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20.12.

2013


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1. .......................................................................................................................................3
1.1..............................................................................................................................................3
1.2.................................................................................................................................................5
1.16. . .............................................................................8
1.17. ...................................................................................................................11
1.18. ..............................................................................................................................14
1.19.....................................................................................................................................16
1.20. .................................................................................................................................18
1.21. ...........................................................................................................................20
1.22. ............................................................................................................................23
1.23. 25
2. ............................................................................................28
1.24. .....................................................................................................28
1.24.1.1.1. ......................................................................28
1.24.1.1.2. ............................................................................................29
1.24.1.1.3. ( )..................................29
1.24.1.1.4.
30
1.24.1.1.5. .........................................................................31
1.24.1.1.6. .............................................................................31
1.24.1.1.9. .............................................................................31
1.24.1.1.10. .......................................................................32
1.24.1.1.11. ......................................................................................32
1.24.1.1.12. ......................................................................32
1.24.1.1.13. ....................................................................33
1.25. () ..............................................................................................33
1.26.
33
1.26.1.1.1. ...........................................................................................................................33
1.26.1.1.2. .......................................................................................................................34
1.26.1.1.3. ..................................................................................................................34
1.26.1.1.4. ...................................................................................................................34
1.26.1.1.5. ...........................................................................................................................34
1.26.1.1.6. .................................................................................................................35
1.26.1.1.7. , , .......................35
1.26.1.1.8. ............................................................................................................36
1.26.1.1.9. .....................................................36
1.27. ............................................................................................................................38
1.28. ..................................................................38
1.30. .. ...................................................................43
1.31. , , ................................44

1.
1.1.

1.2.

1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8.
1.9.
1.10.
1.11.
1.12.
1.13.
1.14.
1.15.
1.16. .

10

1.17.

11

12

13

1.18.

14

15

1.19.

16

17

1.20.

18

19

1.21.

20

21

22

1.22.

23

24

1.23.

25

26

27

2.

1.24.
1.24.1.1.1.

6,672010-11 2-2

2,99792458108 -1

410-7-1 = 1,256637061441
6
-1

0 = (0c2)-1

8,8541878210-12 -1

6,62617610-34

me

9,10953410-31
5,485802610-4 ...

mec2

0,5110034

mp

1,672648510-27
1,007276470 ...

mpc2

938,2796

mn

1,674954310-27 1,008665012
...

mnc2

939,5731

mp/me

1836,15152

(. )

1,602189210-19
4,80324210-10 .

e/me

1,75880471011 -1

9,27407810-24 -1

5,05082410-24 -1

n/N

1,91315

p/N

2,7928456

...

1,6605655(86)10-27

1
2

H
H
4
He

1,007825036
2,014101795
4,002603267

NA

6,0220451023 -1

F = NAe

96484,56 -1

8,31441 -1K-1

-3

-1

(10 )/NA
...:

-4

(1
Vm
, T0 = 273,15 )

22,4138310-3 3-1

k = R/NA

1,38066210-23 -1

1/

0,072973506
137,03604

10973731,77 -1

a0

0,5291770610-10

re

2,817938010-15

2e/h

4,8359391014 -1

28

2,067850610-15

0 = h/2e

:
...
1

931,5016
1,602189210-19

1 /k
1 /hc
1 /h
1.24.1.1.2.

11604,50
8065,479 -1
2,41796961014

(. )

. .

1,495978701011

3,0856781016

9,4605301015

1,9891030

6,9599108

3,8261026

M+

5,9761024

R+

Mc

6378164
6356799
6371030

7,351022
384400

1.24.1.1.3. ( )


1 = 10-10 = 10-8 = 10-4 = 10-1
1 = 5717`44,8`` = 53,3 = 3,44103` = 2,06105``
1 /3 = 103 /3 = 1 /3
1 = 10-5 = 1,0210-9
1 = 1,01105 = 1,01106 /2 = 1,03 /2
1 . . = 1,33102 = 1,33 = 13,6 . .
1 = 10-7 = 1,02 = 2,3910-8 = 6,241011
1 = 3109 . = 0,1 .
1 = 3109 . = 0,1 .
1 = 3,3410-3 . = 108 .
1 = 8,991011 = 10-9 .
1 = 1,1110-12 . = 109 .
1 = 3,3410-7 . = 104
1 = 1,1110-12 . = 109
1 / = 3,77108 . = 1,2610-2
29

1.24.1.1.4.

