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l.ABA 2
BAA OmHAHHR,
HAH mEHCKAR KOHCYABTAQHR

Muorux y(y_ux o(u.cxcu aoxuyc. :cx: o .o,


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ua cac., (xa cro y+:ax:uoro y(y_cro ucc. ucocno-
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ucauou cuc.c: +c_cro nxo(a noucxo(u. c y+c-
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coc.. C.Hxu|u.cuu. ~ 1. J. ~ M., J96+. ~ C.5.
JJ
aauu:u no(y.au nu.auua, .o+uo .a c ua(o u+-
cra.: u cuu.c+uoaauu:x +ayoa: ucx:+a noy+u.:ca,
+.o +acua ua.yax:uoro +ay+auua ayc.u+ccux uuc.-
ycu.oa xc.ouu:u auaxorau oac.ca |u+uo-
xoru+ccu nucxcou (xa (c.coro orauu+a.
H(cax:u:u cxy+au ~ or(a y(y_aa a.: cao-
c.oa.cx:uo y+uquyc. (noc., urac. ua y+:ax:uo
uuc.ycu.c, y+ac.ayc. a xoc, aucaxc, occ.c).
O(uao nu caoc.oa.cx:uo y+uquoaauuu cxc(yc.
u+cra.: ur: ua nxoxo uac.ocuu:x (|ax:uuao +ay-
+a_ux) u .cxuu+ccu ucucnaau:x uuc.ycu.ax, ura
ua o.o:x conoao(ac.ca noc.oouuuu nu+aya-
u ((cc+auuc, cuno u..(.). Hco.o:x nc-
(oc.oouoc.cu .cyc. y+uquoaauuc ua .aux uu-
c.ycu.ax, a auoxou+cx:, ru.aa, (oa, axaxaua,
au(ya, nocox:y ux c+oua.o: ((cu) uaxo(a.ca a
ucnocc(c.acuuou xu+oc.u o. nxo(a. Cuxa +aya (ox-
ua :.: a .ux cxy+aax acc:a yccuuou, +.o: uc
no(acra.: nxo( +ayoa: nccry+a.
l:.yc. y(oc u+c+cuuc, o.ooc a+u:c uc.o+-
uuu nunuc:aa. .o acurccoy ono+u.oy ox.a-
uy Ko(au, .o ocoacoy nuauuc.y lcuuxy Hcuray+y,
.o c_c oy-.o u+ u+acc.u:x nc(aroroa: +.oc.onoc
ocnuc ccnc ncunccmc+ .c {ce+mo +cc+qce {o
o{cnu+ c:o +cmcu. laa(ocax:uoc ua nca:u
a+rxa( y.ac(cuuc ocuoaauo ua (oc.oacu:x u+-
ucuu:x |a.ax. H ccxu ao acc accua y+:ax:uo
o(acuu:c (c.u c ox:ucu acoa.uoc.: o(axuc: a
cc:ax y+:au.oa, .o, no-au(uoy, uc .ox:o uoxo-
ru+ccaa uacxc(c.acuuoc.: c:raxa +(cc: cao ox:
(aocnuu+uaoc.: y+:c rcuc.u+ccu +axocua a
a(o +cxoacc), uo ucuuo ayc.u+ccaa oc.auoaa
a ncuo( auy.uy.ouoro |ouoaauua nxo(a. A .o,
a o.xu+uc o. rcuoa, qcxuo a uaucu axac.u.
lo(ao(a u.or .oy a+(cxy, cac .a: uoax:-
u:c y+:ax:u:c cnocouoc.u noaaxa. acc +(oo-
a:c (c.u, uc+aaucuo o. ayc.u+ccux ycxoauu auy.u-
J2
y.ouoro a+au.ua. A ao. uc+aya(u:c, |cuocuax:-
u:c cnocouoc.u c ox:ucu acoa.uoc.: ao+uua.
a .cx cxy+aax, or(a auy.uy.ouaa u+u: nxo(a no-
xo(uxa a oc.auoac uaoro y+uquoaauua. ,xa .cx,
.o c+.ac. o(u.: y+:ax:uo-.axau.xuaoro ccua,
a:ao( accu u (aauo c|oyxuoaau a yccou nocxo-
auqc Ha lora ua(cuca, a ca uc nxouaul.
l.ABA J
HPHPYHEHHE BBYKA
B ao+ac.c nuxu+u.cx:uo (o 5-.u xc. a(:u
+cxoac uu.cucuauo ocaauaac. .c uu.ouaquouu:c xc-
cu.: u xa(oa:c o(cxu, o.o:c cxouxuc: a (ca-
uoc.u ~ ua ca:x auuux .anax a+au.ua uaucu
quauxu+aquu ~ u ao acc accua coc.aaxa. ocuoay
y+:ax:uoro :uxcuua. lu .o ccuo +a c+u-
.auu:c ccaq: noa.oac. a caoc uu(uau(yax:uo a+-
au.uu acc: ny.:, no o.ooy +cxoac+cc.ao nouxo +a
.:ca+cxc.ua. S.an: .oro ny.u cxc(y_uc:
Hceou amcn ~ pouyameaxooaa c.a(ua oncu-
oaauua +ayau. Iccuo aua+axc cxy+auuo, a no.o
uaccuuo u co+ua.cx:uo nou+ao(u. uy nu noo-
_u roxoca u x:x no(y+u:x nc(c.oa (rca_ux,
(cc+a_ux, +acua_ux). ,xa oxcr+cuua .aoro +ay-
ocncucu.a.oc.aa u+(aaua cy_cc.ay. cncquax:-
u:c nucnocoxcuua ~ (c.cuc norcyuu. Ouu-
o+uo (ya.:, +.o oncuoaauuc +ayau ~ +a(a+a
noc.aa. B (cauoc.u (oy+:ax:uoc ocaocuuc +ay-
oa :xo (cxo o.u(: uc (c.cu u ua ucro yuxo uc
o(uo c.oxc.uc.
Ka uu c.auuo, uo .o. ~ |yu(acu.ax:uo aa-
u:u ~ .an y+:ax:uoro a+au.ua ccua uc .c-
yc. uuaux cncquax:u:x ycuxuu co c.oou: a+oc-
x:x. ,ac coacucuuo cc.cc.acuu:u na.u+ccuu
aonoc, o.o: +a(a.ca o(u.cxu, ~ auc norc-
JJ
yuu a:a.: (xa noynu ccuy, ~ uc cy_cc.ac-
ucu. Iccuo nucnocou. (xa .ou qcxu x:c .ac-
(:c nc(c.:, auc .ox:o nona(y. cy a yu, u co-
y(aaa ux, u+y+u. acc ao+ou:c +ayoa:c ||c.:
~ nocxc(c.aua .aux auunyxaquu. loynaa u+:c-
auu:c norcyuu a+uooa+u:x |o u ouc.y-
quu, :, no cy_cc.ay, uu+cro uc (oaau (xa y+:ax:-
uoro a+au.ua (c.cu. B:ur:u .ox:o a .o, +.o xou,
ac.xu, nanuu: xc.ouu:c +ac: u no+uu uuacu-
.a:, xoouo +ay+a_uu nu y(aax o nox, uc y(c.
ucnox:+oaau ccuo, noa y ucro a yax cc.: norc-
yuu. ,xa o(u.cxcu norcyua ~ caocro o(a
(oc: u a: no(cuac.c xy ac_:, o.oy uc
xo.u.c au(c.: a+u.ou. B:uaa norcyuu, ouo
uc +ao.u.:ca o ux +ayoa:x naac.ax (ro(a.ca
x:c), a .ox:o o cauu.auo-rurucuu+ccux, ua .o.
cxy+au, ccxu norcyua no:aac. ao .y (a .o no-
u+ou(c. oa+a.cx:uo u .or(a a.cuax uc (oxcu a:-
(cxa.: uuaou xuu+ccou o.aa:) uxu cxoac.ca
(a.cuax (oxcu :.: .au, +.o: uc oa+oa:aa-
xuc: oc.oouc+u:c ocoxu).
C y+:ax:uo-nc(aroru+ccou c.oou: cc.: ua
.o .anc c(uuc.acuuoc nc(oc.cccuuc, rxaau: o-
a+o (xa ora.:x o(u.cxcu: accuuo ao+(cu.cc:
o. noynu xc.ouuoro cuu.c+a.oa (xc.oy+:-
ax:uoro uuc.ycu.a). 1aaa uryua, caa no ccc
o+cu: xoouaa, no+aoxac. uaa.uc uono a:+:aa.:
+ayu xoro .ca, a .o +ucxc uu.uoaa.: +ay+a-
uuc y(aoa nc(c.a o nc(c.. Ho au:uc accuu
no+uaoua ccua c xaaua.you cuu.c+a.oa, :
coac noqccc |ouoaauua a cro :uxcuuu caa+cu
c(y +ayau u noo(a_uu ux |u+u+ccuu
(aucuuau. (S.o c_c xyc, +c (a.: ccuy ax:y-
xa.o au:uc, +c ou uay+uxca :cxcuuo cxa(:aa.:
+ucxa. Kax:yxa.o, ouc+uo, ca acc c(cxac. :c.o u
naaux:uo, uo coo.ac.c.ay_aa cnocouoc.: ya oc.a-
uc.ca ucua.cuuoaauuou.)
J+
Bmoou amcn ~ nu(auuc +aya u.u+ccou
cryxauoc.u, .o cc.: ynoa(o+cuuoc.u ao accuu. C
.oro ocu.a c.uxuuuoc +ayocncucu.a.oc.ao
c.auoau.ca uyaoqopoaaooeu, .o cc.: uaccuu: +ay-
oa: ao+(cuc.auc ua cca u ua (yrux x(cu. S.o
xa(c. ua+axo ycuu cryxuoaa.: caou u +yuc o-
quouax:u:c nccuaauua u yx:.uauoaa.: oquo-
uax:u:u on:. xu+uoc.u, o.o:u, no a:acuu lya-
a Aca.uauu, uaanxuaac.ca, a oca(u nccuaa-
uuu

.
Ha mcmoc+ amcnc ccuo na.uyc. uoro-
a.uo noa.oacoc u.u+uoc cau(uoaauuc o.(cx:-
u:x cxoa u cxoaoco+c.auuu ua o(uou uo.c, no+(ucc ~
ua xccu.auo noc.:x noncaax u+ (ayx-.cx uo..
