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Pressure Vessel Inspections

The Pressure Vessel Inspections article provides you information about


the inspection of pressure vessels and pressure vessel tests in a
manufacturing shop.
This article provides you lots of invaluable information about the
following items:
Inspection and Testing During the Manufacturing Phase
Inspection and Testing During the Operation Phase
Pressure Vessel Codes and Regulations
Maintenance and Repairs
The Pressure vessel inspections article, alongside other linked articles
are useful for Manufacturer's Quality Control personnel, Second and
Third Party Inspectors, Purchasers, Sellers, Plant Inspectors, HSE
Engineers, Integrity Engineers, Operation and Maintenance Engineers
and any Other Interested Individuals.

Pressure Vessel Definition - Based on the ASME Code Section VIII,
pressure vessels are containers for the containment of pressure, either
internal or external.
This pressure may be obtained from an external source, or by the
application of heat from a direct or indirect source, or any combination
thereof.
Click on the above link for detailed information about pressure vessel
definition, scope, and boundaries based on ASME and API codes which
specifically focus on pressure vessel inspections.

ASME Code Section 8 - ASME Code Section 8 is the construction code
for Pressure Vessels.
This Code section addresses mandatory requirements, specific
prohibitions, and non-mandatory guidance for pressure vessel
materials, design, fabrication, examination, inspection, testing,
certification, and pressure relief.
You may know that ASME Code Section 8 has three divisions. Division
1 covers pressure up to 3,000 psi, Division 2 has an alternative rule
and covers up to 10,000 psi, and Division 3 can be used for pressure
higher than 10,000 psi.
This section is divided into three parts: subsections, mandatory
appendices, and non-mandatory appendices.
Subsection A consists of Part UG, covering the general requirements
applicable to all pressure vessels.
Subsection B covers specific requirements that are applicable to the
various methods used in the fabrication of pressure vessels. It consists
of Parts UW, UF, and UB, and deals with welded, forged, and brazed
methods, respectively.
Subsection C covers specific requirements applicable to the several
classes of materials used in pressure vessel construction.
It consists of Parts UCS, UNF, UHA, UCI, UCL, UCD, UHT, ULW, and
ULT dealing with carbon and low alloy steels, nonferrous metals, high
alloy steels, cast iron, clad and lined material, cast ductile iron, ferritic
steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment, layered
construction, and low temperature materials, respectively.
Click on the above link for detailed information about ASME code
section 8, which specifically focuses on pressure vessel inspections.

Pressure Vessel Plate Material - You have to be careful
when choosing Pressure Vessel Plate Materials; there are lots of
requirements and specific prohibitions in the ASME code.
Some of these requirements are ASME and Non ASME plate material,
plate specification, inspection requirement and material test report.
ASME Code Sec VIII DIV 1 requires that materials that used for
pressure containing parts are one of the materials specified in ASME
section II, but with some restrictions which are stated in ASME Code
Sec VIII Div 1 in subsection C e.g. UCS, UHF, UNF.
For example, SA 283 plate material is listed in ASME Sec II, but when
you refer to subsection C in Sec VIII Div 1, you see it is not allowed to
be used for lethal substance services as well as for unfired steam
boilers. Also, you cannot use this material when you need your
thickness to be greater than 5/8 of an inch.
Click on the above link for detailed information about pressure vessel
plate materials which are specifically focused on pressure vessel
inspections.

ASME Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies - You may know ASME
Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies are linked to the radiography testing
grades, and there is concession for full radiography testing per the
UW-11(a) (5) (b) clause, which it is a little bit confusing.
Based on ASME Code requirements, manufacturers have to mark the
type of RT, e.g. RT1, RT2, RT3 and RT4, in the pressure vessel name
plate and state the same in the Pressure Vessel Data Report.
We have seen many professionals including inspectors and quality
control engineers who are confused between RT1 and RT2, specifically
when they see that the ASME Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies for
both RT1 and RT2 is the same and is equal to 1(E=1);
They say both RT1 and RT2 are categorized in the Full Radiography
part in UW-11 clause. So why are some joints in RT2 radiographed in
spot? We are doing spot radiography, but it is categorized in full
radiography!!!
Click on the above link to answer to this question, which specifically
focuses on pressure vessel inspections.

