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. .

1
1:
,

n.

2:
, x

a)
, b) a = 1, c) a = 2. (
)

3:
a,b,c . a cos x + b cos x + c = 0.
cos 2x .
4:
ABC AC, AM ,
AM = AB AC.
5:
AB M. AMCD MBEF,
AB, P Q, M N.
a) , AF BC N;
b) , MN ;
c) PQ.
6:
A C ,
. B D , A,B,C,D
, AB\|CD, AD = BC ABCD .

. . 2
1:
N 11 N/11 N.
2:
x

3:
BC ABC n , n .
A . ,
h , BC, a BC.

4:
ABC , A B , A.
5:
X AC, Y BD ABCDABCD.
a) XY;
b) Z , ZY = 2XZ (Z XY).
6:
V 1 , V 2. , V 1
V 2 V 1/V 2.

. . 3
1:
x,y,z :

a b x,y z ?
2:
a,b,c S. ,
?

3:
cos nx sin nx = 1.
4:
ABC P. PA, PB PC
D,E F . ,
AP/PD,BP/PE,CP/PF 2, 2.
5:
ABC AC = b, AB = c AMB = , M BC.
, , b tg
( /2) c < b , .
6:
A,B,C ,
ABC. A,B C. A,B,C AA,BB CC
. ABC.

. . 4
1:
, 6,
4 .
2:
x

3:
ABCD BCCB ABCDABCD
X Y. X A B Y
B C. XY.
4:
cos x + cos 2x + cos 3x = 1.
5:
A,B,C K. D K ,
ABCD .
6:
, ,

.

, R r

7:
, , ,
.

. . 18
1: [-] 32 ,
16 .
, .
2: [] P(x) = x 2, Pk(x) = P1(Pk 1(x)) (k = 2,3, ). ,
n P n(x) = x .
3: []
( ).
2 , ,
40 . ,
(

).

4: [] ,
, 1976.
5: [] p q = 2p

aij 1,0,1. , (x 1,x 2, ,x q) ,


x j (1 j q) , q .
6: [] u n :

, n 1

. . 19
1:
ABCD ABK, BCL, CDM, DAN.
, KL, LM, MN, NK
AK, BK, BL, CL, CM, DM, DN, AN
.
2:

, .
.
3:
n , 2, V n 1 + kn,
k = 1, 2, . m V n V n, p,q
V n , pq = m. , r V n,
V n .
4:
a, b, A, B . f(x) = 1 a cos x b sin x A
cos 2x B sin 2x. , f(x) 0 x, a + b 2, A +
B 1.
5:
a b . a + b a + b q r.
(a,b), q + r = 1977.
6:
f(n) ,
. , n f(n +
1) > f(f(n)), n f(n) = n.

. . 20
1:
1978n 1978m . m n
(m < n) .
2:
P A,B,C
, PA, PB, PC . Q ,
PA, PB PC, P.
Q.
3:

f(1),f(2), ,f(n), , g(1),g(2), ,g(n), , f(1) < f(2) < < f(n) < , g(1) < g(2)
< < g(n) < g(n) = f(f(n)) + 1 n 1. f(240).
4: ,
ABC, AB AC
P, Q . , PQ ,
ABC.
5:
ak , . ,

6:
.
1978 , 1,2, ,1978. ,
,
.

. . 21
1: [] p q ,

, p 1979.
2: [] A 1 A2A3 A4A5 B1 B2B3 B4B5 .
A iBj (i,j = 1,2,3,4,5) ,
, ,
, . ,
.
3: [] C 1 C2. A
. A C 1 C2
M1 M2.
. A.
, P , M 1
M2 P .
4: [] , P Q .
R , (|QP| + |PR|)/|QR| .
5: [] a,
x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, x 5, :

6: [] A E .
A . , E,
. E,
. an ,
A E n . ,

n (P0,P1, ,Pn),
:
1) P0 = A,

2) P n = E,

3) i, 0 i n 1, Pi E,
4) i, 0 i n 1, Pi Pi + 1 .

