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1.


(hardware)


(software)





.

.


(hardware)

2.




*.txt


WordPad *.doc ( + )
Word *.doc, *.docx ( + +
+ + )
OpenOffice Writer *.odt
openoffice.org

Paint *.bmp ( *.gif, *.jpg)


Adobe Photoshop *.psd www.adobe.com
Gimp www.gimp.org
Paint.NET www.getpaint.net
:
CorelDraw *.cdr www.corel.com
Adobe Illustrator *.ai www.adobe.com
Inkscape www.inkscape.org

OpenOffice Draw *.odg


( *.avi, *.mpg, *.wmv)
Movie Maker ( Windows)
Pinnacle Studio

www.pinnaclesys.ru

Adobe Premier

www.adobe.com


(, , )

Microsoft Publisher
QuarkXPress www.quark.com
Adobe InDesign www.adobe.com

Scribus http://www.scribus.net/
9

Microsoft Excel *.xls, *.xlsx


OpenOffice Calc *.ods

Microsoft Access *.mdb, *.accdb
OpenOffice Base *.odb

Microsoft PowerPoint *.ppt, *.pptx
OpenOffice Impress *.odp
10


Web-
Internet Explorer
Mozilla Firefox www.mozilla.org
Opera www.opera.com
Safari www.apple.com
Chrome http://www.google.com/chrome/

e-mail
Microsoft Outlook Express ( Windows)
Microsoft Outlook
TheBat www.ritlabs.com
Mozilla Thunderbird
www.mozilla-russia.org

11

?

(Open Source):


( )
( )

Linux

Firefox

Gimp

(Freeware):
; ;
:


Opera

Avast
12

?
- (Shareware):
:

(30 )


Nero Burning
Rom
TheBat

.
:

(!)

(-,
)
13


:



:
1 (
)
,
(
!)



14

3.

15


()
,

( )
.
( ):

(, )

,
(, ,
)
16


Windows:
FAT32 (Windows 95/98/2000/XP/Vista/7)


NTFS (Windows NT/2000/XP/Vista/7)




Linux:
ext3, ext4



(
)
17


,
1 ,
()

(BIOS = Basic
Input and Output System),
-


, ,


(command.com, cmd.exe)
,
18

(II)
(. utilitas )
:
(fdisk.exe)
(format.com)
(chkdsk.exe)
(regedit.exe)
(ping.exe)
(. driver ) ,


( *.sys Windows)
, ,
, , ,
19



(),
.
: MS DOS, FreeDOS, DR DOS, PC DOS

;
.
Windows 95/98/Me
Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7
UNIX ()
Linux UNIX-
QNX
20



,
.


.
= +

21

,

AVP, . , www.avp.ru
DrWeb, . www.drweb.com

Norton Antivirus www.symantec.com


www.mcafee.com
NOD32 www.eset.com

WinRAR (. ) *.rar, *.zip
www.rarsoft.com
WinZIP *.zip www.winzip.com
22

,

Everest www.lavalys.com

SiSoft

www.sisoftware.net

(MiraScan, EpsonScan, )
CD DVD
Nero Burning ROM

www.nero.com

DeepBurner Free
www.deepburner.com

23

4.

(
)
24


(
) ,

.
:

( )

(, )
:


25


600, 20.
- :
: 09 FE AC 3F
: :
mov AX, BX
:

():
: (1965), (1970), ,

: (1972), (Delphi),
(1957), Visual Basic
: ,
:
: JavaScript, Java,
PHP, Perl, ASP,
26


,
.
program qq;
var x: integer;
begin
x := 1;
writeln('! X = ', x);
end;

101011010


1
;


( 400 !)



(*.exe);


28


( , Linker)
,

.

qq.cpp

qq.obj

qq2.cpp

qq2.obj

qq.exe

29


(. debugger) ,
(
).
:



(. breakpoints)
(. profiler) ,
,
( )
.
: ,
(. bottleneck ),
30
.


(. IDE =
Integrated Development Environment) :





:
Turbo Pascal
Borland C++
Microsoft Visual C++

31


(. RAD =
Rapid Application Development)


: Delphi, Borland C++ Builder, Visual Studio

32

5.