ASME Impact Test Requirement - You need to take care about ASME
Impact Test Requirement. Suggest you have pressure vessel in the
design process and construction has not started yet.
Based on ASME impact test requirements, you need to make an
assessment to see that either your pressure vessel is exempted from
impact testing or you need to carry out the test.
There are 4 steps for impact test exemption assessment. You need to
go through these steps, and you might be exempted in the first,
second or third steps, and might not be exempted in step 4;
So if you are in step 4 and you have not exempted, then you need to
carry out the test. This article explains you this assessment process.
First, you have to keep your pressure vessel design data available and
then refer to UG-20 (f), if you are exempted from this clause, you do
not need proceed anymore.
But if you are not exempted by UG-20 (f), you have to proceed to
UCS-66(a). Again if you are exempted, there is no need for more
assessment.
But if not, you have to proceed to UCS-66(b). If you are exempted
now, no need for more assessment, otherwise you have to proceed to
UCS-68(c). Again, if you are still not exempted; you have to carry out
impact testing.
It means for some cases we might be exempted from ASME impact
test requirement in first stage in UG-20 (f), in others in UCS-66(a) or
UCS-66(b) or UCS-68(c) or might not be exempted and must prepare
for doing this costly test.
This test would be more costly out of the US because of the Laboratory
Accreditation requirement. The Accredited Laboratory based US
accreditation system is not used too much in Europe, the Middle East
and other locations.
Click on the above link for detailed information about the ASME Impact
Test Requirement, which specifically focuses on pressure vessel
inspections.

Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection - Do you know what the
Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection requirement is? You may know
some fabrication tolerances have not been addressed in ASME Code
Section VIII.
So you need to refer to other sources for inspection. Most dimensional
controls of Pressure Vessels are either addressed or not addressed in
the ASME Code. They consists of the following items:
Pressure Vessel Inspections - Dimension
Mill Undertolerance of Plates and Pipes
Tolerances for Formed Heads
Out of Roundness of Shell
Nozzles and Attachments Orientation
Nozzles and Attachments Projection
Nozzles and Attachments elevation
Nozzles and Attachments levelness
Weld Mismatch
Weld Reinforcement
Click on the above link for detailed information about Pressure Vessel
Dimension Inspection, which specifically focuses on pressure vessel
inspections.

Pressure Vessel RT Test - Do you know what your Pressure Vessel RT
Tests Requirements are? Is full radiography mandatory for your
vessel? When the full radiography is mandatory? What the acceptance
criteria are? What the RT symbols are?
When one of following condition is existing, you need to do full
radiography:
1. All butt welds in vessels used to contain lethal substances
2. All butt welds in vessels in which the nominal thickness exceeds
specified values
3. All butt welds in unfired steam boilers with design pressure > 50
psi
4. All category A and D butt welds in a vessel when Full
Radiography is optionally selected
As you see, the item numbers 1, 2 and 3 are really mandatory for the
full RT test;
But the pressure vessel manufacturer may make an optional decision
for full radiography in item number 4.
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Why would pressure vessel manufacturers want to spent more money
for full radiography in item Number 4?
Because joint efficiency in full radiography condition is 1, and the
higher joint efficiency in the pressure vessel wall thickness formula
causes less wall thickness, so the manufacturer might save lots of
money with a lower thickness plate material.
But code has given some bonuses to the manufacturer in item 4,
because it is not mandated to do really full radiography in all butt
welds. The manufacturer can do spot radiography in B and C joints
with the same joint efficiency of 1.
Click on the above link for detailed information about Pressure Vessel
RT Tests which are specifically focuses on pressure vessel inspections.

Vessel Pressure Testing - You need to do a hydro-static test after the
completion of construction process, but before the internal parts
assembly, and also before the painting process.
Please note that performing the pneumatic test instead of the hydro-
static testing is not allowed and it can be replaced only when it is not
possible due to design and process.
Vessel Pressure Testing requirements have been addressed in UG-99
and UG-100 in ASME Code Section VIII Div. 1.
The activities are done in 3 stages; the activities before start of the
test, the activities during test and the activities after the test.
Click on the above link for detailed information about pressure vessel
hydro-static testing which is specifically focuses on pressure vessel
inspections.

