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.., ..

- 2011

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-
,

- 2011

1. .
7

1. .

2.
7

3.
10
4.
11
5.
15
6.
19
.
6.1
6.2 20
6.3
21
7.
23

7.1
7.2
31

7.3 33

7.4 -
36
7.5 (M-)
36
8. .
39
8.1
8.2
41
8.3.
46

4
9. .
9.1
10.

.
10. 1
10.2

11.
11.1
11.2

11.3

11.4.
12.
13.
13.1 .

14.

14.1

14.2
15.
15.1
15.2. -
15.3.
15.4.
15.5.
15.6.
15.7.,
.

46
47

50
51
53
53
56
57
59
61

519.86
33
.., ..

. .: , 2011. 152.

,
-
, .
, ,


, .
, ,

.
: .. ...,
, .. ...,

65
65
66
69
72
73
75
76



, 2011

5
15.8. -
15.9.
15.10.

16.
.
16.1
16.2 .

16.3.
16.4.

16.5 .

16.6.

16.7.

2.

1.

2. .
2.1.
2.2.

3.
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.

78
80
80
80
82
85
86
88
89
90
92
92
96
98
99
101
105

1. .

1.
.


(, )


. , ,
,
.
L=x
a j x b j , i 1,......, m . ,
L
x, ,
bj.
.

.
programming,
, .

,
.
2.


:

L c 1 x 1 c 2 x 2 ... c m x m L 0 min
a i 1 x 1 a i 2 x 2 ... a im x m b i , i 1,..., k m

d j1x1 d j2 x2 ... d jmxm u j , j 1,...,q,


sl1x1 sl 2 x2 ... slmxm vl ,l 1,...,p...

(1)

1,,n,
ci, aih, dih, sih, bi, uj, vl, L0, .
,

i qi

: qi xi qi
.

. ,
, (1)
,
L. ,
xi, ci<0,
, ci>0.
xi ,
(1).
,
L. , (1)
,

. ,

.
, n-m (
, )
. ,

.

3.4.
3.5.
3.6
.7.
3.8.

3.9.
4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.3.1.
4.3.2.

4.4.
4.4.1.
5.
5.1.
5.2.

6.
6.1.
6.2.

6.3.

6.4.

111
112
114
119
120
122
123
128
132
132
135
139
142
143
146
146
147
149
150

11

,
.

,

.

.
,
(5)
,
:
= = = 0, = , , = . (6)
m (5)
, .

( ).




,
,
.

.
:

L c1x1 c2 x2 ... cn xn L0 min

ai1x1 ai2 x2 ... ainxn bi ,i 1,...,k m


x1 0, x2 0,....,xn 0

(2)
,

.

,
:

x m j u j ( d j 1 x1 d j 2 x 2 ... d jm x m ), j 1,..., q .
x m q l s l 1 x1 s l 2 x 2 ... s lm x m v l , l 1,..., p ..

(3)

4.
,

(5).
,
(,

ci L,

:
x1 ... x m 0 , x m 1 b1 ,..., x m k bk
,
xi ( i m )
L.
, (6) .

L
,
L L0.
= .

12

10

L
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> 0,

0.
,

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j k.
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=

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xi
:

xi yi zi

(4)
,

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L
= .

,

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3.
,
,
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:
L c1 x 1 c 2 x 2 ... c m x m L 0 min

x m i a i 1 x1 a i 2 x 2 ... a im x m b i , i 1,..., k m . (5)

m k n , x1 0 , x 2 0 ,...,

x n 0 , bi 0

,
(2) (5)
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bi 0 .
(5)
.

13

15

, (
ci, ,
).

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0.
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: bi

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L

.8.

L
. k-

L
. :

,
=

5.

, .
1.
:

L x1 x 2 x 3 10 min;
x 4 3 x1 x 2 2 x 3 1
x 5 2 x1 2 x 2 x 3 2 .
x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 0 .

: x1=2=3=0
4=1, 5=2 .
L=10. .
2, ,
L . 2,
1 3 . ,
4 5.

, 5
,
4 2
. , 2 1,
4=0. 2 4
.
2:
= 3 + 2 + 1.
L.
:

16

L 4 x 1 x 3 x 4 9 min;
x 2 3 x1 2 x 3 x 4 1
x 5 8 x1 3 x 3 2 x 4 4 .
x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 0 .

: x1=3=4=0.
: 2=1, 5=4. L=9.
L.
.

L. 3. ,
, 2 5
3. L
. ,
, L
.
2.
:

L 2 x1 x2 2 x3 20 min;
x4 x1 x2 2 x3 2
x5 3 x1 2 x2 x3 3.
x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 0.

: x1=2=3=0
4=2, 5=3 .
L=20. 2
5 , 2
L .
2 2

14





=
,



= +
+
+
. (7)

(7) ,
L


, > 0, > 0, < 0.

17
. 2
:

= 0,5(3 3 ).
L .
:

L 3,5x1 2,5x3 0,5x5 18,5 min;


x4 2,5x1 2,5x3 0,5x5 3,5
x2 1,5x1 0,5x3 0,5x5 1,5.
xi 0, i 1,...,5.


L ,

L .
:
L min 18 , 5 x 2 1, 5 , x 4 3 , 5 ; x 1 x 3 x 5 0 .
,



.
3.
:

L 2 x 1 8 x 2 3 x 3 30 min;
x 4 x 1 3 x 2 2 x 3 10
x 5 2 x1 4 x 2 x 3 12 .
x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 0

: x1=2=3=0
4=10, 5=12 .

19

28 x1 4 x 4 7 x5 26

min;
5
5
5
5
3x
2x
4x
4
x3 1 4 5
5
5
5
5
3x
2x
x
x 2 1 4 5 2,8.
5
5
5

L
. ,
:

Lmin=5,2, x1=x4=x5=0, x3=0,8, x2=2,8.

6.

6.1

(5),

(2). ,

. ,

.
,

. ,
, m
(2).
,
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, .
, ,

20

18

.
.

L=30.
L
2.
2. ,
10
12

, ,
3 . ,
3
4

4.
1- :

6.2


-1 (2),
. ,
bi
.


:

Q y 1 y e ... y n min
y i a i 1 x1 a i 2 x 2 ... a in x n bi , i 1,..., k n .
x1 0 , x 2 0 ,..., x n 0 , y 1 0 ,..., y n 0 ( 8 )

+ + + =


, yi i 1,..., n
. -
, + + + =
yi=0, Q=0. , Q 0 0
(2) ,
(8) yi=0.
, , ,
Q>0. -
(8), .
(2)
, (8) yi=0,
i=1,,n; Q=0.

x2

x5 x1 x3
3 .
4 2 4

L . :

L 6 x1 x 3 2 x 5 6 min;
x1 x 3 x 5

3
2
4
4
x
5x
3x
x4 1 3 5 1.
2
4
4
x2

2- : L
3 .

. 1,25. ,
3
4:

x3

2x1 4x4 3x5 4

.
5
5
5 5

21
, ,
yi=0
(2).
,
yi xi.
yi
, ,
bi=0.

23
-

6.3

yi
. yi,
, xi,
, . yi xi
. ,

, aij 0 Q,
i- xj, - yi.
L .


xi ..
a i 1 x 1 a i 2 x 2 ... a in x n 0 ,
,

Q.
( ),
, ,
yi xi i- yi
.

7.

7.1
4.
.

24

L x1 x 2 x3 5 x 4 2 x5 min;
2 x1 x 2 x3 2 x 4 3 x5 24
x1 2 x 2 2 x3 x 4 x5 18 .
x1 , x 2 , x3 , x 4 , x5 0

.