17931795 . .
, .
: ... ( . chilioi ), ( . hekaton ), ... ( .
deka ), .. ( . decem ), ... ( . centum ), ... ( . mille ).
;

.
: ... ( , megas ), ... ( . gigas, gigantos
), ... ( . teras, teratos , ), ... ( . mikros ,
), ... ( . nanos ), ... ( . piccolo , ), ... ( . femten
), ... ( . atten ). ... ...
1975 .: ... ( . peta , 103), ... ( . hex ,
103).

1000000000000000000=1018

1000000000000000=1015
12

1000000000000=10

1000000000=109

1000000=106

1000=10

100=10

da

10=101

0,1=10

-1


-2

0,01=10

0,001=10-3

0,000001=10-6

0,000000001=10-9

0,000000000001=10-12

0,000000000000001=10-15

0,000000000000000001=10-
18

, () ()
.
1

(1
)
=10 12
(
)
1

(1
)
=
106
(
)
3
1
(1
)
=
10
(
)
1

(1
)
=
10-6
(
)
1

(1
)
=
10 -12
(
)
-15
1 (1 ) = 10 ( )

30

1.24.1.1.5.

10-6

1,1610-5

2,7810-4 1,6710-2 106

109

106

11,6

278

1,67104 1012

1015

86 400

8,6410-2 1

24

1440

8,641010 8,641013

3 600

3,610-3

60

3,6109

3,61012

60

610-5

6107

61010

10-6

10-12

1,1610-11 2,7810-10 1,6710-8 1

103

10-9

10-15

1,1610-14 2,7810-13 1,6710-11 10-3

0,04167
6,944510-

1,6710-2 1

. 1 = 365,24219878 = 31556925,9747 3,16107 .

1.24.1.1.6.

...

10-9

10-3

0,01

103

106

6,021026

109

106

107

1012

1015

6,021035

103

10-6

10

106

109

6,021029

100

10-7

0,1

105

108

6,021028

10-3

10-12

10-6

10-5

103

6,021023

10-6

10-15

10-9

10-8

10-3

6,021020

1 ...

1,6610-27 1,6610-36 1,6610-30 1,6610-29 1,6610-24 1,6610-21 1

. : 1 ... =1,66057 10-27 .

1.24.1.1.7.
1.24.1.1.8.
1.24.1.1.9.

10-3

100

103

106

109

103

105

106

109

1012

0,01

10-5

10

104

107

10-3

10-6

0,1

103

106

10-6

10-9

10-4

10-3

103

10-9

10-12

10-7

10-6

10-3

31

1.24.1.1.10.

(, , )
:

(.

(..)

.=

:
1,4961011 .

:
=9,4601015 .

() , , :

=
3,086
1016
.
, .

..

1 ..

1,5710-5

4,84810-6

1,496108

1 .

6,324104

0,3066

9,4601012

206 265

3,262

3,0861013

6,68410-9

1,05710-13

3,24110-14

1040 .

8000

.
.
0,00257

499
.

.
.
..
..
)

0,27
1,73
(8

1.24.1.1.11.

10-3

10

103

104

10

1A*

10-4

10-1

102

103

10

-6

-3

-2

10

10

10

10

10

1 -.

10-7

10-4

10-3

10-1

10

1 **

10-9

10-6

10-5

10-3

10-2

** . (19011954).

(18141874).

1.24.1.1.12.

1 /

/
10-3

1
3

/
100
-5

/
60
4

3,6

1,94

1 /

10

10

610

3600

1940

1 /

0,01

105

0,6

0,036

1,9410-2

32

1 /

1,6710-2

1,6710-5

1,67

0,06

3,2410-2

1 /

0,278

2,7810-4

27,8

16,7

0,54

0,514

-4

51,4

30,9

1,85

5,1410

.
, /, /, ( ) 3,6
/. , 1,9 /, /, : 1,9 3,6 / = 6,84 /.
, /, /, ( ) 0,278
/. , 3 / : 30,278 / = 8,34 /.

1.24.1.1.13.

..
1,3610-

10-3

10-6

0,102

107

103

10-3

102

1010

1,36

106

103

1013

1,36103

1 /

9,81

9,8110-

9,8110-

9,8110

1,3310-

1 /

10-7

10-10

1 ..