Pressure Vessel Certification - Do you know what the pressure vessel
certification process is? How Pressure Vessel Manufacturers can be
ASME Stamp Holders? How Third Party inspection companies can be
certified by ASME and be Authorized Inspection Agencies? What is a
U Stamped Pressure Vessel?
You may know pressure vessel manufacture certification is the same
as the Authorization for the ASME Stamp.
The pressure vessel manufacturers can implement the ASME Quality
Control System and then apply for ASME Stamp.
It means that if a manufacture accredited by the ASME organization
for pressure vessel per ASME Code Section VIII Div. 1 can stamp the
letter U in the pressure vessel nameplate. These are the processes
for ASME Stamp Accreditation:
Obtain Application Forms from ASME
Sign a Service Agreement with an Authorized Inspection Agency
(AIA) - Authorized inspection Agencies are Third Party Inspection
Companies that have been accredited by the ASME organization
and their inspectors certified by the National Board Inspection
Code (NBIC).These Inspectors are named Authorized Inspectors
and hold Commission Cards issued by the NBIC
organization. Summary: AIAs are accredited by ASME, but the
inspectors are certified by NBIC.
Submit Application Forms to ASME and Transfer Fees
Purchase ASME Code Books
Describe a QC-System according to the ASME Code Quality
Control manual and have the procedures prepared by the
manufacturer.
Prepare a Demonstration Item - A representative demo pressure
vessel needs to be constructed and all drawings, calculations,
parts lists, purchase orders, material test reports, fabrications,
inspections, tests and reports should be based on the ASME code
section VIII requirement.
Qualify Procedures and Personnel - Quality Control Procedures
and Personnel also need to be approved by manufacture.
Pre-Joint Review by the Supervisor of AIA - It takes almost 4
months to fulfill the above requirements. Then an audit needs to
be conducted by a supervisor authorized inspector, which is
designated by the authorized inspection agency, which is under
contract with the manufacturer. This auditor would report non-
conformities found in the audit process, and then manufacturer
would have some time to correct them.
Joint Review (Audit) with ASME Designee, Inspector and
Supervisor - Finally the Audit would be conducted by an ASME
designated Person, Supervisor Authorized Inspector and
Authorized Inspector. That is the reason this audit is called a
joint review.
Issuance of Certificate and Stamp by ASME
If the result of the audit was satisfactory, the certificate would be
issued by ASME, and then the manufacturer would be authorized to
stamps nameplates with the U Stamp.
Click on the above link for detailed information about Pressure Vessel
Certification, which is specifically focuses on pressure vessel
inspections.

Pressure Vessel Heads - How many standard Pressure Vessel Heads
are in the ASME Code? What are their characteristics?
Ellipsoidal Head, Hemispherical Head and Torispherical Head are three
types of ASME Pressure Vessel Dished Heads.
Under the same design conditions, such as design pressure, design
temperature and material, your calculated wall thickness under
internal pressure for ellipsoidal head will be approximately equal to the
shell thickness. For a torispherical head, the thickness is equal to 1.77
times that of the ellipsoidal, and the shell thickness and for a
hemispherical head is equal to half the shell thickness.
For example, if you have calculated your shell thickness under internal
pressure and obtained 12 mm, your thickness for an ellipsoidal head
will be approximately 12 mm; for a torispherical head, 20.4 mm; and
for hemispherical head, 6 mm.
Click on the above link for detailed information about Pressure Vessel
Heads, which specifically focuses on pressure vessel inspections.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - What is the third party
inspection requirement for pressure vessel inspection in a
manufacturing shop?
This article provides information about pressure vessel inspection from
material inspection to final inspection and dispatch to site.
Inspection and Test Plan for Pressure Vessel - The Inspection and
testing requirement is distributed in a different part of the construction
code.
The inspection and test plan have a tabulated format and collect all
these requirements in a simple table and determine the responsibly of
each party, i.e. the manufacturer, third party inspector and purchaser.

Pressure Vessel Handbook - When there is ASME Code Section VIII,
why do we need the Pressure Vessel Handbook? What are the
applications? All design formulas and calculations methods have not
been addressed in ASME Code, and also, there are no fabrication
tolerances in ASME Code.
So the Pressure Vessel Handbook assists us in covering all these
requirements.
The Pressure Vessel Handbook supports pressure vessel inspections
engineers, designers, pressure vessel manufacturer quality control
technicians and engineers, and any other people who deal with
pressure vessels.
Click on the above link for detailed information about the Pressure
Vessel Handbook, which specifically focuses on pressure vessel
inspection.

Spherical Pressure Vessel - What is the construction Code for a
Spherical Pressure Vessel? What is the In-Service Code for Spherical
Pressure Vessel? What are the Spherical Vessel applications? What are
the advantages?
Click on the above link to see the answer to the above questions,
which is specifically focuses on pressure vessel inspections.
- See more at: http://www.inspection-for-industry.com/pressure-vessel-
inspections.html#sthash.7WN5t20v.dpuf

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel
The Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel article provides you with
information about pressure vessel inspection and pressure vessel
testing in the manufacturing shop.
Global TPI Services
We Provide Pre-Shipment Inspection, Vendor Inspection and Commodity Inspection Services. Click
Here for More Information
You may need to review this article in conjunction with the following
articles:

Pressure vessel Inspections

Inspection and Test Plan for Pressure Vessel
This content guides you through all the necessary stages in the production of the
pressure vessels, including the raw material, final inspection, preservation and
packing, and dispatch to site.
You need to take this point into account: this article is written for a typical
pressure vessel and might not be detailed for special cases.
This content may be useful for second party inspectors, pressure vessel
manufacturer quality control personnel, engineering companies, and purchasers,
as well.
You may also note that if a pressure vessel is ordered with a U Stamp,
then any Third Party Inspection Agency cannot do the inspection, and
an authorized third party ASME inspection needs to be hired. This also
called third party inspection for U stamp.
The authorized third party inspection agencies must be insurance
company and accreditation by ASME.
All pressure vessel inspection and testing is done against the approved
drawings, purchase order specifications, purchasers or company standards, and
within the practices and rules of the country, state or province and any
government decrees, laws, ordinance or regulation as may apply.
The applicable codes and specifications for a pressure vessel that is under the
construction process is:
Design code
Purchase order specification
Purchaser's standards
Approved drawings
And the applicable codes and standard are:
ASME VIII Division 1 or 2
ASME V
ASME IX
The applicable codes and standard may be based other international
standards such as BS 5500, etc. This content is general and can be
useful if even the design code is different from ASME Code.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Required
Documents for Third Party Inspector Review:
The list of documents normally is agreed upon in the Pre-Inspection meeting,
which is held several weeks before the actual commencement of the inspection
work.
The parties that participate in this meeting are the manufacturer, purchaser and
third party inspection agency representatives.
This already explained in the Inspection and Test Plan for Pressure
Vessel article.
These are the list of documents which are normally agreed to be
presented to the inspector:
Pressure Vessel Manufacture Quality Control Plan
Pressure Vessel Inspection and Test Plan
Pressure Vessel Data Sheet
Pressure Vessel Approved Drawings
Pressure Vessel Strength Calculation Sheets
Pressure Vessel Material Test Reports
Pressure Vessel Welding Specification Procedures (WPS) and Procedure Qualification
Records(PQR)
Pressure Vessel Welding Map
Pressure Vessel Welders Qualifications Reports
Pressure Vessel NDE Procedures (Radiography, Ultrasonic, Magnetic Particle, Dye
Penetration, etc.)
Pressure Vessel NDE Personnel Qualifications Reports
Pressure Vessel Heat Treatment Procedure
Pressure Vessel Calibration Certificates for Test Equipment
Pressure Vessel Hydrostatic Testing Procedure and Water Quality Document
Pressure Vessel Preparation and Painting Procedure
Pressure Vessel Preservation, Packing and Shipping Procedure
Pressure Vessel Packing List
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Material Inspection
The first actual inspection work on the pressure vessel is the raw
materials inspection. Based on the ASME Code, providing material test
reports for pressure vessel plates is mandatory. For other components,
the marking inspection will be enough.
But if the purchase order has mandated the MTR to be provided for all
components, such as nozzle pipes, fittings, etc., then the manufacturer
needs to provide them as well.
For more details, you may review the Pressure Vessel Plate article.
As mentioned above, the original or authenticated copies of mill
certificates for plates normally are available at the manufacturer's
premises.
The third party inspector examines these certificates for compliance
with specifications, and where appropriate, drawings.
The review includes checks on:
Certificate No.
Heat or Cast No.
Chemical Composition.
Mechanical Properties.
Heat Treated Condition.
NDE Applied and Results.
Then the inspector witnesses the plate material identification on the
certificates against the plate marking. It is also necessary to check the
identification with the pressure vessel drawing datasheet, material list
and other specifications as appropriate.
The transfer identification to cut off plates also is checked.
Visual inspections for surface finish and probable defects are done and
dimensional compliance with specification also needs to be controlled.
For more detail about pressure vessel raw material inspection, you
may review the Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection article.
When the third party inspector carries out the material inspection, then provides
the inspection visit report (IVR), the report contains the following items:
Confirmation of satisfactory document review
Record of the endorsement of certification reviewed/witnessed
Record of all non-conformities
Record of any tests witnessed and the result
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Fabrication
When the pressure vessel raw material inspection is carried out, and the results
were satisfactory or non-conformities were closed by remedial action, then the
pressure vessel manufacturer will start fabrication.
The third party inspector checks the following points on the pressure vessel,
based on the inspection and test plan (ITP), which has already been agreed
upon between the purchaser and the pressure vessel manufacturer.
The inspection scope is determined in the ITP. Some purchasers prefer to have
stringent controls and assign the TPI for more hold or witness points for
inspection and test activities, and some others prefer less hold or witness points
and assign the TPI much more work in the review document.
This depends in the inspection budget, which purchasers assign for inspection.
Much more inspection will have a much larger cost and less risk, and conversely,
less inspection will have less cost but more risks.
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the Globe. Click Here for More Information
For more detail, review the Inspection and Test Plan for Pressure
Vessel article. There is a draft of the ITP in this article, which we believe is the
best practice for pressure vessel inspection.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Preparation for
Welding
The third party inspector carries out the visual and dimensional check
to ensure compliance with WPS and other specifications. Where
specified, weld bevels are examined by the required code method after
grinding/machining.
It is necessary that the edges and weld bevels are clean, dry and free
from surface defects, laminations, cracks, voids, notches, etc.
They are causes for rejection unless suitable/satisfactory remedial
action can be taken.
Weld repairs are carried out in accordance with the code requirements
and approved by the client before welding proceeds and serious or
excessive defects normally are reported.
If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for this
inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel manufacturer
quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Fit-Up Inspection
Shapes and dimensions are checked in accordance with the approved
WPS and drawing.
Tack welds are produced using the applicable WPS conditions, and it is
necessary to be visually free from defects.
Magnetic Testing (MT) or Penetration Testing (PT) may be performed
in accordance with the code requirement.
Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP
for this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel
manufacturer quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final
inspection day.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Monitoring of Weld
Conditions
The third party inspector controls preheat heat temperature and
method, interpass temperatures, weld material control, welder and
process qualifications for conformity to the code requirements.
Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP
for this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel
manufacturer quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final
inspection day.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Back Gouging
Inspection
The third party inspector controls the shape and dimensions of the
back gouged groove for conformity to the WPS requirement.
It is necessary that the visual appearance is clean and free from
defects. NDE examination is done in accordance with the code
requirement.
Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP
for this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel
manufacturer quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final
inspection day.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Post Weld
Inspection
After completion of all welding and grinding operations, a visual
examination confirms there are no harmful defects such as cracks, lack
of fusion, surface porosity or exposed slag inclusions, incomplete
penetration, incorrect profile of the weld, lack of leg length and
overlap.
Temporary attachments are removed, ground smooth, and the areas
are checked for defects by MP or PT for defects.
Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP
for this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel
manufacturer quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final
inspection day.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Non-Destructive
Examination
NDE is performed by qualified personnel by the approved techniques.
The techniques available are dependent on the vessel classification and
the materials used.
Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP
for this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel
manufacturer quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final
inspection day.
For more detail, review the following articles:

ASME Pressure Vessel Joint Efficiencies

Pressure Vessel RT test

Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Weld Repair
The pressure vessel weld repairs are completed using an approved
WPS method and retested accordingly.
It is necessary that all repairs are approved before any post weld heat
treatment is carried out.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Post Weld Heat
Treatment
The third party inspector reviews the post weld heat treatment record
of the temperature and time in accordance with the approved
code/procedure.
The results of hardness tests are reviewed in accordance with the code
requirements.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Dimensional
Measurement and Visual Inspection
The third party inspector checks all major dimensions and that the
position/orientation of attachments are in accordance with the code
requirements.
For more details, review the Pressure vessel Dimension
Inspection article.
In addition, a full visual examination of both inside (where practicable)
and outside surfaces of the vessel is completed by the third party
inspector.
Particular attention is paid to the cleanliness of the interior of the
vessel, the condition/appearance of welds and associated areas, and
the condition of the sealing faces.
Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP
for this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel
manufacturer quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final
inspection day.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Pneumatic Test
The third party inspector witnesses the low pressure pneumatic test
for nozzle reinforcing pads, support saddles or other attachments
when specified by approved low pressure pneumatic test procedure
using soapy water as the indicating medium.
A minimum of 1 gauge with correct working ranges as described by
the code is used.
Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP
for this inspection stage, then he/she will review the pressure vessel
manufacturer quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final
inspection day.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Hydro-static
Testing
The third party inspector controls the following items for Hydro-static
Testing:
Calibration status and correct working ranges of gauges. A
minimum of 2 pressure gauges are attached to each item under
testing.
Adequate provision for venting of high points and draining is
provided.
Test pressure is applied as directed by procedure or code until
the testing limit pressure is reached. During hold period, a
methodical check for leaks is conducted.
Test pressures, metal and water temperatures are recorded.
Water quality is as specified.
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Special requirements of the purchaser's specification for deflection or
strain gauges or pressure/time/temperature recordings are examined
by the inspector and the records are verified.
For more detail in hydro-static testing, review the Vessel Pressure
Testing article.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Final Inspection
After hydrostatic testing, the vessel is thoroughly drained and dried
out by approved methods. All internal fittings, attachments, coatings
or other requirements need to be completed.
The specified post hydrostatic test NDE needs to be completed and the
vessel closed.
All pressure vessels are checked for cleanliness and dryness by an
approved method.
The third party inspector rechecks the nozzle, saddle and bracket
locations and orientations against the assembly drawings.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Name Plate
The content of the marking is checked in accordance with the
approved drawing and specifications by the third party inspector.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Painting and
Coating Inspection
Surface preparation for painting is checked for the following points,
according to specification by the third party inspector:
Cleaning method (Blast or scraping and wire brushing)
Preparation grades
Freedom from weld spatter, blow-holes and other defects
Dry film thickness is checked according to specification
Surface condition needs to be free from pin-holes, runs damage and
other discontinuity
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Spares and
Accessories
The third party inspector controls spares, tools and accessories and
makes visual and dimensional inspection for materials, workmanship
and quantity according to the purchase order specification and packing
list.
The marking and/or tag is checked for identification.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Pressure Vessel
Reporting
The third party inspector provides an Inspection Visit Report (IVR) after each
visit, as well as a final report summarizing the activities carried out during the
pressure vessel production in accordance with the contract requirements and
circulated within the time limits specified in the contract.
The report is in the format required by the client and clearly indicates final