Co accuc .o nuao(u. ocaocuu oxcc no.a-
cuu:x cxoaccuo-y+:ax:u:x ono+uquu .una (c.-
cux c+u.axo. Ic+: u(c. uc o ccqcx:uou +aaac, a o
ocaocuuu aaucuucro y+:ax:uoro nuca oc.uua-
.o, ua o.oo ocuoa:aac.ca (cauaa .cxuua +axu-
uauuu, +aroaooa, no+(ucc ~ oxu.a, |oyx runuo.u-
+ccoro auyucuua u .. n. Baucuuu nu+uao c-
+yx:.a.uauoc.u y+:ax:uoro a+au.ua ua .o u (y-
rux auuux .anax oc. cxyu.: cnocouoc.: u c-
xauuc ccua uoroa.uo noa.oa.: o(ua(: uau-
(cuuy u.ouu.ouaqu, .o cc.: enoeo c {oeo.ocmeu-
c+ nccuecmo o(ua(: no+yac.aoaauuoc. la.u-
+ccoc ocaocuuc oc.uua.uou noa.ouoc.u ~ +uacua-
.cx:u:u yc ua ny.u (yxoauoro oc.a, nocox:y .o
~ nca:u on:. ncc.c{cnu+ nc+cmcuc.ono+ (ua-
cxa(cuu .oc ua(o y+u.:cal).
Ha accx ncc+ucxcuu:x c.a(uax a+au.ua axo-
xc.uuu cncucu.a.o, ca .oro uc no(o+caaa, uc-
nox:+yc. nuuqun, ua o.oo c.ouxoc: (caucuucc
y+uquoaauuc, ~ eooeperoau (coaoynuoc.: cxoaa,
J
Aca.uauu l. Hccxc(ya ucnoa.ouoc. // Bonoc: xu.ca.y:.
~ J976. ~ !JJ. ~ C. JJJ.
J5
cxo(uu u cc.a, .o cc.: ncaoua+ax:uaa ucac+xcucu-
uoc.: ucycc.aa ua au(:). lo.oy a auuc ao+ac.c
ncuuc accr(a noucxo(u. e+ccmc c nou+ucccuuc cxoa
u c u.u+u:u .cxo(aucuuau. uaa .o, uc cxc-
(yc. (ouaa.:ca o. ccua o.(cx:uo ncuua (+uc.o-
ro uu.ouuoaauua cxo(uu) uxu o.(cx:uo ur: ua
uuc.ycu.c cnomc, +c ou ocaou. cuuc.u+ccy
c.uxonccucnxacy.
Kaoaa +a(a+a a+ocx:x a .o. ncuo(' Bc(:, a-
+axoc: :, u c+ ux acua.cx:c.aa ccuo uu.yu.uauo
uaxo(u. naaux:u:u ny.: y+:ax:uoro a+au.ua u c
ucu+cuoc.: ca nccxo(u. o. o(uou c.a(uu ocaoc-
uua y+:u (yrou. Kor(a (cuc.ay. nuo(u:c
aa.oa.u+:, o c+yx:.a.ax ouo uc ccnoou.:ca.
Ho .a :xo au:uc: noqccc ucx aa.oa.u+ccu (o
.cx no, noa uc c.ax a+yua.:ca na.uaxax:u:u
yxa( u+uu. A .cnc: a .o. noqccc nuxo(u.ca
acua.:ca a+ocx:, uo o .o ~ a cxc(y_cu rxaac.
l.ABA +
TPEBYETCR HRHR C MYBMKAABHMM
OBPABOBAHHEM
Iau:uc ccuo oc a a+uoao+ac.uo (c.co
coo_cc.ac. B ycxoauax ox:uou uoro(c.uou cc:u
uxu rynn: no(ou:x cccu, uauux no-cocc(c.ay,
noc.oauuo quyxuoaaxu a (oc.a.o+uo oxu+cc.ac
(c.cuc nuncau, c+u.axu, nccuu, ncc(aaac:c u+yc.-
uo o. nooxcuua nooxcuu u nccuuac:c, a no
c.a|c.c, xa(uuu o. c.auux. 1aou noc.oauuo (cu-
c.ay_uu a (c.co coo_cc.ac cnc.yau:u |ou(
occnc+uaax uoax:uoc a+au.uc y+:ax:uoro :u-
xcuua u o.ao.y accx ucoxo(u:x uu.ouaquouuo-
nca+ccux uaa:oa. lo.oy noqccc u or no.ca.:
ca no ccc, c+ acua.cx:c.aa a+ocx:x. O(uao .c-
nc: ucc(uu c.axu cu.yaquu, or(a ccuo uc uc-
J6
c. noc.oauuoro ou.a.a c oxcc c.auu (c.cu no-
oxcuuc. 1aoc noucxo(u. a o(uo(c.u:x cc:ax, a
(c.cux ca(ax u uoxax, r(c rynn: u xacc: on-
xc.y.ca u+ aauoao+ac.u:x (c.cu. B .aux ycxo-
auax ccuy :aac. uc y oro nccua.:, yuacxc(o-
aa.: cnc.yau:u +anac u cc.cc.acuuo, +.o ao+o-
uoc.u cro y+:ax:uoro a+au.ua u+-+a .oro cux:uo
orauu+uaa.ca u oc(ua.ca. lo.oy +.o noqccc
|ouoaauua .oro uxu uuoro uaa:a y+:ax:uoro
:uxcuua (oxcu :.: +c-.o +any_cu, a .ox+o,
nycoa: cxauu+o cxyu. coo.ac.c.ay_aa no-
ncaa, o.oy (c.u acauu a+ uc co+uua., a nccuu-
a. (yr y (yra, xa(uuc o. c.auux.
B coaccuu:x roo(cux ycxoauax, or(a uay-
uac.ca uxu (ac nc:aac.ca uoroxc.ucc quyxu-
oaauuc a (c.cou cc(c u+ac+uo :.oaaauux .a no-
ncao, +a(a+a aocnu.a.cxa ~ aoaca aocnoxuu.: c-
cuy ao+uua_uc cnc.yau:c nocx:. Ho a+oc-
x:c x(u a ox:uuuc.ac cxy+aca uc xaua. a naa.u
ucoxo(u:u u (oc.a.o+u:u cnc.ya (c.cux nonc-
ao, c+u.axo u ncccu, no.oy a:noxuu.: cao +a(a+y
ory. .ox:o .c u+ uux, .o ycc. umcmo nomo. Bc(:
nu(c.ca coc.aau.: ucoxo(u:u yr nou+ac(cuuu
ua ocuoaauuu nc+a.u:x uc.o+uuoa u aacc.u cro a co-
+uauuc ccua u a na.uy y+uquoaauua (c.coro
oxxc.uaa.
lo(+cuaa, au:uc .o noucxo(uxo cao co-
ou. Ma.: ycxa unoau+uoaa.: ox:cx:u:c ncc-
uu ua ocuoac cxo(u+ccux o(cxcu, u+acc.u:x cu o.
cc a.cu, (c.u oy+axu (yr (yra noncaa u c+u-
.axa, nccuuaa u.ouu.ouaquouu:c nuc:. 1c-
nc: c, +.o: occnc+u.: uoax:uoc a+au.uc c-
cua, a a(c cxy+aca cxc(yc. ucycc.acuuo couc.y-
uoaa.: (xa ucro .o, +.o yuxo u+ ouxo(a u coxauu-
xoc: xuu: a nuc:cuuou |ucaquu |ox:xouc.oa.
Coaccuuaa oxo(aa aa, o.oou nuuxo ac-
a +aua.:ca aocnu.auuc ccua, nocxc(uuu a+ cx:-
J7
uaxa ox:cx:u:c nccuu 2O-JO xc. ua+a( (ccxu aoo-
_c cx:uaxa). Coc. xu oua caa (no naa.u) na-
aux:uo ux aocnou+acc.u' O+cau(uo, uc..
lcuuc ox:cx:u:x ncccu ~ cc(ucauaa na-
.ua, oa+a.cx:uaa a .c+cuuc uccox:ux ccaqca. ,c-
xac.ca .o uc cnou.auuo, a oc. noa+a.:ca co c.o-
ou:, a +aouocu: oa+o, ua ocuoac aa:uoaa-
uua onc(cxcuu:x cxo(u+ccux |oyx, :.y_ux a
uao(c .:ca+cxc.uau. Cc(u uux cc.: u xccu.a-
u:c noncau u+ (ayx-.cx +ayoa, u a+au.:c cxo(u-
+ccuc noc.ocuua, ora.:c a uu.ouaquouuo u u.u-
+cco o.uoucuuu.
B uoro(c.u:x cc:ax cu_uua auo nuoc-
.ac. u noc.oauuo .cuuyc. uaa: ncuua ox:cx:u:x
ncccu: c_c (o .oro a y ucc noaaa.ca coc.acuu:c
(c.u, oua co.uu a+ noc. ox:cx:u:c xa(uu a.:-
a u ccc.a. H:uc cxauu+ yc.uou ncc(a+u yx:-
.yuou uu|oaquu (ac. cou u+-+a c+ux ucoa.u-
:x u+cucuuu na.uaxax:uoro yxa(a u+uu u .a-
(uquouuou c.y.y: cc:u. B .unu+uou coaccu-
uou roo(cou cc:c, r(c (c.u o(a.ca c uu.caa-
xo a 2O-JO xc., oxo(aa aa uc nouu. u.ocxo-
(u+ccux |oyx u uc ucc. coo.ac.c.ay_cro uaa:-
a nca+ccou unoau+aquu u aa:uoaauua. lu oc.a-
c.ca orauu+u.:ca xccu.auou uu.ouaqucu, ao+uua-
_cu nu ya+uaa_c oxca.cx:uo (aucuuu
(a-au uxu a-a-a). Iccuo, ouc+uo, +ac:nac.,
uo a cxo(u+cco, uu.ouaquouuo-xa(oao o.uoucuuu
oc.ac.ca uc(ooxcuu:. lu+uua acuo onc(c-
xcua a a|ou+c Kaxa Kayca: U.o nccaauxu y+u-
.cxa, .c nu.a.ca y+cuuu
J
.
K c+ac.:, uco.o:c u+ .a(uquouu:x cxo(u-
+ccux |oyx, xca_ux a ocuoac ox:cx:u:x ncccu,
u oa+q: ux unoau+aquouuoro aa:uoaauua :xu
J
Kayc K. A|ou+: // Bonoc: xu.ca.y:. ~ J977. ~ !J.
~ C. JO6.
