 1; 1). (-) =
sign'(-) 1; 1) ,
V^jeC1!-1;1] m - ) , r t - ) ) o

= -(sign(-), = - / (-1 Wit) d t

- }(+1) dt = 2).
-1


v^(-)ecVi;i] ( ( - ) - ) ) = 2 ) - (38.3)

:={ < C l [ - 1; 1] : Vt ^ i p ( t ) = 0 } .

170

( 1;0)
-2{ 1;0) .
0 = 2^(0) (=3) ((-)-)) =
1

= J x(t)<p(t)dt = J x(t)<p(t) dt = (x( ),<p(-))Ln(_i;0),


-l

n=e.

x(-)

-l

to x(-)

(-i;0)

(0;1)

iij3. ^

x(-) n= 0, (38.3).

. 1. (38.1)

1 [,; ] >(,) (,; ) , supp < :=


{t (; ) : < p ( t ) 0 } (; ) ,
2{~,).
2. i?1(Q)

K{V,U)

= 52 I

ij=1Q

'J

d x + I a o ( x ) v ( x ) dx,
Q

,
.
3. " "
. ,
H1(Q) "" , . .
( ) SI : 1 (Q)> X(),
() dfl,
: ( - ) i?1(Q) ( - )
dQ, S l ( x ( - ) ) = ( - )

H1(ar,b)
,
171

x 1(\) [,; \
1(\)
[,; ] , .
38.2. , , 1(,)

[;], . . H1(a,;b)3 Jx C[a;b] : (Jx)(-)


J cornp(Hl (a; b), [; b]).
. 1. ( - ) 1 [,; ]

[; b ] : ( )() = f ( ) dr.
.

yte [; ] x(t) = f x'(r)dr + ^ f {).

yte [a;b] \x(t)\^J\x'(T)\dT + ^J\x(T)\dT{1i

< Vb^a]\x'(-)\\L2la,b) + (V6 - a) 1||ar(-)IU3<tt;b) < \\(-)\\-,),

(-) 1[-]

||

(-)||[0; < # -)||h


IW

= max{ \/b a), (s/b ) 1 } .


2. 1(, ) . 3 {.?()} >;&] : ( - )

( - ) '{-) ' ( - ) .

L 2 (a;b)

172

Ln{a;b)

(38.4)

(38.4) {,(-) } [ \ ] . (-) [ ( ] : ( - ) >


(-).
( - ) > ( - ) , ( - )

2 ()

173

(-).

[]

,
||(-)||[; <
||||1(;). Jx = (-) ||J|| ^ .
3. , J ( B [ 0; l]#i(a;(,)) [;].
J , J ( B [ 0; 1]-1(.)) .
. [ 0 ; l]Hi(a.M
{(-)} 1 [,; 6]
, ( - ) > ( J x ) ( - ) ' ( - ) > ' ( - ) . [;]
2()

|(')||2 (;!>) I I ( ' ) | | lo

(;

tl < 1 2 \ x n ( t 2 )

(1.2)

= J '() d,T ^

\1/2 2 V/2
,

I(Jx)(t2) - (Jx)(h)\ < ||'(-)|\L2(a;b)Vh=h < <

INOII

hW jV ^

-tl < y/t2-tl,


. . u ( S ; J x , [a,; b ] ) ^ /.
. 1 ( ~ , ) ,

t
( J x ) ( t ) = ( J x ) { a ) + f ( J X ) ' ( T ) d ,T,
a
, ( J x ) .
. 1.
1(~, ) ( - ) ,
, ( - ) .

174

2. Q R"

j1 _______________________________________

^ < ------- , W " 2 ( Q ) C k ( Q ) .

3. [2],
[13].
38.1. 1. i p 0 ( t ) = t * ( 1 ( \ ))*

< ,* > :=((-),<{-)) / 1 { , - ) : < - , * > = ( , f ) H i ( a . b y


2. < f i o ( t ) = t * ( H 1 ( a ' , b ) ) *

< ,* > :=('(-),<{-)) / 1 ( ] ) : < - , * > = ( - , / ) i(o;b).


38.2. , Q,
H1(Q)1 Q
R2 R3.

39. 2?()
. 1. : D ( p )

slippy := D ( p ) : ( ) 0 } . 2.
Q .
V ( Q ) : = { C(Q) : slippy Q , suppy? }.
> ( ) . ,
, .
. 1. .
2.
, \ Q ,
, R". ,
>() , . . V ( Q ) V ( K n ) = : V .
3. .
. = (\,..., ) Z",

\\()

: = ai + . . . + , D a p { x ) := ^ ----------- " := ?1... .