:

Q y 1 y 2 min;

y 1 2 x 1 x 2 x 3 2 x 4 3 x 5 24
y 2 x 1 2 x 2 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 18 .
x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 , y1 , y 2 0 .

, y1 y2,
Q:
= 3 3 4 + 42.

.
2. x1
. , y1 x1
Q.
:

x 1 0 ,5 ( 24 y 1 x 2 x 3 2 x 4 3 x 5 )

Q 1, 5 y 1 1, 5 x 2 2 , 5 x 3 2 x 4 0 , 5 x 5 6 .
x 1 0 , 5 y 1 0 , 5 x 2 0 , 5 x 3 x 4 1, 5 x 5 12
y 2 0 , 5 y 1 1, 5 x 2 2 , 5 x 3 2 x 4 0 , 5 x 5 6 .

Q
. .

22
yi - xk. ,
yi ,
,
yi
. .
,

.

(
)
( ,
),


, ,
.

,

.

25
x2
. 2 2:

x2 (2 / 3)(6 0,5 y1 y2 2,5x3 2x4 0,5x5 )

Q.
:

Q y1 y2 min

x1 (2 / 3) y1 (1/ 3) y2 (4 / 3)x3 (5 / 3)x4 (5 / 3)x5 10


x2 (1/ 3) y1 (2 / 3) y2 (5 / 3)x3 (4 / 3)x4 (1/ 3)x5 4.

1=10, 2=4, 3=4=5 ,
. ,

,
.

,
, :

L x1 x2 x3 5 x4 2 x5 min;

x1 ( 4 / 3) x3 (5 / 3) x4 (5 / 3) x5 10
x2 (5 / 3) x3 (4 / 3) x4 (1 / 3) x5 4.

1 2 L,

L (2 / 3)x3 (14/ 3)x4 (10/ 3)x5 14 min


x1 (4 / 3)x3 (5/ 3)x4 (5 / 3)x5 10
x2 (5/ 3)x3 (4 / 3)x4 (1/ 3)x5 4.

27
5.

L x1 x2 2 x3 min;
2 x1 3x2 x3 2 x4 x5 18
x1 x2 4 x3 x4 3x5 12.
x1, x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 0.

.

:

Q y1 y2 min;

y1 2x1 3x2 x3 2 x4 x5 18
y2 x1 x2 4 x3 x4 3x5 12.
x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , y1 , y 2 0.
:

Q 3x1 2x2 5x3 x4 2x5 30.


1 .
1 1:

Q y1 y2 min;

x1 0,5 y1 3x2 x3 2x4 x5 9.


Q. :

Q 1,5y1 2,5x2 3,5x3 2x4 3,5x5 3.


. ,

28

26

Q 1=2=3=4=5=0 3. ,
Q ,
.
6.


. 3
. 5
1 L.
:

2 x1 x 2 x 3 x 4 11

3 x1 2 x 2 3 x 3 5 x 4 38
L 10 x1 x 4 min
x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 0 .

.

:

Q y 1 y 2 min;

y 1 2 x1 x 2 x 3 x 4 11
y 2 3 x1 2 x 2 3 x 3 5 x 4 38
x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , y 1 , y 2 0 .
1 2
Q:

x 5 (3 / 5 )10 x1 ( 4 / 3 ) x 3 (5 / 3) x 4 .

x5 (3 / 5) x1 (4 / 5) x3 x4 6
x2 (1 / 5) x1 (7 / 5) x3 (5 / 3) x4 6.
L 6 2 x1 2 x3 8x4 .

.

. : x3=(5/7)(-x2+x4+0,2x1-6).

L:

x3 (5 / 7) x2 (5 / 7) x4 (1.7) x1 (30.7)

x5 (4 / 7) x2 (3 / 7) x4 (17 / 35)x1 (66 / 7).


L (102/ 7) (10 / 7) x2 (46/ 7) x4 (12 / 7) x1 8x4 .

Q 5x1 3x2 4x3 6x4 49 min.

,
:

Q 5x1 3x2 4x3 49 min;


y1 2x1 x2 x3 x4 11
y2 3x1 2x2 3x3 5x4 38.

L
. ,

: 3=30/7; 5=66/7;
1=2=4=0, L=-102/7.

29

31

1
. 5:

7.2



, .

, .

,
.
,
.

.
-
(1902-1950).
7.
:

x1 11/ 2 0,5 y1 x2 x3 x4

Q
. :

Q 2,5 y1 0,5x2 1,5x3 3,5x4 21,5 min;


x1 0,5 y1 0,5x2 0,5x3 0,5x4 5,5
y2 1,5 y1 0,5x2 1,5x3 3,5x4 21,5.

yi .
2
Q . :

Q y1 0 * x2 *x3 0 * x4 y2 min;
x4 (3 / 7) y1 (1/ 7) x2 (3 / 7) x3 (2 / 7) y2 43/ 7
x1 (2 / 7) y1 (3 / 7) x2 (2 / 7) x3 (1/ 7) y2 17/ 7.


Q
. Q
.

.
y1 y2
L. :

x1 x 2 x 3 10

2 x1 5 x 2 7 x 3 60
x1 , x 2 , x 3 0 .

.

y1 x1 x2 x3 10

y 2 2 x1 5 x2 7 x3 60
Q y1 y 2 3x1 6 x2 8x3 70 min
x1 , x2 , x3 , y1 , y 2 0.

32

.
.

. :

x1 y1 x2 x3 10

y 2 2 y1 3 x2 5 x3 40
Q 3 y1 3 x2 5 x3 40 min
x1 , x2 , x3 , y1 , y 2 0.


.
:

x1 x 2 x 3 10

y 2 3 x 2 5 x 3 40
Q 3 x 2 5 x 3 40 min
x1 , x 2 , x 3 , y 2 0 .
.
.

.

. :

30

L 10 x1 x4 min;
x4 (1/ 7) x2 (3 / 7) x3 43 / 7
x1 (3 / 7) x2 (2 / 7) x3 17 / 7.


L
x1 4 .
:

L (2.7)x2 (1/ 7)x3 44/ 7 min;


x4 (1/ 7)x2 (3 / 7)x3 43/ 7
x1 (3 / 7)x2 (2 / 7)x3 17/ 7.


.
.
,

, :

L (1/ 3) x1 (1/ 3) x3 98 / 21 min;


x2 (7 / 3) x1 (2 / 3) x3 17 / 7
x4 (1/ 3) x1 (1/ 3) x3 16 / 3.


.

6 : 1=3=0, x4=16/3, x2=17/3.

33

35

x1 ( 2 / 5) x 2 ( 4 / 5) y 2 2
x 3 ( 3 / 5 ) x 2 (1 / 5 ) y 2 8
Q y 2 min
x1 , x 2 , x 3 ,

y 2 0.

Q
.
.

,
:

x1 x3 x4 x5 10
x2 x3 2 x4 3x5 27
y x3 6 x4 3x5 5
Q y x3 6 x4 3x5 5 min
x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , y 0.
. :

x3 y1 6 x 4 3x5 5

x1 (2 / 5) x 2 2

x 2 y1 8 x4 6 x5 22

x 3 (3 / 5 ) x 2 8

x1 y 7 x 4 4 x5 5

x1 ,

x2,

x3 0.

.
7.3.


,
.

.
8.
:

Qy
x1 , x 2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , y 0.

.
,

x3 6 x 4 3 x5 5

x 2 8 x 4 6 x 5 22
x1 7 x 4 4 x 5 5
x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 , y 0.
,
,
, .

