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2. -> % (GSIRTLHIH LJ .JKPJMKLPJ).
4. -> ;$$ (URMVVMR GSIRTLHIH).
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5! 5 8! %! > ; >! 55
89 5 8 .
_ $ 7 (:PTM`QNMRa 1PKIH)! 8 6
89 ! D ;5 8 . X
:PTM`QNMRa 1PKIH 5 $> 86 $
$6! 7=$ $ ( ) 6; $ $ 5
9 ($ ! 89 $ $
5 ! >5 ; 8 ;55 . .). A E!
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;9 7= $; D6 $65
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89 8 5 ( $ ;5)
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6 $;; 6 ; % ; =.
5 $8 >5 ; >8 7= $
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>5 ; >$ ; ; 8 >
7 6$8$.
-> 8 $67 ! 8 9
$ ( $ > $
dJHeIR K[I fQIHKLPJH! OPRRITK eRPJg HKMKIVIJKH! > ;89 ;!
57 $ . .).
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($! 8 > ; 9)! 7$
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6 8 9$ 89 .

ESSENTIAL COURSE
UNIT ONE
SPEECH PATTERNS
+. If I were you, . H[PQNq zIIZ MJ IaI PJ K[MK `Pa.
(Cf: .s . MV eINN! . H[MNN [MxI M eMNzLJg [PNLqMa.)
.s . [Mq KLVI! . H[PQNq gP KP K[I K[IMKRI KPJLg[K.
.s eI eIRI [QJgRa! eI H[PQNq [MxI M `LKI.
.s aPQ qLq JPK ePRz IJPQg[! aPQ ePQNqJlK gIK gPPq VMRzH.
.s dJJI eIRI LJ vPHTPe! H[I ePQNq RLJg VI QZ.
.s K[I eIMK[IR eIRI sLJI! eI TPQNq gP sPR M eMNz.
2. . RMK[IR NLzI the idea of having M TQZ Ps KIM K[IJ.
. qLHNLzI K[I LqIM Ps HKMaLJg MK [PVI PJ HQT[ M sLJI qMa.
u[I T[LNqRIJ NLzIq K[I LqIM Ps gPLJg sPR M eMNz.
dNN Ps QH NLzIq K[I LqIM Ps HZIJqLJg K[I qMa Pss PQK Ps KPeJ.
wI qLHNLzIq K[I LqIM Ps HKMaLJg LJ KPeJ K[I e[PNI HQVVIR.
w[a qPJlK aPQ NLzI K[I LqIM Ps [MxLJg qLJJIR MK Va ZNMTI{
EXERCISES
I. Rewrite these sentences, using Pattern 1:
GSMVZNI: M) .s LK LH TPNq! eIlNN ZQK PJ PQR eMRV TPMKH.
.s LK eIRI TPNq! eI H[PQNq ZQK PJ PQR eMRV TPMKH.
`) .s Va sRLIJqH TPVI KP HII VI! .lNN `I xIRa gNMq.
.s Va sRLIJqH TMVI KP HII VI! . H[PQNq `I xIRa gNMq.
+. .s K[I `Pa LH [QJgRa! .lNN gLxI [LV HPVIK[LJg KP IMK. 2. .s K[I HQZZIR LH RIMqa! eIlNN HLK
qPeJ KP KM`NI. 4. .s . gIK M gPPq VMRz sPR Va TPVZPHLKLPJ! .lNN `I [MZZa. 3. .s vMRa [MH VPRI
sRII KLVI! H[IlNN RIMq VPRI. *. .s K[I eIMK[IR T[MJgIH! eIlNN gP `PMKLJg. ,. .s . [MxI JP
PZZPRKQJLKa KP HII [LV! .lNN `I xIRa HPRRa. 7. .s LK qPIHJlK RMLJ! . H[MJlK [MxI KP KMzI Va
QV`RINNM eLK[ VI. b. .s H[I sLJLH[IH IxIRaK[LJg PJ pRLqMa! H[I ePJlK [MxI KP ePRz PJ
/MKQRqMa. 2. .s aPQ TMKT[ M TPNq! aPQlNN [MxI KP HKMa MK [PVI. +). .s K[I T[LNq qPIHJlK qP e[MK .
KINN [LV! .lNN [MxI KP ZQJLH[ [LV.
II. Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[MK ePQNq! aPQ qP Ls aPQ eIRI NMKI sPR aPQR NIHHPJ{ 2. w[IRI ePQNq aPQ gP Ls aPQ
[Mq M [PNLqMa JPe{ 4. w[P(V) ePQNq aPQ LJxLKI Ls aPQ MRRMJgIq M ZMRKa{ 3. |Pe NPJg ePQNq
LK KMzI aPQ KP eMNz [PVI sRPV K[I }JLxIRHLKa{ *. w[LT[ ePQNq aPQ ZRIsIR KP gP KP! K[I dRK
u[IMKRI PR K[I 0PNH[PL u[IMKRI{ ,. wPQNq aPQ sIIN gNMq Ls LK eIRI HZRLJg JPe{ 7. wPQNq aPQ
NLzI KP gP KP K[I qLHTP MsKIR K[I NIHHPJH{ b. w[MK sLNV ePQNq aPQ NLzI KP HII{
III. Rewrite each of these sentences, using Pattern 2:
GSMVZNI: u[I gLRN K[PQg[K K[MK LK ePQNq `I gPPq KP HKQqa M sPRILgJ NMJgQMgI.
u[I gLRN NLzIq K[I LqIM Ps HKQqaLJg M sPRILgJ NMJgQMgI.
+. u[I HKQqIJKH K[PQg[K K[MK LK ePQNq `I QHIsQN KP ePRz LJ K[I NM` KeLTI M eIIz. 2. wI
NLzIq K[I HQggIHKLPJ K[MK eI H[PQNq xLHLK PQR HLTz sRLIJq. 4. u[I T[LNqRIJ sPQJq K[MK LK ePQNq
`I LJKIRIHKLJg KP gP PJ MJ ISTQRHLPJ. 3. wI K[PQg[K K[MK LK ePQNqJlK `I gPPq KP HKMa LJqPPRH
MNN qMa NPJg. *. wPQNqJlK aPQ NLzI KP gP KP K[I K[IMKRI KPJLg[K{ ,. dNN Ps QH K[PQg[K K[MK LK
ePQNq `I JLTI KP MRRMJgI M ZMRKa MK PQR }JLxIRHLKa. 7. .H K[IRI MJaPJI MgMLJHK PQR HZIJqLJg
K[I [PNLqMaH LJ K[I [PNLqMa TMVZ{ b. wI K[PQg[K K[MK LK ePQNq `I gPPq KP gP KP K[I TLJIVM
MsKIR K[I NIHHPJH.
IV. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. ~ 8 ! 8 D $6 ;. 2. "8 8 D
E 6! 8 E 8 $6. 4. ~ 8 > ! 8
9 $ =. 3. ~ 8 ; ;$! D 8 ;
6D$ $. *. 6 9 $6! $ 8 6
%C (sLgQRIH). ,. ; $ 8 F8$! 8 $ 8
5 >. 7. <$ $ 6 ; $86 6 ;
;.
V. Act out the diaIogue. Make up your own after the modeI:
nLz: w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP Ls aPQ [Mq M `PMK{
uV: . ePQNq HMLN LJ LK Ps TPQRHI.
nLTz: w[IRI ePQNq aPQ HMLN{
uPV: dNN MRPQJq K[I TPMHKH Ps 0RLKMLJ. . ePQNq IxIJ KRa KP HMLN MTRPHH K[I dKNMJKLT Ls Va
`PMK eIRI `Lg IJPQg[.
nLTz: w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP Ls aPQR ZMRIJKH qLqJlK NIK aPQ HMLN{
uV: . ePQNq RQJ MeMa sRPV [PVI! . HQZZPHI.
nLTz: w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP Ls aPQR `PMK eIRI eRITzIq LJ M HKPRV{
uPV: . ePQNq gIK qRPeJIq! . HQZZPHI.
nLz: .K LH QHK MH eINN aPQ [MxIJlK gPK M `PMK! . HQZZPHI.
VI. ExpIain the meaning of the foIIowing sayings and iIIustrate them:
+. .s LK eIRI JPK sPR [PZI! K[I [IMRK ePQNq `RIMz. 2. .s K[I ZLNNH eIRI ZNIMHMJK! K[Ia ePQNq
JPK `I gLNqIq. 4. .s K[IRI eIRI JP TNPQqH! eI H[PQNq JPK IJPa K[I HQJ. 3. .s K[LJgH eIRI KP `I
qPJI KeLTI MNN ePQNq `I eLHI.
TEXT. ANNE MEETS HER GLASS
u[I T[LNqRIJ sLSIq K[ILR IaIH QZPJ dJJI. dJJI gMIq `MTz! sIINLJg [INZNIHH.
r1Pe! T[LNqRIJ!r `IgMJ vLHH GJqIR`a sLRVNa! raPQ MRI xIRa! xIRa NQTza K[LH KIRV KP [MxI
vLHH iMTIa sPR aPQR JIe KIMT[IR.r
dJJI gMxI M eMKIRa HVLNI. u[I O[LNqRIJlH sMTIH eIRI QJVPxIq.
rvLHH iMTIa!r RIZIMKIq vLHH GJqIR`a eLK[ IVZ[MHLH. rOMJ aPQ HMa K[MK{r
rvLHH iMTIa!r T[PRQHIq K[I TNMHH P`IqLIJKNa.
r\IR[MZH aPQ TPQNq HMa lUPPq VPRJLJgl KP aPQR JIe KIMT[IR{r HQggIHKIq vLHH GJqIR`a LJ
MJ LVZIRMKLxI KPJI.
rUPPq VPRJLJg. vLHH iMTIa!r TMVI K[I ZPNLKI T[PRQH.
rUPPq VPRJLJg! T[LNqRIJ!r RIHZPJqIq dJJI LJ M xPLTI e[LT[ `PRI JP RIHIV`NMJTI KP [IR
PeJ.
vLHH GJqIR`a VPKLPJIq KP K[I T[LNqRIJ KP KMzI K[ILR HIMKH. r. H[PQNq gLxI PQK ZMZIR MJq
TPNPQRIq ZIJTLNH!r HMLq vLHH GJqIR`a! rMH HPPJ MH aPQlxI TMNNIq K[I RIgLHKIR. jIIZ K[IV `QHa
e[LNI aPQlRI sLJqLJg aPQR eMa M`PQK K[I TQZ`PMRqH MJq HP PJ.r
/[I gMxI M HeLsK NPPz RPQJq K[I TNMHH. r. ISZITK aPQ KP [INZ vLHH iMTIa LJ IxIRa eMa!r
HMLq K[I [IMqVLHKRIHH. rnlaPQ [IMR VI! dRJPNq{r
u[I NLKKNI `Pa MqqRIHHIq! e[P [Mq `IIJ TRPHHLJg MJq QJTRPHHLJg [LH IaIH LJ MJ QgNa
VMJJIR sPR K[I IJPaVIJK Ps [LH JILg[`PQRH! NPPzIq HQLKM`Na TRIHKsMNNIJ.
r.s . eIRI aPQ! . H[PQNq zIIZ MJ IaI PJ K[MK `Pa!r VQRVQRIq vLHH GJqIR`a. r0RPzIJ
[PVI `RPK[IR LJ 0PRHKMN MJq HPVI RMK[IR qRIMqsQN [M`LKHcr
dJJI NPPzIq eLK[ sRIH[ LJKIRIHK MK dRJPNq MJq K[PQg[K [I NPPzIq fQLKI qLssIRIJK sRPV e[MK
vLHH GJqIR`a HMLq M`PQK [LV. pMR KPP LJJPTIJK MJq MZZNIT[IIzIq KP [MxI HQT[ M RITPRq. 0QK
IxIJ MH H[I NPPzIq! H[I HMe [LH ZLJz sMTI ISZRIHH [LH HTPRJ Ps vLHH GJqIR`a e[P eMH gLxLJg
[IR sLJMN VIHHMgIH KP K[I JIe KIMT[IR.
r0RIMz MK KIJ sPRKasLxI! qIMR!r HMLq K[I [IMqVLHKRIHH. rOPVI HKRMLg[K KP K[I HKMss RPPV. .
eLNN eMLK K[IRI KLNN aPQ PLJ QH. . eLNN LJKRPqQTI aPQ KP K[PHI aPQ qLqJlK VIIK PJ aPQR sLRHK xLHLK
|Pe qP aPQ NLzI K[I LqIM Ps [MxLJg M TQZ Ps KIM K[IJ{ wI JIIq RIHK MsKIR MNN. .s K[IRIlH
MJaK[LJg K[MK ZQNIH aPQ! . H[MNN `I LJ Va RPPV. yPQ TMJ qIZIJq PJ VI. mQHK HIJq M
VIHHMgI `a PJI Ps K[I T[LNqRIJ.r
/[I VMqI [IR eMa KP K[I qPPR MJq eMLKIq `IsPRI LK! IaI`RPeH RMLHIq MH H[I KQRJIq [IR
gMI QZPJ K[I T[LNqRIJ. u[Ia gMIq `MTz LJ HPVI `IeLNqIRVIJK
r.H JP PJI gPLJg KP RIVIV`IR [LH VMJJIRH{r MHzIq vLHH GJqIR`a.
wLK[ M JIRxPQH HKMRK dJJI [MHKIJIq sPReMRq KP K[I qPPR! `QK eMH eMxIq `MTz `a M
VPxIVIJK Ps [IR [IMqVLHKRIHHlH [MJq. d qPIJ PR VPRI T[LNqRIJ VMqI M RQH[ KP PZIJ K[I
qPPR. d sRITzNIq gLRN eLK[ KeP HzLJJa RIq ZNMLKH eMH K[I sLRHK KP qRMg PZIJ K[I qPPR. /[I eMH
RIeMRqIq `a M HVLNI.
ru[MJz aPQ! qIMR! K[MJz aPQ!r HMLq vLHH GJqIR`a MJq HMLNIq VMIHKLTMNNa LJKP K[I TPRRLqPR.
u[IRI TMVI M sMLJK HLg[ Ps RINLIs MH K[I qPPR TNPHIq `I[LJq [IR! MJq K[I sPRKaHLS KPJgQIH
e[LT[ [Mq HP sMR zIZK QJJMKQRMNNa HLNIJK `IgMJ KP eMg T[IIRsQNNa. dJJI eMKT[Iq K[LH T[MJgI
eLK[ HPVI qLHVMa. /[I RIVIV`IRIq eLK[ HQqqIJ RINLIs HPVI MqxLTI gLxIJ [IR MK TPNNIgI LJ
QHK HQT[ M HLKQMKLPJ.
r/KMJq fQLKI HKLNN! `I fQLKI TMNV! MJq gRMqQMNNa K[I T[LNqRIJ eLNN `ITPVI TPJHTLPQH K[MK
aPQ MRI eMLKLJg. 1IxIR! JIxIR MKKIVZK KP H[PQK K[IV qPeJ.r
/P dJJI HKPPq [IR gRPQJq eMLKLJg sPR K[I T[MKKIRLJg KP HQ`HLqI. 0QK K[I JPLHI gRIe LJ
xPNQVI MH TPJxIRHMKLPJH `ITMVI VPRI MJLVMKIq. oJI PR KeP T[LNqRIJ RMJ MTRPHH K[I RPPV KP
HII K[ILR qLHKMJK sRLIJqH. ueP NLKKNI `PaH MKKMTzIq IMT[ PK[IR. d T[LNq eLK[ `LRK[qMa TMRqH eMH
qLHZNMaLJg K[ILR `IMQKLIH KP MJ MqVLRLJg TRPeq RPQJq [IR qIHz. dRJPNq [Mq RIVPxIq [LH `NQI
ZQNNPxIR MJq eMH MKKIVZKLJg KP ZQNN [LH H[LRK PxIR [LH [IMq! LJ PRqIR KP H[Pe [LH sRLIJqH M HTMR
PJ [LH H[PQNqIR`NMqI.
dVLqHK gRPeLJg T[MPH dJJI RIVMLJIq HLNIJK. /[I NPPzIq MK K[I TNPTz e[LT[ IRzIq sRPV
PJI VLJQKI KP K[I JISK MJq qITLqIq KP NIK LK NIMZ PJTI VPRI `IsPRI H[I M`MJqPJIq [PZI.
oJI TRQV` Ps TPVsPRK! Ls TPVsPRK LK TPQNq `I TMNNIq! RIVMLJIq eLK[ [IR. u[LH eMH MJ
PQK`QRHK Ps JMKQRMN [Lg[ HZLRLKH. |IR ZRIHIJTI! H[I JPKIq! VIMJK JPK[LJg MK MNN KP K[IV.
d T[MLR sINN PxIR! HPVIPJI aINZIq eLK[ ZMLJ! K[IRI eMH M `QRHK Ps NMQg[KIR! MJq dJJI HMe
K[I TNPTz QVZ KP MJPK[IR VLJQKI. dJJI MqxMJTIq LJKP MTKLPJ.
ruP aPQR qIHzHcr H[I RPMRIq! rdJq fQLTzNacr
wLK[ M ZNIMHQRM`NI H[PTz H[I HMe [IR ePRqH P`IaIq. wLK[LJ M VLJQKI PRqIR [Mq RIKQRJIq.
IsRIH[Iq `a K[I `RIMz K[I T[LNqRIJ KQRJIq MKKIJKLxI IaIH QZPJ [IR.
dJJIlH HINsIHKIIV TRIZK `MTz.
(From rpRIH[ sRPV K[I OPQJKRar `a vLHH IIq)
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. to look it +. $6! ;6! !"g" . NPPzIq (QZ! qPeJ) MK K[I PZZPHLKI [PQHI! `QK
HMe JP NLg[KH LJ LKH eLJqPeH.
#yn" to stare, to gaze
to look VIMJH rKP QHI PJIlH IaIH! KP KRa KP HIIr! !"g" |I NPPzIq MK VI! `QK qLqJlK RITPgJLI
VI.
to stare VIMJH rKP NPPz HKIMqLNa! eLK[ eLqIPZIJ IaIH! PsKIJ eLK[ TQRLPHLKa PR HQRZRLHI! PR
xMTMJKNa ($8! )r. wI VMa HKMRI MK M ZIRHPJ PR K[LJg! LJKP K[I eMKIR!
qLHKMJTI! sLRI PR MJaK[LJg K[MK [MH qIZK[ (6 $6! ;6! =6/6
;)! !"g" < HKMRIq MK VI MH Ls . [Mq MHzIq [LV KP qP HPVIK[LJg LVZPHHL`NI. |I HKMRIq MK
K[I sLRI! qIIZ LJ K[PQg[K.
to gaze VIMJH rKP NPPz MK HV`. PR HVK[. (PR LJKP HV`.lH IaIH) QHQ. NPJg MJq HKIMqLNa eLK[
LJKIRIHK! NPxI! qIHLRI! LJ ePJqIR! MqVLRMKLPJ! IKT.r! !"g" |IlH xIRa sPJq Ps K[LH ZLTKQRI! [I TMJ
gMI MK LK sPR [PQRH. u[I NPxIRH HKPPq eLK[ K[ILR [MJqH TNMHZIq! gMLJg LJKP IMT[ PK[IRlH IaIH.
to look about $6! ;86 $! !"g" . NPPzIq M`PQK! `QK HMe
JP ZIPZNI MJae[IRI.
Look ahead! ;6c
to look (a thing) through $6 .! !"g" iPPz K[RPQg[ K[PHI qPTQVIJKH!
ZNIMHI.
to look after 6! 9>6 $n.! $n.! !"g" .lNN NPPz MsKIR K[I T[LNq. nPJlK
sPRgIK KP NPPz MsKIR K[I sNPeIRH e[IJ .lV MeMa.
to look for 6 ;.! .! !"g" .lxI `IIJ NPPzLJg sPR aPQ HLJTI K[I xIRa VPRJLJg.
to look forward to (smth. or doing smth.) D6 .! 6$
>6 ;.! !"g" mP[J NPPzIq sPReMRq KP HIILJg vMRLP MJq [LH eLsI. /KQqIJKH MNeMaH
NPPz sPReMRq KP K[ILR [PNLqMaH.
Look here! AD5c !"g" iPPz [IRI! ePQNqJlK LK `I `IKKIR KP HKMa LJqPPRH LJ HQT[ JMHKa
eIMK[IR{
2. 6! 8;6 (sPNNPeIq `a MJ MqITKLxI! JPQJ PR NLzI)! !"g" |I NPPzH HMq. u[I
T[LNq NPPzH LNN (eINN). /[I NPPzH NLzI M RIMN KIMT[IR. .K NPPzH NLzI RMLJ.
1PKI: t has two GJgNLH[ IfQLxMNIJKH to look MJq to seem; to look VIMJH 8;6! !"g" |I
looks aPQJg sPR [LH MgI. /[I NPPzH `IMQKLsQN rn K[LH qRIHH. /[I NPPzH M T[LNq.; to seem VIMJH 6
(LK ISZRIHHIH xMRLPQH qIgRIIH Ps qPQ`K)! e"g" /[I HIIVH (KP `I) TNIxIR. u[LH xLNNMgI HIIVH (KP `I)
fQLKI HVMNN JPe. |I HIIVH (KP `I) eINN IqQTMKIq.
look n +" ;! !"g" u[IRI eMH HPVIK[LJg HKRMJgI LJ [LH NPPz.
/aJ. stare, gaze, !"g" iMJJa RIKQRJIq K[I VMJlH HKMRI! `QK qLqJlK QKKIR M ePRq. u[I gLRN
`NQH[Iq e[IJ H[I JPKLTIq K[I HKRMJgIRlH sLSIq gMI.
to have a look at ;6! !"g" |MxI M NPPz MK K[LH Z[PKP! qP aPQ RITPgJLI K[I VMJ{
1PKI: u[I GJgNLH[ sPR ; LH idea, opinion, (point of) view! !"g" . qPJlK zJPe [LH ZPLJK
Ps xLIe J (xLIeH PJ! LqIM(H) Ps! PZLJLPJ Ps) K[LH HQ`ITK.
2. 8>! !"g" d KPPz Ps ZNIMHQRI TMVI KP [IR sMTI. u[IRI eMH MJ MJgRa NPPz LJ [IR
IaIH!
2. to differ i L. 6! 6 (from HV`. PR HVK[. in HVK[.)! !"g" u[I KeP
`RPK[IRH qLssIR LJ K[ILR KMHKIH. |LH ZNMJ qLssIRH sRPV MNN K[I PK[IRH.; 2. ;D6!
96 ;9 (sRPV/eLK[ HV`. LJ HVK[.)! !"g" . qLssIR sRPV (eLK[) aPQ LJ K[LH
VMKKIR.
$nt" agree (eLK[ HV`.; KP HVK[.)! !"g" iIKlH MgRII KP qLssIR (6 >85
$ $).
different ad% +. 9>5! 5! 85 (sRPV)! !"g" < LH fQLKI qLssIRIJK
sRPV e[MK . K[PQg[K [LV KP `I. . eMJK M qLssIRIJK zLJq Ps `PPz K[LH KLVI (&ut . ZRIsIR `PPzH
Ps M qLssIRIJK zLJq). oQR xLIeH PJ NLsI MRI qLssIRIJK.
$nt" MNLzI! !"g" oQR KMHKIH MRI MNLzI.
1PKI: nPJlK TPJsQHI K[I ePRqH different MJq another e[LT[ VMa `I KRMJHNMKIq `a K[I HMVI QHHLMJ ePRq
;5; !"g" . eMJK MJPK[IR (;5 = ) ZLITI Ps TMzI. . eMJK M qLssIRIJK (;5 ;; TPZRM!
. .) ZLITI Ps TMzI. iIKlH KRa MJPK[IR (= ) xMRLMJK iIKlH `a M qLssIRIJK (; ) xMRLMJK.
2. 85! 85! !"g" d qIZMRKVIJK HKPRI HINNH VMJa qLssIRIJK K[LJgH. GxIRa qMa PQR
HKQqIJKH gIK qLssIRIJK eRLKKIJ MHHLgJVIJKH.
difference n %! ! !"g" u[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ PQR xLIeH LH JPK xIRa gRIMK.
. qPJlK sLJq VQT[ qLssIRIJTI LJ K[I HKaNIH Ps K[IHI eRLKIRH.
to make some (no, not much) difference (to smb.)! !"g" .K ePJlK VMzI VQT[ qLssIRIJTI
e[IK[IR eI qP LK KPqMa PR KPVPRRPe. yPQ VMa HKMa PR NIMxI! LK VMzIH JP qLssIRIJTI KP VI.
4. rest it +. 896! >6! 6; 6 89! !"g" < RIHKIq sPR MJ [PQR `IsPRI
gPLJg PJ eLK[ [LH ePRz. /[I NLzIH KP RIHK MsKIR qLJJIR. u[Ia HKPZZIq KP RIHK K[ILR [PRHIH.
2. 6! 6! >6 $n.! !"g" u[I RPPs RIHKH PJ ILg[K TPNQVJH.
u[IRI LH MNeMaH M TNPQq RIHKLJg PJ K[I KPZ Ps K[LH VPQJKMLJ.
4. 6 (>6); 6! 6! !"g" |IR sLJgIRH KPQT[Iq [LH sPRI[IMq MJq
RIHKIq K[IRI. /[I HMK eLK[ [IR IN`PeH RIHKLJg PJ K[I KM`NI.
1PKI: u[I QHHLMJ ePRq 6 [MH HIxIRMN GJgNLH[ IfQLxMNIJKH! !"g" A6 6.
iIK K[I VMKKIR RIHK. 9 6 6. . qPJlK eMJK KP HKMa [IRI. - 6 6 * 5.
oJNa * RPQ`NIH MRI NIsK $5 GxIRaK[LJg RIVMLJH eLK[PQK MJa T[MJgIH.
rest n 5! 89! ! !"g" IHK LH JITIHHMRa MsKIR ePRz. . [Mq M gPPq JLg[KlH RIHK. wI
[Mq HIxIRMN RIHKH PJ PQR eMa QZ K[I VPQJKMLJH. 'ut: ' 89 7;. < HZIJK [LH
[PNLqMa LJ K[I /PQK[.
rest n (MNeMaH eLK[ qIs. MRKLTNI) ! 6! 6 6 ;.
the rest of (K[I KLVI! K[I `PPzH! IKT.)! !"g" |MxI aPQ eRLKKIJ MNN K[I ISIRTLHIH{ 1P! PJNa
[MNs Ps K[IV. u[I RIHK (Ps K[I ISIRTLHIH) VMa `I qPJI PRMNNa. oJNa sLxI Ps QH eIRI ZRIHIJK MK
K[I NIHHPJ! K[I RIHK (Ps K[I gRPQZ) eIJK KP K[I VIIKLJg. .lNN KMzI MJ MZZNI MJq aPQ VMa KMzI K[I
RIHK.
4. comfortable ad% +. 85; $C685; 785! !"g" M TPVsPRKM`NI T[MLR!
RPPV! `Iq! [PQHI; TPVsPRKM`NI H[PIH! IKT.; 2. (redi) *+," 685! 585!
7=5 ! !"g" .lV HQRI aPQlNN `I xIRa TPVsPRKM`NI K[IRI.
to make oneself comfortable! !"g" vR. vQRqPT[ VMqI [LVHINs TPVsPRKM`NI LJ M T[MLR MJq
PRqIRIq M HKRPJg `NMTz TPssII.
$nt" uncomfortable
comfort n +. D! >! !"g" u[I JIeH `RPQg[K TPVsPRK KP MNN Ps QH. |I eMH M
gRIMK TPVsPRK KP [LH ZMRIJKH.; 2. ! 5! 89! !"g" KP `I sPJq Ps TPVsPRK! KP
NLxI LJ TPVsPRK
$nt" discomfort
comfort t D6! 6
comforting ad% D685! 685! !"g" TPVsPRKLJg ePRqH.
1PKI: TPJxIJLIJK ad% VIMJH HQLKM`NI! [MJqa! HIRxLJg KP MxPLq KRPQ`NI PR qLssLTQNKa; !"g" TPJxIJLIJK KLVI!
VIK[Pq! KPPN! ZNMTI! IKT. wLNN K[LH `QH `I TPJxIJLIJK KP/sPR aPQ{ iIKlH MRRMJgI M TPJxIJLIJK KLVI MJq ZNMTI sPR
K[I TPJsIRIJTI.
$nt" inconvenient
TPJxIJLIJTI n +. (K[I fQMNLKa Ps `ILJg TPJxIJLIJK PR HQLKM`NI)! !"g" MK aPQR
IMRNLIHK TPJxIJLIJTI; sPR TPJxIJLIJTI; 2. (ZN.) (qIxLTI! MRRMJgIVIJK! IKT. K[MK LH
QHIsQN PR TPJxIJLIJK! !"g" TIJKRMN [IMKLJg! [PK eMKIR HQZZNa)! !"g" u[I [PQHI [MH MNN VPqIRJ
TPJxIJLIJTIH. $nt" inconvenience
5. to run (ran, run) it +. >6! ;6! !"g" + RMJ MNN K[I eMa sPR sIMR Ps `ILJg NMKI. dH
HPPJ MH eI sLRIq! K[I IJIVa RMJ.
2. 96! 86! 6 ( $9! 9 .)! !"g" uRMVH RQJ PJ RMLNH.
vPKPR TMRH RMJ MNPJg PRqLJMRa RPMqH. u[I `QHIH RQJ IxIRa sLxI VLJQKIH.
4. 6! 6! !"g" uPRRIJKH Ps eMKIR RMJ qPeJ K[I HKRIIKH. LxIRH RQJ LJKP K[I HIM. nPJlK
aPQ [IMR K[I eMKIR RQJJLJg LJ K[I zLKT[IJ{ .s aPQ [MxI M `Mq TPNq! aPQR JPHI RQJH.
3. 6! !"g" pPR HIxIRMN VLNIH K[I RPMq RMJ MTRPHH M ZNMLJ.
Note: pPR K[I QHHLMJ 6 6 K[I xIR` stretch LH QHIq! !"g" u[I sPRIHK HKRIKT[Iq KP K[I
/PQK[ sPR VMJa VLNIH.
*. ;6! 86! ;6()! !"g" /P K[I HKPRa RQJH. u[I HKPRa RQJH ....
to run into smb. 5 6 $n.; to run into smth. 6
.! !"g" oQR TMR RMJ LJKP K[I `QH. . RMJ LJKP M sRLIJq Ps VLJI PJ Va eMa[PVI.; to run
across smb./smth. 5 6 (6 .)! !"g" u[I PK[IR qMa . RMJ
MTRPHH M xIRa LJKIRIHKLJg MRKLTNI LJ K[I JIeHZMZIR.: to run over smb. 96! 6
;.! MNHP: to be run over (`a M TMR)! !"g" 0QK sPR K[I HzLNN Ps K[I qRLxIR K[I VMJ ePQNq
[MxI `IIJ RQJ PxIR `a K[I `QH.
runner n ;
6. join ti +. 6()! ]6)! !"g" . TPQNqJlK PLJ (KPgIK[IR) K[I KeP [MNxIH
Ps K[I xMHI! `ITMQHI M HVMNN ZLITI eMH VLHHLJg. w[IRI qP K[I KeP HKRIMVH PLJ (IMT[ PK[IR){
#yn" unite
N t e: to join QHQ. VIMJH rKP ZQK KeP K[LJgH KPgIK[IRr! !"g" u[I LHNMJq eMH PLJIq KP K[I VMLJNMJq eLK[ M
`RLqgI.; to unite QHQ. VIMJH rKP PLJ KPgIK[IR (`a M TPVVPJ MLV PR `PJq) HIxIRMN P`ITKH HP MH KP sPRV PJI
JIe QJLKr! !"g" wI QJLKIq MNN PQR sPRTIH KP qRLxI K[I IJIVa PQK Ps PQR TPQJKRa. wPRzIRH Ps K[I ePRNq! QJLKIc
u[I }JLKIq 1MKLPJH oRgMJLMKLPJ (}1o) eMH sPRVIq LJ +23* LJ /MJ pRMJTLHTP.
2. 6 ()! !"g" wLNN aPQ PLJ VI LJ Va eMNz{ wIlNN PLJ aPQ LJ M sIe
VLJQKIH.
4. 96 $7! 6 8! !"g" .s . eIRI aPQ . H[PQNq PLJ K[LH TNQ`. |I
eMH KeIJKaKeP e[IJ [I PLJIq K[I MRRMa.
7. depend i +. 6 (PJ/QZPJ HV`. sPR HVK[.)! !"g" wI qIZIJq PJ K[I JIeHZMZIRH
sPR LJsPRVMKLPJ M`PQK ePRNq IxIJKH. |I qIZIJqH PJ [LH HLHKIR sPR M NLxLJg. O[LNqRIJ QHQMNNa
qIZIJq PJ K[ILR ZMRIJKH (9 > 5).; 2. ;6!