. . 22
1: [] P ABC
PA 1 , PB1, PC1 BC, CA AB. P ABC

?
2: [] n r, 1 r n.
1,2, ,n, r ,
. , (n + 1)/(r + 1).
(, n = 3, r = 2 1,2, 1,3, 2,3
(1 + 1 + 2)/3 = 4/3).
3: [] m + n
(m,n) , 1 m 1981, 1 n 1981 |n mn m| = 1.
4: [] ) n 3 n
, : n
n 1 ?
) n 3 n ,
?
5: [] O, ,
,
. , O, ,
, , .
6: [] f,
(x,y), :
1) f(0,y) = y + 1
2) f(x + 1,0) = f(x,1)
3) f(x + 1,y + 1) = f(x,f(x + 1,y)) x 0, y 0. f(4,1981).

. . 23
1:
A 1A2A3. ai ,
Ai (i = 1,2,3), Mi ai, Ti ,
, Si , Ti A i
. , M1 S1, M2S2, M3S3 .
2: [,.] x n ,
1 = x 0 x 1 x 2 x n
) , x n n,

) x n, ,
n

3: f(n) n
. , f(n) :
) m n f(m + n) f(m) f(n) 0 1,
) f(2) = 0,
) f(3) > 0,
) f(9999) = 3333.
f(1982).
4:
AC CE ABCDEF M N ,
. , B, M N . k.
5:
x 3xy + y = n. ,
) n , ,
;

) n = 2891 .
6:
K 100. L ,
K, , P K L,
P 1/2. , X Y,
1, , ,
, 198.

. . 24
1: [] f,
,
:
1) f((x) f(y)) = y f(x) x,y 0,
2) f(x) 0 x + .
2: [, ..] A
O1 O2, P1 P2 Q1Q2 , M1 M2 P 1Q1 P2Q2
. O 1AO2 M1AM2.
3: [] a, b, c ,
. , , xbc + yca
+ zab ( x, y, z ), 2abc ab bc ca.
4: [] , ABC,
E1 E2 . , E 1
E2 ?
5: [] 1983 , 100000, ,
,
(.. a, b, c, a + c = 2b)?
6: [] ) , a, b, c ,
ab(a b) + bc(b c) + ca(c a) 0. ,
.
) , a, b, c ab(a c) +
bc(b a) + ca(c b) 0.

. . 25
1: [] x, y, z , x + y + z = 1.
,

2: [] - (a,b) ,
1) ab(a + b) 7
2) (a + b) 7 a7 b7 77 .
.
3: [] O A. X
, O, a(X) AOX,
(0 a(x) < 2 ), a(x) OA,
C(X) O OX + a(X)/OX.
, .
, Y , a(Y) > 0 C(Y)
, Y.
4: [] ABCD CD
AB. , AB CD
, BC AD .
5: [] d , p n (n > 3). ,
6: [] a, b, c, d ,
:
1) 0 < a < b < c < d;
2) ad = bc;
3) a + d = 2k, b + c = 2m m k. , a = 1.

. . 26
1: [] ABCD,
. AB
. , |AD| + |BC| = |AB|.

2: [] n k (0 < k < n).


M = 1,2, ,n 1 , ,
:
) i M i n i ;
) i M, k, i |k i| .
, M .
3: [] P(x) = a0 + a1x + + akx k
w(P) . Q i(x) = (1 + x) i
i = 0,1,2, , i 1 , i 2,, i n 0 i 1 < i 2 <
< i n,

4: [] M, 1985 .
M 26. ,
M 4 ,
.
5: [] ABC O,
A C, AB BC K N .
, ABC KBN, B M.
, OMB .
6: [] x 1 x 1,x 2, ,

n 1. ,
x 1 , 0 < x n < x n + 1 < 1 n.

. . 27
1:
d , 2, 5 13. ,
2,5,13,d a b , ab 1
.
2:
A 1A2 A3 P0. A s = As 3 s 4.
P 0 ,P1,P2, , P k + 1 P k
A k + 1 120 (k = 0,1, ). , P 1986
= P0 , A 1 A2A3 .