N .
" 39.1. > ( )

((-) + ( - ) ) ( ) : = { ) + ( ) ( ( ))() := \().


. ( ) : =

|||| ^ ,

|||| = ||(1,... ,)||2 = /2 + ... +


.2, , J () dx = 1.

176

. ,
C(Rra). , suppwe = [0, ].
39.1 ( ). Q

R . Vt > 0 3 > :
suppr?n> + { 0, 3t) = 1 Q + { 0, ) .
. -
( 0 , 2 ) , . . x i x ) = 1 Q + ( 0 , 2 ) x i x ) = ^ Q + 6(0, 2t). ,

) = f ()^( y)dy= f \()( -y)dy =


"

+(0,2)

= [z = ] = f ( z)ue(z) dz = f x(x z)iv(z) dz


K"
B(0,E)
.
1. Q-\-B(0, 2t) , a ( )
, , -
, , ): C(Rra).
2. . + { 0,t), {0, ),

- z + { 0,) -5(0, ) = + (0,2).


] ( ) = f ( z ) i v ( z ) d z = f i v ( z ) d z = 1.
B(0,E)
K"
3. x Q + 5(0,3t), ( x -5(0, e ) ) (Q + 5(0, 2 e ) ) = 0.
r j ( x ) = f x ( x z ) i v ( z ) d z = f 0 i v ( z ) d z = 0.
B(0,)

B{

0,)

39.2. Qi 0,2 , Q2 ~~

Q2
) , > ( \ ) , ) , = 1 Q2
. Q2 , 6.3
8 > 0, Q2 + ( 0 , 8 )

Vfli -= V f l 1,6/3-

39.2. Q R". V ( Q ) L -

2{Q).
177

. /() ^() t > 0.


1.
Qi , 11/(-)||lt (Q\Qi ) <
2. /2(^1),
( - ) , ||/(-) - P ( 0 H l ( Q i ) <
3. , ,
^2 Qi -^) <
4.
2

11/(')-^(')11!2() = 11/(0-^(011!^) + 11/(0-^(011!^) <


< ll/(-)lli2(n\ni) + (11/(0 - (012(!) + 10 - ^(012(1})2 < <t-2 + (t-+||(l^1,n2(-))P(0llL2(n1))2 = = ?

+ (+\\(1-1112(-))(-)\\2{2))2 < < t

+ (t- + ||P(-

)||L2(n1\n2))2<5t-2. .

. >()
. { } >(). , (^
>(), Q , Vn N supp^
n V a e N " Dapn Dap0 Q .

> ( ) .
. 1. > ( ) ,
.
2. >() , . , ,
(. [11, . 6, . 3]).
{ } ,

Q = (J . < ( - )
=1

,{<) = Slip \Daip(x)\.

178


, { ' ) > ( )
. W > ( )
,
W
: < W}

<V(KN),TN >.

3.
>()
.
39.3. 1. > ( ) , . . { ( f i n
} V ( Q ) ipn ipm > 0 , m > +, 3 ipo V ( Q ) : fn <0
11 +.
2. > ( )
>.

39.1. .
" 39.3. ,

> ( ) , > { ) .
1. AM-)) :=>()
2. ( < ( - ) ) : = ( - ) < ( - ) , ( - ) ( ) .

40.

. 1. ,
Q,
>().
2. Q

V'(Q).
3. >'() * , . . { f n }

V (), foe V>(Q),


<ip,fn>^<ip,fo>-

179

4. T>'(Q)
Q,
Q, V ' ( Q ) .
. / : Q
Q, Q.
L/oc(Q).
" 40.1. Q /

{/} > ' ( )


V^eP(Q) <<, {/}>:= J <p{x)f{x)dx = {<pj) b2m.

, {/i} = {/2}. fi /2.

.
.

{/}

. {/} ""
/ (. ., ,
{/} /).
40.1. 8 ,
V i p e V < Lp, 8 > : = < (0)
6-, .
8 = {/},

< >(' \ {0}) 0 = ^(0) = < 4 > , 5 > = { < p J ) L 2 m .