J8
nuc:cuuo +a|ucuoaau: y+:oac(au-|ox:xou-
c.au u uanc+a.au: a cncquax:u:x u+(auuax (a .o
+ucxc, a o_c(oc.ynu:x ncccuu:x couuax). 1a +.o
(ac a cxy+ac, or(a yc.uaa .a(uqua ncaaxac:, o-
x:cx:u:c nccuu ory. :.: auoa: aocc.auoaxcu: u
naaux:u: oa+o aocnou+ac(cu: no uura, uy-
uo .ox:o yc.: acuo no+cc.: uo.uy +anuc:.
lc(a, o(uao, +ax+ac.ca a .o, +.o .o uyuo
(cxa.: uc a ouqc.c, r(c cc.: aaxu|uquoaauu:c
y+:au.:-no|cccuouax:, a (oa, a cc:c. Ho, u+-+a
a.ac.o|u+ccoro noaaxa a (cxc y+:ax:uoro o-
a+oaauua, (ony_cuuoro u ycyryxa_croca ua no.a-
cuuu uccox:ux (cca.uxc.uu, u+-+a no+.u acco_cu
y+:ax:uou nc:c+omnocmu, a cc:ax o:+uo uc yc-
. +u.a.: uo.:. Hcrao.uoc.: cao(u. ua uc. yuu-
ax:uy, o.xu+a_y +cxoaca o. uao.u:x cnoco-
uoc.: uay+a.:ca uc o. o(uoro nc(ucc.ay_cro noo-
xcuua, a o. uorux.
U.o a .o cxy+ac ouo nocoac.oaa.: xo.a : a
a+cc.ac noxyc:' Kor(a a: (ac.c o.aaxcuuc 1c-
yc.ca uaua co +uauuc aurxuucoro a+:a, no(yau-
.c c_c a+, a+acc:.c nuou.c.: u ua+uu.c .a:
1Ill\l1CH HHHH C M\MKA.lHMM
OlIAOBAHHlM....
Bcc (yruc (oc.ouuc.aa uauu, no caaucuu c y-
+:ax:uou oa+oaauuoc.:, uc c.ox: |yu(acu.ax:-
u: u uc c.ox: (c|uqu.u: a uauc aca. C noaaxcuu-
c a (oc xoouo oa+oaauuou uauu, ccuo anc-
a:c y+uac. u no+yac.ayc. ua ccc (cuc.auc y+:ax:-
uou oeparoroeo a .o +ua+cuuu .oro .cuua, o.o-
:u oc.oyuo u .o+uo c|oyxuoaax Cuou Coxo-
acu+u: lc(arorua ~ uaya o ucycc.ac aocnu.a-
uua (c.cu, uo uc accx, a .ox:o +yux.
J
Coxoacu+u C. A+ u yu. lc(aroru+ccuc a+:uxcuua //
Hoa:u u. ~ J985. - !J. ~ C. J8J.
J9
l.ABA 5
HE HPHHEBOAHTB, A HPHOXOTHTB
Ha acc no.acuuu (c.c.aa u uoc.u, ua+uuaa o.
+c.:cx-ucc.u xc., or(a ccuo xocm nonooecmo
y+u.:ca y+:c (uo, nonooaaa, oc. .o.+ac oxxa-
(c.: ucu), u (o na.ua(qa.u-aoccua(qa.u xc., or(a
uu.ccc y+cc, ccxu ou c|ouoaaxca, c.auoau.ca
c.ouu, ~ ucoxo(uo rao.uoc nc(aroru+ccoc -
oeo{cmeo unmccco+.
l:.yc. nc(accy(o, corxacuo o.ooy cxa:u
uu.ccc +aua.ua y+:ou y(.o : coo.ac.c.ayc.
cxaoy (aoaauu. B (cuc.au.cx:uoc.u uc. naou
caa+u c(y uu.ccco y+:c u cnocouoc.au
ucu, no.oy o.cy.c.auc uu.ccca ~ uc noao( o.a-
+a.:ca o. oy+cuua.
\+u.:aaa, +.o uu.ccc +aua.ua y+:ou y ox:-
uuuc.aa ua+uua_ux ucc.ouuu, cro nuxo(u.ca acc
aca ucycc.acuuo no(orcaa.:, uo ua a(o .anc
~ (yruu cc(c.aau. Hco.o:c nuc: no((c-
auua uu.ccca ory. ocaou.: o(u.cxu u aocnu.a.cxu,
(yruc .cy. aaxu|uaquu no|cccuouax:uoro nc-
(arora ~ y+u.cxa y+:u.
1a.ua o(u.cxcu (oc.a.o+uo noc.a; (xa .oro
+.o: uu.ccc uc nona(ax, .cyc.ca a:(ca.: acc-
ro .u ycxoaua:
J) ooeorpa oe opooymparo,
2) aeerpa orpaoonoaaro,
J) ooorpa aaopeqaro.
ac.:.c, +.o a ncao nyu.c cxoao uuor(a
cxa.cx:uo nouua.: yaax:uo, uo (oc.a.o+uo (ac
o(uoa.uoro nuuy(cuua, +.o: ucno.u.: acc (cxo.
Ca+y oa+yc.ca +aox(oaauu:u yr: a +ac.aaxa
ccua +auua.:ca, no.oy +.o ou uc xo+c., a ou uc
xo+c., no.oy +.o a +ac.aaxa... (l_c a (cauoc.u
ca+ax Kccuo|ou.: Koro +ac.aaxa. cuxou, .o. ucua-
au(u., a y(.o y ucro +.o-.o o.uaxu.)
2O
Caoc ccuuoc, +.o acc o(u.cxu ncaocxo(uo yc-
. ynaaxa.: uu.ccco, uo +a:aa. .o caoc ycuuc,
a .ox:o (cxo (oxo(u. (o y+:ax:u:x +aua.uu.
Hanuc, no+cy aau ccuo accr(a uc no+: c.cc.:
oocuoc' Ka a: .oro (ouxuc:' O+cu: noc.o:
ao-nca:x, a: uuor(a cro uc +ac.aaxaxu .o (cxa.:, a
ao-a.o:x, accr(a yc.auaaxuaaxu orauu+cuua ~ +.o-
: uc noc.y(uxca uxu (cucr uc. ua oocuoc, uxu
c_c no aou-.o nu+uuc. Ic+yx:.a. o.cuu:u: cxa-
uuc c|ouoaauo, ro.oa c.cc.:, cox:o (a(y., +ac.aa-
xa.: uc nuxo(u.ca. A ao. c auuou aucu acc uaoo-
o.: ccua uu.o uc orauu+uaax a oxu+cc.ac .oro
no(y.a, uo :aaxu cxy+au, or(a ouxu no( uau-
o. Ic+yx:.a.' ~ Hc uc aa acca+:aa.:...
1cnc: cnocu cca: (cuc.au.cx:uo xu ooc-
uoc cxa_c auuou auu, ~ u nouc, +.o nu+uua uc
a (o+uoac caxaa, a a .o, +.o +anc.u:u nxo( cxa-
(o. H c_c nouc, +.o oeparoroea - aro oeeyeer-
ao yopaaxaro mexaooauo.
Ka nucuu.: caou c +ac+a.cx:uo ycncuu:u
on:. aocnu.auua xau oocuoy ~ a y+:-
ax:uo oy+cuuu ccua'
J. Oycxoa:.c ao+ouoc.: ur: ua y+:ax:-
uo uuc.ycu.c a:noxucuuc aux-xuo oa+a.cx:-
u:x noy+cuuu, uanuc, roaou.c .a: Hc urau, noa
uc yccu: a caocu oua.c (noa uc a:ucccu: ac(o
c ycoo, noa uc +ac.cxcu: noc.cx:, noa uc
noocu: nocy(y u .. n.).
2. ,au.c noua.:, +.o a: uc o(oac.c y+:ax:-
u:c +aua.ua u orauu+:.c aca ur: ua uuc.ycu.c:
Mocu: ura.:, uo uc ox:uc (ayx +acoa a (cu:
(uc ox:uc noxy+aca no(a(, uc ao aca oc(a,
.ox:o uc ccu+ac, or(a aa nuxcrxa o.(oxuy.:,
uc cuau nanc co.c.: |y.ox no .cxcau+oy, .uuc,
a+y(uu: cocc(cu, xy+uc nocrau ua cacc ao+-
(yxc, +auuc: +c-uuy(: (yru, cox:o ouo
cu+a.:l u .. (.).
2J
J. B o+cu: c(ux cxy+aax orauu+cuuu oa+:aa-
c.ca uc(oc.a.o+uo, .or(a, +.o: noy(uxca uu.ccc
+aua.ua y+:ou, .cyc.ca +anc.. Ia+ycc.ca, .o
.ox:o yxoaa, no.oy +anc. (oxcu :.: .au, +.o-
: cro y(aaaxoc: oou.u.
Ococuuo aauo nu(cuaa.:ca .aou .a.uu
nu aocnu.auuu c:uoacu. lcxu, uca (cxo c (cao+au,
uuor(a y(ac.ca (u.oaa.: u cao aox, nox:+yac:
nocxyuauuc u ucnoxuu.cx:uoc.: (u .o (axco uc
accr(a), .o c ax:+uau .o. uoc uc noxo(u.. B
uux cuxcu (yx no.uaoc+ua, u ucycx:c non:.u ua-
aa+a.: u cao aox u nuo_u.: y+:c cuxou ~
+ac.o nuao(a. oa.uoy c+yx:.a.y.
B aocnouuauuax o (c.c.ac A.H.Cauua
+a|ucuoaau nca:u, rxaau:u coac., o.o:u (ax cro
aocnu.a.cxa A. l. Iyuuu.cuu. Mcyauc.a
coo_ac.: Au.ou Iyuuu.cuu :x o(uo aca
y+u.cxc a.cu A[xccau(a| H[uoxacau+a|, or(a
oua :xa a lc.cyrcou ouccaa.ouu. Ou o+cu:
cc xux u ua+:aax caocu (o+ou. \+uaa, +.o oua ycxa
u +.o Hyuu:a cc c:u, ou c ox:uu uu.ccco
o.uccca ucy. Iyuuu.cuu :x noacu
y+:ax:u: .axau.o Cauu u nocux cua uc
+ac.aaxa.: cro uu ura.:, uu co+uua.:, or(a y ucro uc
:xo cxauua
J
.
Coacucuuo c+ua(cuo noxocuuc a .cx cc:ax,
r(c o(u.cxu, cuxac: (ou.:ca ycncxoa a y+cc,
nucua. uc .ox:o nuuy(cuuc, uo c_c u
ccc:cxcuu:c uaa+auua.
(cc: ycc.uo ucua(oxro o.axc+:ca o. uaucu oc-
uoauou .c: u +a(ya.:ca ua( aoeoorarexoooo po-
xo oaeaaaooo. Mouo xu a nc(aroruc aoo_c oou-
.uc: c+ uaa+auuu' Mouo, uo uc uyuo. a(a+a a
.o, +.o: cuc.cy uaa+auuu u noo_cuuu uc ncaa-
J
Cauua ..A.[Bocnouuauua| // Axccau( Huoxacau+
Cauu: Couu 25-xc.u co (ua cc.u / Ic(.-coc..