3:
,
. x,y,z y < 0,
: x,y,z x + y, y,y + z.
, .
, .
4:
A B n- (n 5) O. XYZ,
OAB, , n-
, Y Z , X n-.
X, Y Z n-?
5:
f(x),
, :
1) f(x f(y)) f(y) = f(x + y) x,y;
2) f(2) = 0;
3) f(x) 0 0 x < 2.
6:
M
. M ,
, L,
, L
? .

. . 28
1: [] pn(k) n (n 1) ,
k . , p n(1) + 2 pn(2) + + n pn(n) = n!
2: [] AL (L BC) ABC
N (N A). L
AB AC LK LM. ,
AKNM ABC .

3: [] x 1 ,x2, ,x n
. ,
k 2 a 1,a2, ,an, , |ai|
k 1,i = 1,2, ,n, ,

4: []

. ,

, f(f(n)) = n + 1987

5: [] , n, n 3,
n , :
) ;
) ,
.
6: [, ..] n 2 . , k + k + n
k,
0 k n 2.

, k + k + n k,

. . 29
1: [] ,
r R, r < R. P
B . BP
C. l BC, P,
A ( , l
, , A = P).
1) BC + CA + AB.
2) , AB.
2: [] n A 1, A2 , , A2n + 1
B. ,
a) A i (i = 1,2, ,2n + 1) 2n ;
b) A i Aj(1 i < j 2n + 1) ;
c) B A i (i = 1,2, ,2n +
1).

n B
0 1 , A 1, A2, , A2n + 1 n ,
?
3: [] f
: f(1) = 1, f(3) = 3, f(2n) = f(n), f(4n + 1) = 2f(2n + 1) f(n), f(4n + 3) = 3f(2n + 1)
= 2f(n). n, 1 n 1988, f(n) = n.
4: [] ,

, 1988.
5: [] AD ABC, A 90.
, , ABD ACD,
AB AC K L. , S ABC 2 SAKL.
6: [] a b , a + b ab + 1
. ,

. . 30
1: [] , 1,2, ,1989
A i (i = 1,2, ,117) ,
) A i 17 ;
) S1 = S2 = S117 , Si A i.
2: [] A, B, C ABC
A 1, B1, C1 . AA i
B C ABC A 0. B0 C0
.
,
)
)
3: [] n k , n k. S n
:

) S ;
) P S k S, P.
,
4: [] ABCD , AB, AD BC
AB = AD + BC. P
, AP = h + AD BP = h + BC, h P CD.
,
5: [] , n n
, .
6: [] (x 1,x2, ,x 2n) 1,2, ,2n , |x i x i
= 1 | = n i 1,2, ,2n 1. , n
.

. . 31
1: [] AB CD E . M
BE. E , D, E
M, BC AC F G . AM/AB = t. EG/EF
t.
2: [-] E 2n 1 (n 3),
k , .
, ,
n E. k,
E .
3: [] n > 1 , (2n + 1)/n
.
4: []

.
, f(x f(y)) = f(x)/y

5: [] n 0 > 1. A B
n1 ,n2 , . A, n 2k,
n 2k + 1 ,

B n 2k + 2 , n2k + 1 /n2k + 2
. A , 1990, B
1.
n0 ,
) A ;
) B ;
) A, B .
6: [] , 1990
,
) ;
) 1, 2, , 1989, 1990 .

. . 32
1: [] ABC. A, B, C CAB,
ABC, BCA BC, CA, AB I . ,

2: [] n , n > 6 a1, a2 , , ak ,
n n. , a 2 a1 = a3 a2 = = ak ak 1 > 0,
n , 2.
3: [] S = 1,2, ,280. n ,
n- S 5 .
4: [] G k . ,
1, 2, , k , ,
, , ,
, 1.
5: [] P ABC. ,
PAB, PBC, PCA 30.
6: [] x 0,x1,x2,
, C , |x i| C i 0.

a > 1.
x 0,x 1,x 2, , |x i x j| |i j|a 1
i j.

