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:
......2
.......5
1 . ...6
1.1 ..6
1.2 ....8
1.3 ............9
1.4 LAN VRN ....9
1.5 Ethernet ...10
1.6 ...12
1.7 14
1.8 .16
1.9 ...................................................................................................17
1.10 .........................................................................................18
2 .
....19
2.1 ...19
2.2 .............20
2.3 Skype..20
2.4 TeamViewer..20
2.5 Adobe Acrobat Connect...21
2.6 GoToMeeting...22
3 ++....24
3.1 ++...24
3.2 ++........28
4 .....32
4.1 ......32
4.2 -....33
4.3 ....34
.....35
.36


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1 .
1.1


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Ethernet,
Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, GPRS .
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Wi-Fi. , Frame
Relay, Token ring, ,
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, LAN:
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, IPv4,
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1918 RFC 1597):
10.0.0.010.255.255.255;
172.16.0.0172.31.255.255;
7

192.168.0.0192.168.255.255.
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IPv6, .
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TCP/IP, SONET/SDH, MPLS, ATM Frame relay.


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1.4 LAN VPN
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VPN. VPN-
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PPPoE, PPTP L2TP (PPTP+IPSec).


PPP,
IP-. (
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(VPN, Dial-in ) proxyarp
IP-, VPN. ,
, ARP-
MAC-
, VPN-.

1.5 Ethernet
Ethernet , , T, .
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10

Ethernet
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Ethernet :

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ISA : 8-, 16 32-. 8- 8 16-
IBM XT IBM PC, 16

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ISA,
EISA

Micro

Channel.

IBM AT , -
80486, - PS/2
IBM.

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(DMA).

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(2) OSI

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1.

() (SMF Step Index Single Mode Fiber),


ITU-T G.652
.
2.

(DSF

Dispersion Shifted Single Mode Fiber), ITU-T


G.653. DSF

.
3.

(NZDSF Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Single Mode Fiber),


ITU-T G.655.

-
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. 2006 111 ,
10 40 /
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15

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1.8

Ethernet
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17

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Arcnet Token ring. ,
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18

2.1
FTP,
"" Internet.
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19

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2.2
2.3 Skype
Skype
,
(VoIP),
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- ( 25
, ), (
10 ),
() .
- .
Skype
[: Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, iOS, Windows Mobile, Google
Android, PSP, Symbian. Java.
20

2.4 TeamViewer
TeamViewer
,

TeamViewer

Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iOS Linux (


Android). ,
NAT ,
-.
TeamViewer GmbH 2005 .
- , TeamViewer
15 , 50- .
2.5 Adobe Acrobat Connect
Adobe Acrobat Connect ,


-. Adobe Acrobat Connect
Adobe :
1) Adobe Connect Pro Meeting
.
, , , ,

.


, .
2) Adobe Connect

Pro

Training

, ,
21

. ,
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Adobe Presenter,
,

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3) Adobe Connect Pro Events
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2.6 GoToMeeting

GoToMeeting -, Citrix Online,


Citrix Systems.
-
,
.
GoToMeeting ,
,
, .
,
,
.
Microsoft Outlook, Lotus Notes,
.

22

3 ++
3.1 ++
++ ,
, string ++.
string
, ,
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(
, main().
++ - ,
('\0').
, :
, :
char str1[10] = "string1"; //

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"" char[1]. char[1]? ,
,
, ASCII- 0 (
escape-
'\0').
, ,
,

23

, .. ,
.
-
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char str[] = "ABCDE"; -
"ABCDE". , 6
:
'A','B','C','D','E' '\0'.

-
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. ++

.
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str "ABCDE",
5 , C++ 6
, (
0) .
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- (,
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char str[10] = "ABCDE"; 10

'A','B','C','D'
'E' , -.
24

5
"ABCDE", .

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.
char str[]={'A','B','C','D','E','\0'};

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"", .
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, .
,
, "Visual C++\n" : 'V', 'i', 's', 'u',
'a', 'l', ' ', 'C', '+', '+', '\n', '\0'. , "A" -
: 'A' '\0'.
"", : "" "" ,
"".
:
// , .
25

#include<iostream.h>
void main()
{
char str1 [ ] = "1234567890", /* str1
*/
str2[11]; //
/*

str2 str1
*/
for(int i = 0; str1[i] != '\0'; i++) str2[i] = str1[i];
// - str2.
str2 [i] = '\0';
cout << str2 << '\n'; //
}
, , str1[i]
-, .. - str2,
.
-

,
,
cin >> _;
, , ,

cout << _;
,
cin ,
26


.
,
#include <iostream.h>
void main()
{
char str[31]; //
cout<<"Enter a string (max 30 symbols):";
cin>>str; //
cout<<"\nYou enter string:"<<str; //
}
31 ,
,
30 , , cin
,
.

.
-
.
char *b;
b,
.
b
. , , b
,
.
3.2 ++
27

stdio.h :
1.

int getchar()

, .
:
printf("%d", getchar());
2.

char *gets (char *s)

,
s, 'Enter':
char

str[7]

"";

gets(str) ;
3.

int putchar (int c)

, 'c':
putchar(97);//
4.

int puts (char *s)

s :
char

str[7]

"sergey";

puts(str);
5.

int sprintf (char *s, char *format, ...)

, printf, ,
s:

28

char

str[37]

sprintf

(str,"chislo:%d,

month:

"";
%s",10,"desember");

// : chislo:10, month: desember


6.

int sscanf (char *s, char *format, ...)

, s:
char

str[37]

"sergey",

s[100]="";

sscanf (str,"%s", s);



c: string.h. string.h

:
1.

char *strcpy (char *srt1, char str2)

str2 str1,
, str1
char

str[37]

"sergey",

s[100]="monk";

strcpy(str,s);
2.

char *strncpy (char *srt1, char str2, int n)

, ,
,
:
char

str[37]

strncpy(str,s,3);//: mongey

29

"sergey",

s[100]="monk";

3.

char *strcat (char *srt1, char str2)

str1 str2. .. str1, str2:


char

str[37]

"sergey",

s[100]="monk";

strcat(str,s); //: sergeymonk


4.

char *strncat (char *srt1, char str2, int n)

n
char

str[37]

strncat(str,s,2);//: sergeymo
.

30

"sergey",

s[100]="monk";

4. .
4.1
.
-, 1 35 ,
1 5 ;
- , .
,

.
input.txt
output.txt

31

4.2 -

1- -
32

4.3.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <conio.h>
int main()
{ FILE *fi, *fo;
char a[35][6];
int j=0,i=0,c=0,n=0,l=0,k=0;
if ((fi = fopen("input.txt", "r"))== NULL)
printf(" \n");
else
{
printf(" ...");

while(!feof(fi))
{
a[i][j]=fgetc(fi);
if ((a[i][j]==',')||(a[i][j]=='.'))
{a[i][j]='\0'; i++; j=-1; c++; }
j++;}
fclose(fi);
fo=fopen("output.txt", "wt");
for(i=0;i<c;i++)
{
for (j=i;j<c;j++)
if (strstr(a[j],a[i])!=NULL) n++;
for (k=i-1;k>=0;k--)
if ((strstr(a[k],a[i]))!=NULL) l=1;
33

if (l!=1) fprintf(fo,"%s - %d\n",a[i],n);


n=0; l=0;
}
fclose(fo);
} getch();
}

34


3 ,
:
1) . .
2).
.
3) ++.
4) ,
,

. "input.txt"
"output.txt".

35

. ., . . .

.: - .
2

.. . . .,

2002. .

36