C.A.Mayc. ~ M. .., J9+O. ~ C. JJ.
22
_a.: u+ aocnu.a.cx:uoro cc(c.aa a au.uaocnu.a.cx:uoc.
lc(c accro, cxc(yc. noxuoc.: ucx+u.: u+
na.uu nuc: ao+(cuc.aua, u+aa_a_uc ncuxuy
ccua. K .au nuca o.uoca.ca acc au(: y-
onuxa(c.aa. C aquouax:uou nc(aroruou uccoa-
cc.u: .cxccu:c uaa+auua: uu o(uu, (ac ca:u
_a(a_uu cnoco uaucccuua nooca uc oc. uc.: (u
uuor(a uc ucc.) aocnu.a.cx:uou qcuuoc.u. Texe-
eome oaeaaaooa - eouorou oeparoroneeeoo ouoo-
reoqoo. (Ku, uc.cua, yuu+u.cx:u:c +ac+auua, oc-
ou.cx:uaa yrau:, ry:u .ou ~ oxcc auuuc nu-
+uau .oro c.)
Kor(a ycx:u aocnu.a.cx: uaa+:aac., ou uc a-
ac., a y+u.. lc(aroru+ccu naaux:uoc uaa+auuc (ox-
uo +ax+a.:ca a .umcnuu c.cc+o:o. lu .o a
co+uauuu u no(co+uauuu ccua aa.oa.u+ccu ao+-
ac.ac. u |ucuyc.ca +ua+uoc.: .oro, +cro a: cro
xuuac.c. 1: nxoxo noc.ynux u a uaa+auuc a uc
a+cuy .cc ccro(ua ura.: ua nuauuuo (+any y-
+:ax:u:u uuc.ycu. ua x+ u (o nouc(cx:uua uc
o.o, cna+y no( +ao uo.:, o.cu yo y-
+:u, uc ny_y a uoxy u .. (.). lo+a_c nou+uo-
cu.c no(ou:c yro+: u a: c|ouyc.c y ccua
ucnco(oxuoc cxauuc a ouo ox:uc +auua.:-
ca y+:ou, ucnox:+oaa.: (xa +aua.uu a(y cao-
o(uy uuy.y u uc +xu.: aac u+ onaccuua xuuu.:ca
.oro y(oaox:c.aua.
lony.uo a: cuu.c .y(ucuuy +a(a+y o:: c
xcu:. Bo uorux cc:ax :aac. .a, +.o ccuo y(-
.o : u xo+c. y+u.:ca y+:c, o(uao .cnumc+ (cxa.:
.o cryxauo u uc uac.ocu nco(oxcaa.: .y(uoc.u.
Aeoo - peqeer uoroaaqoo. A o.uaaqucu ynaa-
xac. nc(aror, no.oy noaaxcuuc xcuu oc. cxyu.:
curuaxo o nc(aroru+ccou ouuc uxu uc(oao.c.
O.cryxuoaa.: o.uaaqu noora., a .o uu c.au-
uo, .cncmo {c.cmo mo. mo u mc nc {c.ccmc+
(uc +auuauca .a +ac.o, uc noa.oau uoro a+
2J
o(uy u .y c n:ccy, uc +u.au uoa:c nou+ac(cuua,
noa y+u.cx:uuqa ux uc +a(axa u .. (.).
lcuxoxoru+ccuu naa(oc a .o, +.o oxora oyqe
oeaoxo. B .ou oo.ou nocxoauqc +ax+cua qc-
xaa nc(aroru+ccaa ouqcnqua (y(aa u ||c.ua-
uaa uc .ox:o (xa y+:ax:uoro oy+cuua), u+ ucc a:-
.cac., +.o +a(a+a aocnu.a.cxa ~ oe opooeaoxoro, a
opooxororo.
l.ABA 6
HEPE HAHAAOM HYmHA HPEAKHR
Hcy(a+u oy+cuua +ac.o ao+uua. u+-+a |ax:-
c.a.a (or(a y+u.: ua+axu au:uc, +c c|ouoaa-
xoc: cxauuc u ro.oauoc.: y+u.:ca). U.o: +axo.c.:
+.o-xuo c(cxa.: caouu yau, ccuo (oxcu aua-
+axc yau(c.: .o a ro.oao au(c, aocxu.u.:ca u no(y-
a.:: H .oc .a xo+yl. loa y ucro uc uc+c+xo
uuc.uu.uauoc c.cxcuuc no(aa.: c.auu (a .a-
oc c.cxcuuc cc.: y a(oro +cxoaca, uo uc ac
u+u:, a xuu: a ncuo( o. xa(cu+cc.aa (o uac.ynxc-
uua +cxoc.u), uyuo .o ycxo ucnox:+oaa.: a a+c-
c.ac c.uyxa (xa oy+cuua.
\cx:uaa, a y+uquy. (yruc, ccuo +axo+c.
ca uay+u.:ca y+uquoaa.:. lo.oy ycncuuoc ua-
+axo +aua.uu y+:ou ao+ouo .ox:o nocxc nuo-
c.cuua uco.ooro exymarexoeeoro oomra, (oc.a.o+-
uoro (xa +anyca cxauu+oa no(aauua. Xoouo,
ccxu .o. on:. ua+uuac. nuoc.a.:ca a coc.acuuou
cc:c, r(c y+uquy. o(u.cxu, .or(a ou y(c. uaa-
_uaa.:ca a(o(ucauo, c+o acaux (onoxuu.cx:u:x
ycuxuu. Ho ccxu .aou ao+ouoc.u uc., uc c(a: cxy-
ua.cx:cuu on:. ouo uaonu.:, nocc_aa |uxao-
uu+ccuc ouqc.: u oncu:c cnc.axu. ayo+anu-
cu u au(co|ux:: .oc nuro(a.ca u noory., uo xuu:
a a+cc.ac (onoxucuua: noxuoc.: +acuu.: uu anc-
2+
+a.xcuua o. uaoro y+uquoaauua ucx:+a.
lcxu a: uaccu: ua+a.: y+:ax:uoc oy+cuuc
c ur: ua |o.cnuauo, noc.aau.cc: c(cxa.: .a, +.o:
ccuo or nouax(a.: +a urou xooucro nuauuc-
.a. lcxu ccuy nc(c.ou. ua+a.: y+u.:ca urc ua
cunc, nyc.: nouax(ac. +a (cuc.auau xooucro
cuna+a...
,o onc(cxcuuoro ao+ac.a +cxoacy uc c.:(uo
:.: no(aa.cxc. Mcxauu+ aoxcaoro ycuxua a (c.-
c.ac +anycac.ca ucuuo cxauuc oy-.o no(aa.:,
(ac onuoaa.: +:c-xuo noac(cuuc. U.o: ynaa-
xa.: cxauuau ccua, (oc.a.o+uo caocaccuuo u
nocxc(oaa.cx:uo nc(.aaxa.: cro auuauu coo.ac.-
c.ay_uc oa+q: (xa no(aauua. lu .o uyuo
nouu.:, +.o (c.u cxouu: no(aa.: uc cacc.uua
u uc xa(uu, a accr(a cmcmu+, +a_c ~ a+ocx:
x(a. lo.oy ucnaaux:uo roaou.:: Co.u, a
Ho+a uoro +auuac.ca, ay oua .y(uy coua.y
a:y+uxa, ccxu uc y(cu: xcu.ac, .oc cocu:, a
oua, ura.: ua nuauuuo cxou:c nou+ac(cuua u a:c-
.yna.: a ouqc.ax. ,xa noy(cuua cxauua uc-
oxo(uo coacc (yroc: ccuo (oxcu nocc_a.:
ouqc.: aapoexmx y+:au.oa, .or(a ou ca +axo+c.,
no(aaa u, a+a.: a yu y+:ax:u:u uuc.ycu..
\ o(uux .o. ||c. uac.ynu. au:uc, y (yrux no+c,
uo noaau.ca oa+a.cx:uo. U.o: ycx:ua.: o. ccu-
a noc:y: Kynu uc cuny, ~ (oc.a.o+uo :aa-
c. uccox:ux nocc_cuuu cunu+u:x ouqc.oa a |u-
xaouuu, +.o: ou no.coaax nuocc.u nuauuuo,
(oc.a.o+uo nocc.u.: c uu uccox:o ouqc.oa nua-
uuc.oa.
Ho .u nocc_cuua c caoro ua+axa (oxu: :.:
oc.aaxcu: .au oa+o, +.o: ccuo no+yac.ao-
aax orauu+cuua. loaou.c, uanuc, .a: H uc ao+:y
.ca c coou a |uxaouu, (c.cu .y(a uc nyca.,
+.o: uc uycxu. (Hxu: 1cc uyuo aoaca xc+:
cna.:, a ouqc. +aou+u.ca no+(uo. 1: ax c_c a
25
|uxaouu xo(u.:, acc aauo .a uu+cro uc noucu:,
cu(u xy+uc (oa, co.u .cxcau+o. 1: nxoxo cca
acx, a +ua+u., ua ouqc. uc nou(cu:. S.o. ouqc.
.ox:o (xa a+ocx:x u .. (.) lo.o yc.ynu.c noc:a
ccua u noac(u.c cro a |uxaouu, uo, (a: uc
cnyruy.: cxauuc, c(cxau.c .o c au(uou ucoxo.ou.
Hc noa+:aau.c aaucro uc.cncuua nococc ua-
+a.: +aua.ua. laa(oc: +.o: ccuo c+o: +auu-
a.:ca y+:ou, (oc.a.o+uo ynu.: nuauuuo; +.o: ou
.cxomc. +auua.:ca y+:ou, :aac. (oc.a.o+uo no-
(a.: nuauuuo.
locc_cuuc ouqc.oa, r(c ccuo oc. au(c.:
oa+q: (xa no(aauua, cxc(yc. na.uoaa.: uc .ox:-
o {o ncc.c +aua.uu y+:ou, uo u uc ecc+ nom+-
cnuu ocnu+. laaux:u:u noa(o (cuc.auu .a-
oa: aua+axc noxy+u.: anc+a.xcuuc o. y+uquoaauua
a+ocx:x, no.o ura.: caoc.oa.cx:uo. laaux:uoc
coo.uoucuuc (ua accx .anax y+c:): oxome apeue-
oo exymaro uyamey, neu eauouy uyaoqopoaaro.
lcxu a aaucu cc:c uc. ao+ouoc.u ynu.: y-
+:ax:u:u uuc.ycu., ccxu aa nuxo(u.ca u+-+a a-
.cuax:u:x +a.y(ucuuu o.xou.: .o ua y(y_cc, .o
nouu.c, +.o ua+axo y+:ax:uoro oa+oaauua o.xa-
(:aa.: ucx:+a. Ha+a.: cxa.cx:uo a ouo au:uc
(+c au:uc, .c xy+uc), uo oa+a.cx:uo ~ oe ooap-
oee meeroxeroero aoapaera.