. . 34
1:
f(x) = x n + 5x n 1 + 3, n > 1 . , f(x)
, 1
.
2:
ABC D , ADB = ACB + 90 AC
BD = AD BC.
)

) , , C ,
ACD BCD, .
3:
. n n n,
. , -

. , , .
n, .
4:
P,Q,R m(PQR)
PQR. A,B,C,D . m(ABC) m(ABD) + m(ADC)
+ m(DBC).
5:

6:
n > 1 . n L 0, ,Ln 1.
. S 0 ,S1 , ,Si,
. S j Lj (

) , Lj 1 , Sj Lj (
, Lj , ). L j 1 , Sj
. n (.. L n = L0 ..)
. ,
) M(n) , M(n) .
) n 2k, n 1 .
) n 2k + 1, n n + 1 .

. . 36
1:
A, B, C D , .
AC BD X Y. XY BC
Z. P XY, Z. CP
AC C M, BP BD B
N. , AM, DN XY .
2:
a,b,c , abc = 1. ,

3:
n > 3, n A 1 ,A2, An
r1 ,r2, ,rn :
a) ;
b) i,j,k A iAjAk ri + rj + rk.
4:
x 0,
x 0,x1, ,x 1995 , :
a) x 0 = x 1995
b)
5:

i = 1,2, ,1995.

ABCDEF , AB = BC = CD, DE = EF = FA BCD = EFA


= 60. G H , AGB = DHE = 120 ,
AG + GB + GH + DH + HE CF.
6:
p . A 1,2, ,2p ,
:
a) A p ;
b) A p.

. . 39
1:
ABCD AC BD ,
AB DC .
AB DC P, ABCD. ,
ABCD , ABP
CDP .
2:
a , b , b
, b 3.
. k ,
k , .
,
3:
d(n) n ( 1 n).
k ,

n.

4:
(a;b) , ab + a + b ab + b + 7.
5:
I , ABC. K, L, M ,
BC, CA, AB . ,
B MK, LM LK R S .
, RIS .

6:
f, ,
f(tf(s)) = s(f(t))
s t. f(1998).

. . 40
1:
S ,
S.
2:
C , n

x 1 ,x2, ,x n C ,
.
3:
, 2n 2n ,
( )
.
4:
n,p p , n 2p (p 1) n + 1 np 1.
5:
1 2 M N ,
, 2 1. 1 2
A B. MA MB 1 C D.
, CD 2.
6:

, f(x f(y)) = f(f(y)) + xf(y) + f(x) 1.

41 . , , 13-25
2000 .
1: 1 2 M N. l
1 2 , M l , N. l 1 A, 2
B. , M l, 1 C,
2 D. CA DB E, AN CD
P, BN CD Q. , EP = EQ.
2: a, b, c , abc = 1. ,

3:
n > 2. n ,
. :
, A B, A B, ,
A, C, B, ,
. , M
n ,
M.
4:
100 , 1 100.
: , ,
. ,
. ,
, .
, ? (,
, .)
5: n , n 2000
, 2n + 1 n.
6: AH1, BH2 , CH3 ABC. ,
ABC, BC, CA, AB T 1, T2 , T3 .
l 1, l 2 , l 3 H2 H3, H3H1 , H1H2
T2T3 , T3T1, T1T2 . , l 1, l 2 , l 3
, ABC.

42 . , , 8-9
2001 .

1:
O ABC, AP .
, BCA ABC + 30, CAB + COP < 90.
2: ,

a, b c.
3:
.

.
, .

, ,
.
4: N 1, k 1, k2,kn
. n! a = (a1,a2, ,an) 1, 2,n,

, b c (b c), n! S(b)
S(c).
5: ABC AP BQ. , BAC = 60
AB + BP = AQ + QB. ABC?
6: a, b, c, d , a > b > c > d > 0. , ac + bd = (b
+ d + a c)(b + d a + c). , ab + cd .