36
7.4 -


,
, (7).
,
i.


,
Excel, .
7.5 (M-)

.
(2),
,
:

yi ai1 x1 ai 2 x2 ... ain xn bi , i 1, ..., k n


x1 0, x2 0, ..., xn 0, yi , ..., yk 0
(9)

.

, (9) ,
yi=0 i.
, L1min>0.
9.

L x1 x2 x3 x4 min;
x1 2 x2 x3 x4 6

2 x1 x2 x3 x4 15
x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 0.

34

x1 x 3 x 4 x 5 10
2 x1 3 x 2 3 x 3 4 x 4 5 x 5 47
x1 3 x 2 5 x 3 x 4 7 x 5 69
x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 0 .

,
.
:

x1 x3 x4 x5 10

x2 x3 2 x4 3x5 27
3x2 4 x3 0 * x4 6 x5 59
x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 0.

x1 x3 x4 x5 10
x2 x3 2x4 3x5 27
x3 6x4 3x5 5
x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 0.


.
.


.

37

, :

y1 x1 2x2 x3 x4 6

39
L1 2 .
:

x1 ( 2 / 5 ) y1 (1 / 5 ) y 2 ( 4 / 5 ) x3 13 / 5

y2 2x1 x2 x3 x4 15

x 2 (1 / 5 ) y1 ( 2 / 5 ) x 2 ( 3 / 5 ) x3 6 / 5

L1 M 2 / 5 y1 0 , 2 ( 5 M 1) y 2 (1 / 5 ) x3 13 / 5 .

x1, x2, x3, x4 , y1, y2 0.

L1 x1 x2 x3 x4 M y1 y2

x1 x2 x3 x4 M6 x1 2x2 x3 x4

x1 x2 x3 x4 M15 2x1 x2 x3 x4

1 3M x1 (1 M) x2 (1 2M) x3 x4 21M min.

. ,
, 1 L1
. :

x1 y1 2x2 x3 x4 6

y2 2y1 5x2 x3 3x4 3

L1 3M 1 y1 (5M 3)x2 Mx3 3Mx4 3M 6 min.


L1
4.
:

x1 (1/ 3) y1 (1/ 3) x2 (2 / 3) x3 (1/ 3) y2 7

x4 (2 / 3) y1 (5 / 3) x2 (1/ 3) x3 (1/ 3) y2 1

L1 M 1 y1 3x2 My2 6 min.

, 3
L1 , 3
. ,
L.

15 4 3
6

, 2 3
5
5
5 5

.
1.

. , .
,
L1 aM+b

0.

8.

8.1
(7) ,
L

.

cl<0, akl>0, a bk ,
L , bk>0
, bk=0. ,
bi

40


. (7) ,


ji ,
, aji ,
,
:


.

,
,
.
,


. ,
,

.

[1, 2, 3]. ,
, .
,
,
.

38

x2 y1 3 x1 2 x3 y2 21
x4 y1 5 x1 3 x3 2 x2 36

L1 M 2 y1 6 x3 ( M 3) y2 9 x1 57 min .

x1 x3 0, x2 21, x4 36, Lmin 57.


10.

L x1 x 3 min;
2 x1 x 2 x 3 4
x1 2 x 2 2 x 3 5
x1 , x 2 , x 3 0 .

, :

y1 2 x1 x2 x3 4

y2 x1 2 x2 2 x3 5
x1 , x2 , x3 , y1 , y2 0.

L1 1 3M x1 Mx2 (3M 1) x3 9 M .

, , : 13<0
.
x 1 (1 / 2 ) y 1 (1 / 2 ) x 2 (1 / 2 ) x 3 2
y 2 (1 / 2 ) y 1 ( 5 / 2 ) x 2 ( 3 / 2 ) x 3 3

L 1 0 , 5 3 M 1 y 1 0 , 5 ( 5 M 1 ) x 2 0 , 5 ( 3 M 1 ) x 3 3 M 2 .

41
8.2


ci

. ,

. ,


. , ,
aki, xi
, ,


L. aki
, ,
.
,
. xi
aki . , aki
, -1.
L
, xi.

.
.
. ,
.
, xi
,
i-
xi.
, ,

43

L x 3 6 x 5 3 x 6 1 min;
x1 2 x 2 3 x 5 5 x 6 0
x2 x3 3 x5 4 x6 0
x4 x3 x5 3 x6 1


, 5 - ,

1 2. ,
:
F

x3
x
3 6 6 min;
x5
x5

y1

x1
x
x
2 3 5 6 3
x5
x5
x5

y2

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x
x
3 4 6 3.
x5
x5
x5

.
x
x
x
x
F M 3 M 6 (1 3M ) 3 (3 9 M ) 6 6 M 6 min;
x5
x5
x5
x5

y1

x
x
x1
2 3 5 6 3
x5
x5
x5

x 2 x3
x

4 6 3.
x 5 x5
x5
,
2.
y2

42

44

x
x 3M 1 x6
1 M x1
* (3 9M) 6 1,5M 15 min;
* M 2
2
2 x5
x5
x5
x5

x
x3
x
x
0,5* 1 0 * 2 0,5y1 2,5 6 1,5
x5
x5
x5
x5
y2 0,5*

x
x1 x2
0,5y1 1,5 6 1,5.
x5
x5 x5

,
1
:
2
x
x
F ( M 1) y 2 2 My 1 6 3 M 13 ,5 .
x5
x5

x3
x
x
y 2 2 0 * y1 4 6 3
x5
x5
x5
x1
x
x
2 y 2 2 2 y1 3 6 3 .
x5
x5
x5

,
4 :

x
x
x1
1,25 y 2 1,25 2 y1 0,75 3 0,75.
x5
x5
x5

L x4 5 x5 min;
x1 2 x2 x5 x6 2
x 2 x 4 2 x5 x6 1

x
x
F ( M 0,75) y 2 0,75 2 My1 0,25 3 3M 14,25.
x5
x5
x
x
x6
0,25 y 2 0,25 2 0 * y1 0,25 3 0,75
x5
x5
x5

, ,
xi L .

,

, ,
L. ,
, .

,
. ,
,
, , ,
.
11.

x3 x4 x5 3 x6 1
x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , x6 0.


. ,
4
.
:

45

,
:

47
xi = zi qi,
:
m

a x

L x3 6 x5 3 x6 1 min;

j 1

x6 0,25 x2 0,25 x3 0,75 x5 0


x1 1,25 x2 0,75 x3 0,75 x5 0
x4 x3 x5 3 x6 1.

6
, F, :

L 0, 25 x3 0 ,75 x 2 3,75 x5 1 min;


x6 0 , 25 x 2 0 , 25 x3 0,75 x5 0
x1 1, 25 x 2 0,75 x3 0,75 x5 0
x4 0, 75 x2 0, 25 x3 1, 25 x5 1 .

, ,
L:

L 3 x 2 x 3 3 x 4 4 min;

x 6 0 , 2 x 2 0 , 4 x 3 0 , 75 x 5 0 , 6
x1 0 ,8 x 2 0 , 6 x 3 0 , 75 x 4 0 , 6
x 5 0 , 6 x 2 0 , 2 x 3 0 ,8 x 4 0 ,8
:

Lmin 4 x2 x3 x4 0 x1 x6 0,6, x5 0,8.

ij

i 1,2 ,..., n ;

c x
j 1

0 xi di ;

bj ;

min ,

(11)

di = si qi L M c i q i .
j 1

(3)
.
10.