,ac nu o.cy.c.auu y+:ax:uoro uuc.ycu.a
cc.: ao+ouoc.: uc ynyc.u.: ocu.. Oy+cuuc y-
+:c oc. :.: ycncuuo ua+a.o ncuuc a (c.co
xoc. Xooaou oxxc.ua a:uau.c, ucxo(a u+ ucnox-
uacoro cnc.yaa (.o (oxua :.: ncuy_cc.acuuo
xaccua) u aaxu|uaquu (uuca (u (oxcu :.:
no|cccuouax:u:u (unxouoaauu:u xocuc.c c
ouccaa.ocu oa+oaauuc). B c.o(u+ccu na-
aux:uo ao.a_c (c.co xoc ccuo noxy+u. uc
.ox:o uaa:u y+uquoaauua, uo u a+: y+:ax:uou
rao.:. Hc +ay(:.c (a.: coo.ac.c.ay_uc oa+q:
26
(xa no(aauua: orauu+yu.c (ucuaaa++uao) nocc_c-
uuc ouqc.oa aa(cu+ccoro xoa a |uxaouuu nxc
nocxyuuaauuc y+:u au.a.uo-oa.ouax:u:x au-
oa a +anucax xy+uux xooa:x ancxx.
B cc:ax, r(c .o nucxco no oax:u: coo-
acuua, ua+axo y+:ax:uoro oa+oaauua oc.
:.: noxocuo ncuuc a qcoauo xoc (c .oro
ua+uuaxu uoruc ynucuuuc y+:au.:, uanuc,
H.lau(u, M.lcc+oacuu, ,.lo.uaucuu, C.ly-
xa-A.coacuu).
Ia+ycc.ca, u nu oy+cuuu urc ua uuc.ycu.c,
uc y(c. xuuuu naaxxcx:uo +auua.:ca xooa: nc-
uuc. O(uu u+ coac.oa Ioc.a Hyaua a cro coa-
uuu nc(aroru+ccux a|ou+oa u.cucuc u u+-
ucuu:c naauxaa (xa y+:au.oa rxacu.: lou ycc-
(uo a xoc, ococuuo cc(uuc roxoca. S.o a+oa:c. a
.cc +.oc.onocmo
J
.
Iaquouax:u:u a:o y+:ax:uoro uuc.ycu.a
(xa oy+cuua ccua coc.aaxac. o.(cx:y nc(aroru-
+ccy noxcy; o ucu ~ a cxc(y_cu rxaac.
l.ABA 7
KAKOH HHCTPYMEHT BMBPATB'
H(cax:u: :xo : uc a:ua.:, a (a.: ccuy
ao+ouoc.: onooaa.: a+u:c uuc.ycu.:, (ac
naaxxcx:uo oy+a.: cro urc ua uuc.ycu.ax c.nox
cucmc+, o.xu+a_uxca cnocoau +ayou+axc+cuua
(xaauuuo, c:+oao, _unoao, (yxoao). Hcoxo-
(uoc.: .o u (cxo nccx+a.:ca c o(uou cuc.c: ua
(yry ~ +ua+u.cx:uo ycoac. a+au.uc y+:ax:-
uoro :uxcuua. Hcnoou acoa .a aocnu.:aaxu y-
+:au.oa (uanuc, u+acc.uo, +.o H. C. lax, y(y+u
uc .ox:o rcuuax:u: ono+u.oo, uo u a:(a_u-
J
Hyau I. O y+:c u y+:au.ax. 1. 2-l. ~ M.: My+:a, J979.
~ C.J79.
27
ca nc(aroro, ucuuo .a y+ux caoux c:uoacu, c.aauux
anocxc(c.auu +ua+u.cx:u:u ono+u.oau; ucuuo
.a nu(aou:u y+:au. .conox:( Moqa. oy+ax
caocro c:ua Box:|raura Aa(ca Moqa.a.).
B uauc aca .o. c.o( yuuaccax:uoro y+:-
ax:uoro oy+cuua no+.u uc ucnox:+yc.ca u+-+a ora-
uu+aquouu:x cxouoc.cu u (ooroau+u: accro, a .o
+ucxc, coaxcuu, u uuc.ycu.oa. B acox.uo
ox:uuuc.ac cxy+aca coaccuu: o(u.cxa nuxo-
(u.ca orauu+u.:ca au-xuo o(uu y+:ax:u:
uuc.ycu.o. lu .ao a:uy(cuuo a:oc (c.ox:
c .y(uo, cox: u o.ac.c.acuuo) uyuo y+u.:aa.:
uocc.ao arycu.oa +a u no.ua, a+acuuaa.:
nc(aroru+ccuc ncuy_cc.aa a(oro u+ uuc.ycu-
.oa. Cay o uco.o:x u+ uux:
J. 4opreooaoo (nuauuuo, oax:) ~ a+auaac. cno-
couoc.: :cxcuuo oncuoaa.: uccox:uu cxo(u-
+ccuu xuuuau o(uoaccuuo, nuy+ac. uoro+ay+-
u: raouua, no+aoxac. (aya yau a:noxua.:
ao.y qcxoro occ.a. (C:+oa:c u (yxoa:c uuc.-
ycu.: xuucu: .ux ncuy_cc.a.)
Cc:c+u:u arycu. a nox:+y |o.cnuauo ~ no-
+.u c+rauu+u:u cnc.yau:u +anac, ax+a_uu
nou+ac(cuua a(a ono+u.ooa ncaou acxu+uu: (uxu,
no .cuuoxoruu oau.u+ccou c.c.uu, ~ :cnuce).
Xo.a oax: ~ uuc.ycu. caauu.cx:uo oxo(ou (ao-
uc(uuu a na.uy xuu: c XlX aca), (xa ucro yc
ycncxu uaonu.: ouuuy y+:ax:uy xu.ca.yy,
ua+uuaa o. no+(uux coua. lc.xoacua, ax+aa co+uuc-
uua Mcu(cx:coua, Honcua, Hyaua, .uc.a, laca, ,c-
ccu, Iaacxa, Uauoacoro, Cauua, Iaxauuuoaa,
loo|:caa, Hoc.aoau+a...
Ha |o.cnuauo .ac y(ac.ca aocnou+ao(u.:, xo.a
u c uco.o: .coa: ucacuuc, .ceccunn
y+:y accu aoo u xaccuqu+a (uanuc, no-
u+ac(cuua Iao, Kynccua, laxa, lcu(cxa, lau(ua, Mo-
qa.a), u (ac, a uco.oo yno_cuuu, y+:y o:cn-
28
n u occmoe. 1au oa+o, uay+uauuc: urc
ua |o.cnuauo, +cxoac noxy+ac. a yu no cy_cc.ay
acc y+:ax:uoc uacxc(uc noux:x acoa.
Haa: ur: ua |o.cnuauo noorac. anocxc(c.auu
xcro ocaou.: u c.auuu:c xaau:, u coaccuu:c
xc.ouu:c xaauuu:c cuu.c+a.o:, u uoacu_uc o-
n:.cu:c oidi-xaaua.y:.
Aucaxca:c ao+ouoc.u |o.cnuauo no+aoxa-
. uc .ox:o co+c.a.: cro co uoruu uuc.ycu.au
u nca+ccuu roxocau, uo u ura.: apaou ua o(uou
xaaua.yc (a +c.:c yu). B yx:.yu:x cc:ax
.o c_c c XlX aca no .a(uquu oc.ac.ca u+xxcu-
u: cnocoo (yccoro oquouax:uoro u uu.cx-
xc.yax:uoro o_cuua.
lu uu(uau(yax:uo y+uquoaauuuu |o.cnua-
uo (ac. ao+ouoc.: o(uoaccuuo nc.: u aonauu-
oaa.: ccc. S.o. uaa: aaxac.ca aaucuuu (xa
y+:ax:uoro u o_cro a+au.ua ccua, .a a occ-
nc+uaac. oo(uuaqu auy.cuucro cxyxa, uanacuua
roxocoa:x caa+o, uroa:x (aucuuu y ua xaaua.y-
c u uor ua nc(axax. (Hcco.a ua +ua+u.cx:uy cxo-
uoc.:, coo.ac.c.ay_uc nuc: y+uquoaauua nu
aquouax:uou c.o(uc oy+cuua ory. u (oxu: :.:
ocaocu: ua ca:x auuux .anax.)
Ha+ax:u:u ncuo( y+c: urc ua |o.cnuauo o-
xcr+ac.ca .c, +.o a(aa xaauua (ac. ro.oa:u +ay
naaux:uou a:co.:. Ho a .o cc.: u uuyc: ccuy
uc nuxo(u.ca uanara.: cxauu+: .ouoro cxyxoao-
ro ou.oxa u y+uou ocquu a:co.: +aya. ,xa
.cuuoau u a+au.ua .ou cnocouoc.u uyu: c.yu-
u:c u (yxoa:c uuc.ycu.:.
2. Crpyooo-eumneoame uuc.ycu.: (eepooea,
axor, aooxoonexo). Ha+ax:u:u .an oy+cuua cxo-
ucc, +c ua |o.cnuauo, u+-+a ucoxo(uoc.u uay+u.:-
ca coc.acuuoy+uo |ouoaa.: a:co.y u .c +ay-
a. a.o nocxc(y_uc .an: oy+cuua xcr+c, +c ua
|o.cnuauo, .a a a ox:uuuc.ac nou+ac(cuuu nu-
29
xo(u.ca oncuoaa.: .ox:o o(uou cxo(u+ccou xu-
uucu. Cx:ua.: co c.oou: +aua.ua ua+uua_cro cu-
na+a +a+ac.y :aac. (oaox:uo y+u.cx:uo (xa (oo-
+a(qca (noua+axy ccuo u+axcac. |ax:uua:c, c+-
uc +ayu ucnua.uou .coaou oacu). S.o. ua-
+ax:u:u .an nu(c.ca ncc.cnc.:: ou ucu+ccu, uo
y(c. .c oo+c, +c a:uc aaxu|uaqua nc(arora,
o.ooro a: cycc.c nuaxc+: (xa +aua.uu c aauu
ccuo.
Ouruuax:u:u cnc.ya (xa c.yuuo-c:+oa:x
uuc.ycu.oa xouoxoru+ccu u c.uxuc.u+ccu uuc,
+c |o.cnuauu:u, uo ax+ac. y+:y, co+uucuuy
a noxy laoo, or(a |o.cnuauo c_c uc nucuaxoc:.
lu oy+cuuu urc ua cunc u auoxou+cxu uc-
nox:+y.ca caauu.cx:uo uc(ooruc (c.cuc uuc.y-
cu.: ycu:ucuuoro a+ca, o.o:c no.anuo +ac-
ua.ca ua acc ox:uuc a noqcccc oc.a ccua.