86 ;.! .! !"g" yPQ TMJ qIZIJq QZPJ K[I VMJ. . qIZIJq PJ aPQ KP qP
LK. OMJ . qIZIJq PJ K[LH KLVIKM`NI PR LH LK MJ PNq PJI{
It (all) depends 6; $ 6! !"g" wLNN aPQ sLJLH[ aPQR
ePRz PJ KLVI{ .K qIZIJqH.
NOTES ON SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS
1. Synonyms MRI ePRqH ISZRIHHLJg K[I HMVI JPKLPJ! `QK qLssIRLJg `a TIRKMLJ MqqLKLPJMN
T[MRMTKIRLHKLTH. -"g" to .oo/, to 0tare MJq to ga1e ISZRIHH K[I HMVI JPKLPJ Ps KQRJLJg PJIlH
IaIH PJ HPVIK[LJg PR HPVI`Pqa! `QK 0tare MJq ga1e qLssIR `a K[ILR IVPKLPJMN TPNPQRLJgH (HII
LKIV + Ps :PTM`QNMRa 1PKIH) e[IRIMH .oo/ qIHTRL`IH K[I JPKLPJ gIJIRMNNa! eLK[PQK MJa
MqqLKLPJMN T[MRMTKIRLHKLTH. /QT[ M gIJIRMN ePRq LJ K[I gRPQZ Ps HaJPJaVH LH TMNNIq K[I
synonymic dominant.
2o g.an)e LH MJPK[IR HaJPJaV Ps K[LH gRPQZ e[LT[ qLssIRH sRPV K[I RIHK Ps K[IV `a
qQRMKLPJ: LK VIMJH NPPzLJg MK HPVIK[LJg `RLIsNa! ZMHHLJgNa! M VPVIJK PJNa.
2. Antonyms MRI ePRqH eLK[ TPJKRMHKIq VIMJLJgH. -" g" qLssIRIJK MNLzI; TPJxIJLIJK
LJTPJxIJLIJK; NPxI [MKI; QZ qPeJ.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
T[PRQH n! qLssIR PLJ
TPVsPRK n! qLssIRIJTI n NPPz n!
TPVsPRKM`NI ad% qLssIRIJK ad% RIHK n!
TPJxIJLIJTI n gMI n, RQJ
TPJxIJLIJK ad% [IMqVLHKRIHH n HKMRI n,
qIZIJq QJLKI
Word Combinations
KP sLS PJIlH IaIH PJ/QZPJ HV`. KP zIIZ MJ IaI PJ HV`.
KP sIIN [INZNIHH KP gLxI (HIJq) M VIHHMgI
KP gLxI M HVLNI (M JPq! M NPPz! IKT.) KP KQRJ PJIlH IaIH (gMI)
KP `IMR (KP [MxI) M HKRPJg QZPJ HV`./HVK[.
RIHIV`NMJTI KP KP RQJ MTRPHH
KP VPKLPJ KP HV`. KP RQJ LJKP
KP gLxI PQK (ZIJTLNH! NIMsNIKH! RIMqIRH! KP RQJ PxIR
ePRzTMRqH! HIKH Ps VMKIRLMN! IKT.) KP H[PQK HV`. qPeJ
KP TMNN K[I RIgLHKIR (K[I RPNN) KP M`MJqPJ [PZI
EXERCISES
I. Read the test and taIk on the foIIowing points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage):
A. +. w[a LH K[I \RIHIJK \IRsITK QHIq LJ r... MH HPPJ MH aPQlxI TMNNIq K[I RIgLHKIRr{ 2. w[a
LH K[I \MHK \IRsITK OPJKLJQPQH QHIq LJ r... e[P [Mq `IIJ TRPHHLJg MJq QJTRPHHLJg [LH IaIH LJ
MJ QgNa VMJJIR ...r{ 4. w[a LH K[I \RIHIJK .JqIsLJLKI QHIq LJ r... KLNN aPQ PLJ QHr{ MJq LJ r.s
K[IRIlH MJaK[LJg K[MK ZQNIH aPQ ...r{ 3. uLTz Pss MNN K[I HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[I P`NLfQI VPPqH.
uRMJHNMKI K[IV.
B. \LTz PQK MNN K[I ePRqH MJq Z[RMHIH qIHTRL`LJg K[I T[LNqRIJlH MTKLPJH.
II. Read the foIIowing words with siIent t, p, gh. Memorize them:
[MHKIJ! sMHKIJ! NLHKIJ! O[RLHKVMH! TMHKNI! e[LHKNI! PHKNI! JIHKNI! eRIHKNI; TQZ`PMRq!
ZJIQVPJLM! ZHaT[PNPga! RMHZ`IRRa; JILg[`PQR! JLg[KLJgMNI! HKRMLg[K! JMQg[Ka! [Lg[! [ILg[K!
K[RPQg[! HLg[.
III. a) Write the Past Indefinite and Past ParticipIe of the verbs:
gRPe! TRIIZ! `IMR! `RIMz! zIIZ! K[LJz! NIMZ! VIMJ! sMNN! sLJq! sIIN! HMa! TNLJg! [IMR! VIIK!
RQJ! H[Pe;
b) the Past Indefinite and Present ParticipIe of the verbs:
qLssIR! ZRIsIR! VQRVQR! MZZIMR! PTTQR! RITPxIR! RIVIV`IR! T[MKKIR! RIsIR! HKLR! eMKIR! sIMR!
PssIR! qRMg! eMg! ZNMJ! T[MK! HNLZ! `Ig.
IV. Find nouns reIated to the verbs beIow. Pay speciaI attention to the speIIing of the suffix
-ence/-ance. PIace them in two coIumns:
qIZIJq! qLssIR! ISLHK! MTTIZK! RIHIV`NI! MKKIJq! ZIRsPRV! LJHLHK! PTTQR.
V. What nouns are these adjectives derived from? What is the meaning of the suffixes -d,
-y? TransIate the adjectives:
M) sRITzNIq! JPHIq! [MLRIq! eLJgIq! [PVIq! `IMRqIq! sIMK[IRIq;
`) eMKIRa! HzLJJa! gRMHHa! HLNza! `PJa! `RMJT[a! eMxa! HKPJa.
VI. Answer these questions:
+. |Pe eMH dJJI LJKRPqQTIq KP [IR TNMHH{ 2. w[MK qLq H[I sIIN MK K[MK VPVIJK{ w[MK
ePRqH qPIH K[I MQK[PR T[PPHI KP qIHTRL`I [IR sIINLJgH{ 4. w[MK LJHKRQTKLPJH qLq K[I
[IMqVLHKRIHH gLxI KP K[I aPQJg KIMT[IR{ w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps K[IV{ 3. w[a qLq dJJI rNPPz
eLK[ sRIH[ LJKIRIHK MK dRJPNq{r nIHTRL`I dRJPNqlH MZZIMRMJTI MJq `I[MxLPQR. *. |Pe qLq K[I
PK[IR T[LNqRIJ `I[MxI LJ vLHH GJqIR`alH ZRIHIJTI{ (pLJq ePRqH qIHTRL`LJg K[ILR `I[MxLPQR.)
,. w[a qP aPQ K[LJz rK[IRI TMVI M sMLJK HLg[ Ps RINLIsr MsKIR vLHH GJqIR`a NIsK K[I
TNMHHRPPV{ nIHTRL`I K[I T[LNqRIJlH `I[MxLPQR MsKIR H[I NIsK. 7. w[MK MqxLTI gLxIJ [IR MK
TPNNIgI qLq dJJI RIVIV`IR{ nLq H[I sPNNPe K[I MqxLTI{ w[MK eMH K[I RIHQNK{ w[a qLq K[I
T[LNqRIJ `I[MxI NLzI K[MK{ b. |Pe qLq dJJI RIHKPRI K[I PRqIR{ nP aPQ K[LJz LK eMH K[I PJNa
eMa PQK{ 2. OPVVIJK PJ K[I ePRqH: rdJJIlH HINsIHKIIV TRIZK `MTzr.
VII. Comment on the meaning of the prepositions for, in, with in the sentences beIow:
A. +. ... aPQ MRI xIRa! xIRa NQTza K[LH KIRV KP [MxI vLHH iMTIa for aPQR JIe KIMT[IR. 2.
u[Ia T[PHI [LV for K[ILR NIMqIR. 4. vQHK aPQ [MxI UIPRgI for M VMHKIR [IRI! MJq PQR
VPK[IR for M HT[PPNVLHKRIHH{ 3. . HKLNN eMJK aPQ for Va eLsI.
B. +. r\IR[MZH aPQ TPQNq HMa lUPPq VPRJLJgl KP aPQR JIe KIMT[IR{r HQggIHKIq vLHH
GJqIR`a in MJ LVZIRMKLxI KPJI. 2. rUPPq VPRJLJg! T[LNqRIJ!r RIHZPJqIq dJJI in M xPLTI
e[LT[ `PRI JP RIHIV`NMJTI KP [IR PeJ. 4. u[Ia TPJxIRHIq in M e[LHZIR.
C. +. u[Ia gMIq `MTz in HPVI `IeLNqIRVIJK. 2. .s M VMJ LH in gRLIs! e[P T[IIRH [LV; in
KRPQ`NI! e[P TPJHPNIH [LV; in eRMK[! e[P HPPK[IH [LV; LJ Pa! e[P VMzIH [LV qPQ`NI
[MZZa; in ZRPHZIRLKa! e[P RIPLTIH; in qLHgRMTI! e[P `MTzH [LV MgMLJHK K[I ePRNq{ w[P `QK
ePVMJ{
D. +. dJJI NPPzIq with sRIH[ LJKIRIHK MK dRJPNq. 2. dJJI eMKT[Iq K[LH T[MJgI with HPVI
qLHVMa. 4. With M JIRxPQH HKMRK dJJI [MHKIJIq sPReMRq KP K[I qPPR. 3. /[I RIVIV`IRIq with
HQqqIJ RINLIs HPVI MqxLTI gLxIJ [IR MK TPNNIgI LJ QHK HQT[ M HLKQMKLPJ!
E. +. ... HPVIPJI aINZIq with ZMLJ. 2. |LH xPLTI KRIV`NIq with [PRRPR. 4. |I eMH qaLJg
with [QJgIR. 3. u[I `PaH eIRI HZIIT[NIHH with sIMR. *. QK[lH IaIH eIRI eLqI with ePJqIR.
VIII. Form adjectives and nouns from the given words with the heIp of the prefixes an-, in-,
mis-, dis-:
TPJxIJLIJK! TPJxIJLIJTI; TPVsPRK! TPVsPRKM`NI; qIZIJqIJK! qIZIJqIJTI; qLssIRIJK!
qLssIRIJTI; M`NI! TMZM`NI; LVZPRKMJK; ISZIRLIJTIq; P`IqLIJK; QJqIRHKMJqLJg; [PJIHKa.
IX. a) FiII in prepositions where necessary:
OMJ aPQ RIVIV`IR aPQR sLRHK qMa... HT[PPN{ .K eMH ZRP`M`Na RMK[IR TPJsQHLJg. . MV HQRI
aPQ RMJ ... aPQR VPK[IR K[LJzLJg H[I eMH qIHIRKLJg aPQ. w[IJ K[I T[LNq gPIH ... HT[PPN... [LH
sLRHK qMa! [I [MH KP eMKT[ ... [LH VPK[IR NIMxLJg. u[I KIMT[IR VQHK TPJxLJTI [LV K[MK... K[I
IJq ... K[I qMa [LH VPK[IR MJq [LH [PVI eLNN HKLNN `I K[IRI. .K LH qLssLTQNK KP VMzI K[I
JIeTPVIR PLJ ... M gMVI PR M eMNz. d JIe NLsI! TPVZNIKINa qLssIRIJK ... e[MK [I LH QHIq ...
`IgLJH.
u[I VPK[IRH MRI MH QZHIK MH K[ILR T[LNqRIJ. u[Ia [MJg...... K[ILR IaIH sLSIq ... K[ILR T[LNqRIJ
MJq qLHNLzI NIMxLJg K[IV ... K[ILR sMKI.
u[I `IHK eMa KP qIMN... K[I HLKQMKLPJ LH KP gIK K[I T[LNq QHIq ... K[I LqIM... HT[PPN! KP [INZ
[LV ... IxIRa eMa. vQT[ qIZIJqH ... K[I ZMRIJKH. ... K[I `IgLJJLJg ... K[I KIRV K[I VPK[IR
H[PQNq KMzI [IR T[LNq KP HII K[I KIMT[IR MJq KP NPPz ... K[I HT[PPN. u[I sLRHK qMa H[PQNq `I
HPVIK[LJg KP NPPz......MJq JPK KP `I sIMRIq.
b) ReteII what you've read.
c) What measures wouId you suggest to settIe the newcomers?
X. Study VocabuIary Notes, transIate the iIIustrative sentences into Russian and write your
own sentences with the new words and phrases.
XI. Use stare or gaze instead of look where possibIe:
+. .KlH LVZPNLKI KP NPPz MK ZIPZNI NLzI K[MK. 2. d `Lg TRPeq HKPPq PJ K[I ZMxIVIJK NPPzLJg
MK M `RPzIJ TMR. 4. 1P ePJqIR ZIPZNI HKMJq NPPzLJg MK K[LH ZLTKQRI sPR [PQRH: LKlH `IMQKLsQN. 3.
u[I NLKKNI `PaH HKPPq NPPzLJg MK IMT[ PK[IR RIMqa KP HKMRK M sLg[K. *. iPPz MK [IR: MgMLJ H[I LH
NPPzLJg PQK Ps K[I eLJqPe eLK[ K[MK HKRMJgI ISZRIHHLPJ Ps [IRH. ,. w[IJ . NPPzIq MK [IR IaIH
. gQIHHIq K[MK H[I [Mq TRLIq. 7. u[I URIIz VaK[ RQJH K[MK 1MRTLHHQH NPPzIq MK [LH PeJ
RIsNITKLPJ LJ K[I eMKIR QJKLN [I sINN LJ NPxI eLK[ LK. b. |I HKPPq NPPzLJg MRPQJq MH Ls [I KRLIq KP
LVZRIHH PJ [LH VIVPRa IxIRaK[LJg [I HMe.
XII. FiII in
a) look or seem:
+. u[I eIMK[IR ... fQLKI eMRV K[PQg[ LKlH PJNa *O M`PxI IRP. 2. u[I T[LNqRIJ ... KLRIq `QK
K[Ia... gRIMKNa ZNIMHIq eLK[ K[I KRLZ! qPJlK K[Ia{ 4. u[I [PHK MJq K[I [PHKIHH ... M `LK
PNqsMH[LPJIq! `QK K[Ia ... KP `I [PHZLKM`NI MJq sRLIJqNa. 3. /[I ... KP `I xIRa NLg[KVLJqIq! `QK
H[I PJNa... LK! LJ sMTK H[I LH M xIRa HIRLPQH MJq [MRqePRzLJg HKQqIJK. *. va `RPK[IR HMaH K[MK
ZIPZNI QHQMNNa ... e[MK K[Ia MRI MJq . `INLIxI K[MK ZIPZNI MRI xIRa PsKIJ fQLKI qLssIRIJK sRPV
e[MK K[Ia... KP `I.
b) another or different.
+. u[I KIMT[IR KRLIq KP ISZNMLJ K[I RQNI LJ M ... eMa MJq . QJqIRHKPPq LK MK PJTI. 2. u[I
HT[PPN`Pa RIKQRJIq K[I `PPz [I [Mq RIMq MJq MHzIq sPR... `PPz! `QK Ps M... zLJq! [I HMLq! MH [I
eMJKIq KP [MxI M RIHK sRPV qIKITKLxI HKPRLIH. 4. . MHzIq sPR M ZMLR Ps H[PIH Ps M... zLJq! `QK K[I
H[PZgLRN HMLq K[MK K[I RIHK Ps K[I H[PIH eIRI JPK Va HLI.
c) stretch or run:
+. d HVMNN HKRIMV ... MNPJg K[I RPMq. 2. u[IHI HKIZZIH ... KP K[I /PQK[ sPR VLNIH MJq VLNIH.
4. u[I ZMK[ ... MTRPHH K[I sLINq sPR M VLNI MJq K[IJ eMH NPHK LJ K[I sPRIHK. 3. 1P VMKKIR [Pe
[MRq . NPPzIq . HMe PJNa M xMHK ZNMLJ... `IsPRI VI. *. u[I QgNa HTMR (D$) ... RLg[K MTRPHH K[I
VMJlH NIsK T[IIz. ,. pPR [Pe VMJa zLNPVIKIRH qPIH K[LH sPRIHK...{
d) comfortabIe or convenient
+. . NLzI KP HNIIZ PJ M TMVZ`Iq! . sLJq LK xIRa .... 2. . `INLIxI pRLqMa K[I PJNa ... qMa sPR PQR
VIIKLJg! eI [MxI PJNa sPQR NITKQRIH PJ K[MK qMa. 4. u[PQg[ K[I sNMK eMH RMK[IR .... eMRV! NLg[K
MJq TPHa! LK eMH JPK... sPR PQR ePRz MH LK eMH RMK[IR HVMNN. 3. u[IHI H[PIH MRI xIRa... sPR eIMR
LJ eIK eIMK[IR MH K[Ia [MxI RQ``IR HPNIH.
e) join or unite:
+. u[I KeP HKRIMVH ... MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I VPQJKMLJ. 2. ... eI HKMJq! qLxLqIq eI sMNN. 4. oJI
`a PJI K[I T[LNqRIJ ... LJ K[I gMVI. 3. u[I ZMRKLHMJH qIKMT[VIJK... K[I RIgQNMR MRVa MJq K[I
IJIVa NPHK K[I `MKKNI MgMLJHK K[ILR ... sPRTIH. *. dNN ZIMTINPxLJg ZIPZNI H[PQNq ... LJ K[ILR
HKRMggNI MgMLJHK M JIe eMR. ,. wPJlK aPQ... VI LJ M eMNz{
XIII. Paraphrase the foIIowing:
+. It is of no importance. 2. LxIRH flow LJKP K[I HIM. 4. yPQ TMJlK rely PJ [LV. 3. Make
yourself at home *. pRIJT[ is unlike English LJ [MxLJg sMR VPRI xIR`MN LJsNISLPJH. ,. |I
seems to be LNN. 7. Connect K[IHI ZPLJKH eLK[ M NLJI. b. u[LH HKRIIK stretches IMHK MJq eIHK. 2.
|I RIsQHIq KP NLxI at the expense Ps [LH ZMRIJKH. +). . disagree eLK[ aPQ. ++. I'll drive K[I
TMR LJKP K[I gMRMgI. +2. wLNN aPQ come with QH{ +4. . met him by chance LJ iPJqPJ NMHK
eIIz. +3. Listen to me! uPVc +*. u[LH KPPN is easy to use. +,. u[IHI MRI not the same
ZIPZNI eLK[ K[I HMVI JMVI. +7. w[a LH 1ane silent{
XIV. TransIate these sentences into Russian. Write your own sentences with the new words
and phrases:
+. |I looked about K[I RPPV MJq TMQg[K HLg[K Ps K[I TMHI TPJKMLJLJg K[I IeINH e[LT[
[Mq `IIJ TMRINIHHNa left open PJ K[I KM`NI. 2. The difference was TQRLPQH `IKeIIJ [IR
LJKIJHI ISZITKMKLPJ Ps K[I ZRIxLPQH qMa MJq [IR ZRIHIJK indifference. 4. United eI HKMJq!
qLxLqIq eI sMNN. 3. va sMK[IR RIVLJqIq VI K[MK . eMH IJKLRINa dependent QZPJ [LV. *. u[I
VMJa VIJ [I RMJ MTRPHH! `INPJgLJg KP M different ePRNq! [Mq sLNNIq [LV ZIR[MZH eLK[
MqVLRMKLPJ MJq IJxa. ,. .lV MNeMaH qPLJg K[LJgH PJ K[I HZQR Ps K[I VPVIJK KP Va PeJ
inconvenience MJq PK[IR ZIPZNIlH. 7. .K VMqI [LV uncomfortable KP MNKIR [LH ZNMJH MJq K[LJz
PQK HPVIK[LJg JIe. b. |I eMH MJgRa eLK[ 1PRM[ `ITMQHI H[I [Mq JPK NIK K[I VMKKIR rest.
XV. ReteII the text: a) in indirect speech; b) as if you were Anne.
XVI. Write: a) a Ietter from Anne to a friend of hers about her first experience at schooI, b) an
answer of a friend of Anne's to this Ietter.
XVII. Make up diaIogues based upon the text between: a) Anne and a friend of hers, a young
teacher discussing their first Iessons; b) Anne and Miss Enderby discussing the probIem of
discipIine in cIass; c) Anne and her coIIege teacher discussing situations Iike that described
in the text.
XVIII. Miss Barrett, a young teacher from BeI Kaufman's 'Up the Down Staircase', once "had
an epidemic of unprepared students". Study the reasons they gave for negIecting to do their
homework. What other reasons couId they have given? EIect one student to pIay the part of
the teacher who shouId respond in each case. RoIe-pIay the whoIe situation.
Why I Didn't Do My Homework
. zJPe [PVIePRz LH IHHIJKLMN KP PQR eINN`ILJg! MJq . qLq LK `QK . gPK LJKP M sLg[K eLK[
HPVI zLq PJ PQR eMa KP HT[PPN MJq [I K[RIe LK LJ K[I gQKKIR.
va qPg T[IeIq LK.
. qLqJlK zJPe eI eIRI HQZZPHIq KP qP LK.
. sINN MHNIIZ PJ K[I HQ`eMa `ITMQHI . HKMaIq QZ MNN JLg[K qPLJg Va [PVIePRz! HP e[IJ
LK HKPZZIq MK Va HKMKLPJ . RMJ K[RPQg[ K[I qPPR JPK KP `I NMKI MJq NIsK LK PJ K[I HIMK PJ K[I
HQ`eMa.
. qLq LK `QK NIsK LK [PVI `a VLHKMzI.
u[I `M`a HZLNNIq VLNz PJ LK.
va `RPK[IR KPPz rVar [PVIePRz LJHKIMq Ps r[LHr.
u[I ZMgI eMH VLHHLJg sRPV Va `PPz.
. NPHK Va `PPz MJq QHK sPQJq LK.
u[IRIlH JP RPPV LJ Va [PQHI JPe Va QJTNI VPxIq LJ MJq . [MxI KP HNIIZ LJ K[I [MNN
MJq TPQNqJlK QHI K[I zLKT[IJ KM`NI.
/PVIPJI HKPNI LK.
w[MK [PVIePRz{
XIX. TransIate the foIIowing putting it in your own words. Comment on what yon have read:
... 5 6 7! 8$ $D$ 5! 8$ $ 8!
8$ $! 5 ;5 . A$! $8 9 $...
$ ! 8 8 !
6! D; D;$! $ 86! 6! 6 !
5 5 ! 567 ; 9! 5 ; 5.
>! D! 9D! ! $8 $!
> $=....
' 8 $! ! ; 5 ! 8
8D 6:
7{
89! $ 989 5 85! 89! ! $!
67! 85! 85 $ $> 6 >! ; 8! $65!
$>D6...
6D 8 ! > ;=5 69
D9! $9 ? 7$ ! 56
9! ; 8;6 D. (D
34*5" F 76 5.)
XX. Arrange a taIk on the foIIowing topics
+. nLssLTQNKLIH MeMLKLJg aPQJg KIMT[IRH.
2. IMHPJH sPR T[LNqRIJlH `ILJg QJVMJMgIM`NI.
4. |Pe KP qLRITK M T[LNqlH IJIRga LJKP K[I RLg[K T[MJJINH.
3. .qIMN QZ`RLJgLJg.
XXI. TransIate these sentences:
+. ;6 ; ! (xLNNMgI) 6 ;
; $. 2. (85 $ > 8$! $ $!
$ (K[MK) $8 ; . 4. ' 55 $ $% D;
]! $8 > $ >$ $ 8 8 . 3.
5 $ 6! 8 DD6 6 5 67 6 !
; 76 . *. ' : 6 E D $6
6$. ,. AD5! $ $7 ! 8 D6 6!
{ D. 7. <6 6 565 =!
68 ; D 5 6. b. 8 = D 6{ '
6 . ?D! ; (sIKT[ LK).
XXII. Try your hand at teaching.
1. The situation gives beIow couId cause difficuIties for the teacher. Describe how you
wouId handIe the situation in the teacher's position. Decide amongst your group which is
the most practicaI soIution;
0LNN! M sPQRK[ sPRVIR! eMH MNeMaH KINNLJg K[I TNMHH M`PQK [LH qPg uLV`IR! K[I KRLTzH [I
TPQNq ZIRsPRV! e[MK M ePJqIRsQN eMKT[qPg [I eMH MJq [Pe uLV`IR ePQNq ZRPKITK 0LNN.
GMT[ eIIz [I ePQNq TPVI KP HT[PPN MJq KINN M`PQK K[I ePJqIRH Ps uLV`IR.
dH LK KQRJIq PQK! 0LNN qLq JPK PeJ M qPg MJq JPJI Ps [LH RINMKLxIH PR TNPHI sRLIJqH [Mq HQT[
M qPg.
2. Learn to use aIternative ways of controIIing the cIass, using poIite requests rather than
direct commands.
Notice:
M) u[I sPNNPeLJg sPRVH ISZRIHH MJJPaMJTI MJq LRRLKMKLPJ.
nP KRa KP ePRz PJ aPQR PeJ.
mQHK HZIMz QZ M NLKKNIc
`) yPQ TMJ VMzI aPQR TPVVMJqH HPQJq VPRI ZPNLKI `a QHLJg ILK[IR M NPe RLHLJg KPJI PR
ePRqH! Z[RMHIH MJq HKRQTKQRIH NLzI rZNIMHI; .lV MsRMLq; . K[LJz; ZIR[MZH; qPJlK aPQ K[LJz; .
(qPJlK) eMJK aPQ KP...; . (qPJlK) ISZITK aPQ KP...; ePQNq aPQ NLzI; ePQNq aPQ! ZNIMHI; ...! eLNN
aPQ; ...! TPQNq aPQ; e[MK Ls...; NIKlH/NIKlH JPK.r
Assignments:
1. Practise giving instructions to pupiIs in a poIite manner, use the phrases beIow:
gP PJ KP K[I JISK ISIRTLHI! TMRRa PJ (ZRPTIIq) RIMqLJg! RIZIMK e[MK aPQ HMLq! TPZa K[LH Pss
K[I `PMRq! ePRz LJ KePH (K[RIIH)! H[MRI K[I KISK`PPz! KRa K[I JISK LKIV! ZRMTKLHI K[I LRRIgQNMR
xIR`H! NLHKIJ TMRIsQNNa KP e[MK . HMa! IKT.
2. uMzI LK LJ KQRJH KP ZNMa K[I ZMRK Ps K[I KIMT[IR `IgLJJLJg MJq sLJLH[LJg K[I NIHHPJ. vMzI
HQRI K[MK aPQ qPJlK HPQJq KPP HKRMLg[KsPReMRq. (/II rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJH .. MJq ....)
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "Anne Meets Her CIass", mark the stresses and tunes, repeat the text
foIIowing the modeI.
2. Respond as shown in the modeIs, check your repIies.
3. Combine the sentences into one conditionaI sentence.
4. Write a speIIing-transIation test:
a) TransIate the given phrases into EngIish.
b) Check them with the key.
5. Answer the questions using the phrases "to Iike the idea/disIike the idea".
6. TransIate the given sentences into EngIish. Check your sentences with the key.
7. Listen to the Jokes connected with schooI Iife. Get ready to reteII them in indirect speech.
TOPIC: CHOOSING A CAREES
TEXT A. WHAT'S YOUR LINE?
/T[PPNc iIHHPJH! gMVIH! TNQ`H! [PVIePRz. d `INN RLJgH. yPQ gP KP M TNMHHRPPV. d `INN
RLJgH. yPQ [MxI NQJT[. d `INN RLJgH. yPQ gP [PVI.
0QK PJI qMa aPQ gP KP HT[PPN sPR K[I NMHK KLVI. w[MK KP qP MsKIR K[MK{ yPQ RIMNLI K[MK K[I
KLVI KP T[PPHI PJI P` PQK Ps K[I [QJqRIqH [MH TPVI. .KlH gPLJg KP `I M [MRq T[PLTI MJq
JP`Pqa TMJ VMzI LK sPR aPQ.
0IsPRI aPQ TMJ T[PPHI! aPQ MHz aPQRHINs fQLKI M NPK Ps fQIHKLPJH. w[MK qP aPQ zJPe aPQ
MRI gPPq MK{ w[MK qP aPQ IJPa qPLJg{ \IR[MZH aPQ IJPa ePRzLJg eLK[ aPQR [MJqH. oR aPQ
VMa ZRIsIR QHLJg aPQR [IMq aPQR `RMLJH. dRI aPQ LJKIRIHKIq LJ VMT[LJIH{ oR qP aPQ NLzI
VIIKLJg ZIPZNI{ .KlH qLssLTQNK KP zJPe MNN K[I MJHeIRH KP K[IHI fQIHKLPJH QJKLN aPQ [MxI NIsK
HT[PPN MJq MTKQMNNa `IgQJ ePRz.
vMJa aPQJg ZIPZNI TPJHLqIR KIMT[LJg MH M TMRIIR. .KlH JPK HQRZRLHLJg: MsKIR aPQR ZMRIJKH
aPQR KIMT[IR VMa `I K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK ZIRHPJ LJ aPQR NLsI. wLK[ MNN K[I KIMT[IRH aPQ VIIK!
aPQ K[LJz K[IRI LHJlK MJaK[LJg aPQ qPJlK zJPe M`PQK K[I ePRz. u[MKlH e[IRI aPQ MRI eRPJg!
HLJTI PJNa K[PHI e[P MRI LJ LK TMJ MZZRITLMKI LK. |MxI aPQ IxIR MHzIq aPQRHINs e[a VPHK
KIMT[IRH MRI HP qIxPKIq KP K[ILR ePRz MJq ZRLxMKINa K[LJz! K[PQg[ K[Ia VMa JPK NLzI KP MqVLK
LK PZIJNa! K[MK K[Ia HIRxI [QVMJLKa qPLJg K[I VPHK xLKMN P` Ps MNN{ u[PHI Ps QH e[P HZIJq
PQR qMaH LJ HT[PPNH zJPe [Pe RIeMRqLJg K[I P` LH. dK K[I HMVI KLVI LK LH JPK IMHa MJq M RIMN
T[MNNIJgI KP aPQR T[MRMTKIR! M`LNLKLIH MJq KMNIJK! MH KIMT[LJg LH M TPJHKMJK HKRIMV Ps qITLHLPJH.
O[LNqRIJ LJ aPQR TNMHHRPPV MRIJlK QHK `PaH MJq gLRNH. GxIRa PJI LH M QJLfQI LJqLxLqQMN
e[P [MH JIxIR `IIJ `IsPRI MJq eLNN JIxIR MgMLJ ISLHK. .s aPQ NLzI ZIPZNI! aPQ eLNN NPxI
KIMT[LJg. uP `I M gPPq KIMT[IR aPQ VQHK `I gIJQLJINa LJKIRIHKIq LJ e[MK aPQ MRI qPLJg.
u[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK K[LJgH LJ K[I ePRNq MRI MeMRIJIHH MJq NIMRJLJg eMJKLJg KP zJPe
IxIRa qMa Ps aPQR NLsI VPRI MJq VPRI MJq VPRI. 0ITMQHI IxIRa KLVI aPQ NIMRJ HPVIK[LJg
JIe aPQ `ITPVI HPVIK[LJg JIe. dJ LgJPRMJK KIMT[IR KIMT[IH LgJPRMJTI! M sIMRsQN KIMT[IR
KIMT[IH sIMR! M `PRIq KIMT[IR KIMT[IH `PRIqPV. 0QK M gPPq KIMT[IR TMKMNaIH LJ [LH ZQZLNH K[I
`QRJLJg qIHLRI KP zJPe MJq NPxI sPR K[I KRQK[ MJq `IMQKa.
mP[J /KILJ`ITz! eRLKLJg M`PQK [LH HT[PPN qMaH HMLq! r.lxI TPVI KP `INLIxI K[MK M gRIMK
KIMT[IR LH M gRIMK MRKLHK MJq aPQ zJPe [Pe sIe gRIMK MRKLHKH K[IRI MRI LJ K[I ePRNq. uIMT[LJg
VLg[K IxIJ `I K[I gRIMKIHK Ps K[I MRKH HLJTI LKH VIqLQV LH K[I [QVMJ VLJq MJq K[I [QVMJ
HZLRLK.r w[MK MJ LJTRIqL`NI RIHZPJHL`LNLKa KP `I K[I gQMRqLMJH Ps K[I [QVMJ HZLRLK MJq K[I
[QVMJ VLJqc . K[LJz! K[MK LH K[I RIMHPJ e[a [QVMJLKa [MH K[I qIIZIHK RIHZITK sPR KIMT[IRH.