10. 1

(10)


.
m

x m i aij x j b j ;
j 1

0 xk dk ;

L c j x j min.
j 1

i 1,2 ,..., n ;
k = 1, 2, , n+m;
(12)

48

46


,
bi.
di,
, . ,
L xi
= di, , i = 0
,
.
.


:

8.3.

,

.
.

, ,
.

xi = 0, ci y j a ji 0 , xi = dij,
j 1

ci y j a ji 0.
j 1

(13)


, ,
,
.
, i < 0
,
.
:
0 xm+i = bi aij xj dm+i 0 xj dj. (14)
aij 0 xm+i
0,

, x j min(bi / aij aij 0, d j ).

(14).

(15)

xj ,

9.
9.1


, xi 0,
si xi pi, si pi
.

yi = pi xi zi = xi si.
,

.

.
:
m

a z
j 1

ij j

bj ;

qi z i si ;

i 1,2 ,...,n;
m

M c i z i min
j 1

(10)

49

51

aij < 0

x5
L, :

biaij xj dm+i,

x j min(bi d mi ) / aij .
i

(16)

(15) (16), :

x j min( d j ,bi / aij aij 0 ,( bi d m i ) / aij aij 0 )


i

(17)
j > 0,
, .
(14). aij 0


bi aij xj dm+i, . (18) aij 0

(5)

0 bi aij xj, , .
(19)

(18), (19) xj 0, , xj
. ..
:

= max( 0, (
> 0

< 0. (20)

, ,
xm+i xj. (20)
.
,
, ,
,
,

x 4 x1 2x 5 3x 3 11
x 2 x1 - x 5 2x 3 4

L 2 x1 - x 5 - 4x 3 4 min.

( 0 ,1,0 ,1,5 ). ,
*

. x3.
:
0 x4 = 11 3x3 47/3 x3 11/3
0 x2 = 4 + 2x3 3

2 x3 3,5
2 x3 3.
0 x3 3
0 x3 3
x3 = 3, .
: ( 0 ,2 ,3 ,1,5 ), L = 2x1 x5
* *
4x3 + 4 = 13 ,

21 0, x5 5; 4x3 4 * 3.
2. ,
,
, ,
.
11.
11.1

.
,

52

50

.

.

, ,
. ,

,

. ,
,

,

.

. ,



,

, ,
.
,
[2, 3] [9].

,
,

. ,
, .
,
:
0, di.
10.2

12.
:

x 4 x1 2x2 - x3 3
x5 - x1 - x 2 2x3 4

0 x1 2; 0 x 2 3; 0 x3 3; 0 x 4 4; 0 x5 5;
L x1 - x 2 - 2x3 min.

(0,0,0,3,4) .
x2,
x1 = x3 = 0. :
0 x4 = 3 2x2 4 0,5 x2 1,5
0 x5 = 4 + x2 5

4 x2 1
0 x2 1.
0 x2 3
0 x2 3
x2 = 1 x5
.

53

55

11.2

,
t,
:

3x1 + 2x2 + x3 + x4 = 10
x1 x2 + x3 + 2x4 = 2
Q = x1 x2 + x3 + x4 min, x1, x2, x3, x4, 0.

F :
y1 + 3x1 + 2x2 + x3 + x4 = 10
y2 + x1 x2 + x3 + 2x4 = 2
M = y1 + y2 = 12 4x1 x2 2x3 x4 min,
x1, x2, x3, x4, 0.
y1 0, y2 0.

:
a)
y1 3y2 + 5x2 2x3 5x4 = 4
x1 + y2 x2 + x3 + 2x4 = 2
M = 4 + 4y2 5x2 + 2x3 + 7x4 min,
x1, x2, x3, x4, 0. y1 0, y2 0.
b)
x2 0,6y2 + 0,2y1 0,4x3 x4 = 0,8
x1 + 0,4y2 + 0,2y1 + 0,6x3 + x4 = 2,8
M = y1 + y2 + 2x4 min,
x1, x2, x3, x4, 0.
y1 0, y2 0.
, :
x1 = 2,8, x2 = 0,8, x3 = x4 = 0.
:
x2 0,4x3 x4 = 0,8
x1 + 0,6x3 + x4 = 2,8
Q = x1 x2 + x3 + x4 = 2 + 2x3 + 3x4 min.

Q=2.

. :
x2 0,4x3 x4 = 0,8
x1 + 0,6x3 + x4 = 2,8
L = (t + 1) x1 + (1 t) x2 + (2 + t) x3 + tx4 =

a
j 1

ij

z j bj ;

j 1,..., m ;

L( t ) ( c j d j t )x j min,
j 1

j 0; m n.

t.

11.3

,
t
.
t = t0 .
t. ,
L, .e. (cj + djt) ,
t0
[t, t0].
(cj + djt) ,

> min .

.
t .
c -
:

56
= (t + 1) (2,8 0,6x3 x4) +
+(1 t) (0,8 + 0,4x3 + x4 ) +
+ (2 + t) x3 + tx4 = 3,6 + 3t + 1,8x3 tx4 min.
x1, x2, x3, x4, 0.
= = 0. : Lmin(t) = 3,6 + 3t.
t 0
. t 0
:
x2 0,4x3 + x1 = 3,6
x4 + 0,6x3 + x1 = 2,8
L = 3,6 + 3t + 1,8x3 tx4 = 3,6 + 3t + 1,8x3 t(2,8 0,6x3 x1)
= 3,6 + 0,2t + (1,8 + 0,6t)x3 + 7x1.
x1, x2, x3, x4, 0.
Lmin(t) = 3,6 + 0,2t,
x1 = x3 = 0, x2 = 3,6, x4 = 2,8.
: t 0, Lmin(t) = 3,6 + 3t, x1 = 2,8,
x2 = 0,8, x3 = x4 = 0.
t 0, Lmin(t) = 3,6 + 0,2t, x2 = 3,6,
x4 = 2,8, x1 = x3 = 0.
t = 0, Lmin(t) = 3,6
.
11.4.
, ,
,


.
, ,


. ,

54
n

a x
j 1

ij

bj ;

j 1,...,m;

L(t) d j x j min, x j 0; m n.
j 1

,
,
t
>

min ( c j / d j ) ,

j ,d j 0

- . ,

. ,

t.

13.
:

3x1 2x 2 x 3 x 4 10
x1 - x 2 x 3 2x 4 2

L (t 1) x1 (1 - t )x 2 (2 t )x 3 tx 3 min.
x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 0

, ,
t ,
:

57

59

,


.
,
,

,
.

13.
13.1 .


.



.

:
+ = ,
,
,
,

= . (23)

(23) n- -
,
- n- - ,
n
,
n, n m
, n.

, , ,
- .

,
, (23)
.
:
= ( ), = ( ). (24)

. i
, (24)

12.


,
.
:
n

a x
j 1

ij

bj ;

j 1 ,..., m ;

MM max j x j min, x j 0; m n

(21)


, , j,
j. ,

MM y i x j ;

a x b , x 0, y 0, MM min.
j 1

ij

(22)

(22) (21),

(, 0).
14. :
x1, x2, x3, x4, 0.

60

58

i-
.
.

x3 + x1 + x2 = 3
x4 + 2x1 + x2 = 2
MM = max (x1, x2, x3) min.

(22):
x3 + x1 + x2 = 3
x4 + 2x1 + x2 = 2
MM = x1 + y1 = x2 + y2 = x3 + y3 min.
,
:
x1 + y1 x2 y2 = 0; x1 + y1 x3 y3 = 0;
x3 + x1 x2 = 3
x4 + 2x1 + x2 = 2
MM = x1 + y1 min.
, x3


.
y1 + 2x1 + x2 y3 = 3;
y2 + x1 + 2x2 y3 = 3;
x3 + x1 + x2 = 3
x4 + 2x1 + x2 = 2
MM = x1 + y1 = x1 + (3 2x1 x2 + y3) =
x1 x2 + y3 +3 min.