J. H+ erpyooo-qooeoamx uuc.ycu.oa (xa oy-
+cuua xy+uc a:a.: xaccu+ccy (ucc.uc.yuuy)
rorapy xuo aopypy. Ouu raouu+ccu noxuo+ay+-
u:, (a. ao+ouoc.: uay+u.:ca :cxcuuo oncuo-
aa.: uororoxocuc, uraa, nc.: no( coc.acuu:u a-
onauccu.. lcuy_cc.aa .ux uuc.ycu.oa, no
caaucuu c (yruu _unoa:u, ~ uuo.a cnc.y-
aa u nccnc.uauoc.: (xa (oauucro y+uquoaauua.
O(uao raau.: .ux uuc.ycu.oa uc accr(a no+ao-
xa. axcu:oy ccuy ynaau.:ca c uuu. lo.oy,
+.o: uc nonyc.u.: on.uax:u:u ocu. c.a.a oy-
+cuua, cxa.cx:uo aoaca, .o cc.: (o ucc.uxc.ucro
ao+ac.a ua+a.: +aua.ua ua cunc, a yc no.o, no
cc oc.a ccua, nccxo(u.: +aua.ua ua ru.ac
uxu au(yc.
+. H+ pyxoamx ooerpyueoroa ucnox:+y. (xa oy-
+cuua (c.cu opopoxooy qxeory (xo-|xcu.y). Ho
o(uoro .oro uuc.ycu.a uc(oc.a.o+uo (xa noxuo-
qcuu:x +aua.uu y+:ou u+-+a nuuqunuax:uoro o(-
uoroxocua u +ccc+y y+oro cnc.yauoro +anaca.
JO
.y+uc, or(a no(ox:uaa |xcu.a a yax ccua ~
uc c(uuc.acuu:u, a (onoxuu.cx:u:u uuc.ycu. (a
ocuoauou ~ |o.cnuauo, cuna uxu auoxou+cx:).
,yruc (yxoa:c uuc.ycu.: (noncc+uaa |xcu.a,
roou, xauc., |aro., .ya, aax.oua, .oou u .ya)
o:+uo uc nucua.ca (xa ua+ax:uoro oy+cuua (c-
.cu no (ay nu+uua. Bo-nca:x, ura ua uux .cyc.
+ua+u.cx:u:x |u+u+ccux ycuxuu u uanacuuu, uc-
cxa.cx:u:x a (c.co ao+ac.c. Bo-a.o:x, .u uu-
c.ycu.: ncuy_cc.acuuo occ.oa:c, a a (oau-
uc y+uquoaauuu ux ao+ouoc.u acc:a orauu+cu:.
l.ABA 8
MYBHQHPOBATB AR CEBR
HAH KOHQEPTHPOBATB'
Ia.ya +a y+:ax:uoc oy+cuuc eccx (c.cu, :
aoacc uc nu+:aac, +.o: acc ouu c.axu y+:au.a-
u. Qcx: uc a no|cccuouaxu+aquu, a a y+:ax:uou
rpauorooero, ycuuu +u.a.: +.oc.onoc nou+ac(c-
uua, a +u.a. uuru (nou+ac(cuua .umccmnoc).
Qcxcnoxarauuc (naaux:uoc uxu ouuo+uoc) oyc-
xoaxuaac. ycncx uxu c+ycncuuoc.: xoro (cxa. B
y+:ax:uou nc(aroruc aonoc o qcxax oy+cuua acc:-
a oxc+ucuu:u, nocox:y u o(u.cxu, u (c.u, u (ac
y+u.cxa +ac.o c.aaa. ncc( coou xou:c qcxu. lu-
+uua ouuo a .o, +.o, oy+aa +.uquoecnu, +a+ac-
.y uc y+u.:aa. (uxu uc +ua.) a+xu+uu c(y cro
au(au.
Cy_cc.ay. .u ocuoau:c a+uoau(uoc.u:
J) yepoooooe uyaoqopoaaooe, or(a +cxoac noc.
uxu urac. ua y+:ax:uo uuc.ycu.c ca (xa cca,
a o.cy.c.auu cxyua.cxcu;
2) eoaueerooe uyaoqopoaaooe, aaxa_ccca cc(-
c.ao (yccoro, oquouax:uoro o_cuua c na.uc-
au (c(a o.uocu.ca, uanuc, ura ua |o.cnuauo a
+c.:c yu, y+ac.uc a c.yuuo aa.c.c, (oauucc
JJ
aucaxcaoc u xooaoc ncuuc u .. n.);
J) oyxonooe uyaoqopoaaooe, qcx: o.ooro ~
oa+a.: axuauuc ua auy.cuucc oquouax:uo-ncuxo-
xoru+ccoc coc.oauuc {:ux x(cu ~ cxyua.cxcu
((ooaox:u:x uxu ucaox:u:x).
lca:c (ac a+uoau(uoc.u uc. uccaaucuuo
ox:ucc +ua+cuuc (xa (yxoauoro a+au.ua, uu.cxxc-
.yax:uoro coacucuc.aoaauua u ncuxooquouax:uoro
+(ooa:a xu+uoc.u. lo cy_cc.ay_cu +aouocuoc-
.u, coacc.uoc y+uquoaauuc (cuc.ayc. cux:ucc, +c
nyxu+uoc, a yc(uucuuoc y+uquoaauuc ~ cux:ucc,
+c coacc.uoc.
Qcx: o_cro y+:ax:uoro oa+oaauua ((o-
auucro u uox:uoro) (oxuo :.: ycuuc y+uqu-
oaa.: {.+ cc+. U.o acac.ca y+uquoaauua (xa (y-
rux ~ .o .o (cxo no|cccuouaxoa, ux cncquax:uo
oy+a. ac.cc.ay nyxu+uou ur: (uxu nyxu+uoro
ncuua) a ouccaa.ouax u y+:ax:u:x y+uxu_ax.
Hay+u.: n.uno+ +.uquoecnu ouo .ox:o
.cx, .o yc ycc. y+uquoaa.: {.+ cc+, .o cc.: anoxuc
ocaoux na.uy cocc(o.o+cuuoro, nouua_cro nre-
ooa y+:u. 1aoc, yc(uucuuoc +.cuuc y+:u ouo
oxaa.cu+oaa.: cxoaau au+au.uucoro nuca.cxa \ll
aca Hcaaa Cuuauuua: U.cuuc .aoc (a noucxo(u.
a uu+c uc uayuacou .uuuuc, <.~ +.o: o_y.u.:
.cc a (yuc .aocu nu cxa(oc.uo (oxo(cuuu (o
uc.uu: nua.ucuuuu ayc, ncaocxo(a_uu acaoc o_y-
_cuuc

.
lox:uuuc.ao (c.cu a onc(cxcuu:u ncuo( c+-
.a. o a:cc a.uc.a (a u o no|cccuu noauua,
a+ac(+ua, ocouaa.a...), a .o uc. uu+cro nxoxoro,
.oy c .auc cxauua o:+uo noxo(a. :c.o u
cccxc(uo. Ho or(a o(u.cxu, uc couaac: ro.oau.:
u+ caocro ccua no|cccuouax:uoro y+:au.a, .c
J
Qu.. no: H(cu c.c.u+ccoro aocnu.auua. 1. J. ~ M.: Hcycc.ao,
J97J. ~ C. 278.
J2
uc cucc, c caoro ua+axa oy+cuua oucu.uy. cro ua
a:c.ynxcuua a ouqc.ax ~ .o yc uc c+ou(uoc
+y(a+cc.ao, a ryaa u ac(ouocuaa nc(aroru+ccaa
ouua.
loxy+ua yc.auoay ua ouqc.uoaauuc, ccuo
noc.aac.ca .ac(o +ay+u.: noray caoux y(y_ux
a:c.ynxcuuu; (xa .oro cy nu(c.ca ccaqau noa.o-
a.: o(uu u .c c n:cc:, acc.o .oro, +.o: no+u.:-
aa.: uoa:c. B c+yx:.a.c .aou y+c: ou uc ua-
y+u.ca crxo +u.a.: uo.:, yxaaxuaaa c:cx no+u.au-
uoro, a coc. xuu: aocnou+ao(u.: +ay+cuuoc ((a
c_c nu .o aucuuc (couc.uoaa.: c.ac.u:c nc-
cuaauua, ~ .o ao: nu(ac. urc a:a+u.cx:-
uoc.: u cau(c.cx:c.ayc. o uc(uuuo .axau.c).
U.o : a: ca+axu, ccxu : aau ccuo nocxc
oy+cuua a o_coa+oaa.cx:uou uoxc uc or crxo
+u.a.: uuu:u .cc., uo +a.o a:a+u.cx:uo, ao
oquouax:uo (cxauoaax : c c.a(: +ay+cuu:c
uau+yc.: c.uxo.aocuua, no:, noacc.u' Haacuo, ca-
+axu :, +.o ou oc.axca nc:c+omno+. a+ac.y .a-
oc cxy+ac.ca nu oy+cuuu y+:c a yax xy(o-
cc.acuuou cao(ca.cx:uoc.u, y+:ax:u:x c.y(uax
u (ac uoxax, or(a xo.a. uay+u.: ccua n.u-
no+, ouqc.u: |oa y+uquoaauua, uc uay+ua
cro y+uquoaa.: c{uncnno, y+ac.aoaa.: a coe+ccm-
no+ y+uquoaauuu u uc a:ao.aa y ucro xccu.a-
u:x, ocuoaonoxara_ux uaa:oa mcnu+ u .cnucu uo..
Bonoc o .o, u+a.: xu caocu no|cccucu y+:-
y, cua. o:+uo a uoc.u. A a (c.c.ac, uc+aaucuo
o. y(y_cro a:oa no|cccuu, qcx: oy+cuua (ox-
uo :.: pouamoee uyaoqopoaaooe, nu.o uc (xa
oro-.o (yroro (roc.cu, cocc(cu, o(u.cxcu, y+u.cxcu), a
(xa cca. Hcxo(a u+ .oro cuac.ca u ucnoc.ou aon-
oc o co(ca.cx:uou c.oouc oa+oaauua, .o cc.: o
yrc y+:ax:uoro +.cuua.