)( \ {0}) >(Rra), / = 0, V <
2?(Rra) (<, /)2() = 0, . . 8 = 0 .
40.2. V^,

y^eV

(
180

> :=Vp f f(ir=


oo

+oo

\ Rip

f dx+ f
= f
-OO
E
) -RV
(supptp [ R v ] R v ] ) , .

v{x)~v{0)

dx

1. " " ,
"" ,
>(). 8 ( )
,
, , <
< { , ) , 6 { ) > <

<{,),6{) >.
2.
, ""
. . / V ' ( Q ) .
1. , / Qi Vt (
Qi),

< V(n,) <p,f >= 0.


2. , / X Q , t > 0
, / (,) .
40.1. / > ' ( ) . / Qi
fi 2 , / Qi U
. 1. := Slippy QiUQ2-
Qi, Q21
() > 0, (,()) Qi, ^2-
, { ( , ( ) / 2) : }
. Q^o ('- = 1)2)
, Qj.
fli2. := ] ,>0, (i = 1.2), a :=, 2 :=(1 - )]2-

181

V(tti) + 2 = 1 - (1 - )(1 - r] 2 ) = 1 . = \
+ 2 T>(Qi).

<<p,f >=<

>

+ <

2 ,

/ > = .

. :
1. / > ' ( ) . / Q,

/ = 0.
2. fi,f 2 eV'(Q).
Q 3 ( ) > 0 V ( B ( x 0 , e ( x ) ) < , fi >=< , fi >,
/1 = /2.
. f\, f2
1. supp / := { Rra : / }.
2. supp / , / .
40.3. / (), supp{/} = supp/.
40.4. supp 5 = {0}.
40.2. ip V ( Q ) , f V ' ( Q ) supp Lp
supp / = 0,

mo < Lp, f >= 0.


. a C(Rra), a / V, > < < p , a

f > := < a <p, f > . 40.5. < L p , a 5 >= a,(0)


< p ( 0 ) . 40.6. x - V \ = 1.
40.3. a C(Rra), mo A : T>' *>',

A f : = a , f ,
.
. ,

, . ,
182

: 0 =
0-V- = (x-6(x))-V- = (6(x)-x)-V- = = 6() ( = 5() 1 =
. / >', Da / :

VpGV < p,Daf > :=(-l)H < Da<p,f > .


40.2 (
).
1. / C(Rra), mo N D a { f } = { D a f } .
2. Da ,

>'.
3. / V, mo V N Da/ V
, D a { D ' 3 f ) = Da+'3f = D ' 3 { D a f ) . 5.
|| = 1 / C(Rra),

LP (a /) = (Daa) / + a (Daf).
40.7. (sign)' = 2<5(); (In ||)' =
40.3 (
). / V'(R). g 2?'(R) , ' =
/. [ = '2, m.o \ 2 = const.
. 1. , .

V^eD(R) <',>=- <,' >=- <p,f >,


. . ', >(R).
J : 2?(R)^2?(R),

/X

( J p ) ( ) : = f p i ' ) , / ' f ^ ( O d n J p l L X . (40.1)


, slippy [; ], supp

J p [ - R - 1; R + 1].
183

V ( R ) ^ >(R). 3 R > 0 Vn N [
R ] -R], J p n [R 1; R + 1] ,
, Jpn 0 R.
(J = <{ ) - W 1()- < , 1 >,
2?(R).
( ) = ( J p ) ' ( x ) + \ { ) - < , 1 > ,

< , >=< (jp)',g > + < , 1 > < Ui,g >= [ := < >}
= = -<Jp,f> + <p,C>,
. .

<, >= - < Jp, f > + <, > .


(40.2)
, = J*f + .
, ,
(40.2), /, . .
' = /. , >( R)
< ,' > = - < ', > = < J ( t p ' ) , f > - < < ' , > =

+ < <,' >=< <p,f>.


* = '.2 =: /, 2 >()

< fi 9 > = < J(fi, f > + < (fi,Ci > ( = 1,2).


2?(R) < f>,(/i >=< Ci 2 >, . . 9 i ~ 9 2 = const.
40.1. : ! = 0;

' = 1; '2' = 1.

41.

184

. 1. V, / L/oc(Rra).
/

( * f)(x) := f ( - ) f(y) dy =< ( - ), ,f}(y) >.

2. >, / >'.
/

( * f)(x) := < ( - ), f(y) >.