,
:
x4 = y2 = y3 = 0; y1 = 1; x1 = 1/3; x2 = x3 = MM = 4/3.

13.2



( )
.

.

.
,

.
,
.
:
1
0

=
0
0

0
1

0
1

0
0

0
0

d
d

d
d

0
0

0
0

0
0

1
0

0
0

. (25)
0
1



,

. ,
:

61
P =
1 0
0

0
0

0
0

0

0

0

0

d /d

d /d

d /d
1/d

d /d

d /d

63

0

0

0

1

0 . (26)

0 0 1
1 0
d /d
, -
, + 1
, :
= . (27)
0

14.

14.1


:
. ,
+ =
. +
,
+ = > 0, > 0 ,
.
(23) .
(
).
= + =

.3. 15.

,
:
=2
6 + = 6


.
+ 2 = 4
5 + 6 = 30

18 8
26
, , = .
11
11 11

.
.

64

62

:
(6,0), = 6 + 0 = 6.

. .3
.

, .

, , + + =
.

+ +


( )
.
= + + .
,

.
, -
.
.

.

.

, ,

,
,
,

.
,
.
q
.
= + =
( q)
.
,

.
15.
= + ,
:
+ 2 4
+ 6 6
.

5 + 6 30
2

.3 :
+ 2 = 4, + 6 = 6,
5 + 6 = 30 = 2.

,

.

+=
N M
.
,
. N Q
,
, .

65

67

,
.

++ 4
0
+ 2 5

+2

4 + 2 1.

.
,
:
4
+ 2 5 .
2 + 0,5 0,5
:
+ 2 5 4

.
+ 2 5 2 + 0,5 0,5


, :
2x + 3y 9
3x + 1,5y 4,5
.

x0
x+y2
y
:
2
3
3

3 2 .
2

0
:
2
2 3
3 .

2 3 2
0

14.2



( ),
.


,
,

, ,
.

.
15.

15.1


.

.

68
:
3
1 0 1.

0

.
,
:
01
2
, 3 2
2 3

.
3
+ 2 5 (4 , 2 + 0,5 0,5)
. ,



-.
,
-

, ,

66
15.2. -
:

, = 1, , . (28)

,
.


:
1)

.
:
( , , ) > 0 , (29)
x B (x , , x ) a < 0, (30)

a x b a = 0. (31)

2)
(29) (30) (!)
k l
:
( , , ) B (x , , x ). (32)
3)
(32)
(31).
, , 1 .
,
.
.
1 ,


,
.
16.
:

69

71

.
. -
.

(40) ,
.
(39) (40) 1 ,
> 0
:

15.3

.
.

0 (33)

0,

= 1, , , (34)


, :

= , 0. (35)


.
n=1 ( ). > 0,
0 0.
(34)
0. ,

=
, = / .

< 0

= .
0. .
.
,

=
.

, .
< 0. = 0
.
3.
,
.

, ,
A=B
.

72

70

15.4
.

, = 1, , ,

,
.

,
:

>0
- :

>0

1. .
-
.
:


0 . (36)

, , , (36)

. > 0, -


. (37)

< 0


. (38)

> 0







, (39)

< 0



. (40)

, (36)
(37), (38) (39)

73

75

. , ,
,
.

=
1,

>0
, :

+ .

0 0 = 1, , .
, :

= , = + .

, .
15.5.

1.

, 0,

= 1, , .

= . (41)

, 0,

= 1, , .

15.6
.
,

.

,


.
.
(42)


. :

= . (46)

(41) ,
, :

= . (47)

(46) (47), ,
.

.
, .
, .

76

74


.
,

.
,

= , = . (48)

= .

=
, .
, ,
= . . (49)
(49)
.
15.7.,
.

:

= , = 1, , ; = . (50)

+ = ; = 1, , ; = . (51)

= . (42)

,
.

.
:

= , 0, 0, = 1, , ,

= 1, , .

= . (43)

+ = , 0, 0,

= 1, , , = 1, , .

= . (44)

,

:
0,

, = 1, ,

= . (45)

77

79


,
.


.
, = 1`, ,
{ }, = 1, ,


.
(50) .
:

15.9.

.

,
. ,
( )
.
,
.

,

.


.

= =

= . (52)

(51)
. :

= =

= + . (53)

15.10.

:

,

(52) (53) :

,
( ).
,

80
,
.
16.

16.1
.

n .
m .

- nm.


- .

.
,
:
1

Bi/Cj
C1
C2
Cm
.

B1
a11
a12
a1n
.

B2
a21
a22
a2n
.

.
.
.
.
.

Bm
am1
am2
amn
.
, .

. ,
, ,

78

+ = . (54)

.

, ,
,

.
,
, ,
.


(54) .
(53) .
, .
.
, = 0 = 0


.
15.8.

,
,
,
,
. ,
,
.

81

83

:
,
,
.
,
. ,
. - ,
, ,
, ,
.
.
:
2
(1,1)
(1,2)
(2,1)
(2,2)
(1,1)
0
2
3
0
(1,2)
2
0
0
3
(2,1)
3
0
0
4
(2,2)
0
3
4
0
(1,2) , 1
, 2 .

. 1
4, 2, 3, 4 5,
8, , 5 5. ,
C1, 4
.
min max = ,


.
, ,
,
:
min max max min .

akl = PD,
:

asq

PU.

4
.
.
Cl
Cq
.
.

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..
P

D = ak l ..
..
kq

.. .. .. ..
P

U = as
.. ..
..
..
sl

.
Bi/Cj
C1
.
B
a

..
1
11

.. .. ..
B

.. ..
k

.. .. ..
B
s

.. .. .. .. .. .. ..

84

82

PD, -
, PD akq. PU . , PU akq.
, , PU PD.

.
, , ,
.
,
.
,
Bk,
Cq,
PU, PD,
akq.
,
.
,
.
, . PU == PD,

,
,
.
. ,
, PD = PU =
.
, ,
,
.
5 .
2,
- 3.
.

16.2 .

,
:
3
Bi/Cj
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
min
B1
3
5
2
4
2
2
B2
2
7
6
3
1
1
B3

B4

max

, B1, 2, 3, 4,
1 8
C1, 2, 3, 4 5.

B1 2 (
3, 5). :
B2, 3 4 , ,
1, 3 2. ,
3,
3.

max min = ,


.
, ,
,

85
Bi/Cj
B1
B2
B3
max

C1

C2

4
5
3

5
7
8

C3
3

87

C4

6
3

4
6
5
5

5
C5
min
2
2
9
3
5

= = .


.
:

, ,
.
:
, ,
- ,
. :

= =

16.3
,
,
,

. ,
,
, .
,

q pi, a
pi=1. (56) (57) ,
:

= . ()


(56). :

= .

,
,

= = . ()

, L M ,

.
n :

. ()

88

= ,

, , ,
. L m

= ()

86

16.5 .


.

,
. (60)
. ,

1 1. (62)
pj = 1, 1 j n
1, xm = 0. (62) ,
i ani
.
, ,

min max a p q = max min a p q . (55)

,
,
, .

16.4.


, ,

,
. ,
,
L = ,
.