Ka(oy au(y y+uquoaauua coo.ac.c.ayc. onc-
(cxcuu:u cnc.ya. lou+ac(cuua, o.o:c nou+ao-
JJ
(a. rxyooc c.c.u+ccoc anc+a.xcuuc, or(a +cxoac
oc.ac.ca uac(uuc c cau coou, uc accr(a :aa.
ycc.u: a onauuu, a nou+ac(cuua, co+(auu:c (xa
coacc.uoro y+uquoaauua, uc accr(a noaaxa. (ox-
uy cuxy ao+(cuc.aua .ac u ua c.oouuux cxyua-
.cxcu.
B:uaa cnc.ya, :xo : ucoaauuo ocoo
noxara.:ca ua .a ua+:aacy (c.cy y+:y.
lou+ac(cuua, cncquax:uo uanucauu:c (xa (c.cu, +a-
+ac.y :aa. acc:a ucua(cu: a xy(occ.acuuo
o.uoucuuu. O .o (oxo(+uao ca+ax a:(a_uuca
oncu:u cuccc coaccuuoc.u louc looacuu:
Ia+(cxcuuc ucycc.aa ua (c.coc u a+ocxoc
uccc.cc.acuuo; ucycc.ao c(uuo, u ccxu auc-.o rxaa:
cro nocaa_cu: (c.a, .o uc o+ua+ac., +.o nocxc(uuc
(oxu: nu.a.:ca .ox:o uu. <.~ Bocnu.auuc (c-
.cu xuu: ua cncquax:uo (c.cux nou+ac(cuuax onac-
uo u .c, +.o yr .ux nou+ac(cuuu ucu+cuuo ora-
uu+cu, a c.cxcuuc cro acuuu.: nuao(u. noaaxc-
uu nou+ac(cuuu, nc(ua+ua+cuu:x .ox:o (c.a a
ac+c.c ua ux uca+o+uaoc.:, .o cc.: o.oacuuou
xax.y:, uu+cro o_cro c ucycc.ao uc uc_cu. A
y nonaa a nxcu .au oa+qa uc(oucycc.aa,
ccuy uu+cro uc c.ou. occ.u no+u:u uyuu.c.
ucycc.ay aoo_c ua ac u+u:. .oa: ucycc.ay
nuauaac.ca c (c.c.aa u acqac.ac. ua xy+uux oa+-
qax.

U.o c+u.a.: xy+uuu oa+qau' Hc(ca: c(-


u, uo u ux uc ncc+ucxu.: a o(uou oo.ou rxaac.
Ha+oay (xa nuca xuu: Ax:o (xa uoucc.aa
Ioc.aHyaua u ,c.cuu ax:o l.H.Uau-
oacoro. S.o uc (c.caa y+:a, a noxuoqcuu:c xy-
(occ.acuu:c nou+ac(cuua pxa pouamoero uyao-
qopoaaooa, xcro (oc.ynu:c ucno|cccuouaxa, a .o
+ucxc (c.a.
J
looacuu l.A. ,c.u a .ca.c // 1ca.. ~ J98J. ~ !7. ~
C. 8O.
J+
luuqun a:oa cnc.yaa (xa (oauucro y-
+uquoaauua: o.(aaa.: nc(no+.cuuc .c co+uucuua,
o.o:c cux:ucc ao+(cuc.ay. ua ura_cro, +c ua
cxyua_cro. 1aoa:, uanuc, |o.cnuauu:c nou+ac-
(cuua U. Mcu(cx:coua-la.ox:(u (lccuu c+ cxoa),
U.Honcua (lcx(uu, Ma+yu, Bax:c:, Ho.-
u:), nccuu U.Hyc.a, oauc: M.lxuuu, c.yu-
u:c aa.c.: acucux xaccuoa (H.lau(ua, B.Mo-
qa.a, ..lc.xoacua) cunu+u:c coua.: u na.u.:
H.C.laxa. Bca .a y+:a co+(aaaxac: a a+ (xa
(oauucro y+uquoaauua u u.cuc ycncuuoc.u
y+:ax:uoro oy+cuua ccua (oxuo :.: cro yc-
uuc u cxauuc noccmo. non+mo u noecmeoecmo
.u nou+ac(cuua (a aoacc uc ycuuc ouo, ||c.uo
u c ycncxo a:c.yna.: ncc( nyxuou).
l.ABA 9
BOAR K HOHHMAHHK
luc.ac.uauuc: y+:c .oro uxu uuoro aa.oa,
ccuo c.auoau.ca aocnuu+ua o acaoro o(a cac-
(cuua, aca_uca noxuaucroca nou+ac(cuua.
loxcc .oro, ou ua+uuac. o_y_a.: uno+cquonnou
:o.o{: xo+c. y+ua.: o u+uu ono+u.oa, o uc.ouu
co+(auua nou+ac(cuua, o a+xu+u:x aauau.ax .oxo-
aauua, (ac o ucuuax, aucc a:ca+auu:x a+u:u
x(:u o (auuo nou+ac(cuuu. (S.o +ac+a.cx:uoc
coc.oauuc cco:c.uoro nouca +uauuu xoouo onu-
c:aac.ca nyuuucu a:acuuc (yxoauou a-
(o .ou.) l:.a.:ca coo_u.: ccuy (ac xc-
cu.au:c +uauua o nou+ac(cuuu cnomc, +c y ucro
ao+uuxa (yxoauaa a(a, ~ uanacu:u .y(, uu-
|oaqua y(c. o..oruy.a (a:cxyuaua u .y. c +a-
:.a). Ho, noxua nou+ac(cuuc, +cxoac ro.oa, a
rya, anu.:aa.: x:c cac(cuua o uc. (cc: uc noc.o
cnoouuaa u ccnuc.ac.uaa xo+ua.cx:uoc.:, a a(-
u:u uu.ccc xa_cro, c.ca_croca +ua.: acc o .o,
J5
+.o xuu:.
loy(cuuc uu.ccca .ncnu++ o +.oc ~
o+cu: o.ac.c.acuu:u ocu. (xa aocnu.a.cxa. Ka.-
uu ur, or(a ccuo, no a:acuu l.lcccc, oxaa-
+cu xon:.c.ao u aoxcu nouuauu
J
~ .o .o.
c(oc.u:u ocu., or(a nuo.:aac.ca y+cu:aa
xa+cua, +cc+ o.oy ryauu.auaa yx:.ya oc.
nouuuy.: ao auy.cuuuu u xu+uoc.u. lcxu uu.c-
cc uc y(oaxc.aou.: uxu y(oaxc.aou.: uca+cc.acu-
uo, ou :c.o racuc. u, a naauxo, uaaccr(a. (Xo.a,
ouc+uo, cc.: (c.u, .cncxua:c a xau: ux uu.ccc uc
ocxacaac. o. (xu.cx:uoro ou(auua, uo .aux cu:-
uuuc.ao.) Hu.ccc xa_cro ucuac:.cu u oc. a.a-
uy.: orou:c accua: +uauuu. U.o: .o nou+ou-
xo, uu|oaqua (oxua no(aaa.:ca uc .ox:o aoaca
u c (oc.a.o+uou noxuo.ou, uo u a onc(cxcuuou, na-
aux:uou no-cxc(oaa.cx:uoc.u:
B oepay onepepo uyu: +uauua o aucy+:-
ax:u:x aaxcuuax, c o.o:u o.c.uauo caa+auo no-
xuauccca nou+ac(cuuc (cro cxoaccuaa noraa,
xu.ca.yu:u ncaouc.o+uu, co:.uc, nocxyuaucc .ox-
+o co+uucuu).
Bo aropy onepepo uyu: cac(cuua u+ uc.ouu
:.oaauua nou+ac(cuua. Iccuo xo+c. +ua.:, or(a u
a (yruc x(u .y y+:y aocnuuuaxu, a ua ucc
caruoaaxu, auc cxoaccu:c .oxoaauua (aaaxu. Ic-
cuo u_c. a nouxo c(uuo:uxcuuuoa, xo+c. anu-
ca.: caoc ucuuc o nou+ac(cuuu a ou.cc. aucc
a:ca+auu:x ucuuu, xo+c. :cxcuuo noxcu+uoaa.:
co +ua.oau, cno.u.:, o.c.auaa.: cao .o+y +cuua.
B rpero onepepo noaaxac.ca uu.ccc xu+uo-
c.u ono+u.oa (aa.oa noxuaucuca y+:u) u
oc.oa.cx:c.aa cro u+uu.
lou+aox:uoc u+cucuuc .ou nocxc(oaa.cx:uoc.u,
uanuc, non:.a (a.: au:uc accuu uora|u
J
lcccc l. Hra a ucc. ~ M., J969. ~ C. 78.
J6
ono+u.oa ~ oc. nuacc.u co uu.ccca.
loxy+cuuc cc:c+u:x no+uauuu o y+:c ~ o(ua
u+ qcxcu y+:ax:uoro u o_cro aocnu.auua. Oucu-
.uo (aucuua .ou qcxu oc. cxyu.: nuuqun,
a:ca+auu:u Kauu.uxuauo: lyc.: ouu y(y. xuo
oa+oaauu:u, xuo .auu, o.o:c oco+ua. caoc
ucaccc.ao
J
(c .c y.o+ucuuc, +.o .u (aa a+cc.aa
uc .ox:o coacc.u:, uo o(uo uc cy_cc.ayc. c+ (y-
roro).
Ka :.: aocnu.a.cx, o.o:u u ca uc ucc.
(oc.a.o+u:x no+uauuu' B ox:uuuc.ac cxy+aca o-
(u.cxu oa+:aa.ca uc ro.oa: nuua.: .o. ucou-
(auu:u uu|oaquouu:u a:+oa. Bo-nca:x, ouu yc
ycncxu accxau.:ca nocxc .oro a ccuo a ao+a-
c.c o. (ayx (o na.u +ac.aaxax ux caouu ccouc+-
u:u noc+. (aaa.: o.+c. oo acc, +.o (cxac.ca a
.o uc u (yrux uax. Bo-a.o:x, (a.: aua.u:u
ocu.auu y+:ax:uoy nou+ac(cuu :aac. uc
no( cuxy uc .ox:o o(u.cxa, o.o:c u cau uc(oc.a-
.o+uo uu|ouoaau:, uo u uoru no|cccuouax:-
u: y+:au.a. l(uuc.acuu:u uc.o+uu, o.o:u
no+aoxu. uac:.u.: uu|oaquouu:u roxo( ~ +.o-
oec{ccc+ .umccmc.
Ouuo+uo (ya.:, +.o .aaa xu.ca.ya co+(ac.ca
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(a+a uayu ~ c(cxa.: nuo(y noua.uou acc
2
. lu-
cuu.cx:uo uaucu .cc .o (oxuo +ay+a.: .a: +a-
(a+a y+:oac(cuua ~ c(cxa.: y+:y noua.uou acc.