. ePQNq JIxIR HKPZ KIMT[LJg MJq .lV HQRI K[MK aPQ! [MxLJg T[PHIJ LK sPR aPQR TMRIIR! sIIN
K[I HMVI eMa. .s aPQ qPJlK sIIN K[MK eMa K[IJ! ZNIMHI! sPR MNN PQR HMzIH! gIK PQKc u[I [QVMJ
VLJq MJq K[I [QVMJ HZLRLK MRI KPP ePJqRPQH KP qIHKRPa. 0QK Ls aPQ MRI ZRIZMRIq KP MTTIZK K[I
RIHZPJHL`LNLKa! . eLH[ aPQ MNN K[I NQTz LJ K[I ePRNq.
d uIMT[IR
TEXT B. CHOOSING IS NOT SO EASY AS IT LOOKS
mMJI: |MNNP! 0P`c
0P`: |MNNPc
mMJI: o[! aPQlxI QHK NIsK TPNNIgI! [MxIJlK aPQ{
0P`: yIH.
mMJI: w[MK MRI aPQ gPLJg KP qP{
0P`: GR... eINN! LK NPPzH NLzI M T[PLTI `IKeIIJ KIMT[LJg PR gPLJg LJKP MJ PssLTI MJq... .
K[LJz .lq VQT[ ZRIsIR KP gP LJ sPR KIMT[LJg! `ITMQHI... eINN aPQ gIK NPJg [PNLqMaH.
mMJI: 0QK! 0P`! ePQNqJlK aPQ gIK `PRIq eLK[ K[I HMVI RPQKLJI aIMR MsKIR aIMR KIMT[LJg...
KIMT[LJg K[I HMVI VMKIRLMN KP K[I T[LNqRIJ. dJq... M HIJHI Pc RIHZPJHL`LNLKa aPQ JIIq MNN
K[PHI T[LNqRIJ! MNN K[PHI ZMRIJKH.
P`: o[! NPPz! LK ePQNqJlK `I MH `PRLJg MH... MH ePRzLJg LJ MJ PssLTI. uIMT[LJg LH KIRRL`Na
HKLVQNMKLJg. .KlH ... JIe IxIRa qMa .lV HQRI .lq IJPa LK.
mMJI: 0QK . VIMJ! K[IRIlH HP VQT[ xMRLIKa LJ PssLTI ePRzc iPPz MK Va P`: .lV qIMNLJg eLK[
ZIPZNI MJq K[ILR ZRP`NIVH! K[IRIlRI JIe HLKQMKLPJH KP TPZI eLK[ MNN K[I KLVI.
0P`: yIH! K[MKlH fQLKI KRQI! `QK . K[LJz K[IRIlH M JQV`IR Ps qLssIRIJTIH `IKeIIJ KIMT[LJg
MJq PssLTI ePRz MJq! eINN! . K[LJz .lNN gP LJ sPR KIMT[LJg `ITMQHI... LK RIMNNa MKKRMTKH VI.
(From m. mPJIH rpQJTKLPJH Ps GJgNLH[r. Cam", +2b+)
Memory Work
Autumn Flies
.J K[I PK[IR gMRqIJH
dJq MNN QZ K[I xMNI!
pRPV K[I MQKQVJ `PJsLRIH
/II K[I HVPzI KRMLNc
\NIMHMJK HQVVIR PxIR
dJq MNN K[I HQVVIR sNPeIRH!
u[I RIq sLRIH `NMI!
u[I gRIa HVPzI KPeIRH.
/LJg M HPJg Ps HIMHPJHc
/PVIK[LJg `RLg[K LJ MNNc
pNPeIRH LJ K[I HQVVIR!
pLRIH LJ K[I sMNNc (. i. /KIxIJHPJ)
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
Words
MZZRITLMKI gIJQLJINa adv RIHZPJHL`LNLKa n
TMRIIR n P` n RIHZPJHL`NI ad%
T[MNNIJgI n ZRPsIHHLPJ n xLKMN ad%
T[PLTI n RINLM`NI ad% xPTMKLPJ n
IqQTMKI RIHZITK ePRz n,
Word Combinations
KP VMzI/KMzI M (TMRIsQN) T[PLTI RIeMRqLJg/HKLVQNMKLJg ePRz
KP [MxI JP T[PLTI KP `I qIxPKIq KP HVK[. PR HV`.
KP `I LJKIRIHKIq LJ KP `I RIHZPJHL`NI sPR HVK[.
KP NIMxI/sLJLH[ HT[PPN KP KMzI/MTTIZK RIHZPJHL`LNLKa
HT[PPN NIMxIR KP [MxI/JIIq M HIJHI Ps RIH
KP TPJHLqIR KIMT[LJg (VIqLTLJI! ZPJHL`NLNLRa
IKT.) MH M TMRIIR KP TPZI eLK[ HVK[.
KP KMzI QZ M TMRRIR/M P` KP IMRJ/IJPa gRMKLKQqI
KP gP LJ sPR KIMT[LJg MJq RIHZITK
KP `I LJ KIMT[LJg (VIqLTLJI! KP [MxI (JP) RIHZITK sPR
`MJzLJg! IKT.) HV`. PR HVK[.
KP `I LJ/PQK Ps PJIlH NLJI NPxI Ps HVK[./sPR HV`.
1PKI: u[I JPQJH rePRz! P`! ZRPsIHHLPJ! TMRIIR! xPTMKLPJr [MxI VPRI PR NIHH K[I HMVI VIMJLJg.
1IxIRK[INIHH K[IRI LH M TIRKMLJ qLssRIJTI LJ K[ILR HIVMJKLTH MJq QHMgI.
rwPRzr [MH K[I VPHK gIJIRMN VIMJLJg MJq TMJ `I MZZNLIq KP MJaK[LJg PJI [MH KP qP LJ K[I eMa Ps VMzLJg M
NLxLJg. rmP`r LH TNPHI KP LK LJ LKH VIMJLJg `QK KIJqH KP qIJPKI NIHH ZRIHKLgLPQH ePRz. dZMRK sRPV K[MK K[I ePRq
rP`r TMJ MNHP qIJPKI M ZPHLKLPJ LJ IVZNPaVIJK! LJ e[LT[ TMHI K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I ePRqH rePRzr MJq
rP`r LH fQLKI P`xLPQH (!"g" .lV xIRa sPJq Ps D P`! IxIJ K[PQg[ LK VIMJH qPLJg M NPK Ps ePRz). r\RPsIHHLPJr
LH ePRz e[LT[ RIfQLRIH MqxMJTIq IqQTMKLPJ MJq HZITLMN KRMLJLJg. uRMqLKLPJMNNa LKlH MZZNLIq KP NMe! VIqLTLJI!
MRT[LKITKQRI MJq VLNLKMRa TMRIIR. u[I ePRq rTMRIIRr LKHINs VIMJH ILK[IR M TPQRHI Ps ZRPgRIHH LJ K[I NLsI Ps M
ZIRHPJ PR [MH K[I HMVI VIMJLJg MH K[I ePRq rePRzr MJq LH VPHKNa QHIq e[IJ HZIMzLJg Ps K[I T[PLTI Ps ePRz.
u[I ePRq rxPTMKLPJr VIMJH K[I zLJq Ps ePRz KP e[LT[ M VMJ LH NIq `a JMKQRMN KMNIJKH (TPVZMRI eLK[ K[I ePRq
rTMNNLJgr). .KlH M NIMRJIq ePRq MJq LH HINqPV QHIq LJ IxIRaqMa HZIIT[.
IVIV`IR K[MK K[ ePRq rePRzr LJ K[I VIMJLJg VIJKLPJIq M`PxI LH QJTPQJKM`NI MJq H[PQNqJlK `I QHIq
eLK[ K[I LJqIsLJLKI MRKLTNI PR LJ K[I ZNQRMN.
.J TPJKRMHK KP LK K[I ePRq rP`r LH TPQJKM`NI MJq TMJ `I QHIq eLK[ K[I LJqIsLJLKI MRKLTNI.
EXERCISES
I. a) Transcribe and Iearn to read the foIIowing words:
VMT[LJIH! MZZRITLMKI! [QVMJLKa! xLKMN! T[MNNIJgI! LJqLxLqQMN! MeMRIJIHH! LgJPRMJTI!
sIMRsQN! `PRIqPV! VIqLQV! MTTIZK! RPQKLJI! HKLVQNMKLJg! xMRLIKa.
b) Study Texts A and and expIain the meaning of the words and word combinations Iisted
beIow:
K[LJz ZRLxMKINa! K[I VPHK xLKMN P`! M RIeMRqLJg! P`! M T[MNNIJgI KP aPQR T[MRMTKIR! MJ
LgJPRMJK KIMT[IR! M gQMRqLMJ! K[I HMVI RPQKLJI! HKLVQNMKLJg ePRz! KP gP LJ sPR KIMT[LJg
II. a) Write EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing words and phrases. Use them in sentences
of your own:
6 8! $6 () $.! 6 $!
$6 C ! %6! 86 8$ 5 ! >6
7$! >; $ $! > $.
b) Find in Text A synonyms to the foIIowing words and word combinations:
KP qP eINN LJ HVK[.! LJ sMTK! `ITMQHI! sMLK[sQN! TPJsIHH! gRMKLsaLJg! HLJTIRINa! zJPeNIqgI! KP
RQLJ.
III. a) EnIarge upon the foIIowing topics:
+. dsKIR aPQR ZMRIJKH aPQR KIMT[IR VMa `I K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK ZIRHPJ LJ aPQR NLsI. 2.
uIMT[LJg LH JPK IMHa MJq M RIMN T[MNNIJgI KP aPQR T[MRMTKIR! M`LNLKLIH MJq KMNIJK. 4. uP `I M
gPPq KIMT[IR aPQ VQHK `I gIJQLJINa LJKIRIHKIq LJ e[MK aPQ MRI qPLJg. 3. uIMT[LJg LH M
TPJHKMJK HKRIMV Ps qITLHLPJH. *. GxIRa KLVI aPQ NIMRJ HPVIK[LJg JIe aPQ `ITPVI HPVIK[LJg
JIe.
\ R P V Z K H: K[IRIlH PJI VPRI K[LJg KP `I JPKIq! VPRIPxIR! e[MKlH VPRI...! . VLg[K MH eINN
Mqq K[MK...! LJ MqqLKLPJ! PJ KPZ Ps K[MK...! HPVIK[LJg INHI .lq NLzI KP HMa LH...! KMNzLJg Ps....
b) Comment on the quotation from John Steinbeck, say if you share his opinion. Do you
aIso think that teaching equaIs art? Why do you think that! Find more quotations concerned
with teachers and teaching, comment on them.
c) Continue the text on the part of the teacher. You may find the foIIowing ideas usefuI:
d gPPq KIMT[IR LH PJI e[P NIMRJH MNN K[I KLVI! sRPV NLsI! sRPV TPNNIMgQIH! sRPV T[LNqRIJ; M
ZRPsIHHLPJMN KIMT[IR LJKIgRMKIH K[IPRa MJq ZRMTKLTI; K[LH HPRK Ps ePRz qIVMJqH gRIMK ZMKLIJTI;
K[IRI MRI VMJa HzLNNH JITIHHMRa sPR gPPq KIMT[LJg.
d) Prepare a 3-minute taIk on one of the great teachers of the past or today, give reasons for
your choice.
IV. a) Act out the diaIogue "Choosing is not so easy as it Iooks".
b) RoIe-pIay a taIk between an intending teacher and a wiII-be journaIist on differences and
simiIarities of the careers they've chosen. Use Text and EssentiaI VocabuIary .
V. Speak about:
1. possibIe change in the system of secondary education in Russia.
\ R P V Z K H: QJLxIRHMN TPVZQNHPRa IqQTMKLPJ! KP ISKIJq K[I KRMLJLJg TPQRHI! KP LVZRPxI
K[I IqQTMKLPJMN ZRPTIHH! KP VPqIRJLI ZRPgRMVVIH MJq VMJQMNH! KP QHI QZKPqMKI KIT[JLTMN
IfQLZVIJK! KP ZRPxLqI PZKLPJMN KRMLJLJg LJ xMRLPQH HQ`ITKH.
2. an ideaI schooI as you see it.
VI. Bead the jokes beIow. See how the verbs learn and study are used in the context.
ConsuIt a dictionary and find out the difference in their meaning and usage. ReteII the jokes
in indirect speech:
+. d aPQJg KIMT[IR QHK `IgLJJLJg [LH TMRIIR MHzH MqxLTI Ps MJ PNqIR VIV`IR Ps K[I
sMTQNKa: rw[MK [MxI aPQ NIMRJIq LJ aPQR aIMRH Ps ISZIRLIJTI{r
r.lxI NIMRJIq PJI K[LJg. osKIJ aPQ eLNN sLJq e[LNI aPQ MRI gLxLJg M NIHHPJ LJ TNMHH K[MK
K[IRI LH PJI aPQJg QZHKMRK e[P MNeMaH qLHMgRIIH eLK[ aPQ. uINN VI! ePQNq aPQ HKPZ [LV MJq
KRa KP VMzI [LV H[QK QZ RLg[K K[IJ MJq K[IRI{r
r. HQZZPHI . ePQNq.r
rwINN! qPJlK. |IlH ZRP`M`Na K[I PJNa PJI e[P LH NLHKIJLJg KP aPQ.r
2. d [Lg[HT[PPN gLRN HIMKIq JISK KP M sMVPQH MHKRPJPVIR MK M qLJJIR ZMRKa HKRQTz QZ M
TPJxIRHMKLPJ MHzLJg! rw[MK qP aPQ qP LJ NLsI{r
|I RIZNLIq! r. HKQqa MHKRPJPVa.r
rnIMR VI!r HMLq K[I aPQJg VLHH! r. sLJLH[Iq MHKRPJPVa NMHK aIMR.r
VII. TransIate the sentences using the words learn and study in their different meanings:
+. $ 9$7 . 2. ; 8
8. 4. 6 ;! ; ! E$. 3. 6
$ 5 $. *. X E C$%7 6 $6
$> $ 6 685 8. ,. " ! 8 6 7$.
7. F >7! 6 6. b. $ =
6! 6 8$ $$ 9.
VIII. Comment on the given proverbs. Make np a situation centered round one of them:
+. 0IKKIR QJ`PRJ K[MJ QJKMQg[K.
2. iLzI KIMT[IR! NLzI ZQZLN.
4. d NLKKNI zJPeNIqgI LH M qMJgIRPQH K[LJg.
IX. a) FiII in prepositions and adverbs where necessary:
Dialogue
0P`: w[MK MRI aPQ gPLJg to take... as a career{
mP[J: dRT[LKITKQRI. dTKQMNNa! .lxI MNRIMqa HKMRKIq. . `IgMJ Va HKQqLIH ... NMHK oTKP`IR.
0P`: w[MK MRI aPQ gPLJg KP qP e[IJ aPQ sLJLH[{
mP[J: o[! . H[MNN gP `MTz ... [PVI MJq ZRMTKLHI ... Va JMKLxI KPeJ. u[IRIlH M NPK Ps QHIsQN
ePRz KP `I qPJI K[IRI `QLNqLJg HT[PPNH! [PHZLKMNH! [PVIH ... K[I ZIPZNI.
0P`: w[MK made you decide KP KMzI ... MRT[LKITKQRI MH M TMRIIR{
mP[J: wINN. . was good ... vMK[H MJq dRK... HT[PPN MJq . K[LJz . had a certain feeling ...
qIHLgJ. va KIMT[IR encouraged ... VI MJq HMLq . had a bent... MRT[LKITKQRI.
`: . sLJq K[MK HPVI aPQJg ZIPZNI sMLN KP KMzI ... M TMRIIR `ITMQHI K[IalRI JPK HQRI e[MK
K[Ia eMJK KP qP MJq e[MK TMRIIR opportunities K[IRI MRI.
mP[J: yIH! K[MKlH KRQI. 0QK QHQMNNa aPQR ZIRHPJMN fQMNLKLIH H[Pe......HT[PPN! qPJlK K[Ia{
uIMT[IRH gQLqI MJq IJTPQRMgI ... K[I aPQJg KP KMzI ... K[I TMRIIRH ... e[LT[ K[IalRI best
suited.
b) TeII your friends how John chose his career.
c) Make up your own diaIogues on choosing a career. Use the word combinations in boId
type in them.
X. a) Read the foIIowing:
OMRLJg KIMT[IRH KMzI MJ MTKLxI ZMRK LJ qIsIJqLJg ZIMTI MJq LJ HPNxLJg PK[IR HPTLMN
ZRP`NIVH! HQT[ MH HKRMggNLJg sPR `IKKIR NLxLJg TPJqLKLPJH MJq M [MZZLIR sQKQRI sPR K[ILR ZQZLNH.
u[ILR qIVMJqH MRI eINN gRPQJqIq HLJTI VLNNLPJH Ps `PaH MJq gLRNH K[RPQg[PQK K[I ePRNq MRI
`ILJg qIZRLxIq Ps M [MZZa T[LNq[PPq.
b) Support the idea with information from Russian and/or foreign press. Pay speciaI
attention to the situation in the USA and Great Britain.
c) Speak on:
+. aPQR LqIM Ps M [MZZa T[LNq[PPq;
2. K[I ZRP`NIV Ps qIZRLxIq T[LNqRIJ LJ QHHLM MJq M`RPMq.
XI. Here is a series of extreme opinions. BuiId a conversation about each topic. Begin as in
the modeI:
GJgNLH[ LH M xIRa IMHa NMJgQMgI KP NIMRJ.
d.: .K HMaH [IRI GJgNLH[ LH M xIRa IMHa NMJgQMgI KP NIMRJ.
.: .lV JPK HQRI . fQLKI MgRII. .lq HMa LKlH sMLRNa qLssLTQNK.
d.: w[a qP aPQ K[LJz K[MK{
.: wINN! ...
Opinions:
+. d KIMT[LJg TMRIIR LHJlK HQLKM`NI sPR VIJ.
2. uIMT[LJg M sPRILgJ NMJgQMgI LJ M HT[PPN LH ZPLJKNIHH.
4. GqQTMKLPJ LH K[I RIHZPJHL`LNLKa Ps KIMT[IRH MJq ZMRIJKH H[PQNqJlK LJKIRsIRI.
3. /T[PPNT[LNqRIJ H[PQNq `I MNNPeIq KP T[PPHI K[I HQ`ITKH K[Ia eMJK KP HKQqa.
*. .J K[I JIMR! sQKQRI HT[PPNKIMT[IRH eLNN `I RIZNMTIq `a TPVZQKIRH.
XII. TransIate the sentences beIow into EngIish. Use EssentiaI VocabuIary II:
+. &76 $ ; 6 $! ; > $
8. 2. A9>! 86 $> 5 $ 5
. 4. $5 6D; ! 6
. 3. 76! E D6$ ; 6
$. *. -9 6D5 9 ;
C6; $. ,. ? D $!
. 7. -> 75 $> >6 6 8$
$. b. < >85! C7 ! $>
5 . 2. 7 $ > $; $; 6! $;
8 5 ;; . +). "5 ; 8 C7 ! =
; D. ' ; 8 ! E $ > . ++.
&76 $8 ;; (K[IPRa Ps IqQTMKLPJ) $
$6 C $8. +2. t 8$ D 8
D6! 7 C7 86. E$ $; $6
$ 6 685 8 .
XIII. RoIe-piaying. a) Act out in pain the foIIowing situations; use EssentiaI VocabuIary II:
+. vLzIlH sMK[IR [MH `IIJ MHzIq `a K[I [IMqVMHKIR KP TPVI KP HT[PPN `ITMQHI Ps [LH HPJlH
QJQHQMN `I[MxLPQR: `Mq VMRzH! NPKH Ps VLHHIq TNMHHIH! RQqI `I[MxLPQR. nLHTQHH K[I TMQHIH Ps
[LH `I[MxLPQR MJq HKIZH KP `I KMzIJ.
2. 1ISK aIMR UIPRgI MJq 1LTz MRI gPLJg KP KMzI IJKRMJTI ISMVLJMKLPJH MK K[I }JLxIRHLKa.
.VMgLJI M KMNz `IKeIIJ K[IV M`PQK K[ILR ZNMJH MJq K[I RIMHPJH K[MK [MxI qIKIRVLJIq K[IJ
T[PLTI.
4. vPK[IR MJq qMQg[KIR [MxI M xIRa HIRLPQH KMNz M`PQK K[I gLRNlH qITLHLPJ KP KMzI QZ
KIMT[LJg MH M TMRIIR. |IR VPK[IR! K[PQg[! LH RMK[IR HTIZKLTMN M`PQK [IR T[PLTI.
3. .VMgLJI M KMNz `IKeIIJ KeP sRLIJqH! PJI Ps e[PV LH sIq QZ eLK[ [LH PR [IR ZRIHIJK
`PRLJg! QJRIeMRqLJg P`. u[I PK[IR KRLIH KP HQggIHK e[MK [I PR H[I H[PQNq qP.
\RPVZKH: VLg[K LK `I MJ LqIM KP ...; [MxI aPQ IxIR K[PQg[K Ps...; aPQ TPQNq MNeMaH ...; Ls .
eIRI aPQ! .lq ...; e[a qPJlK aPQ .!.; aPQlq `IKKIR ...
b) RoIe-pIay the foIIowing situation:
yPQ MRI MK M \MRIJKuIMT[IRH MHHPTLMKLPJ VIIKLJg. yPQ MRI qLHTQHHLJg M ZRP`NIV aPQ sIIN
xIRa HKRPJgNa M`PQK dVPJg aPQ K[IRI LH M VPK[IR e[PlH HQRI K[MK T[LNqRIJ H[PQNqJlK `I
HKRLTKNa qLHTLZNLJIq MK HT[PPN! M sMK[IR e[P [MH K[I PZZPHLKI PZLJLPJ! M sMK[IR e[P KIJqH KP
`NMVI KIMT[IRH sPR [LH T[LNqRIJlH sMQNKH! M gRMJqVPK[IR e[P KIJqH KP HZPLN [IR gRMJqT[LNqRIJ!
M VPK[IR e[P gLxIH PK[IR ZMRIJKH MqxLTI sPR K[I PJNa RIMHPJ K[MK [IR qMQg[KIR LH MK K[I [IMq
Ps K[I TNMHH.
XIV. Pick one of these topics and discuss it, making sure each member of the group gets a
chance to speak;
+. |Pe KP IJTPQRMgI M T[LNq KP VMzI `IKKIR ZRPgRIHH MK HT[PPN{ /[PQNq ZMRIJKH QHI; ZRMLHI!
ZRIHIJKH! ZRPVLHIH Ps sQKQRI RIeMRqH{
2. /[PQNq M T[LNq `I ZQJLH[Iq{ .s JPK! [Pe KP VMzI T[LNqRIJ P`Ia{
4. /[PQNq T[LNqRIJ `I MNNPeIq KP eIMR TNPK[IH Ps K[ILR PeJ MK HT[PPN{ /[PQNq `PaH `I
MNNPeIq KP [MxI NPJg [MLR! MJq gLRNH KP QHI VMzIQZ{
3. |Pe TMJ ZMRIJKH [INZ KIMT[IRH eLK[ PQKPsHT[PPN MTKLxLKLIH{
*. /[PQNq ZMRIJKH LJHLHK PJ K[ILR T[LNqRIJ qPLJg IfQMNNa eINN LJ MNN K[I HQ`ITKH PR H[PQNq
K[Ia IJTPQRMgI K[ILR HPJH MJq qMQg[KIRH KP HZITLMNLHI LJ PJI PR KeP HQ`ITKH IHHIJKLMN sPR
K[ILR sQKQRI TMRIIR{
XV. a) Read and transIate the text:
My Memories and Miseries As a Schoolmaster
u[I ZMRIJKH Ps K[I `PaH MK HT[PPN JMKQRMNNa sLNN M `RPMq ZMgI LJ M HT[PPNVMHKIRlH NLsI MJq
MRI RIHZPJHL`NI sPR VMJa Ps [LH HPRRPeH. u[IRI MRI MNN zLJqH MJq TNMHHIH Ps K[IV. vPHK
MTTIZKM`NI KP K[I HT[PPNVMHKIR LH K[I PNqsMH[LPJIq KaZI Ps 0RLKLH[ sMK[IR e[P IJKIRHl [LH `Pa
MK K[I HT[PPN MJq HMaH:
r1Pe . eMJK K[LH `Pa eINN K[RMH[Iq Ls [I qPIHJlK `I[MxI [LVHINs. .s aPQ [MxI MJa KRPQ`NI
eLK[ [LV NIK VI zJPe MJq .lNN TPVI MJq K[RMH[ [LV VaHINs. |IlH KP [MxI M H[LNNLJg M eIIz
ZPTzIK VPJIa MJq Ls [I HZIJqH VPRI K[MJ K[MK NIK VI zJPe MJq .lNN HKPZ [LH VPJIa
MNKPgIK[IR.r
0RQKMN K[PQg[ [LH HZIIT[ HPQJqH! K[I RIMN IssITK Ps LK LH KP TRIMKI M HKRPJg ZRIQqLTI LJ K[I
NLKKNI `PalH sMxPQR! MJq e[IJ [LH sMK[IR TQRKNa HMaH! rUPPq`aI! mMTzr MJq [I MJHeIRH!
rUPPq`aI! sMK[IR!r LJ M KRIV`NLJg xPLTI! K[I HT[PPNVMHKIR ePQNq `I M [PQJq! LJqIIq! e[P
TPQNq `I QJzLJq KP [LV.
0QK xIRa qLssIRIJK LH K[I TMHI Ps K[I QZKPqMKI ZMRIJK. r1Pe .lxI QHK gLxIJ mLVVa sLxI
ZPQJqH!r [I HMaH KP K[I HT[PPNVMHKIR! LJ K[I HMVI KPJI MH [I ePQNq QHI KP MJ LJsIRLPR TNIRz LJ
[LH PssLTI! rMJq .lxI ISZNMLJIq KP [LV K[MK e[IJ [I eMJKH MJa VPRI [IlH KP KINN aPQ KP gP KP
K[I `MJz MJq qRMe sPR [LV e[MK [I JIIqH.r dsKIR e[LT[ [I gPIH PJ. KP ISZNMLJ K[MK mLVVa LH
M `Pa Ps xIRa ZITQNLMR qLHZPHLKLPJ! RIfQLRLJg K[I gRIMKIHK JLTIKa Ps KRIMKVIJK; K[MK K[Ia sLJq Ls
[I gIKH LJ KIVZIRH K[I `IHK eMa LH KP [QVPQR [LV MJq ZRIHIJKNa [IlNN TPVI RPQJq. mLVVa! LK
MZZIMRH! TMJ `I NIq! Ls NIq gIJKNa! `QK JIxIR qRLxIJ.
nQRLJg MNN Ps e[LT[ KLVI K[I HT[PPNVMHKIR! LJHQNKIq `a `ILJg KRIMKIq MH MJ QJqIRNLJg! [MH
MNRIMqa sLSIq [LH IaI PJ K[I QJqLHTLZNLJIq aPQJg ZQZ TMNNIq mLVVa eLK[ M xLIe Ps KRaLJg PQK
K[I ZRP`NIV Ps HIILJg e[IK[IR [I TMJlK `I qRLxIJ MsKIR MNN. (From
rOPNNIgI nMaHr &y /. iIMTPTz)
b) Answer the questions beIow:
+. |Pe qPIH K[I MQK[PR T[MRMTKIRLI KeP PZZPHLKI KaZIH Ps r0RLKLH[ sMK[IRr{ 2. w[a! LJ
iIMTPTzlH xLIe! K[I rPNqsMH[LPJIqr KaZI LH VPRI MTTIZKM`NI sPR M HT[PPNVMHKIR{ wPQNq aPQ
ZRIsIR KP [MxI mMTz PR mLVVa sPR M ZQZLN{ 4. |Pe qLq K[I MTfQMLJKMJTI eLK[ K[I sMK[IRH
LJsNQIJTI K[I HT[PPNVMHKIRlH MKKLKQqI KP K[I `PaH{ nP aPQ sLJq LK JMKQRMN{ 3. nP aPQ K[LJz K[I
ZRP`NIVH RMLHIq LJ K[I KISK MRI PQKqMKIq{ mQHKLsa aPQR MJHeIR. *. .J e[MK eMa H[PQNq KIMT[IRH
MJq ZMRIJKH TPPZIRMKI LJ IqQTMKLJg K[I T[LNq{
XVI. Act as an interviewer. Let the rest of the group speak about why and how they decided
to quaIify as a teacher of Ianguages. Find out:
+. Ls MJa`Pqa PR MJaK[LJg LJsNQIJTIq K[ILR T[PLTI;
2. e[IJ K[Ia sLJMNNa VMqI QZ K[ILR VLJqH;
4. e[MK MKKRMTKH K[IV LJ K[I ePRz;
3. e[MK K[Ia TPJHLqIR LKH MqxMJKMgIH MJq qLHMqxMJKMgIH.
XVII. Interview a teacher at the schooI where you have schooI practice. Ask him or her the
questions from Exercise XVI and aIso try to find out:
+. [Pe NPJg [I PR H[I [MH `IIJ LJ KIMT[LJg;
2. Ls [I PR H[I IxIR RIgRIKKIq [MxLJg KMzIJ QZ K[I P`;
4. e[MK LH K[I VPHK JPKM`NI sIMKQRI Ps KIMT[LJg;
3. e[MK MqxLTI [I PR H[I TMJ gLxI KP M KIMT[IR KRMLJII.
Discuss the interviews in cIass.
XVIII. Comment on the picture. You may find these phrases usefuI:
M uIMT[IR\MRIJK dHHPTLMKLPJ VIIKLJg; KP zIIZ qLHTLZNLJI LJ K[I TNMHHRPPV; KP QHI
KRMqLKLPJMN (JIe) VIK[PqH; KP `I LJ K[I [M`LK Ps gLxLJg PRqIRH; KP `I HKRLTK eLK[ K[I ZQZLNH: KP
KINN K[I ZQZLNH Pss; M `PHHa KIMT[IR.
r. eLNN JPe ISZNMLJ K[I ZRPgRIHHLxI VIK[PqH `a e[LT[ aPQR T[LNqRIJ MRI KMQg[K HP zIIZ
fQLIK! HLK QZ HKRMLg[K MJq qPJlK sLqgIK.r
XIX. Film "Mr. Brown's Holiday". Film segment 1 "An Unexpected Turn''
(London), a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the film.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH .
ONMRLKa! LJKIRIHK MJq IVZ[MHLH MRI VMRzH Ps gPPq eRLKLJg. UPPq eRLKLJg LH MNHP `MHIq PJ
HINITKLPJ Ps ePRqH LJ M HIJKIJTI! PJ PRgMJLMKLPJ Ps HIJKIJTIH LJ M ZMRMgRMZ[! MJq PJ QJLKa Ps
M eRLKKIJ ZMHHMgI. u[IHI MRI K[I VMLJ P`ITKLxIH Ps K[I HITPJqaIMR HKQqLIH Ps eRLKKIJ
GJgNLH[.
Patterns of written prose. w[IJ eRLKLJg aPQ VMa T[PPHI to describe K[I sMTKH PR IxIJKH!
to tell a story M`PQK K[IV! to argue M`PQK K[IV PR to explain K[IV MTTPRqLJg KP aPQR
QJqIRHKMJqLJg. u[IHI xIR`H TPRRIHZPJq KP sPQR `MHLT sPRVH Ps KRIMKLJg M KPZLT: description,
narration, argumentation, MJq exposition (ISZNMJMKLPJ).
Paragraph LH M HLJgNI HIJKIJTI PR M gRPQZ Ps RINMKIq HIJKIJTIH ISZRIHHLJg MJq qIxINPZLJg
M `MHLT LqIM! PR M ZMRKLTQNMR Z[MHI Ps K[PQg[K. u[I ZMRMgRMZ[ LH M ZRMTKLTMN qIxLTI LJ eRLKLJg.
.KH ZQRZPHI LH KP LJqLTMKI K[I `IgLJJLJgH MJq IJqLJgH Ps M K[PQg[K QJLK. u[I `IgLJJLJg Ps M
ZMRMgRMZ[ LH LJqLTMKIq `a `IgLJJLJg M NLJI M NLKKNI LJ sRPV K[I VMRgLJ.
|IRI LH M H[PRK ZMRMgRMZ[ describing M eINNzJPeJ ZPRKRMLK: rvPJM iLHM (ULPTPJqM) LH
RIZRIHIJKIq HLKKLJg LJ sRPJK Ps M VMR`NI `MNTPJa. u[I NIsK MRV RIHKH PJ K[I MRV Ps K[I HIMK! MJq
K[I sLJgIRH sPNq PxIR K[I IJq Ps LK. u[I RLg[K [MJq! ZIR[MZH K[I VPHK ZIRsITK [MJq IxIR
ZMLJKIq! NLIH NLg[KNa PxIR K[I NIsK [MJq MJq eRLHK. oJ HNIIxIH MJq `PqLTI K[I ZNIMKH Ps K[I HMKLJ
qRIHH KMzI K[I NLg[Kr (From riIPJMRqP qI :LJTLr &y G. vT. OQRINa)
u[I MQK[PR ZRIHIJKH [LH LVZRIHHLPJH Ps K[I ZPRKRMLK MJq qIHTRL`IH LK LJ qIKMLN.
|IRI LH MJPK[IR ISMVZNI Ps M ZMRMgRMZ[ telling a story: rd RMK[IR qRIMqsQN K[LJg [MZZIJIq
LJ K[I TMR MH K[Ia eIRI qRLxLJg QZ sRPV K[I `IMT[ KP K[I MJTLIJK KPeJ! PJTI M 1PRVMJ ZPRK!