acceptance or rejection of the pressure vessel.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Pressure Vessel
Release Note
When required by the contract or purchase order, a release note is issued by the
third party inspection agency and given to the manufacturer when the pressure
vessels have been accepted.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Packing, Marking
and Shipping
The following points are checked by the third party inspector:
Cleanliness and dryness of pressure vessels
Rust prevention for all machined surfaces
Protection for cover for all opening and protruding parts
Packing style and suitably for overseas transportation
Shipping marks and other markings and notification of welding prohibited,
etc.
Where nitrogen purge is specified the gas pressure is checked and the
presence of warning notices checked.
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel - Pressure Vessel
Final Book (Dossier)
The following final documents are reviewed and signed off by the third
party inspector:
As built, drawings if required, Manufacturer's data reports, Material
certificate or certified mill test reports for all pressure parts, Material
list or map, Welder record for each seam or map, Heat treatment
records (Temperature-time record chart during PWHT), Dimensional
record, NDE records, Production test record/mock test record, Alloy
verification records, (if required), hydrostatic test record, Pneumatic
test record, Hardness test record, Post weld heat treatment NDE, if
specified, Name plate or other marks, Packing list, Spare parts and
tool list
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Pressure Vessel Handbook
The Pressure Vessel Handbook article provides you information about
handbook application in pressure vessel design and pressure vessel
inspection.
When there is ASME Code Section VIII, why we need Handbook? What
are the applications?
All design formulas and calculations methods have not been addressed
in ASME Code and also there are no fabrication tolerances in ASME
Code.
So handbook assists us to cover all these requirements.

The Pressure Vessel handbook supports pressure vessel designers,
pressure vessel manufacturer quality control technicians and
engineers, third party inspectors and any other dealing persons with
pressure vessels.
What is the Application of Pressure Vessel Handbook?
1. Non-Covered ASME Code Section VIII Design Formula and
Methods
You may review ASME Code Section VIII Div. 1 in U2 (g) clauses, you
will see following statement:
This Division of Section VIII does not contain rules to cover all details
of design and construction. Where complete details are not given, it is
intended that the Manufacturer, subject to the acceptance of the
Inspector, shall provide details of design and construction which will be
as safe as those provided by the rules of this Division.
So the manufacture is responsible for non-covered item in design
process, but what reference manufactures need to use for these kinds
of cases.
Here is the place manufactures use handbook for design formulas and
calculations.
The lists of non-covered design details have been addressed in UG-22
clauses; the code says the manufacturer need to consider following
loading in his design:
Weight of the vessel
Superimposed static reactions from weight of attached
equipment
Cyclic and dynamic reactions
Wind, snow, and seismic reactions
etc.
Above items are examples, for design calculation manufactures need
to use Press. Vessel Handbook.
2. Non-Covered Construction Tolerances
You may review ASME Code Forward, you will see following statement:
The Code does not fully address tolerances. When dimensions, sizes,
or other parameters are not specified with tolerances, the values of
these parameters are considered nominal and allowable tolerances or
local variances may be considered acceptable when based on
engineering judgment and standard practices as determined by the
designer.
So what is the reference book for these tolerances, here is another
application of pressure vessel handbook.
Some of these construction tolerances are :
Nozzles and attachment deflection tolerances
Nozzles and attachment orientation tolerances
Nozzles and attachment elevation tolerances
Nozzles and attachment projection tolerances
Overall length, measured between the tangents lines tolerances
etc.
3. Facilitate Design Calculation
You may review following statements in ASME Code Forward:
It is not intended that this Section be used as a design handbook
And in other place says:
The Code is not a handbook and cannot replace education,
experience, and the use of engineering judgment.
So the code book is like law book, we need take care about specific
prohibitions and mandatory requirement but for design we need
handbook to facilitate our design process.
The aim of your handbook is to be easily handled and consulted. Some
tables and charts eliminate the necessity for calculations.
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handbook.html#sthash.jqf8VDvB.dpuf