41.1. GV * 5 = .
41.1. p e V , / V , < * f C(Rra).
. 1. ,
Va Z'l D a ( p * /) = ( D a p ) * /.

(41.1)

(41.1)
|| = 1, ||.
, , Da =
2. = (1, 0 . . . , 0). R t > 0

{ ( p * f ) { x + t e ) - { ( p * f ) { x ) _ I^p{x+te-y)-ip{x-y) j^y^J

2)

tptiy, ) : = V ( ^ + t e - y ) - f ( x - y ) ^

3. slippy , |t| ^ 1
supp ) ( - ) U ( - + [ 0 , 1]).
(2- ) Vt [1; 1] *~t;t+ : ;) =

^~)+*-) ^( + te ()) t [1; 1],


ipt(-',x) = <Pi*+b-i-))-<Pi*-i-)) ^

185

t 0.
4. D^p,

R t 0 . i p t ( - - , x ) { ) { ( ) )
V t - 0.
5. , { { - ^ p ) * f ) { x ) = <

{^){~),

f{y) > = =

lim < M y ; x ) , f ( y ) > ( 4 = 2 ) ( ( ^ * ) ( ) . .


. 1. V V
().
2.VpVVf < V'Va (Dap) *f = p* (Da f).
. 2 . ((D a p) * /)() = = < { D p ) { x - ) , f ( y ) > =

< (-l)H (Dayp)(x - ), f(y) > =


= (-1 f a \ < p ( x - y ) , D f ( y ) > = ( p * ( D a f ) ) ( x ) .
. U T>'

, LU = 8.
41.2. U
L
V, ( ) ' - = { * ) { ) Lu = .
. (41.1)
L (p * U )

= * (L U ) = * 5 = .

41.3.



(. [11, . 8, 8.5 ]).

186

41.4 (J1. ) ( >'() .


[11, . 6, 6.26 ] ).
V / V(Q)VK ()3/ () < V(Q)

supp^ => < p ,f > = < p ,D a {f} > .

coriip(fl)
.
42. S, S', , '

. 1.

< (), {paJ< : (), N } >,


,{) '= sup \ D a p ( x ) \ , .


2. < ( R r a ) :

Va,/3 ^) < +},{^}>,


P a , p i p ) := SUP \D^p(x)\,
."

S.
" 42.1. 1. >

S.
2. S .
. 1. , S,
, , , S
.
2. S , >, ,
, pix) = ~"'"2,
V (supp ? = R").
" 42.2. 1. a, (). :

> , : = , ,
.
2. Da .
187

3. (')

> 0 > 0V.T \Daa{x)\ < ( 1 + ||||.


: S < S , : = , ,
S.
4. Da S.
. 1. '
* .
2. S'
S * .
" 42.3. 1. '

S'.
2. S'
V.
. []. 1. / ', S.
() < , / > .
, > ,
<

< , / > < , / >. /


S, . . / S'.
2. ' f n > ' f o ', 5

<<P,fn>^<<P,fo>,

. .

f n S'f 0 .

42.1. / ', supp / .

. .
1. {,} supp / , ||,||^+ ( , 1)
( , 1) = 0 . { } supp/,
> ( ( , t)), < , / >= 1.

2. () := 52 ^{)
= 1
.

() := 52 Vnix).
=1
suppt/?ra ,
P Q .
, < , f >= lim < , f > =
>+

= lim < 52 Vnix) ) / > = lim = +


^+ =1

188

. 1. '
.,
.
2. S'
.
42.1. / 2?' ii :=supp/ .

\, 2 V \ = 2

(0,

to),

< \, / > = = < p 2 , f > -

. \ 2 = 0 + (0, to), supp(y?i


(>2) supp / = 0, 40.2.
42.2. '
.
. / >' :=supp/ .
1. / ' :

\fpe <p,f>:=<r)-p,f>,
) V ) = 1 + {0, ) .
2. , r)i > r)i = 1
K + B ( 0 , i ) , )1-< = ' ] 2 - + ( 0 , min{ti,t2})
42.1 < )1 , / > = < ]2 , / > .
3. , / , . . / '.
^ . ] ,

/ pn-^>r] 0. supp(r?e ) + [ 0,t],


>] ) 0. / >',
< P n , f > = < Vs , / > - < Vs , / > = < P 0 , f > .
4. V,

< p , t > = < ) , / > = < + (} - 1) , / >=< p , f >


. 1. ' S'
, >'.

189

2. ' S' ,
>'.
3. ' S', ,
.
S'
.
42.3 (J1. ) ( ' ( { } ) ) .