`QK JPe NIsK [Lg[ MJq qRa `a K[I RITIqLJg HIM.r (From ru[I wLJqr `a d. 0IJJIKK)
|IRI LH MJ ISMVZNI Ps M ZMRMgRMZ[ Ps argumentation: r. MV [IRI KP HMa M xIRa sIe ePRqH
PRB K[I e[PNI fQIHKLPJ Ps K[I KRIMKVIJK Ps MJLVMNH `a PQR TLxLNLIq HINxIH. pPR . [MxI JP
HZITLMN zJPeNIqgI! NLzI HPVI e[P eLNN HZIMz KP aPQ! Ps K[I KRMLJLJg Ps ZIRsPRVLJg MJLVMNH. .
[MxI PJNa M TIRKMLJ zJPeNIqgI Ps [QVMJ MJq MJLVMN JMKQRIH; MJq M TPVVPJ HIJHI e[LT[
KINNH VI K[MK eLNq MJLVMNH MRI VPRI [MZZa LJ sRIIqPV K[MJ LJ TMZKLxLKa qPVIHKLT MJLVMNH
MRI VPRI [MZZa MH TPVZMJLPJH K[MJ MH TNPeJH.r (From roJ \IRsPRVLJg dJLVMNHr `a m.
UMNHePRK[a)
u[I MQK[PR KRLIH KP TPJxLJTI K[I RIMqIR Ps [LH ZPLJK Ps xLIe: [I qLHNLzIH K[I LqIM Ps KQRJLJg
qPVIHKLT MJLVMNH LJKP ZIRsPRVIRH LJ K[I TLRTQH.
u[I expository ZMRMgRMZ[ `INPe VMzIH LK TNIMR e[MK ZPNLKIJIHH LH: r.K LHJlK PJNa eLK[
MTfQMLJKMJTIH MJq sRLIJqH K[MK ZPNLKIJIHH TPQJKH HP VQT[. |MNs K[I KRPQ`NI LJ VMRRLMgI MJq
PK[IR sMVLNa RINMKLPJH[LZH `IgLJH eLK[ K[I K[RPeLJg Ps ZPNLKIJIHH PxIR`PMRq. \PNLKIJIHH LH
PsKIJ NLKKNI VPRI K[MJ K[I ISIRTLHI Ps HINsTPJKRPN! e[LT[ LH MH xMNQM`NI M fQMNLKa LJ sRLIJqH[LZ
MH zLJqJIHH LKHINs.r (From rGssITKLxI GJgNLH[ MJq \IRHPJMN GssLTLIJTa OPQRHIr)
Note: u[IHI ZMKKIRJH Ps eRLKLJg HINqPV PTTQR MNPJI! VPRI PsKIJ K[Ia MRI PLJIq KPgIK[IR.
Assignments:
1. Read the text "Anne Meets her CIass" and point out the paragraph of description,
narration, argumentation and exposition. What does the author Iike to describe in this
episode? What is he teIIing the reader about? What argument is Anne thinking of to manage
the cIass? What is Miss Enderby trying to expIain to Anne?
2. Search Texts A, (. II) for the basic forms of treating the topic "On Teaching" and prove
your seIection of paragraphs.
3. Write a paragraph describing the picture suggested by the teacher.
4. Write a short paragraph about your visit to a former schooImate.
5. Write a paragraph supporting or arguing Jane's and Bob's idea about teaching. (See the
DiaIogue.)
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
1. a) Listen to the additionaI text "What's Your Line?" on the topic "Choosing a Carrer",
mark stresses and tunes, practise reading the text.
b) Iisten to the diaIogue and Iearn it by heart.
2. Respond as in the modeIs. Check your repIies.
3. Write a speIIing-transIation test, check it with the key.
4. Write the dictation "Five Hundred Years of EngIish Language Teaching", check your
speIIing with a dictionary.
5. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, check your transIation with the key.
6. a) Listen to the text and find EngIish equivaIents to the given words and word
combinations.
b) Check the words and word combinations.
c) Listen to the text again and do the tasks after it.
UNIT TWO
SPEECH PATTERNS
la. .K wou.d have &een JMKQRMN Ls K[I `Pa had gone KP HNIIZ.
.K ePQNq [MxI `IIJ JMKQRMN Ls aPQ [Mq ZQJLH[Iq K[I T[LNq sPR [LH `I[MxLPQR aIHKIRqMa.
.K ePQNqJlK [MxI `IIJ HP TPNq LJ K[I VPRJLJg Ls K[I eLJq [Mq HKPZZIq `NPeLJg.
.K ePQNq [MxI `IIJ HKRMJgI Ls [I [MqJlK TMNNIq PJ VI e[IJ [I eMH [IRI NMHK HQVVIR.
.K ePQNq [MxI `IIJ fQLKI qMRz LJ K[I sPRIHK Ls eI [MqJlK VMqI M gPPq sLRI.
1b. u[I sMK[IR wou.dn6t have )a..ed K[I qPTKPR Ls K[I `Pa had &een fQLKI eINN.
URMJK ePQNq [MxI MTTIZKIq vMRLPlH LJxLKMKLPJ Ls [I [MqJlK VMqI QZ [LH ZNMJH sPR K[I
HQVVIR.
dJJI ePQNq [MxI KMzIJ [IR HZRLJg ISMVH Ls H[I [MqJlK sMNNIJ LNN.
wI H[PQNqJlK [MxI VMqI sRLIJqH eLK[ K[IV Ls eI [MqJlK HKMaIq LJ K[I HMVI TMVZ.
wI H[PQNq [MxI sLJLH[Iq PQR ePRz aIHKIRqMa Ls aPQ [Mq [INZIq QH.
1c. u[I `Pa wou.d have &ehaved LJ M qLssIRIJK eMa Ls [I were HINsLH[.
u[Ia ePQNqJlK [MxI fQMRRINNIq Ls K[Ia `PK[ eIRI NIHH JIRxPQH.
yPQ ePQNq [MxI LVZRPxIq aPQR HZINNLJg NPJg MgP Ls aPQ eIRI VPRI qLNLgIJK.
wI H[PQNq [MxI LJxLKIq [LV KP PQR ZMRKa Ls eI zJIe [LV `IKKIR.
/[I ePQNqJlK [MxI sPRgLxIJ [LV Ls H[I qLqJlK NPxI [LV HP VQT[.
2. |I 0eemed to /now MNN M`PQK LJsNQIJM.
u[I T[LNqRIJ HIIV KP NLzI IMT[ PK[IR xIRa VQT[. yPQ qPJlK HIIV KP QJqIRHKMJq VI.
/[I HIIVIq KP zJPe gRMVVMR VQT[ `IKKIR K[MJ eI K[PQg[K.
u[Ia qLqlK HIIV KP [MxI VIK `IsPRI.
3. . TMJlK /ee( from thin/ing"
OMJlK aPQ zIIZ sRPV KMNzLJg MNN K[I KLVI{ uRa MJq zIIZ sRPV gPHHLZLJg M`PQK PK[IR ZIPZNI.
/[I TPQNqJlK zIIZ sRPV HTPNqLJg K[I T[LNq! K[PQg[ H[I zJIe H[I H[PQNqJlK qP LK.
wI TMJlK zIIZ sRPV NMQg[LJg e[IJ eI NPPz MK [LV.
EXERCISES I. Change these sentences, using Patterns 1a and 1b:
GSMVZNI: wI H[PQNq VIIK M NPK Ps KPQRLHKH Ls eI eIJK KP M KPQRLHK TMVZ JISK HQVVIR.
wI H[PQNq [MxI VIK M NPK Ps KPQRLHKH Ls eI [Mq gPJI KP M KPQRLHK TMVZ
NMHK aIMR (NMHK HQVVIR! e[IJ eI [Mq PQR [PNLqMa! IKT.).
+. vMRLP ePQNqJlK TPVI KP GJgNMJq Ls mP[J qLqJlK LJxLKI [LV. 2. \IKIR ePQNq MTTIZK aPQR
LJxLKMKLPJ Ls [I eIRI JPK LNN. 4. .K ePQNqJlK `I M [MRqH[LZ sPR K[I T[LNqRIJ KP HeIIZ MJq TNIMJ
K[I RPPVH! ePQNq LK{ 3. .s K[I eIMK[IR eIRI sLJI eI H[PQNq gP KP M [PNLqMa TMVZ JISK
HQVVIR. *. wI ePQNq NLxI LJ M [PKIN Ls K[I RMKIH eIRI JPK xIRa [Lg[. ,. .K ePQNq `I JMKQRMN Ls
K[Ia qLqJlK VIIK MsKIR K[ILR fQMRRIN. 7. va sRLIJq MJq . ePQNq gP KP K[I TLJIVM MsKIR K[LH
NIHHPJ Ls K[I RIHK Ps K[I HKQqIJKH MgRIIq KP gP eLK[ QH. b. .s K[I eIMK[IR qLqJlK T[MJgI eI
H[PQNq gP KP K[I TPQJKRa KPJLg[K.
II. Combine the faIIowing sentences into one, using speech Pattern 1c:
GSMVZNI: u[Ia fQMRRINNIq. u[Ia `PK[ MRI xIRa JIRxPQH.
u[Ia ePQNqJlK [MxI fQMRRINNIq Ls K[Ia `PK[ eIRI JPK xIRa JIRxPQH.
+. 0P` RITPxIRIq. u[I qPTKPRH K[MK [Mq KRIMKIq [LV MRI xIRa ISZIRLIJTIq. 2. vMRa ZMHHIq
[IR ISMVH. /[I LH LJqQHKRLPQH. 4. wI LJxLKIq mP[J 0RPeJ KP PQR KIMZMRKa. wI MRI MTfQMLJKIq
eLK[ [LV. 3. . qLqJlK NIMxI K[I T[LNqRIJ MNPJI. u[Ia MRI JMQg[Ka. *. /[I qLqJlK MgRII KP KIMT[
QH pRIJT[. /[I qPIHJlK zJPe K[I NMJgQMgI eINN. ,. vMRK[M QJqIRHKPPq K[I UIRVMJ qINIgMKIH!
H[I LH M UIRVMJ. 7. . gMxI aPQ K[LH `PPz `ITMQHI LKlH xIRa LJKIRIHKLJg. b. . MqxLHIq Va sRLIJqH
KP [MxI M eMNzLJg KPQR `ITMQHI . VaHINs MV sPJq Ps eMNzLJg KPQRH.
III. Make up sentences after Patterns 2 and 3, using the foIIowing words and phrases:
M) \MKKIRJ 2: KP `I `QHa! KP zJPe M NPK! KP QJqIRHKMJq IMT[ PK[IR! KP [MKI (HV`. PR HVK[.)! KP
NPxI VQHLT! !"g" dJJ HIIVH KP NPxI T[LNqRIJ! . PsKIJ HII [IR ZNMaLJg eLK[ NLKKNI `PaH MJq gLRNH
LJ PQR aMRq.
`) \MKKIRJ 4: KP HTPNq IMT[ PK[IR! KP MRgQI (M`PQK HVK[.)! KP VIIK (eLK[)! KP eRLKI M NIKKIR! KP
qRIMV (Ps HVK[)! !"g" /[I TMJlK zIIZ sRPV TRaLJg e[IJ H[I RIMqH HIJKLVIJKMN ZPIKRa.
IV. TransIate these sentences into EngIish, using the patterns from Units One and Two:
+. |I 5! 8 8 $ 8$! 8 8 6
! 2. Y D 8! 8 8 8! 8 8 8; ;
D 9 . 4. 8 8 D! 8 $ $6
. 3. 8 8 ! 8 $ 9
5 6%! E; . *. < $ $ 8
$6D ;! 8 D6. ,. 8 8 ! 8
8$! $ 9D 6 8 D! $. 7. Y8 8
E 8 C. b. Y8 8 8 $
6! 8 8 5 5.
V. Make up a diaIogue, using the patterns from Units One and Two.
GSMVZNI: d.: .s Va VPK[IR [MqJlK `IIJ LNN + H[PQNq [MxI gPJI KP K[I /PQK[ NMHK HQVVIR.
.: yPQ [Mq `Mq NQTz. dJq e[MK MRI aPQR ZNMJH sPR K[I TPVLJg eLJKIR
[PNLqMaH{
d.: . [MxIJlK VMqI MJa ZNMJH HP sMR.
.: wPQNqJlK aPQ NLzI KP HKMa eLK[ VI MK Va MQJKlH LJ K[I TPQJKRa{
d!: 0QK ePQNq LK `I TPJxIJLIJK KP [IR{
.: OIRKMLJNa.
d.: wINN! K[MKlH xIRa JLTI Ps aPQ KP LJxLKI VI.
TEXT. A DAY'S WAIT by Ernest Hemingway
|IVLJgeMa! GRJIHK (+b22+2,+): M ZRPVLJIJK dVIRLTMJ JPxINLHK MJq H[PRKHKPRa eRLKIR. |I `IgMJ KP eRLKI
sLTKLPJ M`PQK +224! [LH sLRHK `PPzH `ILJg K[I RIsNITKLPJ Ps [LH eMR ISZIRLIJTI. ru[I /QJ dNHP LHIHr (+22,)
`INPJgH KP K[LH ZIRLPq MH eINN MH rd pMRIeINN KP dRVHr (+222) LJ e[LT[ K[I MJKLeMR ZRPKIHK LH ZMRKLTQNMRNa
ZPeIRsQN.
nQRLJg K[I OLxLN wMR |IVLJgeMa xLHLKIq /ZMLJ MH M eMR TPRRIHZPJqIJK. |LH LVZRIHHLPJH Ps K[I ZIRLPq MJq
[LH HaVZMK[LIH eLK[ K[I IZQ`NLTMJH sPQJq RIsNITKLPJ LJ [LH sMVPQH ZNMa ru[I pLsK[ OPNQVJr (+247)! K[I
JPxIN rpPR w[PV K[I 0INN uPNNHr (+23)) MJq M JQV`IR Ps H[PRK HKPRLIH.
|LH NMKIR ePRzH MRI rdTRPHH K[I LxIR MJq LJKP K[I uRIIHr (+2*)) MJq ru[I oNq vMJ MJq K[I /IMr (+2*2)
MJq K[I xIRa NMHK JPxIN r.HNMJqH LJ K[I /KRIMVr (+27)) ZQ`NLH[Iq MsKIR K[I MQK[PRlH qIMK[. .J +2*3 [I eMH
MeMRqIq M 1P`IN \RLI sPR NLKIRMKQRI.
|IVLJgeMalH VMJJIR LH T[MRMTKIRLIq `a qIIZ ZHaT[PNPgLTMN LJHLg[K LJKP K[I [QVMJ JMKQRI. |I IMRNa
IHKM`NLH[Iq [LVHINs MH K[I VMHKIR Ps M JIe HKaNI: NMTPJLT MJq HPVIe[MK qRa.
|I TMVI LJKP K[I RPPV KP H[QK K[I eLJqPeH e[LNI eI eIRI HKLNN LJ `Iq MJq . HMe [I
NPPzIq LNN. |I eMH H[LxIRLJg! [LH sMTI eMH e[LKI! MJq [I eMNzIq HNPeNa MH K[PQg[ LK MT[Iq KP
VPxI. rw[MKlH K[I VMKKIR! /T[MK{r
r.lxI gPK M [IMqMT[I.r
ryPQlq `IKKIR gP `MTz KP `Iq.r
r1P! .lV MNN RLg[K.r
ryPQ gP KP `Iq. .lNN HII aPQ e[IJ .lV qRIHHIq.r
0QK e[IJ . TMVI qPeJHKMLRH [I eMH qRIHHIq! HLKKLJg `a K[I sLRI! NPPzLJg M xIRa HLTz MJq
VLHIRM`NI `Pa Ps JLJI aIMRH. w[IJ . ZQK Va [MJq PJ [LH sPRI[IMq . zJIe [I [Mq M sIxIR.
ryPQ gP QZ KP `Iq!r . HMLq! raPQlRI HLTz.r
r.lV MNN RLg[K!r [I HMLq.
w[IJ K[I qPTKPR TMVI [I KPPz K[I `PalH KIVZIRMKQRI.
rw[MK LH LK{r . MHzIq [LV.
roJI [QJqRIq MJq KeP.r
nPeJHKMLRH! K[I qPTKPR NIsK K[RII qLssIRIJK VIqLTLJIH LJ qLssIRIJK TPNPRIq TMZHQNIH eLK[
LJHKRQTKLPJH sPR gLxLJg K[IV. oJI eMH KP `RLJg qPeJ K[I sIxIR! MJPK[IR M ZQRgMKLxI! K[I K[LRq
KP PxIRTPVI MJ MTLq TPJqLKLPJ. u[I gIRVH Ps LJsNQIJM TMJ PJNa ISLHK LJ MJ MTLq TPJqLKLPJ!
[I ISZNMLJIq. |I HIIVIq KP zJPe MNN M`PQK LJsNQIJM MJq HMLq K[IRI eMH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa
M`PQK Ls K[I sIxIR qLq JPK gP M`PxI PJI [QJqRIq MJq sPQR qIgRIIH. u[LH eMH M NLg[K IZLqIVLT
Ps sNQ MJq K[IRI eMH JP qMJgIR Ls aPQ MxPLqIq ZJIQVPJLM.
0MTz LJ K[I RPPV . eRPKI K[I `PalH KIVZIRMKQRI qPeJ MJq VMqI M JPKI Ps K[I KLVI KP gLxI
K[I xMRLPQH TMZHQNIH.
rnP aPQ eMJK VI KP RIMq KP aPQ{r
rdNN RLg[K! Ls aPQ eMJK KP!r HMLq K[I `Pa. |LH sMTI eMH xIRa e[LKI MJq K[IRI eIRI qMRz
MRIMH QJqIR [LH IaIH. |I NMa HKLNN LJ K[I `Iq MJq HIIVIq xIRa qIKMT[Iq sRPV e[MK eMH gPLJg
PJ.
. RIMq MNPQq sRPV |PeMRq \aNIlH 'oo/ of 7irate0, `QK . TPQNq HII [I eMH JPK sPNNPeLJg
e[MK . eMH RIMqLJg.
r|Pe qP aPQ sIIN! /T[MK{r . MHzIq [LV.
rmQHK K[I HMVI! HP sMR!r [I HMLq.
. HMK MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq MJq RIMq KP VaHINs e[LNI . eMLKIq sPR LK KP `I KLVI KP gLxI
MJPK[IR TMZHQNI. .K ePQNq [MxI `IIJ JMKQRMN sPR [LV KP gP KP HNIIZ! `QK e[IJ . NPPzIq QZ [I
eMH NPPzLJg MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq! NPPzLJg xIRa HKRMJgINa.
rw[a qPJlK aPQ KRa KP gP KP HNIIZ{ .lNN eMzI aPQ QZ sPR K[I VIqLTLJI.r
r.lq RMK[IR HKMa MeMzI.r
dsKIR M e[LNI [I HMLq KP VI! ryPQ qPJlK [MxI KP HKMa LJ [IRI eLK[ VI! \MZM! Ls LK `PK[IRH
aPQ.r
r.K qPIHJlK `PK[IR VI.r
r1P! . VIMJ aPQ qPJlK [MxI KP HKMa Ls LKlH gPLJg KP `PK[IR aPQ.r
. K[PQg[K ZIR[MZH [I eMH M NLKKNI NLg[K[IMqIq MJq MsKIR gLxLJg [LV K[I ZRIHTRL`Iq TMZHQNIH
MK INIxIJ PlTNPTz . eIJK PQK sPR M e[LNI.
.K eMH M `RLg[K! TPNq qMa! K[I gRPQJq TPxIRIq eLK[ M HNIIK K[MK [Mq sRPIJ HP K[MK LK HIIVIq
MH Ls MNN K[I `MRI KRIIH! K[I `QH[IH! K[I TQK `RQH[ MJq MNN K[I gRMHH MJq K[I `MRI gRPQJq [Mq
`IIJ xMRJLH[Iq eLK[ LTI. . KPPz K[I aPQJg .RLH[ HIKKIR sPR M NLKKNI eMNz QZ K[I RPMq MJq MNPJg M
sRPIJ TRIIz.
dK K[I [PQHI K[Ia HMLq K[I `Pa [Mq RIsQHIq KP NIK MJa PJI TPVI LJKP K[I RPPV.
ryPQ TMJlK TPVI LJ!r [I HMLq. ryPQ VQHKJlK gIK e[MK . [MxI.r . eIJK QZ KP [LV MJq sPQJq
[LV LJ ISMTKNa K[I ZPHLKLPJ . [Mq NIsK [LV! e[LKIsMTIq! `QK eLK[ K[I KPZH Ps [LH T[IIzH
sNQH[Iq `a K[I sIxIR! HKMRLJg HKLNN! MH [I [Mq HKMRIq! MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq.
. KPPz [LH KIVZIRMKQRI.
rw[MK LH LK{r
r/PVIK[LJg NLzI M [QJqRIq!r . HMLq. .K eMH PJI [QJqRIq MJq KeP MJq sPQR KIJK[H.
r.K eMH M [QJqRIq MJq KeP!r [I HMLq.
rw[P HMLq HP{r
ru[I qPTKPR.r
ryPQR KIVZIRMKQRI LH MNN RLg[K!r . HMLq. r.KlH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQK.r
r. qPJlK ePRRa!r [I HMLq! r`QK . TMJlK zIIZ sRPV K[LJzLJg.r
rnPJlK K[LJz!r . HMLq. rmQHK KMzI LK IMHa.r
r.lV KMzLJg LK IMHa!r [I HMLq MJq NPPzIq ePRRLIq M`PQK HPVIK[LJg.
ruMzI K[LH eLK[ eMKIR.r
rnP aPQ K[LJz LK eLNN qP MJa gPPq{r
ros TPQRHI! LK eLNN!r
. HMK qPeJ MJq PZIJIq K[I \LRMKI 0PPz MJq TPVVIJTIq KP RIMq `QK . TPQNq HII [I eMH JPK
sPNNPeLJg! HP . HKPZZIq.
rd`PQK e[MK KLVI qP aPQ K[LJz .lV gPLJg KP qLI{r [I MHzIq.
rw[MK{r
rd`PQK [Pe NPJg eLNN LK `I `IsPRI . qLI{r
ryPQ MRIJlK gPLJg KP qLI. w[MKlH K[I VMKKIR eLK[ aPQ{r
ro[! aIH! . MV. . [IMRq [LV HMa M [QJqRIq MJq KeP.r
r\IPZNI qPJlK qLI eLK[ M sIxIR Ps PJI [QJqRIq MJq KeP. u[MKlH M HLNNa eMa KP KMNzcr
r. zJPe K[Ia qP. dK HT[PPN LJ pRMJTI K[I `PaH KPNq VI aPQ TMJlK NLxI eLK[ sPRKasPQR
qIgRIIH. .lxI gPK M [QJqRIq MJq KeP.r
|I [Mq `IIJ eMLKLJg KP qLI MNN qMa! IxIR HLJTI JLJI PlTNPTz LJ K[I VPRJLJg.
ryPQ ZPPR /T[MK!r . HMLq. r\PPR PNq /T[MK! LKlH NLzI VLNIH MJq zLNPVIKIRH. yPQ MRIJlK
gPLJg KP qLI. u[MKlH M qLsNIRIJK K[IRVPVIKIR. oJ K[MK K[IRVPVIKIR K[LRKaHIxIJ LH JPRVMN. oJ
K[LH zLJq LKlH JLJIKaILg[K.r
rdRI aPQ HQRI{r
rd`HPNQKINa!r . HMLq. r.KlH NLzI VLNIH MJq zLNPVIKIRH. yPQ zJPe! NLzI [Pe VMJa zLNPVIKIRH
eI VMzI e[IJ eI qP HIxIJKa VLNIH LJ K[I TMR{r
ro[!r [I HMLq.
0QK [LH gMI MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq RINMSIq HNPeNa. u[I [PNq PxIR [LVHINs RINMSIq KPP!
sLJMNNa! MJq K[I JISK qMa LK eMH xIRa HNMTz MJq [I TRLIq xIRa IMHLNa MK NLKKNI K[LJgH K[MK eIRI Ps
JP LVZPRKMJTI.
VOCABULARY NOTES
+. to shiver i >6! a0 H[LxIR eLK[ TPNq
#yn" to tremble, to shudder, to start; to tremble LH K[I VPHK gIJIRMN ePRq;
shuddering/starting LH gIJIRMNNa K[I RIHQNK Ps (gRIMK) sIMR PR qLHgQHK! !"g" |I HIIVIq
ZIRsITKNa TMNV! PJNa M HNLg[K KRIV`NLJg Ps [LH xPLTI MJq [MJqH H[PeIq [I eMH ISTLKIq. jILK[
H[QqqIRIq MK K[I HLg[K Ps K[I qIMq `Pqa. u[I T[LNq eMH H[LxIRLJg eLK[ TPNq. /[I HKMRKIq e[IJ
K[Ia TMVI LJ.
2. ache n (M TPJKLJQPQH! JPK H[MRZ PR HQqqIJ! ZMLJ). }HQMNNa QHIq LJ TPVZPQJqH:
headache, toothache, stomachache, earache, backache! !"g" . [Mq M `Mq [IMqMT[I
aIHKIRqMa. /PVI ZIPZNI [MxI (M) `Mq IMRMT[I e[IJ K[I ZNMJI LH NPHLJg [ILg[K. 'ut: to have a
sore throat, eye, finger! IKT.! !"g" . TMJlK HZIMz NPQqI{! . [MxI M HPRI K[RPMK.
#yn" pain n KP sIIN ([MxI) M `Mq (H[MRZ! HNLg[K) ZMLJ LJ ...! !"g" . sIIN M H[MRZ ZMLJ LJ Va
RLg[K zJII. va NIg gLxIH VI VQT[ ZMLJ.; painful ad% 85! >85
$nt" painless! !"g" .K eMH M ZMLJsQN (ZMLJNIHH) PZIRMKLPJ.
to ache it 6 (6 6) KP `I LJ TPJKLJQPQH ZMLJ! e, g" va IMR MT[IH.
dsKIR TNLV`LJg K[I VPQJKMLJ [I MT[Iq MNN PxIR.
Cf.: hurt ti 6 6! !"g" .K [QRKH K[I IaIH KP NPPz MK K[I HQJ. va sPPK [QRKH (VI)
e[IJ . eMNz.
4. medicine n +. ! !"g" w[MK VIqLTLJI (H) qP aPQ KMzI sPR aPQR [IMqMT[IH{ 2.
$%! e"g" |I LH sPJq Ps VIqLTLJI! [I eMJKH KP `ITPVI M HQRgIPJ.
medical ad%, !"g" |I HKQqLIH MK M vIqLTMN .JHKLKQKI. |I LH M VIqLTMN HKQqIJK. va VIqLTMN
zJPeNIqgI NIMxIH VQT[ KP `I qIHLRIq. yPQlq `IKKIR TPJHQNK aPQR HQRgIPJ.
3. condition n +. ; to be in (a) good (bad) condition! !"g" dsKIR K[I
K[QJqIRHKPRV PQR gMRqIJ eMH LJ M KIRRL`NI TPJqLKLPJ! fQLKI M JQV`IR Ps KRIIH eIRI `RPzIJ.
GxIRa ZMRTIN MRRLxIq LJ gPPq TPJqLKLPJ (JPK[LJg eMH `RPzIJ PR HZPLNIq).; to be in no
condition to do smth.! !"g" |I LH LJ JP TPJqLKLPJ KP KRMxIN. u[I H[LZ eMH LJ JP TPJqLKLPJ KP
NIMxI [MR`PQR! |I TMJ HLJg xIRa eINN! `QK KPJLg[K [I LH LJ JP TPJqLKLPJ KP qP LK! [I [MH M HPRI
K[RPMK.
2. ; under good (bad) condition(s)! !"g" u[I QJIVZNPaIq NLxI QJqIR xIRa [MRq
TPJqLKLPJH.; on condition that if! !"g" . eLNN qP LK PJ TPJqLKLPJ K[MK aPQ gLxI VI K[I KLVI .
JIIq.; conditional ad%, !"g" OPJqLKLPJMN HIJKIJTIH TPJKMLJ rLs PR LKH HaJPJaVH.
5. foot n (pl feet) 1. ; (> =! )! !"g" u[I `Pa QVZIq KP [LH sIIK. d
qPglH sIIK MRI TMNNIq ZMeH.; 2. C () 4)!* $! (. $5! !"g" u[I `Pa
eMH KPP KMNN sPR [LH MgI MJq [I eMH K[RII sPPK KeP LJ [LH H[PIH.; 4. >! > 6!
! a0 K[I sPPK Ps K[I VPQJKMLJ! MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I ZMgI! K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq! !"g" u[LH
`Pa LH MK K[I sPPK Ps [LH TNMHH.
dJK. top, head! a0 K[I KPZ Ps K[I VPQJKMLJ! K[I KPZ ([IMq) Ps K[I ZMgI! MK K[I [IMq Ps K[I
`Iq! IKT. !"g" u[LH `Pa LH MK K[I [IMq Ps [LH TNMHH.
on foot ( walking, not riding), !"g" w[IJ ZIPZNI MRI [MxLJg K[ILR eMNzLJg [PNLqMa K[Ia
TPxIR NPJg qLHKMJTIH PJ sPPK. (Cf.: `a KRMLJ! `a `QH! IKT.)
footnote n
6. prescribe i 86 ! !"g" nPTKPR! eLNN aPQ ZRIHTRL`I M KPJLT sPR VI{
w[MK TMJ aPQ ZRIHTRL`I sPR Va [IMqMT[I (TPNq! IKT.) {
prescription n %; KP VMzI QZ M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ sPR HV`.! !"g" \NIMHI TMNN LJ MK K[I
T[IVLHKlH MJq [MxI K[LH ZRIHTRLZKLPJ VMqI QZ sPR VI; to write out a prescription.
7. bare ad% +. >85! ;85! 885 (QHQ. M`PQK HPVI ZMRK Ps PQR `Pqa)!
!"g" |LH [IMq eMH `MRI.
#yn" naked ( having no clothes on), !"g":LTKPRLJI eMH H[PTzIq e[IJ H[I NIMRJIq K[MK
H[I ePQNq [MxI KP HLK sPR K[I ZMLJKIR fQLKI JMzIq.
barefoot ad% (redi), adv eLK[ `MRI sIIK! eLK[PQK H[PIH MJq HKPTzLJgH! !"g" O[LNqRIJ NLzI
KP gP (RQJ! eMNz) `MRIsPPK.
barefooted ad%, attr" 0MRIsPPKIq ZIPZNI eIRI HKMJqLJg PJ K[I `MJz.
bare-legged (-armed) ad% eLK[ `MRI NIgH (MRVH)! !"g" w[IJ eI HZIMz Ps `MRINIggIq
T[LNqRIJ eI VIMJ T[LNqRIJ eIMRLJg H[PIH! `QK JP HKPTzLJgH; `MRIsPPKIq T[LNqRIJ eIMR
JILK[IR H[PIH JPR HKPTzLJgH.
bare-beaded! ad% eLK[PQK M [MK! !"g" .KlH MNRIMqa KPP TPNq KP gP `MRI[IMqIq.
2. 5! ;85! D85 ;.! a0 M `MRI RPPV (eLK[ NLKKNI PR JP sQRJLKQRI)! `MRI
eMNNH (eLK[PQK ZLTKQRIH PR eMNNZMZIR)! `MRI KRIIH (eLK[PQK NIMxIH)! `MRI sMTKH (PJNa sMTKH;
JPK[LJg `QK sMTKH).
Cf.: M bare RPPV (JP sQRJLKQRI)! MJ empty RPPV (JP ZIPZNI)! M vacant RPPV (M RPPV LJ
e[LT[ ILK[IR JP PJI LH NLxLJg MK ZRIHIJK PR JP PJI LH ePRzLJg; M RPPV e[LT[ TMJ `I
PTTQZLIq)! !"g" dsKIR K[I ZLMJP eMH KMzIJ PQK! K[I RPPV HIIVIq fQLKI `MRI. . K[PQg[K . [IMRq
xPLTIH LJ K[I JISK RPPV! `QK LK eMH IVZKa. rwPJlK aPQ NPPz sPR M xMTMJK RPPV LJ e[LT[ eI
TPQNq [MxI M TPJHQNKMKLPJ{r r.lV KPNq K[MK MNN K[I RPPVH MRI PTTQZLIq.r
b. refuse ti 86()! !"g" /[I RIsQHIq Va PssIR. /[I TMJlK RIsQHI [IR T[LNqRIJ
MJaK[LJg. |I RIsQHIq KP qP e[MK . MHzIq [LV.