= ,


, ,
:

= ( + + ) = + + =

(56)


(57)
= ,
p

89

, ,
, .
16.6


:
6
Bi/Cj
C1(q1)
C1(q2)
C3(q3)
B1(p1)
2
3
1
B2(p2)
4
1
5

:
1) 2p1 + 42 L; 3p1 + 2 L; p1 + 52 L; p1 + 2 =
1; L max
2) 2q1 + 3q2 + q3 M; 4q1 + q2 + 5q3 M; q1 + q2 + q3
= 1; M min
x1, x2, x3,
y1, y2 :
x1 2p1 42 + L = 0
x2 3p1 2 + L = 0
x3 p1 52 + L = 0
y1 2q1 + q2 + q3 = 0
y2 + 4q1 + q2 + 5q3 = 0
p2 = 1 p1 q3 = 1 q1 q2
2 q3:
x1 + 2p1 + L = 4
x2 2p1 + L = 1
3 + 4p1 + L = 5
y1 + q1 + 2q2 M = l
y2 q1 4q2 M = 5.

91
:

C = p q a = 0.

, = , :

C = p q a = 0.

.


1. x 0, 0, = bx m
2. Ay b, 0, L = c min.
:

- , , , u - n, v - m- -, t

:
Av + bt 0; Au ct 0; bu + cv 0.
t 0, u = tx v = ty,
Ay b, A c c bx
b , ,
,
bx c bx = c. ,


. , x

92

90

y -
, t, u v
:
1
,
= ,
= . (63)
=
+ + 1

L,
, ,
,
.
x1 x2 + 4pl = 3
x3 x2 + 6pl = 4
L = x2 2p1 1 min;
,
- .
y1 y2 + 2q1 + 6q2 = 4
M = y2 q1 4q2 = 5 min.

:
x1 (1/3)x2 (2/3)x3 = 7/3 q2 (1/6)y2 + (1/3)q1 +
(1/6)y1 = 2/3
p1 (1/6)x2 + (1/6)x3 = 2/3 M = (1/3)y2 + (2/3)y1 +
(1/3)q1 + 7/3 min
L = (2/3)x2 + (1/3 )x1 7/3 min;
L = M = 7/3.
p2 = 1/3; p1 = 2/3.
q1 = 0; q2 = 2/3; q3
= 1/3.

2.

1.


: m
()
a1, a2, ..., am.
, ().
,
b1, b2, ..., bn .

.
(
). ,
i- j- ,
i-
j- - ji.

- ai,
- bi.

,

.
. ,

16.7

,


.
,
.

.
,
:
= . ,

93

95


.
nm xij,
i- j- .
,
.

1.

.
1.

1
2
3
4
/

5
7
2
4
1
11
12
13
14
80
4
1
6
2
2
21
22
32
33
90
3
31 6 32 2 33 2 34 5
30

50
70
20
60
200

4
11, 12, 13 14
.
80 .
11 + 12 + 13 + 14 = 80.

,
. 1. ,
:
11 + 12 + 13 = 50 .
1,

2, 3 4.
, 7
12 :
11 + 12 + 13 + 14 = 80
21 + 22 + 23 + 24 = 90

.
1 :
F = c11x11 + c12x12 + c13x13 + c14x14 + c21x21 + c22x22 +
c23x23 + c24x24 +c31x31 + c32x32 + c31x31 + +c44x44 = 5x11 + 7x12 +
2x13 + 4x14 + 4x21 + x22 + 6x23 + 2x24 + 3x31 + 5x32 + 2x31 +
5x41.

nm
xij 0.
xij, F.
.
F

.
. 4.
,
,
, .
,
,
.
,
, ,

.

96
2.
2.1.



.
.
,
- .
xij
. 1 .
(-) a1
b1. a1 > b1,
,
.
b1 a1 (
b1), a1 > b1,

.
,
a1 b1 . a1
.
, , ,
,
. .
n + m - 2-
,
,
i-
j- a1
b1. ,
, .
1
:

94
22 + 23 + 33 + 34 = 30
11 + 21 + 31 = 50
12 + 22 + 32 = 70
13 + 23 + 33 = 20
14 + 24 + 34 = 60

(1)

m n
n+m
nm xij.
. m
n ,

xij,
,
( ). ,
. ,
.
( ,

) , mn m - n + 1.


, xij i > 1 ,
, xij j > 1
.
x11 ,
, x1i,
, xj1.
,

nm - n - m + 1. nm - n m + 1, n + m - 1. F = cijxij

97

99
1.

4

4
80
2
30
90
20 5
30

1
2
3
/
2
1
50 5 30 7
4
1
2
40
20 6
6
2
2
3

50
70
20
60
200


:
F = 50 * 5 + 30 * 7 + 40 * 1 + 20 * 6 +30*2 ++30 * 5 = 830.
,
- a1 = b1 ,
, .

(-)
. a1 = b1
,
, ,
.

.
2.
.
2.
/
1

1
50

2
1
0

50, (0)

70

20

70, (0)

7
2

60, (0)

(50), 0
90, (20),
(0)
40, (0)
180

F = 40 * 5 + 40 *4 + 70 *1 + 20 *2 + 10 *3 + 20 * 2 = 540,
, .

,
, . 2..
. 2. .

F = 50 * 1 + 50 * 3 + 40 * 5 + 30 * 4 + 10 * 2 = 540,
,
.

.
,

.
2.

2
3
1
/

10
2
1
1
50
50, 0
4
5
7
2
50
40
90, (40), (0)
8
4
5
3
30
10
40, (30), (0)
50, (0),
70, (40), 60, (10),
180

(0)
(0)
(0)
3.
3.1

.
1.
1,
1..
1..
(3,3)
(1,3), (1,1)

100
(3,1),
.

, ,
. ,
, .
2.

2
3
4
1
/

5
7
2
4
1
40
40
80
4
6
2
70 1
20 2
90
3
5
2
5
3
10
20
30

50
70
20
60
200

F
, .
,
F
c13 c11 + c31 c33 = 2 5 + 3 2 = -2,
F. ,
,
- 20.
,
() ,
( (3, 3))
.
, F = 500.
2.

1
2
3
4
/

7
1
30 5
20 2 40 4
80
4
1
6
2
2
70
20
90
5
5
3
30 3
20 2
30

98


.
,
.
:
F = 50 * 10 + 70 * 5 + 20 * 7 + 40 * 2 = 1070.
2.2

,
cij . ,
,
cij .
.
.

- , , cij
.

.
1.
2

2
3
4
1
/

80, (40),
7
2
1
40 5
40 4
0
90, (20),
4
2
70 1 20 7 20 2
(0)
30, (10),
5
5
3
10 3
20 2
(0)

50,
70, (0) 20, (0) 60, (40)
200

(40)

:

101

50
70
20
60
200


.
3.2
1.
K1, K2, , Kn,
,
,
.

.
,
.
.
.1.

. 1..

103

L - ,
. M - ,
.
, -
L M.
.
: L
M. .
.
mn
n+m .

,
n+m .
.
,
, .
.

,
n m
- . . ,
.
A1

A2. A2
. .
( ),
.
.
2.
, +1
-1,
.

104

102

.2 .

. 1..

. 2.

, .
,
.
+1, -1.
.
(
)
.


,
, .
()

(). , ()

.

. 1..
,
,

.

. .

105
3.3


.
3.
r ,
, r, -1,
, 1 ,
.
.

.

(
)
,
() .
.
.
,
.

,
,
,
.
5.
4.

.
.
4. n+m
( 2) ,

107

. 3. ,
.

.

,
(
).
i i+1, j
j+1 ( ). ,

. i <
j.
i+1
j-1.
,
2.

