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ROUTER IS A DEVICE WHICH ENSURES COMMUNICATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT NETWORKS

TWO INTERFACES OF A ROUTER CANNOT HAVE SAME NETWORK ID

Break large networks into smaller subnets

Break large networks into smaller subnets

S0 ---200.100.100.0/24
S1 ---200.100.100.0/24
1000 Packets destined to 200.100.100.2

S0 ---200.100.150.0/24
S1 ---200.100.100.0/24
1000 Packets destined to 200.100.100.2

192.1.1.1/25
192.1.1.1/27
192.1.1.1/30
168.1.1.1/24
10.1.1.1/24
7.1.1.1/20

13

Subnet Mask Without Subnets


Network

Host

172.16.2.160

10101100

00010000

00000010

10100000

255.255.0.0

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

10101100

00010000

00000000

00000000

172

16

Network
Number

Subnets not in usethe default


18

Subnet Mask with Subnets


Network
172.16.2.160

Host

10101100

00010000

00000010

10100000

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

10101100

00010000

00000010

00000000

172

16

128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

255.255.255.0

Subnet

Network
Number

Network number extended by eight bits


19

Subnet Mask with Subnets


(cont.)

255.255.255.192

Network
Number

Host

10101100

00010000

00000010

10100000

11111111

11111111

11111111

11000000

10101100

00010000

00000010

10000000
128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

172.16.2.160

Subnet

128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

Network

172

16

128

Network number extended by ten bits


20

Subnet Mask Exercise

Address

Subnet Mask

172.16.2.10

255.255.255.0

10.6.24.20

255.255.240.0

10.30.36.12

255.255.255.0

Class

Subnet

21

Subnet Mask Exercise Answers

Address

Subnet Mask

Class

Subnet

172.16.2.10

255.255.255.0

172.16.2.0

10.6.24.20

255.255.240.0

10.6.16.0

10.30.36.12

255.255.255.0

10.30.36.0

22

Broadcast Addresses
172.16.3.0

172.16.4.0

172.16.1.0
172.16.2.0

172.16.3.255
(Directed Broadcast)
255.255.255.255
(Local Network Broadcast)

172.16.255.255
(All Subnets Broadcast)
23

Addressing Summary Example


172

16

160
3

10101100

00010000

11111111
255.255.255.192
8
9
172.16.2.128
10101100

11111111
00010000

00000010 10000000 Subnet 4

10101100

00010000

00000010

172.16.2.160

172.16.2.191

00000010 10100000 Host

11111111 11000000 Mask 2

10111111 Broadcast

172.16.2.129

10101100

00010000

5
00000010 10000001 First

172.16.2.190

10101100

00010000

00000010

10111110 Last

6
7
24

Class B Subnet Example


IP Host Address: 172.16.2.121
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Network

Network

Subnet

Host

172.16.2.121: 10101100

00010000

00000010

01111001

11111111

11111111

00000000

00010000

00000010

00000000

255.255.255.0: 11111111
Subnet: 10101100
Broadcast:

10101100

00010000

0000001011111111

Subnet Address = 172.16.2.0


Host Addresses = 172.16.2.1172.16.2.254
Broadcast Address = 172.16.2.255
Eight Bits of Subnetting
25

Subnet Planning
20 Subnets
5 Hosts per Subnet
Class C Address:
192.168.5.0
192.168.5.16
Other
Subnets

192.168.5.32

192.168.5.48

26

Class C Subnet Planning


Example
IP Host Address: 192.168.5.121
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.248
Network
192.168.5.121: 11000000
255.255.255.248: 11111111
Subnet: 11000000
Broadcast: 11000000

Network

Network

Subnet Host

10101000

00000101

01111001

11111111

11111111

11111000

10101000

00000101

01111000

10101000

00000101

01111111

Subnet Address = 192.168.5.120


Host Addresses = 192.168.5.121192.168.5.126
Broadcast Address = 192.168.5.127
Five Bits of Subnetting

27

Exercise
192.168.10.0
/27

? SNM
? Block Size
?- Subnets

28

Exercise
/27
? SNM 224
? Block Size = 256-224 = 32
?- Subnets
Subnets

10.0

10.32

FHID

10.1

10.33

LHID

10.30

10.62

Broadcast

10.31

10.63

10.64

29

Exercise
192.168.10.0
/30

? SNM
? Block Size
?- Subnets

30

Exercise
/30
? SNM 252
? Block Size = 256-252 = 4
?- Subnets
Subnets

10.0

10.4

FHID

10.1

10.5

LHID

10.2

10.6

Broadcast

10.3

10.7

10.8

31

Exercise
/26
/27
/28
/29
/30

Mask
?
?
?
?
?

Subnets
?
?
?
?
?

Host
?
?
?
?
?
32

Exercise
/26
/27
/28
/29
/30

Mask
192
224
240
248
252

Subnets
4
8
16
32
64

Host
62
30
14
6
2
33

Exam Question
Find Subnet and Broadcast address
192.168.0.100/27

34

Exercise
192.168.10.54 /29
Mask ?
Subnet ?
Broadcast ?