1 K I: .J K[I VIMJLJg Ps HMTRLsLTLJg HVK[.! ZMRKLJg eLK[ HVK[.! K[I GJgNLH[ xIR` KP gLxI QZ LH QHIq! !"g" |I
gMxI QZ K[I LqIM Ps gPLJg K[IRI. PgIR ZRPVLHIq KP gLxI QZ HVPzLJg! `QK [I qLqJlK zIIZ [LH ZRPVLHI.
refusal n! !"g" |I MJHeIRIq [IR LJxLKMKLPJ! eLK[ M TPNq RIsQHMN!
2. like ad% 9>5! 85! !"g" u[Ia MRI MH NLzI MH KeP ZIMH. w[MK LH [I NLzI{ (
w[MK HPRK Ps ZIRHPJ LH [I{) w[MK qPIH [I NPPz NLzI{ ( w[MK zLJq Ps MZZIMRMJTI [MH [I
gPK{) |Pe qPIH H[I NPPz KPqMa{ ( w[MK LH [IR MZZIMRRMJTI KPqMa{) .K NPPzH NLzI gPNq. ( .K
[MH K[I MZZIMRMJTI Ps gPNq.) .K NPPzH NLzI RMLJ. .K eMH QHK NLzI [LV KP KMzI K[I `LggIHK ZLITI Ps
TMzI. u[IRI LH JPK[LJg NLzI [PVI.
like (re( PR adv ! ! !"g" . TMJlK qP LK NLzI aPQ. u[Ia MRI `I[MxLJg NLzI NLKKNI
T[LNqRIJ! .lxI JIxIR [IMRq [LV HLJg NLzI K[MK.
1PKI: to a)t .i/e VIMJH KP qP HVK[. LJ K[I HMVI eMa PR LJ K[I VMJJIR Ps PK[IR ZIPZNI! !"g" /[I TMJ ZNMa
NLzI M RIMN ZLMJLHK.; to a)t a0 VIMJH MTKLJg LJ K[I TMZMTLKa Ps HV`.! I g" /PVI Ps PQR HKQqIJKH MTK MH gQLqIH
qQRLJg HQVVIR.
alike ad% (redi) 85! 9>5! 85! !"g" u[I [PQHIH LJ K[LH HKRIIK MRI
MNLzI. (Os.: u[I [PQHIH LJ K[LH HKRIIK MRI NLzI K[PHI LJ K[I JISK HKRIIK.)
likeness n 9! !"g" . TMJJPK HII VQT[ NLzIJIHH `IKeIIJ K[I KeLJH.
unlike ad% 9>5! !"g" /[I eMH QJNLzI MNN PK[IR gLRNH.
unlike (re( ! !"g" }JNLzI PK[IR gLRNH H[I eMH JPK MK MNN KMNzMKLxI.
NOTES ON STYLE
A. u[I KIRVH style, stylistic MRI gIJIRMNNa QHIq LJ KeP qLssIRIJK VIMJLJgH. .J NISLTPNPga
K[I KIRV functional style LH QHIq e[LT[ VMa `I qIsLJIq MH M HaHKIV Ps ISZRIHHLxI VIMJH
ZITQNLMR KP M HZITLsLT HZ[IRI Ps TPVVQJLTMKLPJ. oK[IReLHI HZIMzLJg! K[I T[PLTI Ps ePRqH MJq
Ps VPqIH Ps ISZRIHHLPJ qIZIJqH PJ K[I HLKQMKLPJ LJ e[LT[ K[I ZRPTIHH Ps TPVVQJLTMKLPJ LH
RIMNLIq! e[IK[IR LK LH M sRLIJqNa KMNz! MJ PssLTLMN NIKKIR PR RIZPRK! M ZPIV! M HTLIJKLsLT MRKLTNI!
IKT. dTTPRqLJg KP K[I HLKQMKLPJ (PR K[I HZ[IRI Ps TPVVQJLTMKLPJ) eI VMa qLHKLJgQLH[ sPRVMN
(`PPzLH[! NIMRJIq) MJq LJsPRVMN (TPNNPfQLMN) ePRqH. u[I sPRVIR MRI ZITQNLMR KP sLTKLPJ!
HTLIJKLsLT ZRPHI! NITKQRIH! PssLTLMN KMNzH; K[I NMKKIR MRI QHIq LJ IxIRaqMa KMNzH eLK[ sRLIJqH MJq
RINMKLxIH. oJI H[PQNq MNHP zIIZ LZ VLJq K[MK K[IRI MRI M gRIMK JQV`IR Ps ePRqH K[MK MRI
LJqIZIJqIJK Ps K[I HZ[IRI Ps TPVVQJLTMKLPJ! L. I. K[MK TMJ `I QHIq LJ M NITKQRI! LJ MJ
LJsPRVMN KMNz! LJ M ZPIV! IKT. /QT[ ePRqH MRI HKaNLHKLTMNNa JIQKRMN (!"g" `RIMq! ePRq! `PPz! gP!
KMzIH! e[LKI! IKT.).
/KQqIJKH H[PQNq `I eMRJIq MgMLJHK KMzLJg K[I KIRV )o..o8uia. MH M zLJq Ps IJTPQRMgIVIJK
KP QHI ePRqH K[QH VMRzIq MH VQT[ MH ZPHHL`NI. u[I KIRV LVZNLIH K[MK K[I ePRqH TMNNIq
)o..o8uia. MRI NLVLKIq `a K[ILR HZ[IRI Ps QHMgI MJq! Ls QHIq LJ M eRPJg HLKQMKLPJ (!"g" LJ M
HKQqIJKlH TPVZPHLKLPJ! LJ M TPJxIRHMKLPJ eLK[ MJ PssLTLMN MTfQMLJKMJTI PR eLK[ PJI [Lg[IR LJ
MQK[PRLKa)! VMa ZRPqQTI K[I LVZRIHHLPJ Ps LVZPNLKIJIHH PR IxIJ RQqIJIHH.
-" g" |I LH M PNNa T[MZ. ' 6 ! (chap n! )o.."9 jolly ad%, )o..": u[I
HKaNLHKLTMNNa JIQKRMN eMa Ps ZQKKLJg LK LH: |I LH M gPPq (sLJI) VMJ.
|Pe MRI K[I zLqH{ F D { (kid n! )o..": u[I HKaNLHKLTMNNa JIQKRMN eMa |Pe
MRI aPQR T[LNqRIJ{
.lV MNN RLg[K. OP $5 $6. (all right )o..": u[I HKaNLHKLTMNNa JIQKRMN eMa .
sIIN (MV) fQLKI eINN.
Compare:
Neutra. Co..o8uia. 'oo/i0h
`IgLJ HKMRK TPVVIJTI
TPJKLJQI gP PJ ZRPTIIq
IJq! sLJLH[ `I PxIR (K[RPQg[) KIRVLJMKI
`Qa gIK ZQRT[MHI
1PKI MNHP K[MK HQT[ M``RIxLMKLPJH MH I6m, I6ve, I6.., you6d, you6re, IKT. MRI T[MRMTKIRLHKLT Ps TPNNPfQLMN HKaNI.
u[IRIsPRI! HKQqIJKH eLNN `I eINN MqxLHIq KP MxPLq K[IV LJ K[ILR TPVZPHLKLPJH! IHHMaH! ZRITLH! IKT.
B. u[I KIRV style VMa `I MNHP QHIq eLK[ RIsIRIJTI KP K[I VMJJIR Ps eRLKLJg Ps HPVI
ZMRKLTQNMR MQK[PR. -" g" |IVLJgeMalH HKaNI LH T[MRMTKIRLIq `a NMTPJLHV MJq NMTz Ps qIKMLN.
u[I HaJKMS Ps [LH HIJKIJTIH LH xIRa HLVZNI! K[I qLMNPgQIH MRI MNVPHK VPJPHaNNM`LT MJq
HIIVLJgNa QJIVPKLPJMN. yIK! K[RPQg[ K[I MQHKIRI sPRV K[I MQK[PR VMJMgIH HPVIKLVIH KP
TRIMKI M JMRRMKLPJ Ps gRIMK KIJHLPJ.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
MT[I , n sNQI n ZMLJsQN ad%
MxPLq sPPK n ZJIQVPJLM n
`MRI ad% VIqLTMN ad% ZRIHTRL`I
`MRIsPPK ad% (redi), adv VIqLTLJI n ZRIHTRLZKLPJ n
`MRI[IMqIq ad% VLHIRM`NI ad% H[LxIR
TPJqLKLPJ n JMzIq ad% KRIV`NI
IZLqIVLT n ZMLJ n xMTMJK ad%
sIxIR n
Word Combinations
KP [MxI (gPK) M [IMqMT[I KP gLxI HVK[. QZ
KP KMzI PJIlH (PR HV`.lH) KP VMzI M JPKI (JPKIH) Ps HVK[.
KIVZIRMKQRI HP sMR
KP `RLJg qPeJ K[I sIxIR MK K[I sPPK ([IMq) Ps K[I `Iq
KP `I LJ (M) gPPq (`Mq) KP RIMq KP PJIHINs (MNPQq)
TPJqLKLPJ KP gP KP HNIIZ ()f.: KP sMNN MHNIIZ)
KP NLxI (ePRz) QJqIR gPPq KP HKMa (`I) MeMzI
(`Mq) TPJqLKLPJ (H) sNQH[Iq `a K[I sIxIR (MJgIR!
KP `I LJ JP TPJqLKLPJ KP qP HVK[. ISTLKIVIJK! IKT.)
PJ TPJqLKLPJ K[MK KP sNQH[ eLK[
KP eRLKI (ZQK) HVK[. qPeJ KP KMzI HVK[. IMHa
EXERCISES
1. Read the text and the Notes on LexicoIogy and StyIe and taIk on the foIIowing points (A.
Grammar, B.Word usage, C. StyIe):
A. +. w[a qPIH K[I MQK[PR QHI PR qRPZ K[I qIsLJLKI MRKLTNI `IsPRI K[I ePRq &ed LJ K[I
HIJKIJTIH: rwI eIRI HKLNN LJ `Iq.r ryPQlq `IKKIR gP `MTz KP `Iq!r r. HMK MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I
`Iq.r
2. w[a LH K[I .JsLJLKLxI QHIq eLK[ PR eLK[PQK K[I ZMRKLTNI to LJ K[I HIJKIJTIH: rnP aPQ
eMJK VI KP RIMq KP aPQ{r r. [IMRq [LV HMa M [QJqRIq MJq KeP.r
4. .J K[I HIJKIJTI r.KlH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQKr sK LH M ZIRHPJMN ZRPJPQJ. w[MK JPQJ qPIH
LK HKMJq sPR{ (1PKI: u[I GJgNLH[ sPR @<; 6.B ePQNq `I ru[IRI LH JPK[LJg KP
ePRRa M`PQK.r)
3. uLTz Pss K[I HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[I .JsLJLKLxI QHIq MH MJ MKKRL`QKI.
*. uLTz Pss MNN K[I TPVZNIS HIJKIJTIH eLK[ TNMQHIH PLJIq eLK[PQK K[I TPJQJTKLPJ that,
!"g" r. zJPe (K[MK) [I LH LNN.r
B. +. w[MK qLq K[I sMK[IR VIMJ e[IJ [I HMLq ryPQlq `IKKIR gP `MTz KP `Iqr{ (dqq HPVI
ePRqH KP H[Pe K[I LVZNLTMKLPJ.)
2. \MRMZ[RMHI K[I HIJKIJTIH: r.lq RMK[IR HKMa MeMzIr MJq rQHK KMzI LK IMHa.r
4. w[MK LH K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I `PalH ePRqH r...Ls LK `PK[IRH aPQr MJq r...Ls LKlH gPLJg
KP `PK[IR aPQ.r (uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[IHI Z[RMHIH LJKP QHHLMJ.)
3. |Pe MJq e[a qLq K[I `Pa ZMRMZ[RMHI [LH fQIHKLPJ rM`PQK e[MK KLVI... .lV gPLJg KP
qLI{r
*. u[I `Pa NMa eLK[ [LH IaIH sLSIq MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq. w[MK HaJPJaVH MJq e[a qLq K[I
MQK[PR QHI KP qIHTRL`I K[I HLKQMKLPJ{ (/II :PTM`QNMRa 1PKIH LJ }JLK oJI.)
C. +. OPVVIJK PJ K[I T[PLTI Ps ePRqH LJ |IVLJgeMalH HKPRa sRPV K[I ZPLJK Ps xLIe Ps
K[ILR HKaNLHKLT TPNPQRLJg. w[MK HKaNI ZRIxMLNH! sPRVMN PR LJsPRVMN{
2. w[MK TMJ aPQ HMa M`PQK K[I qLMNPgQIH LJ K[I HKPRa MJq K[ILR HKaNLHKLT ZITQNLMRLKLIH{
4. OPVVIJK PJ K[I HaJKMS Ps K[I HKPRa MJq K[I HKaNLHKLT IssITK MT[LIxIq `a LK.
3. w[MK LH K[I gIJIRMN MKVPHZ[IRI Ps K[I HKPRa{ .H K[I KIJHLPJ gRMqQMNNa LJTRIMHIq{ |Pe LH
K[I IssITK MT[LIxIq{ w[MK LH K[I ZPLJK Ps K[I [Lg[IHK KIJHLPJ (TNLVMS) {
II. a) Choose the best transIation of each EngIish sentence beIow (or give your own variant)
and reason oat your choice;
.. .lq RMK[IR HKMa MeMzI! +. 7 6. 2. D 6.
... ...MH K[PQg[ LK MT[Iq KP VPxI. +. ... $ 8 6 ;6. 2. ...
> $ 6!
.... |I HIIVIq xIRa qIKMT[Iq sRPV e[MK eMH gPLJg PJ. +. F6! >7= ;
. 2. ' 67 D8$ ; 9=;. 4. '!
6! $ ;! 9 ;.
.:. 0QK [LH gMI MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq RINMSIq HNPeNa. +. ~; ;
$ >8$. 2. ' > $ >$ $ 5. 4. ~;
;! $85 ! 7 >6.
:. u[I [PNq PxIR [LVHINs RINMSIq KPP! sLJMNNa! MJq K[I JISK qMa LK eMH xIRa HNMTz. ..
(>6 ; >! %! 7=5 6 8 6
65. 2. ' >6 9 7=5 6 8
$ 8$. 4. % % ; 6 5 > 6!
7=5 6 $ .
b) TransIate the description of the father's waIk.
III. a) Copy, transcribe and give Russian equivaIents of these words:
MT[I! sIxIR! VIqLTLJI! TMZHQNI! ZQRgMKLxI! gIRV! MTLq! LJsNQIJM! xMRLPQH! ZJIQVPJLM! MRIM!
ZLRMKI! JMKQRMN! `PK[IR! ZRIHTRL`I! `QH[! `RQH[! ePRRa! K[IRVPVIKIR! M`HPNQKINa! RINMS.
b) Give the four forms of the verbs:
H[QK! PxIRTPVI! NLI (>6)! NMa (6)! eMzI! sRIII! ePRRa! qLI!
c) Make four coIumns and write numbers I, , III and IV at their tops to represent four types
of syIIabIes. Then pick out from the Iist above ('a' and 'b') words with voweI sounds
iIIustrating different types of syIIabIes and pIace them in right coIumns.
IV. Try your hand at teaching.
(Look up the words and phrases you may need to do the task in "CIassroom EngIish",
Sections IV, VIII.)
A. Preparation. M) \LTz PQK sRPV K[I KISK MJq sRPV K[I LJKRPqQTKLPJ KP LK ePRqH eLK[ K[I
NIKKIR LJ K[IV. nLxLqI M H[IIK Ps ZMZIR LJKP KIJ TPNQVJH eLK[ K[I sPNNPeLJg NIKKIRH MK K[I KPZ
Ps IMT[ TPNQVJ: +) ! 2) ) ; i, 4) ) ; a, 3) ) ; o, <: TQ! ,) TM TPJHPJMJK! 7) LJ K[I
IJqLJg =i), >: ) ; h ? WKf! 2) T[ Wz! +)) TzWz.
ONMHHLsa K[I ePRqH QJqIR IMT[ [IMqLJg.
`) vMzI QZ aPQR PeJ NLHK Ps ePRqH KP LNNQHKRMKI K[I HMVI RQNIH.
B. Work in Class. M) /[Pe K[I KM`NI eLK[ +) TPNQVJH KP aPQR sINNPeHKQqIJKH MJq ISZNMLJ
[Pe H[PQNq `I ZRPJPQJTIq LJ IMT[ TMHI.
`) nLTKMKI K[I ePRqH sRPV aPQR NLHK KP K[I HKQqIJKH MJq MHz PJI Ps K[IV KP HZINN K[IV PJ
K[I `NMTz`PMRq. OPRRITK K[I VLHKMzIH.
V. Answer the questions:
+. w[MK eIRI K[I HaVZKPVH Ps K[I `PalH LNNJIHH{ 2. w[a qLq LK HIIV KP K[I sMK[IR K[MK K[I
qPTKPR zJIe MNN M`PQK LJsNQIJM{ 4. w[MK ePRRLIq K[I `Pa{ /LJTI e[IJ{ 3. w[a qLq K[I `Pa
ZRIsIR KP HKMa MeMzI{ *. w[MK eIRI K[I HaVZKPVH Ps K[I `PalH JIRxPQH HKRMLJ K[MK K[I sMK[IR
KPPz sPR K[I HaVZKPVH Ps [LH LNNJIHH{ ,. wPQNqJlK LK [MxI `IIJ VPRI JMKQRMN Ls K[I `Pa [Mq
KPNq [LH sMK[IR M`PQK [LH sIMRH{ w[a{ 7. nP aPQ NLzI K[I `PalH `I[MxLPQR{ |Pe qPIH LK
T[MRMTKIRLI [LV{ b. |Pe ePQNq aPQ ISZNMLJ K[I TPJKRMHKH LJ K[I `PalH `I[MxLPQR PJ K[I sLRHK
MJq K[I HITPJq day Ps [LH LNNJIHH{ 2. w[a qLq K[I MQK[PR LJKRPqQTI K[I qIHTRLZKLPJ Ps K[I
sMK[IRlH eMNz{ +). nP aPQ sLJq K[I HLKQMKLPJ qIHTRL`Iq LJ K[I HKPRa KRQI KP NLsI{ (ULxI aPQR
RIMHPJH.) ++. nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ ePQNq [MxI `I[MxIq LJ K[I HMVI eMa LJ K[I `PalH ZNMTI{ +2.
w[MK qP aPQ TPJHLqIR KP `I K[I ZPLJK Ps K[I HKPRa{
Begin when possibIe your answers with:
. `INLIxI; . K[LJz; .lq NLzI KP HMa; .J Va xLIe; dH . HII LK; . qPJlK K[LJz LK ePQNq...; u[LH LH
Va eMa Ps NPPzLJg MK LK.
VI. Study VocabuIary Notes and a) write derivatives or compounds of:
RIsQHI! ZRIHTRL`I! ZMLJ! MT[I! TPJqLKLPJ! `MRI! NLzI.
b) Give the opposite of:
KP RIMq MNPQq! LJ gPPq TPJqLKLPJ! MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq (VPQJKMLJ! ZMgI)! K[I gLRN [Mq
H[PIH PJ! K[I HIMK LH PTTQZLIq! K[I KRIIH MRI TPxIRIq eLK[ NIMxIH! KP `I MHNIIZ.
c) Give EngIish equivaIents of these words and use them in sentences of your own:
;85 (2 ePRqH)! >6 (2 ePRqH)! 6 (2 ePRqH).
VII. FiII in
a) ache, hurt, pain, painfuI:
w[MK... aPQ{
. TMJlK HMa . sIIN MJa H[MRZ ... LJ HPVI qIsLJLKI ZNMTI! . QHK... MNN PxIR.
nPIH LK... aPQ KP VPxI aPQR MRVH! NIgH PR [IMq{
va [IMq ... MNN K[I KLVI! LK ... VI KP NPPz MK K[I NLg[K MJq IMT[ VPxIVIJK LH ... .
wINN! . VQHK ISMVLJI aPQ. nPJlK `I MsRMLq! LK ePJlK `I ... .
0QK! qPTKPR! IMT[ KPQT[ gLxIH VI ....
wINN! KRa MJq KMzI LK IMHa.
b) in, on:
yPQR T[LNqlH [IMNK[ LH ... M RMK[IR `Mq TPJqLKLPJ! [I VQHK `I K[PRPQg[Na ISMVLJIq LJ K[I
ZPNLTNLJLT.
0QK! qPTKPR! [I LH ... JP TPJqLKLPJ KP NIMxI K[I [PQHI! [IlH KPP eIMz.
\IR[MZH eIlq `IKKIR KMzI [LV KP [PHZLKMN K[IJ.
o[! qPTKPR! LHJlK LK ZPHHL`NI KP zIIZ [LV MK [PVI{
wINN! PJNa ... TPJqLKLPJ K[MK aPQ sPNNPe MNN Va LJHKRQTKLPJH.
c) refuse, give up:
+. .J HZLKI Ps [LH sMK[IRlH eLH[ [I ... KP NIMxI K[I vIqLTMN .JHKLKQKI MH [I eMH sPJq Ps
VIqLTLJI MJq qLqJlK eMJK KP ... . 2. . qITLqIq KP `RIMz eLK[ [LV MsKIR [I [Mq ... KP [INZ VI
e[IJ . eMH LJ gRIMK JIIq Ps [INZ. 4. u[PQg[ H[I RIgQNMRNa ... [LH ZRPZPHMNH [I TPQNqJlK... [LH
qRIMV Ps VMRRaLJg [IR HPPJIR PR NMKIR. 3. .s H[I MHzH VI sPR MJa sMxPQR .lNN JIxIR ... [IR. *. .s
. eIRI aPQ . ePQNqJlK... Va ZNMJ HP IMHLNa.
d) Iike, as:
+. u[I T[LNqRIJ QVZIq MJq HfQIMNIq (>) ... NLKKNI ZQZZLIH. 2. u[I gLRN KRLIq KP
`I[MxI ... M gRPeJQZ ZIRHPJ. 4. /[I eMH LJxLKIq KP K[LH TPJsIRIJTI ... M HZITLMNLHK LJ
VIqLTLJI. 3. |I ePRzH ... M qPTKPR LJ PJI Ps PQR [PHZLKMNH. *. yPQ QHK NLHKIJ KP [LV! [I HZIMzH
... M RIMN qPTKPR! K[PQg[ [I qPIHJlK zJPe MJaK[LJg M`PQK VIqLTLJI. ,. ... aPQR qPTKPR! . qPJlK
MNNPe aPQ KP gIK QZ sPR HPVI VPRI qMaH.
VIII. Write 5 questions after each pattern beIow. (Keep to the same word order.) Discuss
them in cIass:
+. nP aPQ K[LJz K[I `Pa ePQNq [MxI ePRRLIq M`PQK [LH KIVZIRMKQRI Ls [I [Mq zJPeJ K[I
qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I pM[RIJ[ILK MJq K[I OIJKLgRMqI K[IRVPVIKIRH{
2. w[a! qP aPQ K[LJz! K[I VIqLTLJIH eIRI LJ qLssIRIJK TPNPQRIq TMZHQNIH{
IX. ReteII the text in reported speech foIIowing the outIine given beIow:
+. u[I `Pa NPPzH LNN.
2. u[I sMK[IR TMNNH sPR M qPTKPR.
4. u[I qPTKPR qLMgJPHIH K[I LNNJIHH MJq NIMxIH LJHKRQTKLPJH.
3. u[I `Pa HIIVH qIKMT[Iq sRPV e[MK LH gPLJg PJ MRPQJq [LV.
*. u[I sMK[IR gPIH sPR M eMNz.
,. u[I `PalH HKMKI KRPQ`NIH [LH sMK[IR.
7. u[I sMK[IR sLJqH PQK e[MK ePRRLIH K[I `Pa.
b. u[I `Pa RINMSIH.
Use the vocabuIary of the text and the words:
to a0/ (a&out, if, why:, to wonder (whether, why, what""":, to 0ay (that:, to te.. 0m&" (a&out
0mth":, to add (that:, to an0wer (that:, to re(.y (that:, to in8uire after (0m&"60 hea.th:, to
de).are (that:"
X. SuppIy articIes where necessary:
+. ... TNLJLTMN K[IRVPVIKIR LH ... HVMNN K[IRVPVIKIR sPR sLJqLJg ... KIVZIRMKQRI Ps ... `Pqa. 2.
... `PLNLJg ZPLJK Ps ... pM[RIJ[ILK K[IRVPVIKIR LH 2+2! Ps ... OIJKLgRMqI K[IRVPVIKIR +))
MJq Ps... IMVQR K[IRVPVIKIR b). 4.... zLNPVIKIR LH ... VIMHQRI Ps NIJgK[ MH eINN MH...
VLNI MJq... sPPK;... zLNPgRMV MJq ... ZPQJq MRI ... VIMHQRIH Ps eILg[K. 3. |LH [Lg[ KIVZIRMKQRI
ePRRLIq... `Pa `ITMQHI [I qLqJlK zJPe... qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ... pM[RIJ[ILK MJq OIJKLgRMqI
K[IRVPVIKIRH.
XI. Make up short diaIogues starting with the sentences beIow. Try and argue with each
other:
+. u[I VPK[IR KP K[I sMK[IR: yPQ H[PQNqJlK [MxI gPJI sPR M eMNz e[IJ K[I T[LNq eMH LNN.
2. u[I sMK[IR KP K[I `Pa: yPQ H[PQNq [MxI KPNq VI e[MK ePRRLIq aPQ.
4. u[I VPK[IR KP K[I `Pa: yPQ H[PQNq [MxI NIK VI LJ! e[a qLqJlK aPQ{
3. u[I VPK[IR KP K[I sMK[IR: yPQ VLg[K [MxI gQIHHIq K[MK HPVIK[LJg eMH ePRRaLJg K[I
`Pa.
*. u[I sMK[IR KP K[I VPK[IR: yPQ VLg[K [MxI qRPZZIq LJ KP HII e[MK HKMKI K[I `Pa eMH LJ.
,. u[I VPK[IR KP K[I sMK[IR (K[I JISK qMa): . qPJlK NLzI K[I `PalH HKMKI. \IR[MZH eI [Mq
`IKKIR TMNN K[I qPTKPR MgMLJ{
Use such phrases as;
0QK e[a H[PQNq (H[PQNqJlK) .{; wINN! . qPJlK (qLqJlK) K[LJz...; . eLH[ . TPQNq! `QK...; . RIMNNa
TPQNqJlK LVMgLJI...; w[MK M HLNNa eMa KP KMNzc; . eLH[ aPQ ePQNqJlK...; .lV RIMNNa HPRRa! `QK...; .
RIMNNa sIIN `Mq M`PQK LK...; w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz . H[PQNq [MxI qPJI...{! IKT.
GSMVZNI: pMK[IR: yPQ H[PQNq gP KP `Iq MK PJTI.
/PJ: w[a H[PQNq .{ .lV MNN RLg[K.
pMK[IR: 0QK aPQ MRIJlK. yPQlRI H[LxIRLJg MJq aPQR sMTI LH e[LKI.
/PJ: wINN! . QHK sIIN M `LK TPNq! .lNN HLK qPeJ `a K[I sLRI.
pMK[IR: yPQ MRI LNN MJq aPQ [MxI M sIxIR.
/J: |Pe qP aPQ zJPe{
pMK[IR: . zJIe LK QHK e[IJ . ZQK Va [MJq PJ aPQR sPRI[IMq.
XII. TransIate into EngIish;
+. 9 9 8 >! ; 8 ${ 2. ;
$ E$ . 4. ~ 8 8 E ! 8 ;
8 ; D. 3. - 8 $ 85 ! ;
$ 9 $. *. A6 $ ;6 $! E
$ . ,. 68 8: 7 $ .
7. < D$ $ 8 8 E 8! $7 6D;
. b. ~ 8 D6 6! 8 D6 6 6
. 2. " E ! $ 8 D$ $;
. +). ' { h 9> ;: 6 ! ;
6$ 6. A. 8 ! $> $ 6D 9.
+2. F >6. $7! $ D 6 $.
XIII. a) FiII in prepositions or adverbs where necessary and summarize

the passage:
rwINN! aPQlq `IKKIR NIK VI KMzI aPQR KIVZIRMKQRI!r HMLq URLssLK[H.
r.KlH fQLKI QJJITIHHMRa!r MJHeIRIq \[LNLZ LRRLKM`Na.
rOPVI PJ.r
\[LNLZ ZQK K[I K[IRVPVIKIR ... [LH VPQK[. URLssLK[H HMK ... K[I HLqI ... K[I `Iq MJq T[MKKIRIq
`RLg[KNa ... M VPVIJK! K[IJ [I KPPz LK... MJq NPPzIq ... LK.
r1Pe! NPPz [IRI! PNq VMJ! aPQ HKMa ... `Iq! MJq .lNN `RLJg PNq nIMTPJ ... KP [MxI M NPPz ...
aPQ.r
r1PJHIJHI!r HMLq \[LNLZ. ru[IRIlH JPK[LJg K[I VMKKIR. . eLH[ aPQ ePQNqJlK `PK[IR ... VI.r
r0QK LK LHJlK MJa `PK[IR. yPQlxI gPK M KIVZIRMKQRI MJq aPQ VQHK HKMa ... `Iq. yPQ eLNN!
ePJlK aPQ{r
ryPQlxI gPK M ePJqIRsQN `IqHLqI VMJJIR!r \[LNLZ VQRVQRIq! TNPHLJg [LH IaIH ... M HVLNI.
(From ros |QVMJ 0PJqMgIr &y /PVIRHIK vMQg[MV)
b) Add question tags to the sentences beIow and answer them. Begin your answers with
"Yes, he did/was'', "No, he didn't/wasn't" or "But he did/was" and then give fuII answers:
GSMVZNI: URLssLK[H qLqJlK eMJK \[LNLZ KP KMzI [LH KIVZIRMKQRI! qLq [I{
yIH! [I qLq. |I HMe K[MK [LH sRLIJq NPPzIq fQLKI HLTz MJq VLHIRM`NI.
+. \[LNLZ eMH JPK LRRLKMKIq MK URLssLK[Hl MqxLTI!...{ 2. \[LNLZ ZQK K[I K[IRVPVIKIR QJqIR `LH
MRV! ...{ 4. \[LNLZlH KIVZIRMKQRI eMHJlK MNN RLg[K! ...{ 3. URLssLK[H qLqJlK IxIJ KRa KP T[MKKIR
HLKKLJg MK [LH sRLIJqlH `Iq!...{ *. \[LNLZ K[PQg[K K[MK K[IRI eMH JPK[LJg K[I VMKKIR eLK[ [LV! ...{
,. u[IRI eMH RIMNNa JPK[LJg K[I VMKKIR eLK[ \[LNLZ! ...{ 7. URLssLK[H qLqJlK eMJK \[LNLZ KP HKMa
LJ `Iqr! ...{ b. \[LNLZ qLqJlK eMJK [LH sRLIJq KP NPPz MsKIR [LV! ...{ 2. URLssLK[H eMH gPLJg KP
`RLJg M qPTKPR KP \[LNLZ! ...{ +). \[LNLZ HVLNIq `ITMQHI [I eMJKIq `LH sRLIJq KP K[LJz! K[MK [I
eMH MNN RLg[K!...{
XIV. TransIate the foIIowing text into EngIish:
"6 $ 5 ! ; ;. ? !
; 8 685 >! = 8! ;$ 8 $8 ;. _D
! $$ . ' ! E
$. t $6 $ $ !
$;.
AD ! ;9! 65
. ' ! ; $6 . "6 $! =
$ ;! ; ; $ .
@< 56. 9D! ! $ 8
6%B.
@ D $ $7 $B! $6.
@t >! ! 6. < > 6. ~ 8
6 $$ $! ! 6 5 $
DB.
D! $! 8 8 D 6 6%.
XV. Make up three short diaIogues, using the phrases Iisted beIow:
M) KP [MxI M [IMqMT[I! KP [MxI M sIxIR! KP KMzI PJIlH KIVZIRMKQRI! [Mq `IKKIR! KP [MxI M
ZRIHTRLZKLPJ VMqI QZ;
`) KP TPJHQNK M qPTKPR! M NLg[K IZLqIVLT Ps sNQ! KP ZRIHTRL`I K[I VIqLTLJI sPR! KP `I NLg[K
[IMqIq! ePQNq RMK[IR! KP qP gPPq;
T) KP KMzI HVK[. IMHa! KP zIIZ sRPV qPLJg HVK[.! K[IRI LH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQK! PJ
TPJqLKLPJ K[MK! KP `I Ps JP LVZPRKMJTI.