108
. ,
,
+1,

, -1, ,
0, .


yij.
,
, xpq
.
. ,
i j zij.
zij = yij + a * 1, a .

xpq.
. 4
, zpq = 1,
.
i j , , zij.
, ,
, xij=yij + a * 1 = yij,
a = 0.
xij = yij + a * 1 = yij + 1.
a = 1. ,
, a = -1.

106
,
. , .


.
.
.
.

O -
, , D1, , Dk, O - O, S1,
, Sl, O - . D1,
D2, , Dk, S1, S2, , Sl, Sl Dk
( ), S1, S2, , Sl, D1, D2, , Dk, Sl
D1 ( . .
3). , , D1, Dk, S1
Sl .
( ,
{ S1, , Sl} { D1, D2, ,
Dk}, ,
, .
.

.
:
D1, D2, D3, S5, S4, S3, S2, S1.

109
1- :
-
.
2- :
.
,


.
3- :
,
2.
,
,
.
4- :

.
5- :
. 2.

.
,
.
,
.
,
.

,
.

111

/
1
2
3

1
10

50
50, (0),
(0)

3
8

30
40

4
2
5
4

70, (40),
(0)

20

1
7

2
40
60, (10),
(0)

2.

(50), 0
90, (40), (0)
40, (30), (0)
180

3.4


.
, ,
,
,
. + ,
,
,
. cij
,

.
.

112
3.5



, ,
.
nm
.
,


.

, .
5.
n+m-1 . i
ui,
j vj, ,

:
ui + vj = cij
(2)
cij i- j- .
, n+m-1 (1) n+m
ui vj .
1. (1) n+m-1.

, (1) ,

(1). ui + vj = cij
xij .
(1) ,
(2)
. (1) n+m ,

110
-


i = 1


i- .



?


i=i+1

1.

.
.
2. (1, 2) (
(1, 2), (1, 3) , (3, 3), (3, 2))
: 2 - 1 + 2 - 4 = -1. 10.
2.,
.
.

113
(2) n+m . , ,
(2)
(1) ,
(2) .
(1) n+m-1, (2)
.
,

(2)

.
- ui
vj. ,
ui
vj, .
,
.

, ,
.


.
ui vj,
.
,

.
2.

cij ui - vj,
cij - , ui vj - .

i - j-
.
,
:

115
.. ,
.
, ,

.

.
-

3.
.

116

/
1
2
3

.
/

2
3

20

20

50

3
6

60,
(0)

10
7

60
20,
(0)

50

30
50,
(0)

3.

5

8
80
2
100
7
90
40

60

100

60

114

100,
(40)

270

3.

5

8
80,
(60),
(0)
2
100,
40
(50),
(10)
7
90,
(30),
(0)
40,
270
(0)

:
F=20*2+60*3+50*1+10*5+40*2+60*3+30*6= 760.
,
(2) ,
.

= + . (3)

,
. , d
:
= ( + ) + ( + ) + + =
=
. (4)
(4)
.
d > 0,
, .
,

(4),
,
.
3.6


:
1- . ,
.
2- . ,
.
3- . ,
. ,
4- .
4- . ,
, ,
, -

117
u1 + v1 = 2 - (1, 1);
u1 + v4 = 3 - (1, 4);
u2 + v3 = 1 - (2, 3);
u2 + v5 = 2 - (2, 5);
u3 + v2 = 3 - (3, 2);
u2 + v4 = 5 - (3, 4);
u3 + v4 = 6 - (2, 4).
v5 = 0, u2 =
2, . v4 =
3 v3 = -1. v4
u3 = 3 u1 = 0.
v1 = 2,
v2 = 0. .
,
. (4) ,
(1, 2)
d=6-2-0>0,
(1, 3) d=2-(-1)-0>0, (1, 5)
d=8-0-0>0,
(2, 1) :
d=3-2-2<0.
, ,
.
,
: (2, 1) , (2, 3) , (1,3) (1, 1).

10.
3..
.

119
d=4-(2 +(-1))>0,
(2, 4) d=5-(2+2)>0, (3, 1)
d=6-(1+4)>0,
(3, 3)
d=7-(-1+4)>0

(4, 5)

d=7-(4+0)>0.
. ,
.
3.
/

u1=0

v1=1

10

v2=-1

u2=2

10

v4=2

70

60

v5=0

50
6

u3=4

v3=1

40
7

30

80,
(60),
(0)
100,
(50),
(10)
90,
(30),
(0)

20,
60,
50,
100,
40,
270

(0)
(0)
(0)
(40)
(0)

F = 10*2 +70*3 +10*3+50*1 + 40*2 + 60*3 ++30*6 = 680.

3.7.
ai
bj . ,
,
( -

120
).
,
,
, . ,
,
.
3.8.

,
.

.
3.
,

.
, ( )
, ,

, .
1. ,

.

,
. ,
,

.
, -
. ,
,
,

118
3.
/

u1=0

v1=2

20

v2=0

u2=2

u3=3

60,
(0)

v5=0

10
7

60
20,
(0)

v4=3

60

50
6

v3=1

40
6

30
50,
(0)

100,
(40)

40,
(0)


80,
(60),
(0)
100,
(50),
(10)
90,
(30),
(0)
270

:
u1 + v1 = 2 - (1, 1);
u1 + v4 = 3 - (1, 4);
u2 + v3 = 1 - (2, 3);
u2 + v5 = 2 - (2, 5);
u3 + v2 = 3 - (3, 2);
u2 + v4 = 5 - (3, 4);
u3 + v4 = 6 - (2, 4).
v5 = 0
. : u1=1; u2=2; u3=4; v1=1; v2=-1; v3=-1;
v4=2; v5=0.
d (4)
3.. (1, 2) d=6-(1+1)>0, (1, 3)
d=2-(-1+1)>0,
(1, 5)
d=8-(-1+0)>0,
(2, 2)

121
,
. , .
(i, j) (k, l).
, (i, l)
. ,
. (, )
(, ) (i, j), (i, m), (l, p) ,
(k, j).
3.
6.
,
.
4.

,

.


,
.
.
, 1,
. ,
1
. ,
,
.
. (
).

.

123
4.
4.1.


,

.
, ,
,
,
.
,

.

.
,
,

, ,
.


, .

,
.
,

.
4, 4.A.
210, 240
.

124

122
4.

2
3

1
/
2
7
5
1
120
6
3
1
2
90

100
80
60

,
, (
25).
4..
4.
/
1
2
3

100

25

25

25

80

60

120
90
30
240

4..

, ,
.
100
20
, 30
60
.
30
.


,

.
3.9
,

, ai
< 1/
bm . , , n
ai, - bk.
, 4,
. ,

,

, .
, ,

, ai bi
.
,
,
. ,

.

,

.
,

,
.

125

127
4.

/
1
2
3

1
100

2
6
25

100

7
20
3
30
30 25
80, (50)

60
60

1
25

120, (20)
90, (30)
30
240


,
, ()
(
).
.
,

,
. ,
,

.


( ,
). , ,

.
-

.
,
.
,
. ,
,

5.
/
1
2
3

1
50
100

2
6

70

25

150,
(100)

25

70

100
80

25

180

120, (50)
200, (100)
80
400
5.*

/
1
2
3

1
120
30

25

70

25

100
80

25

120, (50)
200, (100)
80

150,
70
180
400
(100)
5., ,
(1, 3) (1, 3), (2, 3), (2, 2), (1, 2),
, .
, .
(3, 1) (3, 1), (2,
1), (2, 3), (3, 3). 50, 5..
(1, 3) (2, 1)
. (3, 2)
,

, 2
.
,

5.