/ S' g C(Rra) ,
> 0, NV.T \()\ < - (1 + ||||) N", /

= D a { g } (. [10, . 5, 5.10]).

43.

. F : D ( F ) X > Y, X, Y .
1. F
0 D { F ) , 3 L { x 0 ) C { X , Y ) :

F ( x + h ) - F ( x ) = L ( x 0 ) h + ||/*||o(l) h ,
(1), , h 0
.
2. ( ) ( ), S

F X Q , DF( X )
S
F ' ( x ).

. 1. F (. . Y = ), F ' ( x )

X*.
2. () , ,
.
" 43.1 ( ).
S

1. D F ( x ) .

2. F ( - ) = const, D F ( x ) = 0.
3. ( , Y ) , X D A ( x ) = .
4. F X Q , F -

.
5. F G ,
X, XF + pG S

D ( X F + p G ) ( x ) = X D F ( x ) + p D G ( x ) .
6. F : D ( F ) X ^ Y , G : D ( G ) Y ^ Z , F ( D ( F ) )
D ( G ) , X , Y , Z . F
X Q , a G
= F ( x ) ,

()
:=
G(F(x))

X Q
bH{xo)=DG{yo)-DF{xo). *

.
. F : D ( F ) RY

t o D ( F ) . F
to
*JM:=F>W:= ^(to + At) - F ( t p ) dt

' At^o

At
43.2 F : D ( F ) R

. F
to ,
F ' { t 0 ) .

191

DF(to)h = h-F'(to).
. F : D ( F ) X > Y , X , Y
, h X, t R. F ,
s
+ t h,
+ t ) = D F ( x + t h)h.
. F : D ( F ) X > Y, X, Y .
1. F
h X,
lim F(xo+t.h)-F(x0) = d

t->

dt

t=

=:
DF(x0;h).

2. F X Q , D F ( x ; )

XQ.

43.3 F : D ( F ) X ^ Y , X ,
. F
S
X Q , DF ( X Q ) = DF ( X ).

43.1 () (
). X .

I ) ( )
: D ( p ) C X - > R u p X Q
, V/ X D p ( x o ] h ) = 0.
. DF { X Q \ )
. , F ( x \ , x 2 ) ' = -{/ F( 0 + t ) =
= I I ) |!-hi =
DF( 0; h) = \/1122.
. 1. D F ( ; ) C ( X , Y ) , ,
F (

.)

XQ.

2.

DF { X Q \

) -

( .) F
W
1(1
192

XQ

DF ( X Q ) F ' ( X Q ) .

43.4. X, Y

F : D(F) Cl- Y.
IV
1. D F ( ) .
2. F + th,
4. F X Q ,
IV
S
xq D F ( x ) = D F ( x ) .
43.2 ( ). F :
D ( F ) X > Y , X , Y . F
; 2 ] >
IV
( 1 ; 2 ) , ||F(.t2) - F(.n)|| <\\DF(0\\ ' IN - Xi\\.
. 2- (.
94) * Y * , \\*\ \ = 1

\\F(x2) - F(Xl)\\ =< F{x2)-F{xi),y* >.


i p ( t ) : = < F (x\ + t ( x 2 \ ) ) , * > .
\ \ F ( X 2 ) F(.Ti)|| = 0(1) 0(0) = [
3 9 (0;1)] =
VTR I I

= '()-1 = [:=1+(2-1)]4 = ' <F'(0(X2-Xi),y*


W
< 11^(011- IN -XL\\-\\Y*\\.
43.1.
-., f O , ? 2 XI = \ = , F ( x
1,2) = < . 2 /

I 1, xf 2.

D F ( 0; ) = 0, . . F = 0,
= 0, F
= 0.

4 * Y* | < F(x + th),y* > = < DF(x + th)h, *


>.
193

43.3 ( ). F : D ( F ) X > Y , X , Y

. F
IV
U ( x o , E ) X Q F' X Q
X C ( X , Y ) , F
-

194

. h ( 0 , ) X .
2-
* (/) Y * , ||* (/) || = 1

IV
\\F(x0 + h ) - F ( x 0 ) - F ' ( x 0 ) h \ \ =
IV

= < F(x + h) - F(x) - F'(x0)h, y*(h) >


. ,
IV
30 (0; 1) : < F(x0 + h) - F(x0) - F'(x0)h,y*(h) >=
IV
IV
=< F'(x0 + eh)h,y*(h) > - < F'(x0)h,y*(h) >=
IV
IV
=< F'(x + eh)h - F'(x0)h,y*(h) > <
IV
IV
IV
< \\F'(xo + e h ) - F ' ( x o ) \ \ ||/|| ||*(/)|| <\\h.\\ u>(\\h\\;
F>,x0).
IV
IV
IV
L o ( 5 ] F ' , x 0 ) : = s u p { \ \ F ' ( x ) - F'(x0)\\ : x e B( 0,5)}.
IV
Ho u(\\h\\] F ' , X o ) ^ 0
/

F ' ( - ) -
IV
F ( x + /) - F ( x 0 ) - F ' ( x 0 ) h = \ |/| | ( 1) h - 0.