XVI. Try your hand at teaching.
1. Say what yon wouId do in the teacher's position:
nQRLJg M VQHLT NIHHPJ! e[LNI K[I KIMT[IR KRLIq KP qIVPJHKRMKI K[I R[aK[V Ps M HPJg! \IKI
KPPz KeP ZIJTLNH MJq ZRPTIIqIq KP qRQV PJ M `PPz. u[I KIMT[IR HKPZZIq ZNMaLJg MJq
qIVMJqIq KP zJPe e[P eMH qRQVVLJg. 1P RIZNa TMVI sPRK[! HP H[I RIHQVIq [IR ZNMaLJg.
u[LH xIRa LJHKMJK K[I qRQVVLJg HKMRKIq MgMLJ. u[I KIMT[IR! e[P [Mq `IIJ PJ K[I MNIRK! TMQg[K
\IKI LJ K[I MTK.
2. Practise your "CIassroom EngIish".
PIay the part of the teacher and get your pupiIs to write a speIIing test on the board.
a) Prepare a test on the vocabuIary of Unit Two at home.
b) Ask severaI pupiIs to write the words on the board.
c) Make sure that the board is properIy prepared for writing on it: the writing it eIigibIe; aII
the mistakes are corrected; the whoIe cIass is invoIved. (See "CIassroom EngIish", Sections
IV. VIII, IX)
IABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
+. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK rd nMalH wMLKr! VMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH! RIZIMK K[I KISK sPNNPeLJg
K[I VPqIN.
2. \MRMZ[RMHI K[I sPNNPeLJg HIJKIJTIH! TPV`LJLJg K[IV LJKP PJI TPJqLKLPJMN HIJKIJTI.
vMzI MNN JITIHHMRa T[MJgIH.
4. IHZPJq KP K[I sPNNPeLJg HIJKIJTIH MTTPRqLJg KP K[I VPqIN. }HI K[I LJxIRKIq sPRV Ps
TPJqLKLPJMN HIJKIJTIH LJ aPQR RIHZPJHIH.
3. GSKIJq K[I sPNNPeLJg HIJKIJTIH MTTPRqLJg KP K[I VPqIN. }HI K[I xIR`H HQggIHKIq.
*. wRLKI M HZINNLJgKRMJHNMKLPJ KIHK M) KRMJHNMKI K[I Z[RMHIH LJKP GJgNLH[; `) T[ITz K[IV
eLK[ K[I zIa.
,. uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH LJKP GJgNLH[ MJq T[ITz K[IV eLK[ K[I zIa. IZIMK K[I zIa
MNPQq.
7. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK r\MKLIJKH 1IIqIqr HPVI PK[IR KISK PJ K[I KPZLT. pLJq GJgNLH[
IfQLxMNIJKH Ps K[I QHHLMJ Z[RMHIH LJ K[I KISK. IKINN K[I KISK LJ LJqLRITK HZIIT[.
TOPIC: ILLNESSES AND THEIR TREATMENT
TEXT A. A VICTIM TO ONE HUNDRED AND SEVEN FATAL MALADIES
From ru[RII vIJ LJ M 0PMKr &y mIRPVI j. mIRPVI
. RIVIV`IR gPLJg KP K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV PJI qMa KP RIMq QZ K[I KRIMKVIJK sPR HPVI HNLg[K
MLNVIJK. . gPK qPeJ K[I `PPz MJq RIMq MNN . TMVI KP RIMq; MJq K[IJ! LJ MJ QJK[LJzLJg VPVIJK!
. LqNa KQRJIq K[I NIMxIH MJq `IgMJ KP HKQqa qLHIMHIH! gIJIRMNNa. . sPRgPK e[LT[ eMH K[I sLRHK!
MJq `IsPRI . [Mq gNMJTIq [MNs qPeJ K[I NLHK Ps rZRIVPJLKPRa HaVZKPVHr! . eMH HQRI K[MK . [Mq
gPK LK.
. HMK sPR M e[LNI sRPIJ eLK[ [PRRPR; MJq K[IJ LJ qIHZMLR # MgMLJ KQRJIq PxIR K[I ZMgIH. .
TMVI KP KaZ[PLq sIxIR RIMq K[I HaVZKPVH qLHTPxIRIq K[MK . [Mq KaZ[PLq sIxIR `IgMJ
KP gIK LJKIRIHKIq LJ Va TMHI! MJq HP HKMRKIq MNZ[M`IKLTMNNa.
O[PNIRM . [Mq! eLK[ HIxIRI TPVZNLTMKLPJH; MJq qLZ[K[IRLM . HIIVIq KP [MxI `IIJ `PV eLK[.
. NPPzIq K[RPQg[ K[I KeIJKaHLS NIKKIRH! MJq K[I PJNa qLHIMHI . [Mq JPK gPK eMH [PQHIVMLqlH
zJII.
. HMK MJq K[PQg[K e[MK MJ LJKIRIHKLJg TMHI . VQHK `I sRPV M VIqLTMN ZPLJK Ps xLIe.
/KQqIJKH ePQNq [MxI JP JIIq KP reMNz K[I [PHZLKMNHr Ls K[Ia [Mq VI. . eMH M [PHZLKMN LJ
VaHINs. dNN K[Ia JIIq qP ePQNq `I KP eMNz RPQJq VI! MJq! MsKIR K[MK! KMzI K[ILR qLZNPVM.
u[IJ . ePJqIRIq [Pe NPJg . [Mq KP NLxI. . KRLIq KP ISMVLJI VaHINs. . sINK Va ZQNHI. . TPQNq
JPK MK sLRHK sIIN MJa ZQNHI MK MNN. u[IJ! MNN Ps M HQqqIJ! LK HIIVIq KP HKMRK Pss. . ZQNNIq PQK Va
eMKT[ MJq KLVIq LK. . VMqI LK M [QJqRIq MJq sPRKaHIxIJ KP K[I VLJQKI. . KRLIq KP sIIN Va
[IMRK. . TPQNq JPK sIIN Va [IMRK. .K [Mq HKPZZIq `IMKLJg. . ZMKKIq VaHINs MNN PxIR Va sRPJK!
sRPV e[MK . TMNN Va eMLHK QZ KP Va [IMq `QK . TPQNq JPK sIIN PR [IMR MJaK[LJg. . KRLIq KP NPPz
MK Va KPJgQI. . HKQTz LK PQK MH.sMR MH IxIR LK ePQNq gP! MJq . H[QK PJI IaI MJq KRLIq KP ISMVLJI
LK eLK[ K[I PK[IR. . TPQNq PJNa HII K[I KLZ! `QK . sINK VPRI TIRKMLJ K[MJ `IsPRI K[MK . [Mq HTMRNIK
sIxIR.
. [Mq eMNzIq LJKP K[I RIMqLJgRPPV M [MZZa! [IMNK[a VMJ. . TRMeNIq PQK M VLHIRM`NI
eRITz.
. eIJK KP Va VIqLTMN VMJ. |I LH MJ PNq T[QV Ps VLJI! MJq sIINH Va ZQNHI! MJq NPPzH MK
Va KPJgQI! MJq KMNzH M`PQK K[I eIMK[IR! MNN sPR JPK[LJg! e[IJ . sMJTa .lV LNN. /P . eIJK
HKRMLg[K QZ MJq HMe [LV! MJq [I HMLq:
rwINN! e[MKlH K[I VMKKIR eLK[ aPQ{r
. HMLq:
r. eLNN JPK KMzI QZ aPQR KLVI! qIMR `Pa! eLK[ KINNLJg aPQ e[MK LH K[I VMKKIR eLK[ VI. iLsI LH
H[PRK MJq aPQ VLg[K ZMHH MeMa `IsPRI . [Mq sLJLH[Iq. 0QK + eLNN KINN aPQ e[MK LH not K[I
VMKKIR eLK[ VI. GxIRaK[LJg INHI! [PeIxIR! . have gPK.r
dJq . KPNq [LV [Pe . TMVI KP qLHTPxIR LK MNN!
u[IJ [I PZIJIq VI MJq NPPzIq qPeJ VI! MJq KPPz [PNq Ps Va eRLHK! MJq K[IJ [I [LK VI
PxIR K[I T[IHK e[IJ . eMHJlK ISZITKLJg LK M TPeMRqNa K[LJg KP qP! . TMNN LK dsKIR K[MK! [I HMK
qPeJ MJq eRPKI PQK M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ! MJq sPNqIq LK QZ MJq gMxI LK VI! MJq . ZQK LK LJ Va ZPTzIK
MJq eIJK PQK.
. qLq JPK PZIJ LK! . KPPz LK KP K[I JIMRIHK T[IVLHKlH! MJq [MJqIq LK LJ. u[I VMJ RIMq LK! MJq
K[IJ [MJqIq LK `MTz. |I HMLq [I qLqJlK zIIZ LK.
. HMLq:
ryPQ MRI M T[IVLHK{r
|I HMLq:
r+ MV M T[IVLHK. .s . eMH M TPPZIRMKLxI HKPRIH MJq sMVLNa [PKIN TPV`LJIq! + VLg[K `I
M`NI KP P`NLgI aPQ.r
. RIMq K[I ZRIHTRLZKLPJ. .K RMJ:
r+ N`. `IIsHKIMz! eLK[
+ ZK. `LKKIR `IIR
IxIRa HLS [PQRH.
+ KIJVLNI eMNz IxIRa VPRJLJg.
+ `Iq MK ++ H[MRZ IxIRa JLg[K.
dJq qPJlK HKQss QZ aPQR [IMq eLK[ K[LJgH aPQ qPJlK QJqIRHKMJq.r
. sPNNPeIq K[I qLRITKLPJH eLK[ K[I [MZZa RIHQNK K[MK Va NLsI eMH ZRIHIRxIq MJq LH HKLNN gPLJg
PJ.
NOTES ON SYNONYMS
+. (/II 1PKI + PJ Z. +b.) /aJPJaVH VMa MNHP qLssIR `a K[I qIgRII PR LJKIJHLKa Ps K[I
Z[IJPVIJPJ qIHTRL`Iq PR `a TIRKMLJ MqqLKLPJMN LVZNLTMKLPJH TPJxIaIq `a K[ILR VIMJLJgH. -"
g" ma.ady qIHTRL`IH M VPRI qMJgIRPQH LNNJIHH K[MJ di0ea0e, HPVIKLVIH M sMKMN PJI! e[IRIMH
ai.ment VPHKNa RIsIRH KP M HNLg[K qLHPRqIR. @a.ady LVZNLIH M NMHKLJg! HPVIKLVIH M T[RPJLT
LNNJIHH! e[IRIMH ai.ment LH H[PRK MJq KIVZPRMRa. I..ne00 LH K[I VPHK gIJIRMN ePRq LJ K[I gRPQZ
(K[I HaJPJaVLT qPVLJMJK).
2. /aJPJaVH VMa qLssIR `a K[ILR HKaNLHKLT T[MRMTKIRLHKLTH. -" g" )hum LH M TPNNPfQLMN
HaJPJaV Ps @end, to fan)y HPQJqH NIHH sPRVMN K[MJ KP imagine" 2o (a00 away LH M `PPzLH[
HaJPJaV Ps to die"
TEXT B. A VISIT TO THE DOCTOR
wINN! e[MKlH K[I VMKKIR eLK[ aPQ! vR. wMNzIR{
yPQlq `IKKIR MHz VI e[MK LH JPK K[I VMKKIR eLK[ VI! qPTKPR. . HIIV KP `I HQssIRLJg sRPV
MNN K[I LNNJIHHIH LVMgLJM`NI: LJHPVJLM! [IMqMT[IH! `MTzMT[I! LJqLgIHKLPJ! TPJHKLZMKLPJ MJq
ZMLJH LJ K[I HKPVMT[. uP VMzI K[LJgH HKLNN ePRHI! .lxI TMQg[K M TPNq! .lxI gPK M HPRI K[RPMK MJq
.lV TPJHKMJKNa HJIILJg MJq TPQg[LJg. uP TRPeJ LK MNN! . [Mq MJ MTTLqIJK K[I PK[IR qMa! [QRK
Va RLg[K H[PQNqIR! NIg MJq zJII! MJq JIMRNa `RPzI Va JITz. .s . KMzI M NPJg eMNz! . gIK H[PRK
Ps `RIMK[. .J sMTK! . sIIN VPRI qIMq K[MJ MNLxI.
.lV HPRRa KP [IMR K[MK. dJa[Pe! . [PZI K[LJgH MRIJlK MH `Mq MH aPQ LVMgLJI. iIK VI
ISMVLJI aPQ. yPQR [IMRK! T[IHK MJq NQJgH HIIV KP `I MNN RLg[K. 1Pe PZIJ aPQR VPQK[ MJq
H[Pe VI aPQR KPJgQI. 1Pe `RIMK[I LJ qIIZNa! K[RPQg[ K[I JPHI... u[IRI qPIHJlK HIIV KP `I
MJaK[LJg RMqLTMNNa eRPJg eLK[ aPQ! `QK LKlH fQLKI TNIMR K[MK aPQlRI RQJ qPeJ! MJq Ls aPQ qPJlK
KMzI TMRI Ps aPQRHINs! aPQ VMa [MxI M JIRxPQH `RIMzqPeJ MJq [MxI KP gP KP [PHZLKMN. .
MqxLHI aPQ! sLRHK Ps MNN! KP HKPZ ePRRaLJg. uMzI M NPJg RIHK! [MxI RIgQNMR VIMNH! zIIZ KP M qLIK
Ps HMNMqH MJq sRQLK! MJq xIRa NLKKNI VIMK jIIZ Pss MNTP[PN. .s ZPHHL`NI! gLxI QZ HVPzLJg! MK
NIMHK sPR M KLVI. |MxI K[LH KPJLT VMqI QZ MJq KMzI KeP KM`NIHZPPJsQNH K[RII KLVIH M qMa
`IsPRI VIMNH. .s aPQ qP K[LH! . TMJ ZRPVLHI aPQ sQNN RITPxIRa eLK[LJ KeP PR K[RII VPJK[H.
dJq Ls . qPJlK! qPTKPR{
u[IJ aPQlq `IKKIR VMzI aPQR eLNN! Ls aPQ [MxIJlK aIK qPJI HP.
. HII. wINN! K[MJz aPQ! qPTKPR. + H[MNN [MxI KP K[LJz LK PxIR MJq qITLqI e[LT[ LH K[I
NIHHIR IxLN: KP sPNNPe aPQR MqxLTI PR ZRIZMRI sPR M `IKKIR ePRNq.
TEXT C. AT THE DENTISTS
1INN: |INNP! LH K[MK aPQ 0IRK{ 1INN [IRI. .lV HP gNMq .lxI sPQJq aPQ LJ.
0IRK: |INNP! 1INN. |PelH K[LJgH{
1.: pLJI. iLHKIJ! 0IRK. .lV `QRHKLJg eLK[ JIeH. mQHK LVMgLJI: aIHKIRqMa . [Mq K[I sLRHK RIMN
ZMKLIJK Ps Va PeJ.
.: yPQ qPJlK HMac w[P eMH LK{
1.: d JLTI PNq qIMR eLK[ M NPK Ps KIIK[ KP `I ZQNNIq PQK. .KlH HQT[ ePJqIRsQN ZRMTKLTI sPR
VIc
.: dRI aPQ fQLKI HQRI K[MK HPVI Ps [LH KIIK[ TPQNqJlK `I sLNNIq{
1.: 1PJI Ps K[IVc . HIJK [LV KP [MxI [LH KIIK[ ^RMaIq! HP LKlH MNN RLg[K.
.: |Pe qLq aPQ VMJMgI KP gIK HQT[ M VMRxINNPQH ZMKLIJK! . ePJqIR{
1.: |I TMVI eLK[ M `Mq KPPK[MT[I. .K [Mq `IIJ `PK[IRLJg [LV sPR M qMa PR KeP MNRIMqa.
.: wIRI K[IRI JP PK[IR qIJKLHKH LJ K[I HQRgIRa{
1.: 1P! . eMH K[I PJNa PJI. .K eMH /QJqMa.
.: \PPR PNq K[LJgc . [PZI aPQ qLqJlK KRa KP ZQNN PQK MNN [LH KIIK[ MK PJTI! qLq aPQ{
1.: nPJlK `I HLNNa. . QHK T[PHI K[I IMHLIHK PJI KP `IgLJ eLK[.
.: . HII... dJq [Pe qLq aPQ gIK MNPJg{
1.: wPJqIRsQNNa. . KIHKIq [LH `NPPq ZRIHHQRI MJq gMxI [LV M TPQZNI Ps LJITKLPJH! K[PQg[
[I HMLq K[MK Va HVLNI ePRzIq `IKKIR K[MJ MJa LJITKLPJ.
.: o[! [I qLq! qLq [I{ dJq [I qLqJlK [MxI [IMRK MKKMTz MsKIR K[I KPPK[ eMH KMzIJ PQK{ .K
ePQNq [MxI `IIJ JMKQRMN sPR MJ PNq VMJ.
1.: 1P! [I QHK sINK M `LK HLTz MJq gLqqa. . gMxI [LV KPJLT MJq KPNq [LV KP HKMa LJ `Iq sPR
M e[LNI MJq KMzI [LH KIVZIRMKQRI.
.: \IR[MZH .lq `IKKIR qRPZ LJ MJq T[ITz [LH [IMRK{ .lV PJ HLTz NIMxI JPe MJq TMJ qP LK MK
MJa KLVI.
1.: yPQ JIIqJlK. .lNN RLJg [LV QZ MJq LJ TMHI [IlH RQJJLJg M [Lg[ KIVZIRMKQRI .lNN NIK aPQ
zJPe. 0QK . qP [PZI [I ePJlK. u[I qMa MsKIR KPVPRRPe [IlH TPVLJg MgMLJ!
.: dRI aPQ HQRI [IlH JPK gPLJg KP VMzI MJ MZZPLJKVIJK eLK[ HPVI PK[IR qIJKLHK{
1.: . qPJlK K[LJz [I eLNN. w[IJ [I eMH NIMxLJg [I HMLq [I NPPzIq sPReMRq KP [MxLJg MNN [LH
KIIK[ ZQNNIq PQK MJq [I ePQNq zIIZ K[IV MNN MH HPQxIJLRH KP RIVIV`IR VI `a.
.: wINN! . eLH[ aPQ gPPq NQTz. |PZI KP [IMR sRPV aPQ HPPJ. 0aI sPR JPe! 1INN.
1.: UPPq`aI! 0IRK. .lNN NIK aPQ zJPe [Pe K[LJgH MRI gPLJg PJ.
Memory Work
pPR IxIRa IxLN QJqIR K[I HQJ.
u[IRI LH M RIVIqa! PR K[IRI LH JPJI.
.s K[IRI `I PJI! KRa KP sLJq LK.
.s K[IRI `I JPJI! JIxIR VLJq LK.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY ()
Words
MZZIJqLTLKLH n LJHPVJLM n
MKKMTz (Ps HVK[.) n ZRIHTRLZKLPJ n
TMHI (Ps M qLHIMHI) n RITPxIR (sRPV M qLHIMHI)
T[PNIRM n RIVIqa n
TPVZNLTMKLPJ n HTMRNIK sIxIR n
TPQg[ , n HJIII
TQRI Ps HPRI (K[RPMK! IaI! sLJgIR! IKT.) ad%
TQRI sPR n HQRgIRa n
qLI Ps HaVZKPV n
qLZ[K[IRKLM n KPJLT n
qLHIMHI n KRIMK (HV`. sPR M qLHIMHI)
LJqLgIHKLPJ n KRIMKVIJK (sPR HVK[.) n
LJITKLPJ n KaZ[PLq sIxIR n
Word Combinations
KP sIIN HV`.lH (PJIlH) ZQNHI KP eRLKI PQK M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ (sPR ZLNNH! IKT.)
KP gP KP M T[IVLHKlH (qRQgHKPRI) KP sPNNPe K[I qPTKPRlH qLRITKLPJH
KP TMKT[ (M) TPNq KP [MxI MJ MTTLqIJK
KP `I H[PRK Ps `RIMK[ KP ISMVLJI M ZMKLIJK (HV`.lH K[RPMK IKT.)
KP `RIMK[I LJ qIIZNa KP TPJHQNK (HII) M qPTKPR
KP [MxI M JIRxPQH `RIMzqPeJ KP zIIZ KP M qLIK (Ps ...); KP `I PJ (gP PJ)! sPNNPe M
qLIK
KP [MxI M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ (VIqLTLJI! VLSKQRI! KPJLT! IKT.) VMqI QZ
KP KMzI VIqLTLJI (M HZPPJsQN Ps! IKT.)
KP `I eRPJg eLK[ (PJIlH [IMRK! NQJgH! IKT.); KP [MxI HVK[. eRPJg eLK[
KP `I KMzIJ LNN (KP sMNN LNN) eLK[ KP `I NMLq QZ eLK[
KP sIIN HLTz (MJq gLqqa) KP sLNN HV`.lH KPPK[
KP [MxI PJIlH KPPK[ sLNNIq! KP [MxI M sLNNLJg
KP ZQNN (KMzI) PQK M KPPK[ KP [MxI MJ ISKRMTKLPJ
KP [MxI PJIlH KPPK[ ZQNNIq PQK (KMzIJ PQK)! ISKRMTKIq
KP `I ([MxI PJIlH KIIK[! T[IHK! [IMRK! IKT.) ^RMaIq
KP KIHK HV`.lH `NPPq KP [MxI PJIlH `NPPq KIHKIq
KP KIHK HV`.lH `NPPq ZRIHHQRI KP [MxI PJIlH `NPPq ZRIHHQRI KIHKIq
KP [MxI! gIK (gLxI) MJ LJITKLPJ (M JIIqNI)
KP [MxI M [IMRK MKKMTz
KP T[ITz HV`.lH [IMRK! NQJgH! IKT.; KP HPQJq HV`.lH [IMRK! NQJgH! IKT.
KP `I PJ HLTz NIMxI; KP gIK HLTz NIMxI
KP VMzI MJ MZZPLJKVIJK eLK[ M qPTKPR
Examples
|I eMH KMzIJ KP [PHZLKMN MJq PZIRMKIq PJ (QJqIReIJK MJ PZIRMKLPJ) sPR MZZIJqLTLKLH.
dsKIR .lxI [Mq HPVI LJITKLPJH Ps KPJLT . sIIN fQLKI TQRIq Ps MNN Va MLNVIJKH.
u[I T[LNq LH LNN (NMLq QZ) eLK[ T[LTzIJ ZPS (). |IlNN HPPJ RITPxIR Ls JP
TPVZNLTMKLPJH HIK LJ.
/VMNNZPS () LH M TMKT[LJg () qLHIMHI VMRzIq `a sIxIR MJq HVMNN RIq HZPKH PJ
K[I `Pqa MJq PsKIJ NIMxIH ZIRVMJIJK VMRzH.
.lxI `IIJ PJ HLTz NIMxI sPR M sPRKJLg[K MNRIMqa! `QK . qPJlK sIIN MJa `IKKIR HP sMR.
u[I qPTKPR qLMgJPHIq K[I LNNJIHH MH KQ`IRTQNPHLH (K. `.).
d qPTKPR e[P ZIRsPRVH (TMRRLIH PQK) PZIRMKLPJH LH TMNNIq M HQRgIPJ. 1PeMqMaH PZIRMKLPJH
VMa `I ZIRsPRVIq MNVPHK PJ MJa ZMRK Ps K[I `Pqa.
w[IJ ZIPZNI [MxI ZMLJ LJ K[ILR KIIK[ K[Ia gP KP M qIJKLHK KP [MxI K[I [PNIH LJ K[ILR KIIK[
sLNNIq (HKPZZIq). w[IJ JITIHHMRa K[Ia VMa [MxI K[ILR KIIK[ KMzIJ (ZQNNIq) PQK.
\IPZNI e[P MRI KRIMKIq LJ [IMNK[ TIJKRIH (ZPNLTNLJLTH) MRI TMNNIq PQKZMKLIJKH! K[PHI e[P
HKMa LJ [PHZLKMN MRI TMNNIq LJZMKLIJKH.
/PVIK[LJg LH eRPJg eLK[ Va NIgH: MNN Va PLJKH MT[I MJq e[IJ . `IJq Va zJII LK [QRKH
VI.
u[I PNq VMJlH HLg[K LH gIKKLJg qLV ()! [LH IaIH MRI HPRI! HePNNIJ MJq LKT[LJg.
1 P K I: nPJlK HMa r|I eRPKI VI M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ PQKr; &ut r|I eRPKI PQK M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ sPR VIr.
EXERCISES
I. Study Text A and expIain the meaning of the words and phrases Iisted beIow.
LJ MJ QJK[LJzLJg VPVIJK! LqNa KQRJ K[I NIMxIH! M sMKMN VMNMqa! ZRIVPJLKPRa HaVZKPVH!
TPVZNLTMKLPJ! KP eMNz K[I [PHZLKMNH! KP KLVI K[I ZQNHI! MNN sPR JPK[LJg! K[I ZRIHTRLZKLPJ RMJ! M
sMVLNa [PKIN! KP sPNNPe K[I qLRITKLPJH! [LH NLsI eMH ZRIHIRxIq.
II. a) Write EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing words and phrases. Use them in sentences
of your own:
+. 8 >; 2. 6 $.; 4. 85 5 $%5
; 3. ==6 $; *. $6 ;. $; ,. >8 D6
; 7. 6 ; 8$ =$.
b) Write these words in EngIish and transcribe them:
6! $$! ! C! C! C! 9! ! !
6.
c) Find in the text synonyms of the foIIowing words and phrases and expIain how they
differ:
LNNJIHH (3 ePRqH)! sRLIJq! qPTKPR! NPPz fQLTzNa! LVMgLJI! qP M sMxPQR KP HV`.! qLI.
III. Write 10 questions to Text A covering the main points. Prepare to discuss the test using
the words and phrases from Ex. .
IV. Study Texts and and transIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. 7 %8. 2. $ 97 D7. 4. - $ ;.
3. D $ . *. 8976. ,. ( ;$
. 7. # 9 . b. - $> 86 5. 2.
?; 56 >56 =5 8. +) A 5 >
6. ++. '=7 8 9 $%. +2. h
$7. +4. ! $. +3. - $ 5$ 5. +*. < ;c
+,. ' > $ > ! +7. 8 8$ $ $5. +b.
>c +2. < ; ;5c 2). 8 $85 ;5
. 2+. <! D { 22. $ . 24. "> 86!
$ D >6..{ 23! ' 9 9 $6 $.
V. Reproduce Text so that a question is asked about each sentence said by the patient or
the doctor. Recite the diaIogue in cIass.
GSMVZNI: \MKLIJK: yPQlq `IKKIR MHz VI e[MK LH JPK K[I VMKKIR eLK[ VI! qPTKPR.
nPTKPR: .H LK RIMNNa MH `Mq MH K[MK{ w[MK MRI aPQ TPVZNMLJLJg Ps {
\MKLIJK: .JHPVJLM... MJq ZMLJH LJ K[I HKPVMT[.
nPTKPR: o[! qIMR! LHJlK LK KPP VQT[ sPR PJI VMJ{
VI. ReIeII Text in indirect spech: a) speaking on the part of the oId man;
b) reproducing NeII's taIk with Bert over the teIephone. You may find the foIIowing phrases
usefuI:
M) KP NPPz M VLHIRM`NI eRITz! KP HQssIR sRPV! KP T[IIR HV`. QZ! KP `I LJ qIHZMLR! KP `I LJ
[Lg[ HZLRLKH; `) KP `I MsRMLq K[MK! KP `I HPRRa sPR! KP qPQ`K HV`.lH HzLNN! KP ePJqIR Ls...! KP sIIN
[QRK! KP HQggIHK K[MK PJI H[PQNq...
VII. Study EssentiaI VocabuIary (II) and
a) transIate the iIIustrative exampIes into Russian;
b) express in writing the suggested idea using do for emphasis. Add a sentence to show
that the emphasis is necessary:
GSMVZNIH: yPQR `RPK[IR qLq gP KP K[I T[IVLHKlH KP [MxI aPQR ZRIHTRLZKLPJ VMqI QZ
K[PQg[ [I eMH ZRIHHIq sPR KLVI. vPK[IR KPNq aPQ KP ZQK PJ aPQR TPMK `QK
aPQ ePQNqJlK MJq aPQ qLq TMKT[ M TPNq.
+. KP [MxI M JIRxPQH `RIMzqPeJ; 2. KP zIIZ KP M qLIK; 4. KP KRa KP VMzI MJ MZZPLJKVIJK
eLK[; 3. KP gLxI (gIK) MJ LJITKLPJ; *. KP gIK HLTz NIMxI; ,. KP HIK LJ (M`PQK TPVZNLTMKLPJH); A" KP
ZRIHTRL`I ZLNNH sPR; b. KP QJqIRgP M KRIMKVIJK; 2. KP RITPxIR sRPV; +). KP qLMgJPHI /V`.lH
LNNJIHH (MH); ++. KP [MxI PJIlH KPPK[ sLNNIq; +2. KP JIIq K[I HIRxLTIH Ps M HQRgIPJ.
VIII. a) SuppIy prepositions where necessary:
/TMRNIK sIxIR LH MJ LJsITKLPQH sIxIR! VMRzIq .. K[I MZZIMRMJTI ... K[I HITPJq qMa ... M `RLg[K
RIq RMH[ TPJHLHKLJg ... TNPHINaHIK RIq HZPKH. /[PRKNa MsKIR K[I ZMKLIJK qIxINPZH M [Lg[
KIVZIRMKQRI MJq HQssIRH ... ZMLJsQN HPRI K[RPMK. ... K[I K[LRq PR sPQRK[ qMa K[I RMH[ HKMRKH KP sMqI
MJq ... sMxPQRM`NI TMHIH K[I KIVZIRMKQRI sMNNH MJq K[I ZMKLIJK sIINH `IKKIR. ... K[I IJq ... M eIIz
K[I RMH[ QHQMNNa qLHMZZIMRH. OPVZNIKI RITPxIRa VMa `I ISZITKIq ... K[I sPNNPeLJg VPJK[!
u[I TPVZNLTMKLPJH ... HTMRNIK sIxIR MRI xIRa HIRLPQH! K[I TPVVPJIHK `ILJg LJsNMVVMKLPJ ...
K[I IMR. /TMRNIK sIxIR LH IHHIJKLMNNa M qLHIMHI ... T[LNqRIJ MJq aPQJg ZIRHPJH.
b) Give a short description of some other disease using a few phrases from the text above.
IX. Correct the foIIowing statements, beginning each sentence with one of the foIIowing
phrases:
Bou6re wrong" Bou6re mi0ta/en" I )an6t agree with you" Nothing of the /ind" 'ut... (it i0,
they don6t, et)":" I don6t thin/ you6re right" Cf )our0e not" Du0t the other way round" Cn the
)ontrary" #ure.y notE 'y no mean0E
GSMVZNI: yPQ JIxIR KMzI aPQR KIVZIRMKQRI e[IJ aPQ ; LNN.
o[! aIH (Ps TPQRHI)! . qP. . MNeMaH KMzI Va KIVZIRMKQRI e[IJ .lV LNN.
+. /LTz ZIPZNI JIxIR HKMa LJ `Iq e[LNI K[Ia MRI LNN. 2. yPQ eIRI NMLq QZ eLK[sNQ NMHK eIIz!
. `INLIxI. 4. .K LH JPK qMJgIRPQH KP KMzI TMRI Ps M ZIRHPJ e[P [MH gPK M TMKT[LJg qLHIMHI. 3.
\IPZNI PsKIJ sIIN HLTz MJq gLqqa e[IJ K[Ia MRI fQLKI eINN. *. wI HINqPV HJIII MJq TPQg[
e[IJ eI [MxI M TPNq. ,. yPQ JIxIR [MxI M HPRI K[RPMK e[IJ aPQ [MxI KPJHLNNLKLH. 7. /[I
qPIHJlK sIIN MJa ZMLJ LJ [IR [IMRK e[IJ H[I [MH M [IMRK MKKMTz. b. O[LNqRIJ [MxI HePNNIJ IaIH
e[IJ K[Ia [MxI `IIJ NMQg[LJg KPP VQT[. 2. \IPZNI JIIq K[I HIRxLTIH Ps K[I qPTKPR e[IJ K[Ia
MRI eINN! . K[LJz. +). \RP`M`Na aPQ TPJHQNK M qIJKLHK e[IJ aPQ [MxI M HKPVMT[MT[I.
X. Read the text. Summarize it in 5-6 sentences without using direct speech;
|P` HMK LJ K[I qPTKPRlH eMLKLJgRPPV. oJ K[I T[MLRH MK K[I eMNN PK[IR ZMKLIJKH eIRI HLKKLJg.
u[Ia MNN NPPzIq HMq ISTIZK |P` e[P eMH RIMqLJg MJ ISTLKLJg HKPRa LJ M VMgMLJI. mQHK K[IJ
K[I qPTKPR TMVI LJ KP HMa K[MK [I eMH RIMqa KP HII K[I JISK ZIRHPJ. |P` gPK QZ MJq eIJK LJKP
K[I TPJHQNKLJg RPPV.