Spherical Pressure Vessel
The Spherical Pressure Vessel article provides you with information
about this vessels characteristics and related points for the pressure
vessel inspection.
What is construction code for spherical pressure vessel? What is In-
Service code for spherical vessel? What are the applications? What are
the advantages?
This article either provides you the answers of your questions or refers
you to the specific sources.
What is the Difference Between the Design Formula of a
Cylindrical Shell and a Spherical Shell?
In the same design condition with the same design pressure, design
temperature and material, the thickness you obtain from the internal
pressure formula for spherical pressure vessel will be half that of the
cylindrical pressure vessel.
The design formula for the cylindrical shell is t = PR/ (SE-0.6P) and for
the spherical shell is t = PR/ (2SE-0.2P)
When the t is represent Thickness, R the Inside Radius, S the
Allowable Stress, P the Design Pressure and E the Joint Efficiency;
For example, if your design pressure is 250 psi, inside radius 20 inch. ,
allowable stress 20,000 psi and joint efficiency 1.
Your thickness for cylindrical shell will be 0.24 inch. or 6.10 mm, and
for the spherical shell, it will be 0.125 inch. or 3.175 mm.
What is the Application and Advantage of a Spherical Pressure
Vessel?
When you need to make storage for a great amount of pressurized
liquid or gas, meaning you need a big volume, then you need a big
pressure vessel, so a spherical shell pressure vessel would be more
economical.
As you see above, the thickness is half that for a similar design
condition. Also placing a long cylindrical pressure vessel might not be
suitable in regards to the regarding plant layout.
What is the Disadvantage of a Spherical Pressure Vessel?
Spherical shell pressure vessels are more expensive than cylindrical
pressure vessels to fabricate, and this higher price is only justifiable
for large vessels.
What is Difference in Fabrication Method Between Cylindrical
and Spherical Shell Pressure Vessel?
Cylindrical shell pressure vessels generally are built in the shop and
then transferred to the plant field except for long process towers,
which might be built in two pieces and completed in the field by one
circumferential weld.
This is only because of the facilitating shipping process.
But spherical shell pressure vessels are assembled in the field. The
plates generally are formed in the rolling shop and then carefully
transferred to the field for assembly.
What is the Difference in the Post Weld Heat Treatment
(PWHT) Process?
If PWHT is a code or process requirement, the PWHT for cylindrical
shell pressure vessels generally are done in the furnace, and if the
vessel is too long, it is done in two heating process with a 5 ft.
overlap.
But PWHT for spherical shell pressure vessels are done by one or more
high velocity burners that are fired into the vessel using the top or
bottom manways (or both) as burner entry and exhaust positions.
This is done because using a PWHT furnace is not possible.
What Kinds of Materials are Stored in a Spherical Pressure
Vessel?
Most of the LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) and LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas)
tanks are Spherical Vessels.
Butane, Propane, Ammonia, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen also are
stored in spherical vessels.
What are the In-Service Inspection Requirements for Spherical
Shell Pressure Vessels?
In-service inspection requirements are similar to those for the
cylindrical pressure vessel and are based on the requirement of the
API STD 510 Standard.
Some important points about in-service inspection are:
The inspection plan needs to be developed for the vessels, and
generally, internal inspection is a mandatory requirement.
You need to do internal inspection in intervals not exceeding one half
of the remaining life, or 10 years, whichever is less.
You can calculate the remaining life with the following simple formula:
RL = (Tc-Tmin)/CR ;
When Tc is Actual Thickness, and Tmin is Minimum Required
Thickness, it is can be obtained by the deduction of nominal thickness
from corrosion allowance, and CR is corrosion rate.
Example: you have a spherical shell storage vessel with an actual
thickness of 1.121 in., and the minimum required thickness is 1.0 and
the corrosion rate is 0.005 in./year, so the reaming life will be:
(1.121-1.0)/0.005 = 24.2 years;
So the internal inspection interval will be:
Half-life = 24.2/2 = 12.1, so 10<12.1, then the internal inspection
interval will be 10 years.
But in most plants, evacuation of storage vessels is very difficult and
costly, so integrity engineers try to find a new technique to replace
internal inspection.
API STD 510 allows the On-Stream inspection to be replaced with the
internal inspection with some conditions.
This is the definition of On-Stream Inspection per the API 510
Standard:
An inspection performed from the outside of a pressure vessel while it
is on-stream using NDE procedures to establish the suitability of the
pressure boundary for continued operation.
But only you may replace this technique if all of following conditions
are met with your vessel:
The general corrosion rate is less than 0.005 inch. per year, remaining
life is greater than 10 years, there is no corrosive character in the
contents, no questionable condition is observed in the External
inspection and the vessel is not subject to SCC cracking.
What is the Best Technique to Use as On-Stream Inspection?
The best technique, which is widely used, is acoustic emission testing.
In this technique, the spherical vessel is completely filled by content
fluid to maximize stresses.
Meanwhile highly-sensitive proprietary acoustic sensors are attached
to the vessel wall to detect the fracture of corrosion products during
the monitoring period.
The suspect areas are identified and located. If the suspect shows a
high risk issue, then the vessel would be evacuated for internal
inspection and necessary repairs.
What are the Repair Methods for a Spherical Shell Pressure
Vessel?
There are three sources for repair of a spherical pressure vessel; API
STD 510 has provided some repair requirements and instructions.
Based the API 510, only repair organizations are allowed to do repairs,
and the definition and condition for being a repair organization has
been provided in the API 510.
The other source is the ASME-PCC-2, which provides you detailed
instructions and requirements.
The other source is the NBIC Part 3 Code book, which similarly
provides requirements and instructions.
Please note if your spherical pressure vessel is a U or U2 stamped
pressure vessel, only repair organizations that are R stamp holders
from NBIC are allowed to do repair on your vessel.
For more detail on the stamped pressure vessel, review the Pressure
Vessel Certification article.
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vessel.html#sthash.RspU0AVi.dpuf