44.


( ).
. F : D ( F ) X > Y, X, Y .

F ' : D ( F ' ) X C ( X , Y ) , F

XQ.

. , F " ( 0) e ( X , ( X , Y ) ) .
. X, Y
. ( , X ; Y ) : = C 2 ( X ] Y )
: X'2 > Y
| \\\ := sup |\ A ( x i , 2)| |.
44.1.

C(X,C(X,Y)) ^

C2(X;Y).

.
J : ( , ( , Y ) ) C 2 ( X ] Y ) : \/1, 2 X (JA )(x\, 2 ) : = { A X I ) X 2.
. "" F " ( X Q ) ,

F"( X o ) ( x i , x 2 )

(F"( X o ) x i ) x 2 .
. 1.
)
Ck{X\Y)
fc- X Y.
,
F { k ) ( x )
fc-
, . . F^i 0) C k (X,Y).
2. F : D ( F ) X Y , X , Y . F ,
F X Q
d k F ( ) : X - t - Y ,

F{k)(x

dkF(xo)(h):=F^(xo)(h,...,h).
44.2. d k F ( x 0 ) ( X h ) = Xkdk F ( x 0 ) ( h ) .
44.1. F : R

196

r a

nx)h =

E ^Sf hi>
= 1

F'WihM = t

i,j=1 3

j,

d 2 F ( x ) ( h ) = V gfflbhj.
ij=1 J
44.1. F : D ( F ) X Y , X , Y
F

+ 52 ^, {hi, . . . , hk } X ,
=1

a { t i , . . . , t k } . ( t i , . . . ,
t k ) Mfc
k
p ( t i , . . . , t k ) : = F ( x + J ] tihi),

= 1
( t i , . . . , t k )
) = F^Hx+ > : / . / ' . . ) ( / ' i . . . . , in,).
i= 1
. :
1. F + th,
jfc

/ ' ( . + th) = d k F ( x + t h ) ( h ) .

2. F + th,

* Y* < F(x + th),y* >=< dkF(x + th)(h),y* >.


. 44.1 ,


.
44.3. F : D ( F ) X ^ Y , X , Y . F
X Q ,

F^(x0)(hi,..., hk) = F^(x0)(a(hi,..., hk)),


a ( h i , . . . , h k ) h i ,
. . . , hk197

44.2 (
). F : D ( F ) X > Y , X , Y

. F ( + 1 )
U ( x o , t )
XQ ,
V / 5(0, ) 3 U ( x 0 , e )

F(x + h) " fc?


dkF(x0)(h)
k=

<

\\dn+lF(0(h)\\.
+1)!

.
1

Rn(x0; h) := F(x + h)
k=0

k\

y * ( h ) Y * , ||*(/)|| = 1
||,(0;/)|| =< R n ( x 0 ; h ) , y * ( h ) >

k=

t=
lfc +

< F(x0 + h),y*(h) >=

< F(x0 +
ra+l _

th),y*(h) >

1 dn+1
< F{x0+th),y*{h) >
198

t=6

{n + 1)! dn+l 1
= < E ^dkT(xo)(h),y*(h) > + < ^^dn+1F(0,y*(h) >
44.3. p : D ( p ) XX

R,

U ( x o , t ) d 1 p ( x ) = . . . = d n ~ 1 p ( x ) = 0 .

199

1. ,
X (0) ^ 0.
2. ,
X (0) < 0.
3. > X d n p ( x 0 ) ( h ) > C\\h\\n, 0 -
.
4. > X d n p ( x 0 ) ( h ) < -C\\h\\n, 0 .
5. 3hi,h-2 X d n p ( x o ) ( h i ) < 0 < d n p { x o ) { h - 2 ) ,
.
.