2.

128

126
5.

/
1
2
3

1
120

30 25
150,
(100)

70
70

25

130
50
180

25

120, (50)
200, (100)
80
400

4.2.

,

. ,

,
,
,
.
. ,

.
,
. ,

,

. ,
,
,


. , ,
, ,

..,
,

.. -
( )
,


.
.
,

.
5..
,
.
5.
()2
3

1
/
2
7
5
1
120
6
3
1
2
200

150
70
180

5., .
(1, 2)
2, .
(2, 2).
: (2, 2), (2, 1), (1, 1), (1, 2).
50 5..

129

131

,

, ,

( ).
6, 6..
.
6.
/

150

50

180

100
200

80
380

,
,

.
150, 50, 180, 100, 200
80 10.
49. 50.
6. 380*50/10=1900
6..
.
.



, . ,
1,
0,
,
.
,
.
,
.


.
. ,
.
,

. (
)
,

, .

.

.

,
.

132
4.3
4.3.1
,
, ,
,
, .
,
, ,
, .
4.3.2

, ,
,
. , ,
,

. ,
.
7. ,

A B.
1 30 A 50
B, 2 20
A 75 B.
20 A
55 B,
A 40
B. ,

60 .

130
6.
2

1
/
1
100

3
7

4
6

100
200, (40),
3
4
1
1900
2
20
(20)
1900
2
5
9
3
30
80, (30)
150, (50)
50
160
20
380

,
(2, 2).
6..
6.
1
/
1
100

2
2

3
7

4
6

100
200, (40),
3
2
50
30 4 160 1 20 1900
(20)
1900
2
5
9
3
20
80, (30)
150, (50)
50
160
20
380
(1, 4).
6., , ,
.
6.
1
/
1
80
2
3

70

2
2

3
7

30

1900

20

4
6

160

20

1900

100
200, (40),
(20)
80, (30)

150,
50
160
20
380
(50)

[A1].

133

135
7.

2
7

60
20

55

40

30

50

20

75

175

1 1
1B, 2 2A 2B,
A B. 2 ,
A B.
7.A
,
, .
,
4.2.
7.
.
, (4, 4)
40 ,
(4, 2), (3, 2), (3, 4).

4.4.

(,
,
)

.

.


,
,
d. ,
:
n

xij ai , i 1,..., m;
j 1
m

a b ,0 x
j 1

j 1

ij
m

x
j 1

ij

bi , i 1,..., n;

d ij , i 1,...,.m; j 1,..., n;
n

L cij xij min .

(5)

j 1 j 1


.
,

,
,




.

136

134


.
:
,
xij=0 c jj ui v j 0 ,
0<xij<dij
cij ui v j 0 ,
xij=dij
cij ui v j 0.
(6)
(
),
:
, c
xij=0, xij=dij;
;
, ,
, xij=0, xij
, xij xij
. ,
.
,
, .

.

,

8.

7
/

2
7

60
20

55

40

30

50

20

75

175

7..
7.
/
1
2

1
10
20

20

50

30

50

40
20

60
20

30

75

7
5

55
40
170

137

139
8.

1
2
3

1
8

11

24

22

30

15

20

23

3
6

8
8

4
20

12

13

4
1

10

11

13

24

5
15

8
1
5

34

15

33
15

75

,
cij - .
.
, ,
dij.
,
. .
8. . ,
, (3, 3),
13. , (2,
4) 15 , 15.

.
(2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 2), (3, 1) 8.
8..

22

23

16

1
2

13

20

13

15

24

33
15

75

4.4.1.
,

.
,
.
,
, ,
.

-,
.


:
8

15

10

13
16

20

8
5

12

20
20

12

13

15

12

13
24

9.
8

10

23

15

34

15

33
15

75

140

138


9.

. , ,
(2, 4),
, , (3, 2), (3, 1),
(2, 1), (2, 3) (1, 3). , - (2,
3)
. 4.

,
(0, 3) (2, 0) , , 4.
:

11

24

22

13
16

23

20
20

4
10

12

10.
1

12

13

24

15

8
15

34

8.
/

1
8

11
7

2
3

24

22

15

20

23

1 6

12
20

10

12

13

1
0

11

13

75

(3, 3),
(2, 3).
4. 9..

15

15

34

15

24

33
15

75


. , (3, 3)
: (3, 3), (3, 1), (2, 1), (2, 3).
9 - 5 + 7 - 10 = 2 > 0. ,
(3, 3) 1.
(2, 3). 1,
:

33
15

15

/
1
2

2
8

11
24

15

20

8.

3
6

8
8

10

12

11

5
15

8
1
5

34

141

11

24

22

9
16

15

20

23

20

143
4

10

12

13

20

9.
1
2

8
4

15

8
15

34

15

24

33
15

24
22

7
9

15

20
23

16

20

10

12
13

20

12
4

12

10

5
15

15

24

3
5

15

15

8
34
33
75

. .
(1, 2)
:
9.
8

11
24

15
20

12

10

12

12

10

5
15

15

5.2.

, i-
j- , xij=1, xij=1.

, :
n

75

, (2, 3) 4,
.
9..
9.
11


.
, ,
.

8
34

ij

j 1

(7)

,
. ,

x
i 1

ij

(8)

xij,
F
.
:
n

F cij xij min

(9)

i 1 j 1

, xij .
F

.
, xij
, , . ,

. , ,

144

142


.
xij ,
(7) , , ,
, xij=0, xij=1. ,


.

3x3.

/

.

10.

:
,
( ); ,
, (2, 1) .
.
10..
, :
F = 1*1 + 1*5 + 1*6 = 12.
10.
/

9
3
1

1
0
.
8
5
2
0
1

6
7
2

1

22

9
16

23

12
20

13

12
24

15

15

33
75

.
5.
5.1.
n
n .
i- j-
- cij.
,
.

:

, ,
,
( ).

. n
n .
(
,
,
).
,
.
,


.
,

145

- .
(2, 3)
:
10.
/

9
3
1

1
0
.
8
5
2
0
1

6
7
2

1
,
:
F = 1*3 + 1*2 + 1*6 = 11.
,
: , . ,
.

.
[.1].
6.
6.1.
,

, . ,

, ,

.

:
, t ij,
tij i- j- .

147
6.3.

:
16.
4
6
7
2
80
1
9
5
8
25
3
11
12
10
35
40
50
30
20
140

:
16.
4
6
7
2
40
40
80
1
9
5
8
10
15
25
3
11
12
10
15
20
35
40
50
30
20
140
(2, 1).
16.
4
6
7
2
30
50
80
1
9
5
8
10
15
25
3
11
12
10
15
20
35
40
50
30
20
140
(1, 4).
16.
4
6
7
2
15
50
15
80
1
9
5
8
25
25
3
11
12
10
30
5
35
40
50
30
20
140

(16--16-):

148
10
25

4
1

5
40

30
40
5
35
40

11

50

4
1

25 5

6
9

50

30
5

20
7

25

20

12

30
6

20

12

11

50
1

20

20

12

11

50

30
30

50

50
4

10

50

146

10

20
7
5

20

20
11
12
35 3
40
50
30
20
,
.

16.
2
80
8
25
10
35
140
16.
2
80
8
25
10
35
140
16.
2
80
8
25
10
35
140
16.
2
80
8
25
10
35
140
16-

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t ij.
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1963.
2. .
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152

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60 84/16 - 100 .

150

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189 .
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381.
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. 1967, 206.
5. ..
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6. ., . . . .
1966, 276.
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