33


. 44 . 1:

, IV


(2006)
http://www.internet-law.ru/law/kodeks/gk4.htm

,

(1993)
http://www.morepc.ru/informatisation/osplaw0003.html


http://www.interlaw.ru/law/docs/10008000/
34
34



(
, ,
,
)
(,

)



,
, , ;

, !

35
35


( )
,

: , 2008 (
)
70

36


:
( )
( , ,
)
(
)
:



( .. )
37


:



:
1 (
)
,
(
!)



38


(
)
( ,
)
CD, DVD ( )

USB

( )

(!)

39



()







( )
()
40


146.
.
(50000 .)
()
6
,
, ,
2
,
(250000 .)
5

41


:
, ,

272.
.
2
5
273. ,
.
3
7
274.
.
2
4

42


:
(
);
, ;

.
:

;

.


!
43


()
()





( )



..
44

?

(Open Source):


( )
( )

Linux

Firefox

Gimp

(Freeware):
; ;
:


Opera

Avast

45

?
- (Shareware):
:

(30 )


Nero Burning
Rom
TheBat

.
:

(!)

(-,
)
46

GNU GPL
GNU General Public Licence:

,

GPL


47

6. .

48


( CD, DVD). :



. :
,

:
:
,



:

(*.jpg)
(*.mp3)
(*.mpg)

49

?
RLE (. Run Length Encoding,
, *.bmp)
qq.txt
A

100

100

200

100

qq.rle ()
A

100

50 !
4

,
, .
50

?
:

(, )

:

LZW (--)
PPM (WinRAR)

(*.txt)
(*.doc, *.xls)
(*.bmp)
(*.wav)
(*.avi)


(*.exe)
(*.zip, *.rar)
(*.gif,
*.jpg, *.png, *.tif, )
(*.mp3, *.wma)
(*.mpg, *.wmv)51


SFX- (. SelF eXtracting ) *.exe,

( 15 ).




,
. :


WinRAR:
abc.part1.rar, abc.part2.rar, .
SFX-: abc.part1.exe,
abc.part2.rar, .

52

WinRAR (. )
: WinRAR


53

WinRAR:

SFX

54

WinRAR:

55

WinRAR

56

7.

57

?
,

.

:






e-mail
58

59

?
, - ,

.

*.exe, *.com

*.bat
*.sys
*.dll
*.doc,


*.txt
*.gif, *.jpg,

*.png, *.tif
(*.wav, *.mp3, *.wma)
(*.avi, *.mpg, *.wmv)
(
)

*.xls, *.mdb
Web-
60


;

;
CD(DVD)- ;

(Word Excel);
e-mail ;
Web- ;

Web-.
61


*.exe, *.sys, *.dll
( ).
(, . boot )
,

.

.

(*.doc, *.xls, *.mdb).

(
Visual Basic Script, JavaScript, BAT, PHP)
(*.bat), Web (*.htm, *.html).

62


,
Windows, Internet Explorer,
Outlook .


;

90%!


, ,
( )
IRC-, IM- IRC-
- (ICQ, AOL, Windows Messenger, MSN
Messenger)
P2P-
P2P (peer-to-peer)

63


,
,
( )

Backdoor
( , ,
)

( , ,
, , )
DOS- (. Denial Of Service )
,

-
()
(. downloader)

64

-

;
;
.



65

-

,
( ,
);
;

(, Word);
;
Web-;
ICQ

66


-:

AVP = Antiviral Toolkit Pro (www.avp.ru) .


DrWeb (www.drweb.com) .
Norton Antivirus (www.symantec.com)
McAfee (www.mcafee.ru)
NOD32 (www.eset.com)

:
Avast Home (www.avast.com)
Antivir Personal (free-av.com)
AVG Free (free.grisoft.com)
67


(
)
(
)
- (, Web-)
(
):



- ( -)
- ( )
- ( )
68

69

70

DrWeb ()
: DrWeb

,
()

71

DrWeb
:

72


(, )




ZyWALL UTM
(ZyXEL )

(on-line)
ActiveX,


http://www.kaspersky.ru/virusscanner
http://www.bitdefender.com
http://security.symantec.com
http://us.mcafee.com/root/mfs/default.asp


,
-
73


CD DVD
( ? ?)
-,

(.
firewall)
,
-
,
e-mail ,
-

74


.
. ,

(, CD, DVD). .
,
Windows .
,
(format.com).
,
.
(fdisk.exe).
( ),
.

75

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