(0 + ) - (0) = Jjdnp(xo)(h) + Rn(0; h).


dn+1p() ,
U( X Q , Q ) .

h [0;/2] ||( 0 ;/)|| < | \dn+1p(0(h)\\/(( + 1)!) <


< ||/||+1 ||dra+V(C)ll < \ \h\\n+1M,
,

- ,

+ ) - 0 ) = ^ d n ( x 0 ) ( h ) + 0(||/||+1) h 0.

[I]. ^ d n ( x 0 ) ( h ) + 0(||/||n+1) ^ 0
h. / X
h ( t ) : = t h o t .

dn(xo)(tho) +O(\\tho\\n+1) = t n ( d n ( x o ) ( h o ) + 0 ( t ) ) > 0 .


tn t
> +0, d n ( x o ) ( h o ) ^ 0.
0. +)-) = dn(x0)(h)+O(\\h\\n+l) <
< -\' + (||/||+1) = |||( - + ( ) ) .
5 . ( + thi) t = 0
i = 1 i
= 2.

45. , ,

200

. F : D ( F ) X Y - Z, X, Y, Z . F ( - , y o ) , F
( , ) F ' x { x o , y o ) .
Fy(xo,yo).
. , F ' x { x . Q , y o ) C ( X , Z ) ,

Fl(xQ,yQ)(=C(Y,Z).
" 45.1 ( ). F : D ( F ) X Y ^ Z , X , Y , Z

. F ,
( , ) , Fx Fy ,
( , ) , F (,)
X v Y F'(x0,y0)(u, v) = Fx(x0,y0)u +
Fy(x0,y0)v.
. F : D ( F ) X x Y > Z. /
: D ( f ) X >Y , ,
F ( x , ) = Z o Z ,
D ( f ) (, /()) D ( F ) F ( , /()) =

45.1 ( ). F : D ( F ) X Y ^ Z , X , Y , Z ,

, , :

1. ( , ) D ( F ) . F ( x 0 , y o ) = 0 .
2. F ( , ) .

3. ( , ) D ( F ' y ) Fy ( , ) .
4. F y ( x o , y o ) C ( Y , Z ) .

> 0 3 5 > 0 3 / : B ( X Q , 6 ) ( , ) ,
U ( X Q , 6 ) F ( X , / ( ) ) = 0 / X Q .
.

:
L.=(F'y(xQ,yQ))-1.
1.
(), :

201

(A(x))(y):=y-LF(x,y).
{ { ) ) { ) = y < ^ F { x , y ) = 0.
8 > 0 > 0, B ( X Q , 6 )
() [ , ] .
2.

\ \ ( ( ) ) ( 2 ) - ( ( ) ) ( 1 ) \ \ < | | ( ) ; \\2~1\\.
\))' = \\I-LF'y{x,n)\\ = = W - '{,']) F'y{xQ,yQ) + F'y{xQ,yQ))\\ =
= [LF' y {x 0 ,yo) = I ] = WHF'yixpr,) - F' y {x 0 ,yo))\\ <
< ||L|| w((S, t); Fy, (, )),

uj{{5,)]F^,{xo,yo)) -=

\\F'y{x,y) -

sup

F'y{x Q ,y Q )\\.
||.-.||<<5,||-'||<

, 3-

u)((6,e);Fy, ( ,))^0 6, +0.


3. \ \ 0 - ( ( ) ) ( ) \ \ =

= \\ - ( ( ) ) ( ) + ( ( ) ) ( ) ~ ( (,))()\\ <
(( ) ) ( 0 ) \ \ + \\\- ( ( 5 ,,

F'Y,

\ \ L ( F ( x , y o ) F ( x o , y o ) ) \ \ < ||L|| i o ( 5 ; F ( , y o ) , x o ) ,
u j ( 6 ] F ( - , y 0 ) , x 0 ) : = sup \ \ F ( x , y 0 ) - F(x0,y0)\\,

202

II

j/o -

( 0 , 0 ))\\ ~\\,

\\yo-(A(x))(yo)\\ = \\LF(x,yo)\\ =

||.,||<<5

<

\\yo-(A(x))(y)\\ < \\L\\(e-u((S,e);Fl,(xo,yo))+u(5, F ( ; y o ) , x Q ) ) . , 2-


i o ( 8 ] F ( ; y 0 ) , x 0 ) 0.
>+0

(45.1)

4. ( ) [ , ]
, , :

\\L\\{e-u{{6,ey,F{/,{xo,yo))+u{6-,F{-,yo),xo)) <
,
, :

\\L\\Lu((8,ey,F^(x 0 ,yo)) < 1, u{{8,)]Fy,{x 0 ,yo)) ,8+ F,-,y 0 ),x 0)


8 .
<Si ti ,

a:=\\L\\u{{8i,i)]F^{x 0 ,yo)) < 1.