735,5

0,7355

1,0210
5

10-13
7,3551
-4

1,0210-

75

1,361010

7,3551
9

.
1
=
0,101972
/=
10-3
=10-6
=
1,359610-3 ..
=0,238846
-3
1
=
10
=
1000=
101,972
/
=1,3596
..
=367
098
7
1
/
=
9,80665

()
=
9,8066510 /
1
..
=
735,499

=
75
/
=
270
000
1 / = 4,1868 () = 41,868106 / () = 0,0426935 /.

1.25. ()
1.26.
1.26.1.1.1.

1 = 7 = 7,4676

1 = 500 = 1,0668

1 = 3 = 7 = 2,1336

1 = 16 = 28 = 0,7112

1 = 1,75 = 44,45

1 = 12 = 0,3048

1 = 10 = 25,4

33

/;
/;
();
/;

1 = 10 = 2,54

1 = 1/1200

1.26.1.1.2.

1 . = 250 000 . = 1,1381 .

1 . = 2400 . = 1,0925

1 . = 9 . = 49 . = 4,5522 .

1 . = 256 . = 784 . = 0,0929 .

1 . = 100 . = 6,4516 .

1.26.1.1.3.

1 = 40 = 491,96

1 = 4 = 10 = 12,299

1 = 2,5 = 5 = 3,0748

1 () = 2 = 10 = 1,2299

1 = 1/16 = 0,7687

1 = 1/20 = 5 = 0,615

1 = 1/100 = 2 = 122,99

1 = 1/200 = 61,5

1.26.1.1.4.

1 . = 27 . = 343 . = 9,7127 .

1 = 4096 . = 21952 .

1 = 5,3594 . = 87,8244 .

1 . = 1728 .

1 . = 1000 . = 16,3871 .

1.26.1.1.5.

1 = 10 = 1,63805

1 = 40 = 16,3805

1 = 32 = 96 = 409,51241

1 = 3 = 12,797

1 = 96 = 4,266

34

1 = 44,43

1.26.1.1.6.

1 = 2 = 8 = 209,91

1 = 4 = 104,95

1 = 8 = 26,239

1 = 1/8 = 3,2798

1.26.1.1.7. , ,

1,609

1,852 ()

185,2 ()

914,4 ()

304,8 ()

25,4 ()

2,54 ()

2,12

4046,9 2

0,836 2

929 2

645,2 2

()

6,45 2
,

2,8 3

0,76 3

28,3 3

16,4 3

()

36,4

()

35,2

()

4,5

()

3,8

()

159

()

4,4

()

568,3

()

550,6

()

473,2

35

()

1,016

()

0,907

()

50,8

()

45,4

()

453,6

()

373,2

28,35

()

1,77

64,8

0,30 /

1,609 /

( )

1,852 /() 0,51 /

1.26.1.1.8.

).

0,9

( ). .
,

151,5
,

100,3
.
( , ). 45,5 47,5 .
( , ,
).

216

248
.
( , ).

152

176
.
, .
19 23 .

4,1.

1/9216

96

. 17- 2 12 14

().
1849., 4 = 4 .
1857.
=
3,85

(
).

(..). . .
10 .

1.26.1.1.9.


36

0,254

2,54

25,4

44,4

304,8

71,1

213,4

= 500 =
= 1500 =
=1066,8 1,07

6,45 2

6,45 2

19,76 2

9,29 2

0,51 2

4,55 2

10 925 2

1,138 2
,

16,4 3

16,4 3

87,8 3

(1/10 )

1,23

3,28

12,3

28,3 3

( )

0,21 3

0,26 3

0,36 3

9,7 3

44,4

4,27

12,8

= 96 409,5

= 40 16,4

163,8

1,07 / 0,30 /

37

1.27.

1.28.
1.29.

V-IV . ..
III . ..
. 1038
1121-1122
XIV .

,


,
, " " " ".

,


.
,
, ,
,

, ,

38

1597

()

1621

1632

1638



( 414 /)

1643

1650

1653

1657

1660



,
(
1675. . .
)
,



" "

( )

1636

1662
1665
1666
1672
1675
1676
1678
1687
1738
1742
1744-1750
1746
1757
1760
1780
1781
1784
1785
1787


.
.
, (" "),


( 1690.)
,






("" ""),
,

(" ")


( 1760. "
")
,

, " " ( 1791.)




( )



39

1798
1799
1800
1801

1802
1807

1811
1814

1818
1820

1821
1823
1824
1827

,


-
(" ")

.


""


,


. -

(" ") .