0IsPRI |P` TPQNq HMa M ePRq K[I qPTKPR HMLq! r1Pe e[MKlH K[I KRPQ`NI{ /LK qPeJ K[IRI
MJq eIlNN [MxI M NPPz MK aPQ. }JsMHKIJ aPQR MTzIK MJq aPQR H[LRK! ZNIMHI. .lNN NLHKIJ KP aPQR
[IMRK.r |P` KRLIq KP HZIMz! `QK K[I qPTKPR LJKIRRQZKIq [LV MJq PRqIRIq [LV KP HMa rJLJIKa
JLJIr. |P` HMLq LK. r1Pe NIK VI HII aPQR K[RPMK! PZIJ aPQR VPQK[ eLqI.r u[I qPTKPR [Mq M
gPPq NPPz MJq K[IJ [I HMLq! rwINN! K[IRIlH JPK[LJg eRPJg eLK[ aPQ.r r. zJPe K[IRI LHJlK!r
HMLq |P`! r. QHK TMVI KP gIK M `PKKNI Ps VIqLTLJI sPR Va QJTNI.r
(From GHHIJKLMN GJgNLH[ sPR sPRILgJ HKQqIJKH &y F" ~. GTzIRHNIa! iJq.. +277)
XI. Write 10 sentences to go with each of the pictures on pp. 68, 71.
XII. Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[MK MRI K[I HaVZKPVH Ps sNQ (KPJHLNNLKLH! VIMHNIH! VQVZH! HTMRNIK sIxIR! IKT.){ 2. w[P
LH KRIMKIq MK K[I ZPNLTNLJLT! MJq e[P LH KRIMKIq MK K[I [PHZLKMN{ 4. w[MK qP aPQ qP e[IJ aPQ
sMNN LNN{ 3. w[MK qPIH K[I qPTKPR qP e[IJ [I TPVIH KP ISMVLJI aPQ{ *. w[MK qP aPQ sIIN
e[IJ aPQ [MxI sNQ{ ,. |Pe qPIH M HLTz ZIRHPJ NPPz{ 7. |Pe H[PQNq eI KRMJHNMKI LJKP
QHHLMJ r|I LH LNNr MJq r|I [MH LNN VMJJIRHr{ b. w[MK TMKT[LJg qLHIMHIH qP aPQ zJPe{ 2. nP
ZIPZNI LJ K[LH TPQJKRa gIK K[ILR ZMa e[IJ K[Ia MRI LNN{
XIII. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish:
+. ! > 86! 9 ;. 2. $ D 6 . 4.
= $5 6! D % ; $ $. 3. '
;6! > . *. >. > 86!
6. ,. $; 6 9! $ ;. 7. 6
$! ; D . b. ! >5! $ E 7 ;5
. 2. A$ 8 9D6 7 ; D8{ Y8 6 6
. - $; 86 >. +). $ ;{ ++. %. A
5 > $8 6. +2. 8 ${ +4. -
689 . $ > 6 $ . +3. %
6 8D ;. +*. F 5 6 { +,.
~ 8 8 $ ! 8 8 6 . +7. < D$
$ >6 8 8! 6 >. +b. F >6!
8 86 $ $. +2. A$ 8D
8 6 %${ 2). ? 5.
A $ 5 6 >6 .
XTV. Make up stories and diaIogues through mime.
Have the students to prepare a mime and perform it twice (for tasks A and B). The performed
actions shouId be rather sIow to aIIow the other students to teII the story or speak for the
mimes.
A. Describe the actions of the mimes using the Present Indefinite, Continuous or Perfect
tenses. (for one or two students)
B. Speak for each mime. (for two students)
TeII the story in reported speech oraIIy or in writing. (for one student)
/QggIHKIq KPZLTH MJq HKMgIH sPR MTKLPJH:
+. dK K[I nPTKPRlH
M) d ZMKLIJK IJKIRH K[I RPPV MJq KINNH K[I qPTKPR e[MK [I (H[I) LH HQssIRLJg sRPV.
`) u[I qPTKPR MHzH K[I ZMKLIJK KP HKRLZ KP K[I eMLHK MJq ISMVLJIH [LV ([IR).
T) u[I ZMKLIJK MHzH K[I qPTKPR e[MKlH eRPJg eLK[ [LV. |I HIIVH KP `I ePRRLIq.
q) u[I qPTKPR KRLIH KP TPVsPRK K[I ZMKLIJK MJq eRLKIH PQK M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ.
2. dK K[I nIJKLHKlH
M) d ZMKLIJK TPVZNMLJH Ps M `Mq KPPK[MT[I.
`) u[I qIJKLHK MHzH [LV KP HLK qPeJ MJq ISMVLJIH [LH VPQK[. oJI Ps [LH KIIK[ H[PQNq `I
ZQNNIq PQK.
T) u[I ZMKLIJK LH MsRMLq. |I sIINH HLTz MJq gLqqa.
q) u[I qIJKLHK ZQNNH PQK [LH KPPK[ MJq H[PeH LK KP K[I ZMKLIJK e[P `RLg[KIJH QZ MJq NPPzH
[MZZa.
4. dK K[I 0IqHLqI
M) d `Pa TPVZNMLJH Ps M HPRI K[RPMK.
`) |LH VPK[IR LH ePRRLIq. /[I KMzIH [LH KIVZIRMKQRI! LKlH JPRVMN. |LH K[RPMK LH MNN RLg[K
T) u[IJ K[I `Pa ZRIKIJqH KP [MxI M HKPVMT[MT[I MJq M [IMqMT[I! KP `I HLTz MJq gLqqa.
q) |LH VPK[IR QJqIRHKMJqH [LH KRLTzH MJq PRqIRH [LV KP gP KP HT[PPN.
XV. Try your hand at teaching.
Find a picture on a medicaI subject and ask your "pupiIs" to describe it.
A. Preparation. M) vMzI QZ M NLHK Ps JIe ePRqH (LJ HZINNLJg MJq KRMJHTRLZKLPJ) K[MK VLg[K
`I JIIqIq KP qLHTQHH LK.
`) wRLKI fQIHKLPJH M`PQK K[I ZLTKQRI! QHLJg K[I Z[RMHIH: in the (i)ture, in the foreground
G&a)/ground:, in the right(.eft=: hand )orner, to the right (.eft: of"
T) KPPz QZ K[I ePRqH MJq Z[RMHIH aPQ VMa JIIq KP qLHTQHH K[I ZLTKQRI LJ TNMHH LJ
rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJ :.
B. Work in Class. /[Pe K[I ZLTKQRI KP K[I VIV`IRH Ps aPQR gRPQZ; eRLKI K[I JIe ePRqH
PJ K[I `NMTz`PMRq! KRMJHNMKI K[IV (PR ISZNMLJ K[ILR VIMJLJg) MJq VMzI K[I HKQqIJKH RIZIMK
K[IV LJ T[PRQH; MHz aPQR fQIHKLPJH.
XVI. a) Give the idea of the text in EngIish:
Ct nnn?
$> 8 $ @$ (6B %. '$
; $;5 D6 6 8! 8 6
6: @ 2* . A 9; %7 2))
. 4* . A >85 6 8 ;
2)) . A 4 6B. X . ;
%$ $ (6 +++2 c (7 9
;! D...
~ 8 $ (6 > 6 8 ;
=7=5 $8 ($6 5)! $> 8 .
F ;> 8! ; $% > ! ; ;
>6 $ (6 . - ; ;.
6% 8 6! 6 87 $%8! .
(F!HIJK5 L", M!N5 O" _$ $. ".! +27*)
\RPVZKH: `LNN! MJMIHK[IHLM! KP KMzI PQK K[I HKLKT[! KeLTI NPJgIR.
b) Say what you know about the cost of heaIth service in America, in Russia and in other
countries nowadays.
XVII. a) Bead and transIate the texts beIow:
+. .J URIMK 0RLKMLJ ZRLVMRa [IMNK[ TMRI LH LJ K[I [MJqH Ps sMVLNa ZRMTKLKLPJIRH e[P ePRz
eLK[LJ K[I 1MKLPJMN |IMNK[ /IRxLTI. u[I sMVLNa ZRMTKLKLPJIR HIRxLTIH MRI K[PHI gLxIJ KP
ZMKLIJKH `a qPTKPRH! qIJKLHKH! PZKLTLMJH MJq Z[MRVMTLHKH Ps K[ILR PeJ T[PLTI. pMVLNa qPTKPRH
e[P MRI QJqIR TPJKRMTK KP K[I 1MKLPJMN |IMNK[ /IRxLTI [MxI MJ MxIRMgI M`PQK 2!2*) ZMKLIJKH.
u[Ia ZRPxLqI K[I sLRHK qLMgJPHLH LJ K[I TMHI Ps LNNJIHH MJq ILK[IR ZRIHTRL`I M HQLKM`NI TPQRHI Ps
KRIMKVIJK PR RIsIR M ZMKLIJK KP K[I VPRI HZITLMNLIq HIRxLTIH MJq [PHZLKMN TPJHQNKMJKH.
d NMRgI ZRPZPRKLPJ Ps K[I [PHZLKMNH LJ K[I 1MKLPJMN |IMNK[ /IRxLTI eIRI `QLNK LJ K[I
JLJIKIIJK[ TIJKQRa; HPVI KRMTI K[ILR PRLgLJ KP VQT[ IMRNLIR T[MRLKM`NI sPQJqMKLPJH! HQT[ MH
K[I sMVPQH /K. 0MRK[PNPVIelH MJq /K. u[PVMHl [PHZLKMNH LJ iPJqPJ.
d`PQK b* ZIR TIJK Ps K[I TPHK Ps K[I [IMNK[ HIRxLTIH LH ZMLq sPR K[RPQg[ gIJIRMN KMSMKLPJ.
u[I RIHK LH VIK sRPV K[I 1MKLPJMN |IMNK[ /IRxLTI TPJKRL`QKLPJ MJq sRPV K[I T[MRgIH sPR
ZRIHTRLZKLPJH! qIJKMN KRIMKVIJK! qIJKQRIH MJq HZITKMTNIH. |IMNK[ MQK[PRLKLIH VMa RMLHI sQJqH
sRPV xPNQJKMRa HPQRTIH.
(/II: r0RLKMLJ +2b4r. iJq.! +2b4)
2. 1P`Pqa ZRIKIJqH K[MK K[I 1MKLPJMN |IMNK[ /IRxLTI LJ 0RLKMLJ LH ZIRsITK. vMJa qPTKPRH
TPVZNMLJ K[MK K[Ia eMHKI [PQRH sLNNLJg LJ 1MKLPJMN .JHQRMJTI sPRVH! MJq K[MK K[Ia [MxI HP
VMJa ZMKLIJKH K[MK K[Ia qP JPK [MxI IJPQg[ KLVI KP NPPz MsKIR MJa Ps K[IV ZRPZIRNa. 1QRHIH
TPVZNMLJ K[MK K[Ia MRI PxIRePRzIq MJq QJqIRZMLq.
4. vMJa |IMNK[ /IRxLTI [PHZLKMNH MRI PNqsMH[LPJIq MJq PxIRTRPeqIq! MJq! `ITMQHI Ps K[I
H[PRKMgI Ps `IqH! ZMKLIJKH PsKIJ [MxI KP eMLK M NPJg KLVI sPR PZIRMKLPJH. LT[ ZIPZNI ZRIsIR KP
gP KP ZRLxMKI qPTKPRH! PR KP HII HZITLMNLHKH LJ |MRNIa /KRIIK! K[I sMVPQH rqPTKPRHr HKRIIK LJ
iPJqPJ. w[IJ K[IHI ZIPZNI MRI LNN K[Ia gP KP M ZRLxMKI JQRHLJg[PVI! sPR e[LT[ K[Ia VMa
ZMa MH VQT[ MH +)) M eIIz. dNKIRJMKLxINa! K[Ia VMa [LRI M ZRLxMKI RPPV LJ MJ PRqLJMRa
[PHZLKMN! sPR e[LT[ K[Ia eLNN ZMa M`PQK +) M qMa.
(@u0man P" 0RLKMLJ uPqMa. iJq.! +273)
b) Write 10 questions about the facts mentioned in the texts that you find interesting and
discuss them in cIass.
XVIII. Find some jokes on a medicaI subject and teII them to your feIIow-students.
XIX. a) Give a very short description of each picture in the Present Tense. Use prompt words
and phrases Iisted in the Note.
b) Make up a story about the pictures in the Past Tense c) Find a short titIe to the story.
1PKI: HIeIR; HKRIKT[IR; $D MV`QNMJTI;
MV`QNMJTI VMJ; % PZIRMKLJgRPPV; ; ZNMHKIR
`MJqMgI.
XX. FiIm "Mr.Brown's HoIiday". DiIm segment 2 "Miss Peggy and the Pussy Cays"
(Canterbury), a) Watch and Iisten, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the fiIm.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

u[LH KLVI aPQ eLNN NIMRJ VPRI M`PQK K[I HVMNNIHK K[PQg[K QJLKH K[MK `QLNq QZ eRLKLJg!
`IgLJJLJg eLK[ M ZMRMgRMZ[ MJq [Pe K[Ia ePRz eLK[LJ K[I ZMRMgRMZ[.
Key-words MRI VMLJ ePRqH LJ K[I ZMHHMgI K[MK [INZ KP IVZ[MHLI K[I VMLJ ZPLJK MJq
QJqIRHKMJq K[I HQ`ITK aPQ MRI eRLKLJg M`PQK. u[MK LH e[a zIaePRqH MRI K[I sLRHK INIVIJKH KP
T[PPHI e[IJ HIKKLJg aPQR VLJq PJ eRLKLJg PJ M TIRKMLJ HQ`ITK MJq K[IRI MRI qLssIRIJK eMaH
KP QHI K[IV LJ M ZMRMgRMZ[: RIZIMKLJg K[IV! QHLJg HaJPJaVH! `RLJgLJg K[IV LJ TNPHI
HIVMJKLT RINMKLPJ.
-" g" r|I RIMq K[I NIKKIR HNPeNa MJq TMRIsQNNa. .K eMH JPK K[I zLJq Ps TMHI [I eMJKIq! LK eMH
JPK K[I zLJq Ps TMHI [I [Mq ZRPVLHIq [LVHINs. .K eMH JPK LJ MJa HIJHI MJ LVZPRKMJK TMHI...r
(From ru[I 1IVIMJ iLPJr &y d. O[RLHKLI). |IRTQNI \PLRPK! K[I sMVPQH qIKITKLxI Ps $"
O[RLHKLIlH [Mq `IIJ qRIMVLJg Ps MJ QJQHQMN TMHI. u[MK PJI M`PQK K[I zLqJMZZLJg Ps M qPg eMH
M qLHMZZPLJKVIJK. .K eMH JPK M ZRPZIR TMHI sPR [LV.
u[I TIJKRMN K[PQg[K Ps K[I ZMRMgRMZ[ LH IVZ[MHLIq `a RIZIMKLJg K[I zIaePRq! PK[IReLHI
IT[PePRq.
Assignments:
+. UP PxIR K[I KIHK rd nMalH wMLKr MJq ZLTz PQK K[I zIaePRqH MJq Z[RMHIH K[MK LJqLTMKI K[I KPZLT: Ps
LNNJIHH MJq KRIMKVIJK. dRRMJgI K[IV LJKP K[RII gRPQZH MTTPRqLJg KP K[I eMaH K[MK MRI TPVVPJNa QHIq KP ZPLJK
PQK K[I TIJKRMN K[PQg[K. w[LT[ LH K[I NMRgIHK gRPQZ MJq e[a{
2. \RIZMRI M NLHK Ps zIaePRqH IJq Z[RMHIH `IsPRI eRLKLJg M ZMRMgRMZ[: M) de0)ri&ing [Pe K[I ZPPR `Pa
NPPzIq `IsPRI K[I qPTKPR D; `) te..ing M HKPRa Ps [LH RITPxIRa; T) arguing M`PQK K[I KQRJLJg ZPLJK LJ [LH
LNNJIHH; q) eQ(.aining K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ VLNIH MJq zLNPVIKIRH! `IKeIIJ K[I pM[RIJ[ILK K[IRVPVIKIR MJq
K[I OIJKLgRMqI K[IRVPVIKIR.
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
1. a) Iisten to the text "A Victim to One Hundred and Seven FataI MaIadies", mark the
stresses and tunes, b) Repeat the test foIIowing; the modeI.
2. Listen to the diaIogue "A Visit to the Doctor". Repeat the text in the intervaI and record
your version. Compare your version with the originaI and correct your mistakes.
3. Respond to the foIIowing suggestions. Begin your sentences with "Hadn't we (he)
better.."?
4. Extend the statements. Begin your sentences with "It's time you (he, etc.)" + a verb in the
Past Subjunctive.
5. Write a dictation. Check the speIIing using a dictionary.
6. TransIate the given sentences into EngIish. Check them with the key.
7. Listen to the text "Doctor SaIIy" or some other text on the topic. Get ready to act it out in
cIass.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
Crossword Puzzle
Across
+. /KPZ M [PNI LJ M KPPK[ eLK[ TIVIJK! IKT. 4. /ILI HPVIK[LJg eLK[ K[I KIIK[ (MNHP TMQHI M
H[MRZ ZMLJ). ++. pLNN M [PNI LJ M KPPK[ eLK[ TIVIJK! IKT. +4. pL`IRH () TPJJITKLJg K[I
`RMLJ eLK[ MNN PK[IR ZMRKH Ps K[I `Pqa MJq TMRRaLJg sIINLJgH KP K[I `RMLJ. +3. iIK PQK K[I MLR
HQqqIJNa K[RPQg[ K[I JPHI MJq K[I VPQK[ (QHQ. e[IJ [MxLJg M TPNq). +b. dJ LJHKRQVIJK sPR
VIMHQRLJg KIVZIRMKQRI. +2. d zLJq Ps VIqLTLJI [MxLJg gPPq IssITKH PJ K[I `Pqa. 24. u[I
VLqqNI PLJK Ps K[I NIg e[IRI K[I NIg `IJqH. 2*. d [PNNPe LJ K[I NQJgH (). 27. d
ZIRHPJ e[P ZRMTKLHIH VIqLTLJI MJq KRIMKH ZIPZNI. 2b. u[I qRLJz VMqI `a ZPQRLJg `PLNLJg
eMKIR PJ qRLIq NIMxIH `IMRLJg K[I HMVI JMVI! PsKIJ QHIq MH M KPJLT. 22. d TPNPQRIq NLfQLq
QHIq sPR eRLKLJg eLK[ M ZIJ. 4). uMzI PJIlH TNPK[IH Pss. 4+. OPVI LJKP KeP PR VPRI ZMRKH;
TRMTz M `PJI! PLJK.
Down
2. 0RIMK[LJg PRgMJH sPQJq LJ VMJ MJq MJLVMN. 4. uMzI MLR LJKP K[I `Pqa MJq HIJq LK PQK. 3.
GSLHK. *. u[I qIgRII Ps [IMK PR TPNq LJ K[I MLR! eMKIR! `Pqa! IKT. ,. 0I HKLNN! RINMS MsKIR ePRz!
IssPRKH! IKT. 7. /VMNN HZPKH (RIq PR ZLJz) TNPHI KPgIK[IR PJ K[I HzLJ (QHQ. M HaVZKPV Ps M
qLHIMHI). b. nLssLTQNKa LJ qLgIHKLJg sPPq. 2. 0I MeMRI K[RPQg[ K[I HIJHIH. +). d TMKT[LJg
qLHIMHI VMRzIq `a sIxIR MJq HVMNN HZPKH K[MK TPxIR K[I e[PNI `Pqa (TPVVPJ MVPJg
T[LNqRIJ). +2. ULxI VIqLTMN TMRI KP ZIPZNI LJ PRqIR KP TQRI K[IV. +*. d [Lg[ KIVZIRMKQRI. +,.
u[I RIq NLfQLq LJ K[I `Pqa. +7. u[I RIgQNMR `IMKLJg Ps K[I MRKIRLIH MH K[I `NPPq LH sPRTIq MNPJg
K[IV. 2). dJ PZIJ HPRI (! 8) PJ LJKIRJMN PRgMJH. 2+. d HZITLMN T[PLTI Ps sPPq
PRqIRIq `a M qPTKPR. 22. .NN! QJeINN. 23. d ZIRHPJ HZITLMNNa KRMLJIq KP NPPz MsKIR HLTz ZIPZNI.
2,. d H[PRK HNIIZ. 27. 1PK TNIMRNa HIIJ.
UNIT THREE
SPEECH PATTERNS
1. yPQ .i/e the way K[Ia ePRz.
. NLzI K[I eMa K[I qPTKPR KRIMKH K[I T[LNq. nP aPQ NLzI K[I eMa H[I eIMRH [IR [MK{ . qPJlK
NLzI K[I eMa aPQ HZIMz KP VI. u[I KIMT[IR qLqJlK NLzI K[I eMa K[I T[LNqRIJ `I[MxIq LJ TNMHH.
2. It i0 MNeMaH intere0ting sPR KPQRLHKH KP KMzI M KRLZ MNPJg K[I u[MVIH LJ M `PMK.
.K eMH qLssLTQNK sPR K[I HKQqIJKH KP VMzI JPKIH Ps [LH NITKQRI.
.K eLNN `I TPJxIJLIJK sPR aPQ KP NLxI LJ PQR [PHKIN.
.K ePQNq `I QHIsQN sPR [LV KP gLxI QZ HVPzLJg.
.K ePQNq [MxI `IIJ JMKQRMN sPR K[I HLTz VMJ KP sMNN MHNIIZ MsKIR K[I LJITKLPJ.
EXERCISES
I. Say whether you Iike or disIike the way:
+. K[I qPTKPR KRIMKIq K[I `Pa (LJ K[I HKPRa rd nMalH wMLKr);
2. K[I `Pa `I[MxIq qQRLJg [LH LNNJIHH;
4. |IVLJgeMa qIHTRL`Iq K[I `PalH VPPq;
3. aPQ HZIJK aPQR HQVVIR [PNLqMaH;
*. K[I HKQqIJKH Ps aPQR gRPQZ ePRz MK K[ILR GJgNLH[;
,. aPQ eIRI KMQg[K GJgNLH[ MK HT[PPN;
7. ePVIJ qRIHH JPeMqMaH;
b. K[I gLRNH LJ aPQR gRPQZ qRIHH K[ILR [MLR.
II. FiII in missing adjectives + preposition:
+. wLNN LK `I......IxIRa`Pqa KP [MxI PQR VIIKLJg MsKIR K[I NIHHPJH{ . `INLIxI HP! `QK . qPJlK
zJPe Ls LK eLNN `I......PQR KIMT[IR. 2. wPQNq LK `I......K[I HITPJqaIMR HKQqIJKH KP RIMq GJgNLH[
JIeHZMZIRH{ .s aPQ VIMJ ZMZIRH ZQ`NLH[Iq LJ 0RLKMLJ . K[LJz LK ePQNq `I......K[IV HP sMR. 4.
w[LT[ LH VPRI......M HKQqIJK: KP RIMq PR KP HZIMz GJgNLH[ eINN{ .s K[I HKQqIJK LH gPLJg KP
`ITPVI M KIMT[IR! LKlH IfQMNNa ... ... [LV PR [IR `PK[ KP RIMq MJq HZIMz eINN. 3. nP aPQ K[LJz LK
ePQNq `I......HKQqIJKH eLK[ `Mq HZINNLJg KP TPZa GJgNLH[ KISKH{ .K VLg[K `I......K[IV! Ps
TPQRHI! `QK KP KINN aPQ K[I KRQK[ LKlH M xIRa KLRIHPVI P`. *. wLNN LK `I.......HKQqIJKH KP KMzI ZMRK
LJ K[I Z[PJIKLT TPJKIHK MK PQR qIZMRKVIJK{ os TPQRHI. .K eLNN `I ......sLRHKaIMR HKQqIJKH MH LK
eLNN gLxI K[IV M gPPq T[MJTI KP `RQH[ QZ K[ILR ZRPJQJTLMKLPJ.
III. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. ~5 ; >6 6$ $ ! $ ;. 2!
" 8 8 6 E! 8 8 $>. 4.
" ! 8 D6! 6 6D $ 7 9.
3. R 7! $ 9$ 6 $ ;5 . *.
" ! E $ 8. ,. A$
6 %9 D; .
IV. Make up micro-diaIogues using Speech Patterns 1-2:
vPqIN: w[a qLqJlK aPQ TPVI KP 1lH RITLKMN aIHKIRqMa{ . NLzIq K[I eMa [I ZNMaIq.
.lq [MxI TPVI Ls . eIRI M VQHLTLMJ MH aPQ MRI. 0QK LKlH qLssLTQNK sPR VI KP
QJqIRHKMJq HIRLPQH VQHLT! . ZRIsIR M.
TEXT. INTRODUCING LONDON
iPJqPJ LH MJ MJTLIJK TLKa. .K gRIe QZ MRPQJq K[I sLRHK ZPLJK e[IRI K[I PVMJ LJxMqIRH
sPQJq K[I u[MVIH JMRRPe IJPQg[ KP `QLNq M `RLqgI. u[Ia sPQJq M HVMNN OINKLT HIKKNIVIJK
K[IJ zJPeJ MH iPJqLJLQV MJq `a d. n. 4)) K[Ia [Mq KQRJIq LK LJKP M HLIM`NI ZPRK MJq MJ
LVZPRKMJK KRMqLJg TIJKRI eLK[ M eMNN e[LT[ IJTNPHIq K[I [PVIH Ps M`PQK *)!))) ZIPZNI.
oJI LJ HIxIJ Ps K[I ZPZQNMKLPJ Ps K[I }JLKIq jLJgqPV LH M iPJqPJIR. d`PQK 7 VLNNLPJ
ZIPZNI NLxI LJ URIMKIR iPJqPJ.

iPJqPJ qPVLJMKIH 0RLKLH[ NLsI. .K LH K[I [PVI Ps K[I JMKLPJlH
TPVVIRTI MJq sLJMJTI! K[I VMLJ TIJKRI Ps LKH NIgMN HaHKIV MJq K[I ZRIHH. .K [MH K[I NMRgIHK
QJLxIRHLKa MJq K[I gRIMKIHK ZPHHL`LNLKLIH sPR IJKIRKMLJVIJK MJq sPR HZPRK in K[I TPQJKRa.
iPJqPJ LH PJI Ps K[I sMVPQH TMZLKMN TLKLIH Ps K[I ePRNq! MJq IxIRa aIMR MKKRMTKH TRPeqH Ps
xLHLKPRH sRPV [PVI MJq M`RPMq. u[Ia TPVI KP ISZNPRI LKH [LHKPRLT `QLNqLJgH! KP HII LKH
VQHIQVH MJq gMNNIRLIH! LKH HKRIIKH MJq ZMRzH! MJq LKH ZIPZNI.
u[I `QLNKQZ MRIM Ps URIMKIR iPJqPJ HKRIKT[IH *) zLNPVIKRIH sRPV IMHK KP eIHK MJq VMJa
Ps LKH qLHKRLTKH MRI NLJzIq eLK[ ZMRKLTQNMR MTKLxLKLIH! sPR ISMVZNI! ZMRNLMVIJKMRa MJq
gPxIRJVIJK MTKLxLKa TIJKRIH PJ \MRNLMVIJK /fQMRI Ps wIHKVLJHKIR MJq w[LKI[MNN. mQHK MH
rwIHKVLJHKIRr HKMJqH sPR \MRNLMVIJK HP rw[LKI[MNNr LH PsKIJ QHIq MH K[I JMVI sPR TIJKRMN
UPxIRJVIJK.
oss w[LKI[MNN LJ M HVMNN HLqIHKRIIK nPeJLJg /KRIIK LH M fQLIK! QJLVZRIHHLxI [PQHI
1P. +) K[I PssLTLMN [PVI Ps \RLVI vLJLHKIR.
mQHK MH wMNN /KRIIK LJ 1Ie yPRz LH K[I TIJKRI Ps TPVVIRTI MJq sLJMJTI HP K[I OLKa Ps
iPJqPJ! HPVIKLVIH TMNNIq rK[I HfQMRI VLNIr LH K[I TIJKRI sPR VPJIa VMKKIRH. |IRI LJ
u[RIMqJIIqNI /KRIIK LH K[I 0MJz Ps GJgNMJq HPVIKLVIH TMNNIq ru[I oNq iMqa Ps
u[RIMqJIIqNI /KRIIKr K[I TIJKRMN `MJzLJg LJHKLKQKLPJ e[PHI ZPQJq JPKIH sPRV K[I VMLJ
TQRRIJTa LJ K[I TPQJKRa. pNIIK /KRIIK JIMR /K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN QHIq KP `I M `QHa HKRIIK sQNN Ps
sPRILgJ! ZRPxLJTLMN MJq iPJqPJ JIeHZMZIR PssLTIH HQT[ MH 2he Sai.y -Q(re00, 2he Sai.y
2e.egra(h"
u[PQg[ VPHK Ps K[I 0RLKLH[ JMKLPJMN JIeHZMZIR PssLTIH [MxI VPxIq KP wMZZLJg! MJ MRIM
LJ GMHK iPJqPJ! K[I JMVI Ps pNIIK /KRIIK LH HKLNN QHIq KP qIHTRL`I K[I JIeHZMZIR LJqQHKRa.
.J /PQK[ jIJHLJgKPJ K[IRI MRI HIxIRMN NMRgI VQHIQVH. u[I :LTKPRLM MJq dN`IRK vQHIQV
eLK[ M VMgJLsLTIJK TPNNITKLPJ Ps sLJI MJq MZZNLIq MRKH MNHP LJTNQqIH M eLqIRMJgLJg qLHZNMa Ps
TIRMVLTH! VIKMNePRz MJq M HINITKLPJ Ps OPJHKM`NIlH VMHKIRZLITIH e[LT[ MRI eINN ePRK[
HIILJg. u[I 1MKQRMN |LHKPRa vQHIQV TPJKMLJH ZNMJKH! MJLVMNH MJq VLJIRMNH. u[I |MNN Ps
|QVMJ 0LPNPga IJM`NIH xLHLKPRH KP NIMRJ M`PQK K[ILR `PqLIH MJq K[I eMa K[Ia ePRz. GS[L`LKH
LJ K[I /TLIJTI vQHIQV qLHZNMa K[I qLHTPxIRa MJq qIxINPZVIJK Ps HQT[ LJxIJKLPJH MH K[I
HKIMV IJgLJI! Z[PKPgRMZ[a! gNMHHVMzLJg! ZRLJKLJg MJq MKPVLT Z[aHLTH. u[IRI LH M gMNNIRa
e[IRI T[LNqRIJ TMJ ISZIRLVIJK eLK[ ePRzLJg VPqINH. u[I vQHIQV Ps iPJqPJ LJ K[I OLKa
ZRIHIJKH K[I `LPgRMZ[a Ps iPJqPJ! sRPV K[I sPQJqLJg Ps iPJqPJ `a PVMJH KP K[I URIMKIR
iPJqPJ Ps KPqMa. wLK[LJ M HgQMRI zLNPVIKRI PR HP LJ iPJqPJlH K[IMKRINMJq MRI PxIR K[LRKa
K[IMKRIH! H[PeLJg M NMRgI RMJgI Ps PNq MJq VPqIV ZNMaH. /VMNNIR rsRLJgIr K[IMKRIH ZIRsPRV LJ
TNQ`H! ZQ`H MJq MK NQJT[ KLVI.
iPJqPJ LH sQNN Ps ZMRzH MJq gRIIJ HZMTIH. |aqI \MRz! PRLgLJMNNa M RPaMN [QJKLJg sPRIHK! LH
K[I NMRgIHK ZMRz LJ iPJqPJ. .J HQVVIR K[I /IRZIJKLJI TMJMN e[LT[ sNPeH K[RPQg[ K[I ZMRz LH
MNeMaH sQNN Ps HeLVVIRH! RPeIRH MJq HQJ`MK[IRH. mQHK HPQK[ Ps K[I /IRZIJKLJI LH. PKKIJ
Pe! M sMH[LPJM`NI HZPK sPR [PRHIRLqLJg! MJq LJ PJI TPRJIR! JIMR vMR`NI dRT[ LH /ZIMzIRHl
OPVIR; e[IRI IxIRaPJI TMJ gP MJq MLR K[ILR xLIeH KP MJaPJI e[P eLNN NLHKIJ. 0IaPJq |aqI
\MRz NLIH MJPK[IR RPaMN ZMRz! jIJHLJgKPJ UMRqIJH. O[LNqRIJ gMK[IR `a K[I HKMKQI Ps \IKIR \MJ!
mMVIH 0MRRLIlH eINNzJPeJ HKPRa`PPz T[MRMTKIR! PR HMLN K[ILR VPqIN `PMKH PJ K[I PQJq
\PJq. .J K[I JPRK[ Ps iPJqPJ LH IgIJKlH \MRz eLK[ M PP MJq MJ PZIJMLR K[IMKRI. d KRLZ
MNPJg IgIJKlH OMJMN LJ M RLxIR`PMK gLxIH M T[MJTI KP HII iPJqPJ iLKKNI :IJLTI! M fQLIK
TPQJKRaHLqI MRIM sPR RLT[ ZIPZNI PJNa MH K[I NMJq [IRI LH xIRa ISZIJHLxI.
iLzI VMJa TMZLKMN TLKLIH! iPJqPJ gRIe QZ MNPJg M VMPR RLxIR. u[I u[MVIH qLxLqIH
iPJqPJ H[MRZNa LJ KeP. vPHK Ps TIJKRMN iPJqPJ LH PJ K[I JPRK[ `MJz Ps K[I RLxIR. u[I
u[MVIH MK iPJqPJ LH KLqMN MJq K[IRI [MxI `IIJ HIxIRMN HIRLPQH sNPPqH. u[I RLHz Ps K[LH LH
LJTRIMHLJg MH HPQK[IRJ GJgNMJq LH HLJzLJg LJ RINMKLPJ KP HIM NIxIN. u[RIMK Ps qLHMHKIR!