6 (0;5i)Vt (0;t~i)

\\L\\(eLu((8,ey,F^(xo,yo))+to(8 -,F(-,y0),x0)) <


< ea + \\L\\uj(8;F(-,yo),xo).
+ \ \L\\u(8] F(-, ), ) <
:
(45.2)
(45.1) t (0;ti)
(45.2) ( 8 ) .
< ti, 8 , (45.2),
= .
5. (. 42)
( 0 , 5 ) 3 \ [ 0 , : ( ( ) ) ( ) = , . . F ( x , y ) =
0.

203

f ( x ) : = y ||f(x0) - \\ <
|\ - 0|| < 5 { ) , <5(t)
(45.2).
45.2 (
). ,

F
( , ) F
( , ) , /, F ( x , y )
= 0 , (,)
f'{x

) =

-{F'y{xo,yo))-lF'x{xQ,yo).

. : ' =
( F y ( x o , y o ) ) ~ 1 F x ( x o , y o ) , A y : = f ( x 0 + ) - f ( x 0).

0 = F(x + , + Ay) - F(x0,yo) =

= F ' x ( x o , y o ) A x + F ^ x 0 , y 0 ) A y + (|| || + ||||) ( , A y ) ,


lim (, Ay) = 0. (,)->0

= - + (|||| + \\\\)/3(,),
(45.
3)
{ , A y ) : = ( F y ( x o , y o ) ) ~ 1 a ( A x , A y ) .
(45.3) , |||| < ||||(|||| + ||/5||) + ||||
\. \\\\ < ''^^ < ' " ,

|||| +(, )

^''1'41'4^1
,

204

II/( +

) - f { x ) - || < ||||(1 + ) \ =

(1)

0 , . . / X Q f ' ( x ) = .

45.3 ( ). X, Y
, : -() X > Y ,
X Q , '() X , . . X =
'(0) X i , '(0) = Y , (0) = 0 '

XQ.

\fx ' ( 0 ) 3 : ( - 6 ; 5) - : ( 0 ) = ' ( 0 ) = 0


(0 + t x + a ( t ) ) = 0 ( - 6 ; 5 ) .
. , \ .
1. -:='() ' ( ) = Y ,
-Yi
= Y . \,
~
2. '(). F ( t , ) := (++),
t ( 8 ] 8 ) , \ ( S o ) .
F ( 0,0) = (0) = 0, F ( ( t , a ) = '(0 + + ) (0, 0) F'a(t, ) = ^ + +:)/^,
F[{0, 0) = .
, ,
3 5 > 0 3 : (-5; 5 ) - X i : (0 + t x + a ( t ) ) = 0
( 0 ) = 0 . /(0) = ~ 1 ' ( ) '(),
'(0) = 0.
45.4 (
). X, Y R, :
D ( p ) X > R, : -() X > Y,
B ( x o , S o ) D ( p ) -(), () = 0,
'() X, '() = Y X Q
( ) () = 0. ' ( ) (
'())-1.
. ' ( )
: (-8;8)>- X , (0) =
205

'(0) = 0 < p ( x o + t x + a ( t ) ) = 0 ( 5 ; S ) . (
+ t x + a ( t ) ) t = 0 .

= -jt<p{x + tx + a ( t ) ) ^ = < x , < p ' ( x o ) > .

tp'(xo) ( K e r ' ( ) ) .
45.5 ( ).

. G Y* (
" ") ,
(,*):=,)~ < (),* >
( , ) :
L'x(, ) = 0 , L'yt (,) = 0.
. ' * ( , )

'(,)
('())**,

<'(0)-*0'(0)

[()] = 0

'()

: $ Y * : < ' ( ) = ( ' ( ) ) * , .


. ( ' ( ) ( ' ( 0 ) ) * ' ( ) ( K e r '())1' = [
, '()
] = ( '())*.

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. .: , 1975.
3. . . .: , 1967.
4. . ., . . . .:
, 1977.
5. . . , , . . . .: , 1979.
206

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. .: , 1989.
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. .: - . ,
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1w
ftF(x + th) = D F ( x + th)h.
3. F + th,
1w

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