Inspection and Test Plan for Pressure Vessel
The inspection and test plan for pressure vessel article provides you
information about pressure vessel inspection and pressure vessel test
in manufacturing shop. The draft Inspection and test plan for pressure vessel
provided as well.
Click here if you like immediately review the Inspection & Test Plan for
Pressure Vessel draft sheet.
You may need to review this article in conjunction of following articles:
Pressure Vessel Inspections
Third Party Inspection for Pressure Vessel
The ASME Code Section VIII Div. 1 or 2 requirements normally are applied
for inspection and test plan in pressure vessel manufacturing shop.
The witness of some inspection and test by third party inspector or
authorized inspector is mandatory and cannot be waived.
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Some others can only monitored and fully witnessing are not necessary, for
these items, the inspection man-days etc. depends to the purchaser
decision, some prefer stringent monitoring and even assign resident
inspector in pressure vessel manufacturing shop and some others relay to
quality control system of the pressure vessel manufacture and assign only
few days for monitoring points.
These are some of inspection points which need to be witnessed, checked
monitored and reviewed by third party or ASME authorized inspector.
Inspection and Test Plan for Pressure Vessel - Important Points
All plates need to be identified against mill test certificates at the
Vendonr`s works before commencement of fabrication.
Ensuring that welding procedure and welders are qualified and
welding electrodes are approved before commencement of
fabrication.
Selection of location for spot radiography
Reviewing of radiographs
Witnessing of hydrostatic test
Dimensionally checking and carrying out final internal and
external inspection for quality of workmanship.
Checking that all material test certificates and, where applicable,
heat treatment charts are in order
If specified witnessing any crack detection, hardness checks,
ultrasonic tests etc.
Checking fit-up and chipping-back of welded seams.
Monitoring welding process based WPS
Monitoring all NDE activities
Ensuring that Vendor is familiar with the requirements regarding
data books and ensure that the documentation is submitted
without any delay.
Checking internal lining of reactors and vessels (if applicable) to
specifications.
Checking trays of each diameter and type, mock assembled in
the shop. (for process towers)
Checking for interchangeability of parts, where applicable for
process towers
Ensuring that any uncommon down comers are fully assembled
and offered along with their respective trays. (for process
towers)
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