My+:oac(cuuc ~ exyma oooouaooa y+:u (+(cc:
a ncc|a+uy a:ca+:aauuc C.Aacuuqcaa o |u-
xoxoruu
J
).
Ha .anc ao+uuuoacuua .aru .ncnu++ o +.o-
J
H(cu c.c.u+ccoro aocnu.auua. 1. J. ~ M., J97J. ~ C. J79.
2
C.: Caac:au K.A. Uuxoco|coc uoao++cuuc lc.c. M., 2OOJ.
~ C. JJ.
J
C.: Aacuuqca C.C. lon:.u o.acuu.:ca: lccc(: o yx:.yc.
~ M., J988. ~ C. 8.
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c +a(a+a aocnu.a.cxa ~ nuo_u.: ccua a+c-
c.acuuou y+:oac(+ccou xu.ca.yc. lc co(ca-
uuc ~ acxo a orou: coc.acuu:x a+:uxcuuu o
y+:c; xy+uc, or(a .o acxo no(xuaac.ca a oc.a-
uoac, uc cua_cu cau a+:uxcuuc, .o cc.: a
cnoouuo yc(uucuuu, nu cocc(o.o+cuuo, uccncu-
uo, a(y+uao +.cuuu uur. ,cxo aocnu.a.cxa ~ .o+uo
onc(cxu.: u aoaca nc(oc.aau.: uyuy xu.ca-
.yy. B+ocx: uc cxc(yc. n:.a.:ca cau no+cc.:, a
no.o nccca+:aa.: (xa ccua cac(cuua u+ uur.
(Ka rxacu. u+acc.uoc aoc.o+uoc u+c+cuuc, oorooqoe
aepxpa uomer opoaeero ero e aopooo, oo ooro
aepxp poxmeo eau.)
K au c y+:oac(+ccu uc.o+uua ua-
naaxa.: ccua' l(aa xu c.ou. (cxa.: c.aay ua y+c-
uuu y+:ax:uou xu.ca.y:. 1cxuoxorua noxo-
(cuua y+cuuoa +cc+ |ux:. cc+ucxcuu:x +uuoa-
uu+:ux uuc.auquu u qcu+yu:x noaco, o.ao.au-
uaa c_c a coac.cuc accua (a(:u +uuoauu a:-
+cuaac. acc, +cro ou uc oc. noua.:), xuuac. .u
uuru uu(uau(yax:uoro .oua, oc.o.: :cxu, oa u
(cxac. ux no(ou:u no.c.oy cyny ua (uc.uxxuo-
aauuou ao(c. Ka acaaa ox:uu+uaa nu_a, .aaa xu-
.ca.ya oc. .ox:o o.uaa.: annc.u.. ua+u., a
ouo au:uc ccuo (oxcu noxy+u.: cc:c+uy,
uc a(anuoaauuy (xa (c.cu ouruuax:uy xu.ca-
.yy xy+uux aa.ooa, nucaauux o y+:c.
B:uaa y+:oac(+ccy xu.ca.yy, uc cxc(yc.
onaca.:ca cxouoc.u. lc.xoacu ca+ax: Hc. .aou
c.a.:u, o.oaa :xa : (xa cua +ccc+y y+cuou.
Hc nc(.aaxaa uu axcuucro nu.a+auua ua uac.oa-
_y y+cuoc.:, a c (c.c.aa c.aaxca yxoau.: u(cu xy+-
uux u y(cuuux x(cu a(oro c.oxc.ua
J
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uu.cxxc.yaxa. Ccro(uauuuc (c.u ~ nooxcuuc uu-
J
Qu.. no: Uau.cuu A. My+:a u c.c.ua a uacxc(uu Auo.a
A(aaua // Coa. My+:a. ~ J985. - !2. ~ C.69.
J8
.cxxc.yaxoa. Her raeoo eraroo oxo eooro, eoropaa
mxa m nepeenyp ynooo pxa aamero peoea. Ho
.o uc +ua+u., +.o (xa ucro o(uuaoao ro(u.ca xaa
xu.ca.ya. B .o. o.ac.c.acuu:u ocu. o. aocnu.a-
.cxa .cyc.ca .o+uoc.: u c+ouuo+uoc.: a:oa.
lu c|ouoaaaucca c.ouo uu.cccc +cxo-
ac ro.oa u.y(uoaa.: u cy+u:c, u (xuuu:c, u noxy-
nyc.:c uc.o+uuu, a ua(c(c a:y(u.: ynuqy uoaoro
+uauua. Uy(cca .cncuua noaaxa. cncquaxuc.: ao
accx oxac.ax uayu u .cxuuu, +u.a_uc (ac coac-
ucuuo ucy(oo+u.acy cncquax:uy xu.ca.yy.
Ho .y(uo ou(a.: .oro c o. ua+uua_cro, +cu uu-
.ccc c_c uc ocn.
Cy_cc.ayc. coacc uc uoro uur, o.o:c ro(a.-
ca, +.o: uc uc+c+ ncaoua+ax:u:u uu.ccc +.cuu o
y+:c. 1y. uyu: noaccuu:c ncaoxaccu:c uc-
.o+uuu, (cuc.ay_uc uaacuaa. lyc.: a yu aauc-
ro ccua a ouo au:uc nona(y. uoro.ouuu
xaccuoa y+:oac(cuua: Bxa(uua C.acoaa, Axc-
cau(aCcoaa, lcaua.aoua, IocuaIoxxaua,
loucaAca|:caa. Hcu+rxa(uoc anc+a.xcuua nou+-
ao(a. uuru, uanucauu:c cauu ono+u.oau, ua-
nuc, u+ accu ouuuou xu.ca.y: o ono+u.oax-
y+uc.ax xy+uu uc.o+uuo oc.ac.ca aa.ouo-
ra|u+ccaa uura H.A.Iucoro-Kocaoaa .c-
.onuc: ocu y+:ax:uou u+uu. \uuax:u:u ((ac
(xa uorux ucou(auu:u) nocac.u.cx:cuu u nc(a-
roru+ccuu no.cuquax noaaxac. ucoou+cuuaa uura o
Moqa.c, o.oy nucax a caoo(uoc o. ocuoauou a-
o.: aca uao (uuuc.) uuoc.auu:x (cx a nc-
ao naau.cx:c.ac ox:ucauoa lcoruu Uu+cuu.
J
H+(auuaa a J97O ro(y, +cc+ uoro xc. nocxc cc.u
aa.oa, .a axcu:aa uura a:+aaxa ccucaqu u c(cxaxa
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J
Uu+cuu l.B. Moqa.: Hccxc(oaa.cx:cuu .(. H+(. 5-c. / O_aa
c(. l.U.lou|uu. ~ ..,: My+:a, J987.
J9
u (a uco.o:x u uccxc(oaa.cxau) y+:u Moqa.a.
U.o: nc(xou.: ccuy cnuco uur u c.a.cu,
uoxo(u:x (xa o+uaoxcuua c .ao+cc.ao .oro uxu
uuoro ono+u.oa (uxu (xa ocaocuua onc(cxcuuoro
y+:ax:uoro aua), nuxo(u.ca y+u.:aa.: uoro
|a.ooa. Xo.a a:o xu.ca.y: accr(a cy.c.u-
acu, uo ou uc (oxcu :.: cxy+auu:, +aauca_u o.
.oro, +.o nca: nonaxoc: ua rxa+a a ara+uuc uxu
uxuo.cc. O(uo (cxo, +uaa uuouu accua xu.ca-
.y: aonoca, c(cxa.: cy.c.uau:u a:o; u coacc
(yroc (cxo ~ a:a.: .o, +.o cxy+auu: oa+o
oa+axoc: a noxc +cuua. Koc .oro, (oxua :.:
y+.cua umcmc.occ+ ucmou+ aaucro ccua, aucc
uaonxcuu:u u +anac +uauuu (.a ua+:aac:u .c+a-
yyc). lo.oy nu no(oc y+:oac(+ccou xu.c-
a.y: ory. noua(ou.:ca oucyx:.aquu uc .ox:o
nc(arora, uo u on:.uoro y+:ax:uoro u.uo:cc.
Kouc+uo, cxc(yc. c.cu.:ca +uauu accx uc.o+-
uuoa, uo .o +aac(oo uc(oc.uuo. H ccxu, uanu-
c, u+ accro oa xu.ca.y: o Moqa.c +u.a.cx
cy(cuo orauu+u.:ca o(uou-(aya uurau, .o a :
nococu(oaax (xa o+uaoxcuua u naaux:uou ou-
cu.aquu a .cc ~ yc ynoauy.y uury Uu+cuua, a
(xa no(ouoro nouuauua Moqa.a ~ +c.:cx.o-
uu lcaua Ac.a
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(c. no+u.aua no(a(, a uura Ac.a y(c. +u.a.:ca
noc.cncuuo, ucox:uuu noquau no cc o+uao-
xcuua c a(: uoa: (xa ccua nou+ac(cuuc
Moqa.a. lo.oy ncay uury ouo a+a.: ua o-
o.oc aca a uxuo.cc, a a.oy xy+uc nuocc-
.u u uc.: coc.acuu:u +cnxa: .o y(c. cnaao+-
uu no Moqa.y ua uoro xc..
lo(ou:c uxuora|u+ccuc uaao(u uyu:
no a(oy ono+u.oy.
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Ac. l. B.A.Moqa. / lc. c uccqoro u ocu.auu
K.K.Caa:. M.: My+:a, J978-J985.
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Haykono-hohynnpuo nunauun
Iausypi IpuiopIu Ispanonun
ama nufuua I mysuka
(IocIucikok monok)
Xynoxuc oqopmnouun oknanuuku I. . Xmoni.
onauo no uaopy 2O.i2.2OO5. Inhucauo no npyky i?.Oi.2OO6.
IapuIfypa AcadomIa. Ymon. npyk. apk i,4?.
unanuuufno 1apyf Haam. opxhpom, 6 hIn., k. 5?5.
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lxaaa J. O c(ac(c, c.oa_c ua yuax ....... J
lxaaa 2. ax ou(auua, uxu cucaa
oucyx:.aqua ....................................... 7
lxaaa J. luy+cuuc +aya ..................... J2
lxaaa +. 1cyc.ca uaua c y+:ax:u:
oa+oaauuc .................................... J5
lxaaa 5. Hc nuucaoxu.:, a nuoxo.u.: .. J9
lxaaa 6. lcc( ua+axo uyua ncx(ua....2J
lxaaa 7. Kaou uuc.ycu. a:a.:' ..... 26
lxaaa 8. My+uquoaa.: (xa cca uxu ouqc-
.uoaa.:'........................................... JO
lxaaa 9. Boxa nouuauu.................... J+
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