35

Exercise
192.168.10.130 /28
Mask ?
Subnet ?
Broadcast ?

36

Exercise
192.168.10.193 /30
Mask ?
Subnet ?
Broadcast ?

37

Exercise
192.168.1.100 /26
Mask ?
Subnet ?
Broadcast ?

38

Exercise
192.168.20.158 /27
Mask ?
Subnet ?
Broadcast ?

39

Class B
172.16.0.0 /19
Subnets ?
Hosts ?
Block Size ?

40

Class B
172.16.0.0 /19
Subnets 23 -2 = 6
Hosts 213 -2 = 8190
Block Size 256-224 = 32
Subnets

0.0

32.0

64.0

96.0

FHID

0.1

32.1

64.1

96.1

LHID

31.254

63.254

95.254

127.254

Broadcast

31.255

63.255

95.255

127.255
41

Class B
172.16.0.0 /27
Subnets ?
Hosts ?
Block Size ?

42

Class B
172.16.0.0 /27
Subnets 211 -2 = 2046
Hosts 25 -2 = 30
Block Size 256-224 = 32
Subnets

0.0

0.32

0.64

0.96

FHID

0.1

0.33

0.65

0.97

LHID

0.30

0.62

0.94

0.126

Broadcast

0.31

0.63

0.95

0.127
43

Class B
172.16.0.0 /23
Subnets ?
Hosts ?
Block Size ?

44

Class B
172.16.0.0 /23
Subnets 27 -2 = 126
Hosts 29 -2 = 510
Block Size 256-254 = 2
Subnets

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

FHID

0.1

2.1

4.1

6.1

LHID

1.254

3.254

5.254

7.254

Broadcast

1.255

3.255

5.255

7.255
45

Class B
172.16.0.0 /24
Subnets ?
Hosts ?
Block Size ?

46

Class B
172.16.0.0 /24
Subnets 28 -2 = 254
Hosts 28 -2 = 254
Block Size 256-255 = 1
Subnets

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

FHID

0.1

1.1

2.1

3.1

LHID

0.254

1.254

2.254

3.254

Broadcast

0.255

1.255

2.255

3.255
47

Class B
172.16.0.0 /25
Subnets ?
Hosts ?
Block Size ?

48

Class B
172.16.0.0 /25
Subnets 29 -2 = 510
Hosts 27 -2 = 126
Block Size 256-128 = 128
Subnets

0.0

0.128

1.0

1.128

2.0

2.128

FHID

0.1

0.129

1.1

1.129

2.1

2.129

LHID

0.126

0.254

1.126

1.254

2.126

2.254

Broadcast 0.127

0.255

1.127

1.255

2.127

2.255
49

Find out Subnet and Broadcast


Address
172.16.85.30/29

51

Find out Subnet and Broadcast


Address
172.30.101.62/23

52

Find out Subnet and Broadcast


Address
172.20.210.80/24

53

Exercise
Find out the mask which gives 100
subnets for class B

54

Exercise
Find out the Mask which gives 100 hosts
for Class B

55

Class A
10.0.0.0 /10
Subnets ?
Hosts ?
Block Size ?

56

Class A
10.0.0.0 /10
Subnets 22 -2 = 2
Hosts 222 -2 = 4194302
Block Size 256-192 = 64

Subnets

10.0

10.64

10.128

10.192

FHID

10.0.0.1

10.64.0.1

10.128.0.1

10.192.0.1

LHID

10.63.255.254

10.127.255.254

10.191.255.254

10.254.255.254

Broadcast

10.63.255.255

10.127.255.255

10.191.255.255

10.254.255.255
57

Class A
10.0.0.0 /18
Subnets ?
Hosts ?
Block Size ?

58

Class A
10.0.0.0 /18
Subnets 210 -2 = 1022
Hosts 214 -2 = 16382
Block Size 256-192 = 64

Subnets

10.0.0.0

10.0.64.0

10.0.128.0

10.0.192.0

FHID

10.0.0.1

10.0.64.1

10.0.128.1

10.0.192.1

LHID

10.0.63.254

10.0.127.254

10.0.191.254

10.0.254.254

Broadcast

10.0.63.255

10.0.127.255

10.0.191.255

10.0.254.255
59

Broadcast Addresses Exercise

Address

Subnet Mask

201.222.10.60

255.255.255.248

15.16.193.6

255.255.248.0

128.16.32.13

255.255.255.252

153.50.6.27

255.255.255.128

Class

Subnet

Broadcast

60

Broadcast Addresses Exercise


Answers
Address

Subnet Mask

Class

Subnet

Broadcast

201.222.10.60 255.255.255.248 C

201.222.10.56

201.222.10.63

15.16.193.6

255.255.248.0

15.16.192.0

15.16.199.255

128.16.32.13

255.255.255.252

128.16.32.12

128.16.32.15

153.50.6.27

255.255.255.128 B

153.50.6.0

153.50.6.127

61

Calculate Summary Route for :


192.168.1.1/24
192.168.2.1/24
192.168.3.1/24

192.168.0.0/22

Summary Route ??