("")
.
,
.



,
.




,
,

( )



(" ")

.
.

. .

1831

1832

..

1833
1834

1839

.

,
. , .

1841-1842

1842

1842-1847

.
. , .
.

1838

40

1843





(" ")

1860

1860-1865


,

""

..

1879





- " ".


()

1881

..

1882

1883

1848
1853
1859

1865
1868
1869
1870
1872
1873

1874
1876

1878

1887

.
.

. , .

.
.
..

..
..
.
..
.

1888

. , .

..

1889

1895

" "

..

1896

1897


.

.
()

1899

41

- -



,

,
,




,

, ,

1906

1908



( )
;


( ),

. , .

1931



( 1932.)

1932

.
.. , .

1900
1902-1903
1903

1904

1905

1911

1912

1913

1918
1919
1920
1924
1925
1926
1930

-
42

. , .
..


.

..

. , .

. , .
.

..

1934

1938

1960


. , .




..
.






.. , ..

, .

..


. .
(..
104)

1964

. - .

1986

. , .

1939
1940
1942
1946
1952
1954

1956

. . -

1.30. ..
, -
. .
!

II

III

IV

VI

I
II
III
IV
V
IV
VII
1
H
1,00795

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
6,941
9,01218
10,811
12,011 14,0067 15,9994 18,9984

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
22,9897 24,305
26,9815
28,0855 30,9737 32,066
35,453

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
K
Ca
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
39,0983 40,078
44,9559
47,88
50,9415 51,9961 54,9380

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
Cu
Zn
Ga
Ge
As
Se
Br
63,546
65,39
69,723
72,59
74,9216
78,96
79,904

37
38
39
40
41
42
43
Rb
Sr
Y
Zr
Nb
Mo
Tc
85,4678
87,62
88,9059
91,224 92,9064
95,94
97,9072

47
48
49
50
51
52
53
Ag
Cd
In
Sn
Sb
Te
I
107,868 112,41
114,82
118,710 121,75
127,60
126,904

55
56
72
73
74
75

43

VIII
2
He
4,002602

10
Ne
20,179

18
Ar
39,948

26
27
Fe
Co
55,847 58,9332

28
Ni
58,69

36
Kr
83,80

44
45
46
Ru
Rh
Pd
101,07 102,905 106,42

54
Xe
131,29

76

77

78

Cs
Ba
132,905 137,33

79
80
Au
Hg
196,966 200,59

87
88
Fr
Ra
VII
223,019 226,025

81
Tl
204,383

57
La
138,
905

58
60
59
Ce
Nd
Pr
140,
144,
140,90
12
24

89
Ac
227,
027

90
91
92
Th
Pa
U
232, 231,035 238,
038
9
028

Hf
178,49

82
Pb
207,2

0
Rf

Ta
W
Re
180,947 183,85
186,207

83
84
85
Bi
Po
At
208,980 208,982 209,987

0
0
0
Db
Sg
Bh

Os
Ir
Pt
190,2 192,22 195,08

86
Rn
222,017

0
Hs

0
Mt

* ( )
61
62
63
64
65
67
68
66
Pm Sm Eu
Gd
Tb
Ho
Er
Dy
144,9 150,3 151,9 157,2 158,9
164,93 167,2
162,50
128
6
6
5
25
0
6

** ( )
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
Np
Pu Am Sm Bk
Cf
Es
Fm
237,0 244,0 243,0 247,0 247,0 251,07 252,08 257,0
482 642 614 703 703
96
28
951

70
71
69
Yb
Lu
Tm
173,0 174,9
168,93
4
67
4


101
Md
258,09
86

102
No
259,1
009

103
Lr
260,1
054

1.31. , , .

y0

IC

yC

b * h3
12

y0+h / 2

B*h

b * h3
36

y0+(2/3)*h

B*h/2

yC

c
b
y0

yC

c
b
h0
a

hC
C

h 3 (a 2 + 4 * a * b + b 2 )
36( a + b)

44

y0 +

h * ( a + 2b)
3 * ( a + b)

h ( a + b)
2

y0
d

yc
c

y0
2a

2b

y0

*d2
4

* a3 *b
4

y0+a

ab

(R4 r4 )
4

y0+R

(R2-r2)

yc
c
2r

y0
C
r

y0+d/2

yc
c

2R

*d4
64

yC
9 2 64 4
r
72

45

y0 +

4r
3

r2/2

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