[PeIxIR! [MH `IIJ NIHHIJIq `a K[I TPJHKRQTKLPJ Ps M sNPPq `MRRLIR.
.K LH MNeMaH LJKIRIHKLJg sPR KPQRLHKH KP KMzI M KRLZ MNPJg K[I u[MVIH LJ M `PMK MH LK gLxIH M
HKRLzLJg ZMJPRMVM Ps iPJqPJ. u[I `IHK eMa KP HII K[I TLKa fQLTzNa LH sRPV K[I KPZ Ps iPJqPJ
RIq qPQ`NIqITzIR `QHIH. /ZITLMN KPQRLHK `QHIH gP PJ KeP[PQR TLRTQNMR KPQRH. u[I PK[IR fQLTz
MJq IMHa eMa Ps gIKKLJg MRPQJq iPJqPJ LH `a rKQ`Ir K[I }JqIRgRPQJq RMLNeMa. nQRLJg K[I
rRMH[ [PQRHr! e[IJ PssLTI ePRzIRH [QRRa KP MJq sRPV ePRz! K[I KQ`I KRMLJ qPPRH TMJ [MRqNa
TNPHI `I[LJq K[I TRQH[Iq TRPeqH.
iPJqPJ LH MJ MJTLIJK TLKa. 0QK LK LH MNHP M NLxLJg TLKa MJq NLzI MNN NLxLJg TLKLIH LK LH
TPJHKMJKNa qIxINPZLJg.
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. historic ad% 5 ($7=5 ! DD5
7)! !"g" [LHKPRLT ZNMTI! qMKI! HZIIT[! IxIJK! `MKKNI! IKT. +b+2 eMH M [LHKPRLT aIMR sPR
QHHLMJ ZIPZNI.
historical ad% 5 (85 5! $7=5 D
)! !"g" [LHKPRLTMN VMKIRLMNLHV! HTLIJTI! ZRLJTLZNIH! VIK[Pq! MZZRPMT[ (KP); [LHKPRLTMN
JPxIN! ZLTKQRI! ZNMa! sLNV; [LHKPRLTMN qIZMRKVIJK! VQHIQV! IKT.
history n ! !"g" K[I [LHKPRa Ps PQR TPQJKRa! K[I [LHKPRa Ps K[I NMJgQMgI; M [LHKPRa
NIHHPJ; K[I |LHKPRa vQHIQV.
Note 1: .J JMVIH Ps MTMqIVLT HQ`ITKH JP MRKLTNI LH QHIq! !"g" |LHKPRa Ps K[I GJgNLH[ NMJgQMgI LH M qLssLTQNK
HQ`ITK
Note 2: u[I QHHLMJ ePRq KNKT [MH HIxIRMN GJgNLH[ IfQLxMNIJKH: ) (9 ;.)
[LHKPRa! !"g" u[LH KPeJ [MH MJ LJKIRIHKLJg [LHKPRa.; `) ! HKPRa! !"g" . qPJlK NLzI
HKPRLIH Ps HQT[ zLJq. |I KPNq QH K[I HKPRa Ps [LH e[PNI NLsI.; ) D IxIJK! !"g" uINN QH HPVIK[LJg
M`PQK K[LH HKRMJgI IxIJK. 0QK: d sQJJa K[LJg [MZZIJIq KP [LV. (( $ D .)
u[IRIlH M ZRIKKa zIKKNI Ps sLH[c ( c)
2. worth n %6! !"g" .KlH M qLHTPxIRa Ps gRIMK ePRK[. u[LH LJsPRVMKLPJ LH Ps JP ePRK[.
worth ad% (redi) =5; worth smth.! !"g" u[LH ZLTKQRI LH JPK ePRK[ K[I VPJIa aPQlxI
ZMLq sPR LK. u[LH ZRP`NIV LH JPK ePRK[ PQR MKKIJKLPJ. u[LH P` LH JPK ePRK[ K[I KLVI eIlxI
HZIJK PJ LK.; worth doing smth.! !"g" u[LH sLNV LH ePRK[ HIILJg. 0PPzH Ps K[MK zLJq MRI JPK
ePRK[ RIMqLJg. u[LH ZRP`NIV LHJlK ePRK[ qLHTQHHLJg. |LH LNNJIHH LH [MRqNa ePRK[ KRPQ`NLJg
M`PQK.; worth while! !"g" .K LHJlK ePRK[ e[LNI HIILJg K[I sLNV. .K LHJlK ePRK[ e[LNI HLKKLJg [IRI
KLNN * PlTNPTz. .K LH ePRK[ e[LNI KRaLJg KP TMKT[ K[I KRMLJ! . K[LJz LKlH ePRK[ e[LNI HZIMzLJg KP
[LV M`PQK LK. Cf.: u[LH `PPz LH ePRK[ RIMqLJg. .K LH ePRK[ e[LNI RIMqLJg K[LH `PPz.
worthy ad% 585! !"g" /[I LH M xIRa ePRK[a ePVMJ.; to be worthy of smth., HV`.!
!"g" |LH `I[MxLPQR LH ePRK[a Ps gRIMK ZRMLHI.
unworthy ad% 585
3. masterpiece n D
piece n +. ! (0 M ZLITI Ps T[MNz (ePPq! ZMZIR! IKT.)
#yn" lump, slice. d HNLTI LH M K[LJ! sNMK ZLITI TQK Pss sRPV MJaK[LJg! MH M HNLTI Ps `RIMq
(T[IIHI! NIVPJ! [MV! IKT.). A lump LH M HVMNN HZITLMNNa H[MZIq PR H[MZINIHH ZLITI! a0 M NQVZ
Ps HQgMR (`QKKIR! IKT.).
to pieces ! !"g" u[I TQZ sINN MJq eMH `RPzIJ KP ZLITIH.
2. 685 $! 6! !"g" M ZLITI Ps sQRJLKQRI; M! ZLITI Ps ZPIKRa
(9); M ZLITI Ps ZMLJKLJg (); M ZLITI Ps MqxLTI (); MZLITI Ps JIeH
(6);
4. $! !"g" M KePH[LNNLJg ZLITI! M gPNq (HLNxIR) ZLITI
#yn" coin (QHIq VPRI PsKIJ K[MJ ZLITI)
4. human ad% 5! 585 ! !"g" M [QVMJ JMKQRI! K[I [QVMJ
`Pqa! [QVMJ MssMLRH! M [QVMJ `ILJg (); hu'mane ad% ;$85! 85
dJK. cruel
inhuman ad% 85! a0 LJ[QVMJ KRIMKVIJK
humanity n (un)ounta&.e: +. ! a0 M TRLVI MgMLJHK [QVMJLKa
#yn" man'kind n (QJTPQJsM`NI). 'ut 'mankind $>8! $>5
2. ;$6! 6! a0 KP KRIMK ZIPZNI eLK[ [QVMJLKa
the Humanities ;$8 ; HaJ. the Arts! !"g" dRI aPQ LJKIRIHKIq LJ K[I
|QVMJLKLIH (K[I dRKH) PR LJ K[I GSMTK /TLIJTIH (8 ) {
5. to strike (struck, struck) t +. 6! 6; to strike smb., to strike smb.
(smth.) on smth. !"g" |I HKRQTz K[I `Pa M xLPNIJK `NPe. u[I VMJ HKRQTz iMJJa PJ K[I sMTI.
|I HKRQTz [LH sLHK PJ K[I KM`NI.
/aJ. to hit (hit, hit)! !"g" w[a qLq [I [LK K[I `Pa{; to hit one's hand (foot, head! IKT.) on
smth.! !"g" . [LK Va [IMq PJ K[I NPe H[INs.
1PKI: strike MJq hit VMa `I QHIq LJ K[I HMVI HIJHI to strike or to hit smb. `QK TMRI H[PQNq `I KMzIJ
KP QHI K[I ZRPZIR xIR` V KRMqLKLPJMN ePRq TPV`LJMKLPJH HQT[ MH to strike a match 6 5! I! U"
/PVI`Pqa HKRQTz M VMKT[ HP K[MK eI TPQLq HII IMT[ PK[IR.
2. 6 ( 9)! !"g" .K [MH QHK HKRQTz [MNs ZMHK sPQR. u[LH KPeIR TNPTz HKRLzIH K[I [PQRH.
4. >6! 6! U" wI eIRI HKRQTz `a `LH HKRMJgI `I[MxLPQR. .K HKRQTz VI K[MK [I
[Mq gRPeJ HP PNq. vMJa K[LJgH VLg[K HKRLzI QH MH QJQHQMN LJ M sPRILgJ TPQJKRa.
#yn" to surprise, to astonish, to puzzle
1KI: to be struck means rKP `I sLNNIq HQqqIJNa eLK[ M HKRPJg sIINLJg Ps HQRZRLHIr. u[MK qLHKLJgQLH[IH K[I
xIR` to strike from its synonyms to astonish MJq to surprise; to astonish LH HKRPJgIR LJ VIMJLJg K[MJ to
surprise! !"g" . H[PQNqJlK `I HQRZRLHIq Ls LK RMLJIq. .lV JPK HQRZRLHIq MK HIILJg aPQ [IRI! .lxI `IIJ KPNq M`PQK
aPQR MRRLxMN. . eMH MHKPJLH[Iq MK HIILJg [LV HP T[MJgIq. . eMH HKRQTz `a [LH HQqqIJ qIMK[.; to puzzle VIMJH
rKP VMzI M ZIRHPJ K[LJz [MRq `IsPRI sLJqLJg MJ MJHeIRr! e"g" |LH NIKKIR ZQNIq VI. ( . qLqJlK zJPe e[a [I
[Mq eRLKKIJ LK)
striking ad%, a0 HKRLzLJg NLzIJIHH (JIeH! TPJKRMHK) stricken ((" terror-stricken; horror-
stricken; panic-stricken
1PKI: K[I xIR` KP HKRLzI [MH [PVPJaVH: M) strike i 6! `) strike n !
!"g" dNN K[I RMLNeMa ePRzIRH PLJIq K[I HKRLzI.; to go on strike ]6
6. circuIar ad% ;85! ;5! !"g" u[IRI LH M TLRTQNMR RMLNeMa RQJJLJg RPQJq
vPHTPe. d TLRTQNMR HKMLRTMHI NIq KP K[I KPZ Ps K[I KPeIR.
circulate +. %6! !"g" 0NPPq TLRTQNMKIH LJ K[I `Pqa.; 2. 6!
6! !"g" 0Mq JIeH TLRTQNMKIH fQLTzNa.
circulation n +. %%! !"g" u[I TLRTQNMKLPJ Ps MLR LH RMK[IR `Mq [IRI! K[MKlH e[a LK LH
HKQssa.; 2. ! = (U!J!VJ!:, !"g" oJNa HLNxIR MJq TPZZIR TPLJH MRI
LJ TLRTQNMKLPJ JPe.
blood-circulation n =
circle n +. ;! >6! !"g" .KlH MNVPHK LVZPHHL`NI KP qRMe M TLRTNI eLK[PQK M ZMLR Ps
TPVZMHHIH ( %).; 2. ;! ; 75! !"g" < `INPJgIq KP K[I `QHLJIHH TLRTNI
Ps K[I KPeJ.
NOTES ON HOMONYMS
Homonyms MRI ePRqH K[MK TPLJTLqI LJ sPRV! `QK [MxI qLssIRIJK VIMJLJgH MJq. VMa (PR
VMa JPK) `INPJg KP qLssIRIJK TMKIgPRLIH PR ZMRKH Ps HZIIT[. |PVPJaVH VMa TPLJTLqI `PK[ LJ
Z[PJIKLT MJq LJ gRMZ[LT sPRV! MH &a.., n ($) MJq &a.., n () PR fair, ad% (85!
85 . .) MJq fair, n ($). u[Ia VMa TPLJTLqI PJNa LJ ZRPJQJTLMKLPJ!
`QK [MxI qLssIRIJK gRMZ[LT sPRVH! MH 0ea, n MJq KP HII! x. u[Ia VMa TPLJTLqI LJ HZINNLJg! `QK
`I qLssIRIJKNa ZRPJPQJTIq! MH .ead WNIq n (%) MJq KP .ead WNL:q ().
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
MJTLIJK ad% sLJMJTI n ZLITI n
MHKPJLH[ sNPPq n ZPHHL`LNLKa n
`QLNKQZ ad% [LHKPRLT ad% ZPQJq n
TLRTNI n [LHKPRLTMN ad% ZQNI
TLRTQNMR ad% [QVMJ ad% HIM NIxIN
TLRTQNMKLPJ n [QVMJLKa n HIKKNIVIJK n
TPLJ n (K[I) |QVMJLKLIH HNLTI n
TPVVIRTI n NQVZ n HKRIKT[
TQRRIJTa n VMJzLJq n HKRLzI
qPQ`NIqITzIR n VMHKIRZLITI n HKRLzLJg ad%
IJKIRKMLJVIJK n \MRNLMVIJK n KRMssLT n
IS[L`LK ZMRNLMVIJKMRa ad% ePRK[ n, ad%
ePRK[a ad%
Word Combinations
KP `RIMz KP ZLITIH KP gP PJ M KPQR KP KQRJ HVK[. LJKP
HVK[.
M ZMJPRMVM (xLIe) Ps KP [MxI M ZPHHL`LNLKa sPR KP `I M HQRZRLHI KP
KP HKMJq sPR HVK[. KP HKRLzI M VMKT[ KP `I ePRK[a Ps
HVK[.
KP HKRLzI M `NPe M ZLITI Ps MqxLTI KP gP PJ HKRLzI
sLJI MJq MZZNLIq MRKH KP `I M HQRZRLHI KP HV`. KP KMzI M KRLZ
Proper Names
PVMJ K[I :LTKPRLM MJq dN`ILK vQHIQV
K[I u[MVIH OPJHKM`NI
iPJqLJLQV K[I 1MKQRMN |LHKPRa vQHIQV
wIHKVLJHKIR K[I /TLIJTI vQHIQV
w[LKI[MNN K[I vQHIQV Ps iPJqPJ
nPeJLJg /KRIIK |aqI \MRz
pNIIK /KRIIK K[I /IRZIJKLJI
/K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN vMR`NI dRT[
/PQK[ jIJHLJgKPJ jIJHLJgKPJ UMRqIJH
IgIJKlH \MRz
EXERCISES
1. Read the text and taIk as the foIIowing points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, . Word-
formation):
d. +. w[MK KIJHI gRPQZ LH VMLJNa QHIq LJ K[I KISK MJq e[a{
2. pLJq ZMHHLxI xPLTI TPJHKRQTKLPJH MJq KRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[IV.
0. uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH `IgLJJLJg eLK[ just as ... so LJKP QHHLMJ.
O. /IMRT[ K[I KISK sPR TPVZPQJqH! TPVVIJK PJ K[ILR HKRQTKQRI. pLJq qIRLxMKLxIH eLK[ K[I
HQssLSIH -ment, -er, -ly MJq TNMHHLsa K[IV MTTPRqLJg KP K[I TMKIgPRa Ps HZIIT[.
II. a) Search tee text and the footnotes for the EngIish equivaIents of the sentences and
phrases Iisted beIow:
A. +. 6 $6 6 85 ;85 ;; 2.
$6 $> 5 5 $; 4. $5 $6; 3.
5 6; ; ; *.
D6 ; $ $ Y$; ,. 6! $6; 7.
8 $ ;.
B. +. 8! @68B ;8; 2. = 89 8
>$; 4. 8 ; 3. ! 7= ; *. 5
7 >7 $; . $ *) .
b) Use them in sentences of your own.
III. a) SpeII and give the four forms of the foIIowing verbs:
WgREQ! W`INq! WqlKRxzK! WHIJq! WqIlHZNII! WsNEQ! WNMI]! Wl[ARI! WHKRMIz! WZAN.
b) Transcribe the foIIowing words:
OINKLT! HIKKNIVIJK! TPVVIRTI! sLJMJTI! ISZNPRI! zLNPVIKRI! ZMRNLMVIJKMRa! VMgJLsLTIJK!
TIRMVLTH! VIKMNePRz! Z[PKPgRMZ[a! MKPVLT! RPaMN! TMJMN! HQJ`MK[IR! VMPR! `MRRLIR!
ZMJPRMVM! qPQ`NIqITzIR! qLHMHKIR.
c) Write the degrees of comparison of:
JMRRPe! HVMNN! gRIMK! PNq! fQLIK! ePRK[a! `QHa! IMHa.
d) Find homonyms in Text of Unit Three.
IV. a) AnaIyse the morphoIogicaI structure of the word sizable, expIain its meaning and give
its Russian equivaIent
b) Form adjectives from these verbaI stems by adding the negative prefix fprrjuks] on-, and
the adjective-forming suffix -able. ExpIain the meaning of the derivatives and transIate them
(in one word):
IMK! RIMq! `RIMz! sPRgIK! ZMRqPJ! qIHTRL`I! qIHLRI! LVMgLJI! `INLIxI.
V. Write questions based on the text. Use in your questions the suggested word
combinations. Ask your questions in cIass:
+. KP KQRJ HVK[. LJKP; 2. `QLNqQZ MRIM; 4. K[I [PVI Ps; 3. KP HKMJq sPR; *. K[I PssLTLMN [PVI
Ps K[I \RLVI vLJLHKIR; ,. rK[I HfQMRI VLNIr; 7. K[I TIJKRMN `MJzLJg LJHKLKQKLPJ; b! KP `I sQNN Ps;
2. sLJI MJq MZZNLIq MRKH; +). K[I /TLIJTI vQHIQV; ++. K[IMKRINMJq; +2. KP MLR PJIlH xLIeH; +4.
KP gMK[IR `a; +3. KP gRPe QZ; +*. K[RIMK Ps qLHMHKIR; +,. KP gLxI M ZMJPRMVM; +7. K[I rRQH[
[PQRHr.
VI. Try your hand at teaching. (See "CIassroom EngIish", Sections VI, VIII, IX, X.)
A. Preparation. wRLKI 24 HZITLMN fQIHKLPJH M`PQK IMT[ ZMRMgRMZ[ Ps K[I KISK MJq
sPPKJPKIH. /II KP LK K[MK JIe ePRqH! Z[RMHIH MJq ZMKKIRJH MRI QHIq ILK[IR LJ aPQR fQIHKLPJH PR
LJ MJHeIRH KP K[IV.
B. Work in class. \QK aPQR fQIHKLPJH KP K[I TNMHH MJq TPVVIJK PJ K[I MJHeIRH (ISZRIHH
aPQR MZZRPxMN PR qLHMZZRPxMN; TPRRITK K[I VLHKMzIH! Ls K[IRI MRI MJa; Mqq HPVI qIKMLNH Ls
JITIHHMRa! IKT.).
VII. Make up a diaIogue based on one of the paragraphs of the text or the footnotes. Speak
for a Russian and an EngIish student. Try and give an additionaI piece of information on the
topic Use the prompts:
|MxI aPQ [IMRq (M`PQK)...{; nP aPQ [MZZIJ KP zJPe...{; |MxI aPQ gPK MJa LqIM{;
/PVIPJI [MH KPNq VI K[MK...; u[MKlH e[MK . [IMRq; .lV MsRMLq . qPJlK zJPe VQT[ M`PQK...; .
ePJqIR Ls aPQ RIVIV`IR...; |MxI . gPK LK RLg[K{; dV . RLg[K KP `INLIxI{; d`HPNQKINa; GSMTKNa;
u[MKlH xIRa HQRZRLHLJgc; u[MKlH MVMLJgc
VIII. a) Comment on the diaIogue beIow:
d.: |Pe TMJ aPQ `I HP HKQZLq MH KP K[LJz K[MK iPJqPJ LH `IMQKLsQNc
.: /KQZLqc w[MK JPJHIJHIc os TPQRHI LKlH `IMQKLsQN. iPPz MK MNN K[I ZMRzH MJq 0QTzLJg[MV
\MNMTI MJq MNN K[I T[QRT[IH.
d.: Q``LH[c u[IalRI sLNK[a MJq sQNN Ps QJz.
.: pPR gPPqJIHH HMzI! e[a qPJlK aPQ PZIJ aPQR IaIH{ wMNz MRPQJq LJHKIMq Ps QHK
qRLxLJg RPQJq LJ M KMSL MNN qMac (Wargreave0 P" MJq F.et)her @"
vMzLJg \PNLKI 1PLHIH! iMq.! +2b2)
b) Make up simiIar diaIogues on the sights of your native town. The foIIowing phrases might
heIp you:
. qPJlK MgRII MK MNN. yPQ VQHK `I PzLJgc u[IRIlH JP IxLqIJTI sPR K[MK. o[! K[MKlH RLqLTQNPQHc
1PJHIJHIc Q``LH[c . qPJlK `INLIxI K[MK MK MNN. yPQ qPJlK zJPe e[MK aPQlRI KMNzLJg M`PQK.
yPQlRI TPVZNIKINa eRPJg M`PQK K[MK.
IX. FiII in a suitabIe word or phrase: a) surprise, astonish, strike, puzzIe:
+. . ePJlK `I ... Ls [I gIKH M rsLxIr! [I LH M xIRa `RLg[K `Pa. 2. wI eIRI ... `a K[I TPJKRMHKH
`IKeIIJ eIMNK[ MJq ZPxIRKa LJ nIN[L. 4. |LH fQIHKLPJ ... VI. . qLqJlK zJPe [Pe KP MJHeIR LK.
3. . eMH ... KP VIIK [LV LJ KPeJ! . eMH HQRI [I [Mq JPK TPVI `MTz aIK. *. |LH TRQINKa... QH. wI
MNeMaH K[PQg[K K[MK `I eMH zLJq MJq HaVZMK[IKLT.
b) piece, Iamp, sIice:
+. \LTz QZ K[I ... Ps K[I `RPzIJ TQZ MJq K[RPe K[IV PQK. 2. ULxI VI M... Ps ZMZIR. .lNN H[Pe
aPQ [Pe KP VMzI M `PMK sPR K[I T[LNq. 4. .lq NLzI KP KMzI PJI VPRI ... Ps TMzI. vMa .{ 3. .
JIxIR ZQK VPRI K[MJ KeP ... Ps HQgMR LJKP Va KIM. *. . JIIq M H[PRK ... Ps HKRLJg KP KLI K[I ZMRTIN
eLK[. ,. .lq NLzI KP [MxI M ... Ps NIVPJ eLK[ Va KIM.
c) historic or historicaI:
+. Iq /fQMRI LH M ... HZPK: VMJa ... IxIJKH KPPz ZNMTI LJ LK. 2. .J [LH ... JPxINH wMNKIR /TPKK
gMxI M ePJqIRsQN qIHTRLZKLPJ JPK PJNa Ps ... IxIJKH! `QK Ps e[PNI ... IZPT[H. 4. u[I JLJK[ Ps
vMa LH PJI Ps PQR VPHK LVZPRKMJK... qMKIH: eI TINI`RMKI PQR ... xLTKPRa LJ wPRNq wMR ... 3.
u[IRI MRI VMJa ... VPJQVIJKH LJ vPHTPe.
X. ReteII the Text Use the map of London on pp. 114-115.
XI. a) FiII in preposition wherever necessary:
\NIMHI RIVIV`IR: traffic ... 0RLKMLJ keeps ... the leftc /P e[IJ crossing a street look
right sLRHK K[IJ left. .s ZPHHL`NI cross ... zebra crossings! HPVIKLVIH indicated ... flashing
orange lights ... either side ... the road.
Speed limit ... 0RLKMLJ LH 7) VZ[ ( VLNIH ZIR [PQR); ... built-up areas 4) VZ[. Careful
riding LH IHHIJKLMN MH K[IRI MRI VMJa narrow MJq winding roads.
Roads ... fast long-distance driving MRI TMNNIq motorways. u[I `IHK zJPeJ LH K[I
VPKPReMa ... iPJqPJ MJq iIIqH. Road signs MRI VPHKNa K[I HMVI MH K[PHI QHIq ... K[I
TPJKLJIJK. u[I HMVI gPIH ... traffic lights.
b) Speak about the traffic in this country using the word combinations in boId type.
XII. a) ExpIain the meaning of these proverbs. TransIate them. Give their Russian
equivaIents:
d `LRq LJ K[I [MJq LH ePRK[ KeP LJ K[I `QH[. u[I gMVI LH JPK ePRK[ K[I TMJqNI. dJ [PQR LJ
K[I VPRJLJg LH ePRK[ KeP LJ K[I IxIJLJg. 0IKeIIJ KeP IxLNH lKLH JPK ePRK[ e[LNI T[PPHLJg.
b) Say whether you agree with Lord Goring's opinion that "It is aIways worth whiIe asking a
question, though it is not aIways worth whiIe answering one." (O. WiIde. "An IdeaI
Husband")
XIII. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using a) be well worth + ger/n or b) just as... so:
+. |I 6 ; Y$! D$ 685. 2. (
D6 ; . 4. < 6 $ =! 8$ 8
6. 3. ( 6 "5 & $6!
$7 $$. *. A $ $
$ ! ( C85 %. ,. A $
@;$8$B $ $7 7! ! 8
8! @8$B $ C! 9$7! .
XIV. Arrange micro-diaIogues on the foIIowing topics:
+. |Pe PNq vPHTPe LH. w[IRI MJq [Pe LK HKMRKIq. 2. w[MK VPJIa LH LJ TLRTQNMKLPJ LJ K[LH
TPQJKRa. 4. w[MK K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR ZMZIRH LJ vPHTPe MRI. 3. w[a vQHTPxLKIH NLzI K[ILR
QJqIRgRPQJq RMLNeMa. *. w[MK K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR VQHIQVH LJ vPHTPe MRI. w[MK LH IS[L`LKIq
K[IRI{ ,. w[MK aPQ zJPe M`PQK ZMRzH LJ vPHTPe. 7. u[I KRMssLT LJ K[I TMZLKMN.
XV. a) Read and transIate the text:
dZMRK sRPV VPRI LVZPRKMJK JIeH ZRLJKIq PJ K[I sLRHK ZMgI eLK[ `Lg [IMqNLJIH LJ `PNq KaZI
K[IRI MRI VMJa PK[IR HITKLPJH LJ K[I ZMZIR. /PVI ZIPZNI KQRJ MK PJTI KP TNMHHLsLIq MqH (TMNNIq
`a K[MK JMVI `ITMQHI MqxIRKLHIVIJKH MRI MRRMJgIq LJ gRPQZH NLzI: rKP NIKr! rZRPZIRKa eMJKIqr!
rHLKQMKLPJ xMTMJKr! IKT.). pPR K[PHI e[P MRI LJKIRIHKIq LJ TNPK[IH K[IRI MRI sMH[LPJ ZMgIH. yPQ
TMJ sLJq PQK e[MKlH PJ `a NPPzLJg LJ K[I MqxIRKLHIVIJK gQLqI. /PVI NLzI KP NPPz K[RPQg[ K[I
e[PNI ZMZIR RIMqLJg M [IMqNLJI [IRI! gNMJTLJg MK MJ LJKIRIHKLJg MRKLTNI K[IRI! NPPzLJg MK M
ZPNLKLTMN TMRKPPJ! VMa`I! PR RIMqLJg HPVI Ps `QHLJIHH JIeH.
b) Answer the suggested questions:
+. nP aPQ RIMq ZMZIRH KP TMKT[ QZ eLK[ K[I NMKIHK JIeH PR MRI aPQ LJKIRIHKIq LJ HPVI
ZMRKLTQNMR ZRP`NIVH{ w[a{ 2. w[IRI TMJ eI sLJq K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK ZPNLKLTMN! `QHLJIHH MJq
TQNKQRMN JIeH LJ PQR ZMZIRH{ 4. .J e[LT[ Ps PQR JIeHZMZIRH TMJ aPQ sLJq MqxIRKLHIVIJKH{
dRI K[Ia TNMHHLsLIq LJ MJa eMa{ 3. dRI K[IRI MJa ZPNLKLTMN TMRKPPJH MJq MVQHIVIJK gQLqIH LJ
PQR ZMZIRH{ *. dRI aPQ QHIq KP HKQqaLJg M JIeHZMZIR K[PRPQg[Na PR QHK gNMJTLJg MK MJ MRKLTNI
[IRI MJq K[IRI{
XVI. TransIate the sentences into EngIish:
+. ; =$ . 2. h ;
5 $. 4. <6 $ : 9
;5$ 8$. 3. "8 6! ; ! #5
" 75 $> 886 > 7$
! $ $> 8D6 $; 9. *! ]! $
>! ,. A6 $! E $5 D; >. 7. Y6
; = C8 8. b. +23* ; 5 ; ;
2. F> ;5 ; $ 85 ; 5. +).
&! 7$ $ ; 6D$ >$! 87 >8
D. A. ( 689 ; 8 6 $ "8. +2
A$= ; ;5 5! %7=5 $. +4. ( 89
$ 87 9 ;9 D5 8. +3 ; % 5
6; ; 5 E; $. +*.
h8 X; $ " $ 5 $
%% ?. +,. A6 6 >89 59
"8 ,) $/.
XVII. a) Read the text. ReteII it adding some more Information about ParIiament
u[I sLRHK wIHKVLJHKIR \MNMTI eMH `QLNK `a GqeMRq K[I OPJsIHHPR LJ M`PQK +)*) MJq eMH
QHIq MH M RPaMN RIHLqIJTI! K[IJ as the seat of Government MJq sLJMNNa! MsKIR +*37! MH the
meeting place for Parliament. u[I sLRI Ps +b43 qIHKRPaIq VPHK Ps K[I PRLgLJMN `QLNqLJgH.
u[I JIe `QLNqLJg sPR \MRNLMVIJK eMH qIHLgJIq `a /LR O[MRNIH 0MRRa LJ +b3). u[I gIJIRMN
HKaNI LH gPK[LT.
u[IRI MRI KeP "Chambers" PR "Houses" of Parliament K[MK Ps K[I OPVVPJH MJq
K[MK Ps K[I iPRqH. u[I VPRI LVZPRKMJK MJq ZPeIRsQN Ps K[IHI LH K[I |PQHI Ps OPVVPJH!
e[PHI members are elected by the public. u[I \RLVI vLJLHKIR MJq VPHK Ps K[I
UPxIRJVIJK MRI vIV`IRH Ps K[I |PQHI Ps OPVVPJH. u[I |PQHI Ps iPRqH is made up of
iPRqH e[P [MxI LJ[IRLKIq K[ILR KLKNIH MJq K[I RLg[K KP HLK LJ K[I |PQHI! MJq rNLsI ZIIRHr e[P
MRI MZZPLJKIq `a K[I QIIJ on the advice of the Government of the day.
|MNs Ps K[I `QLNqLJg Ps \MRNLMVIJK LH QHIq `a K[I OPVVPJH MJq K[I PK[IR [MNs `a K[I
iPRqH. dK K[I wIHKVLJHKIR 0RLqgI IJq LH K[I RIHLqIJTI Ps K[I /ZIMzIR! e[P presides over
meetings Ps K[I |PQHI Ps OPVVPJH MJq MK K[I PK[IR IJq LH K[I RIHLqIJTI Ps K[I iPRq
O[MJTINNPR! e[P ZRIHLqIH PxIR K[I |PQHI Ps iPRqH.
Parliament's most important function is the making of laws. 0IsPRI M JIe NMe (PR
0LNN) can come into effect! LK VQHK pass through K[RII HKMgIH LJ IMT[ |PQHI MJq be given
K[I QIIJlH approval. .K K[IJ `ITPVIH an Act of Parliament.
(/II: @ountefie.d $" iPJqPJ. iJq.! +272)
b) Say what you know about the Russian ParIiament, i. e. two chambers: the Duma and the
CounciI of Federation.
XVIII. Give the idea of the text in EngIish:
A $ ;! 6
5 $! 8! %! D 6 $8 5
. ' = 8 6 > D. '
89 %5 5 $ $6$
".YE. ' 8 7 %7 $! 8 7
D$ 6D9 . <! 5 $5
;8 @F 5 $B! ; YE
> 6 $ ; 8
6. $ 9 -5! $7
$ C! $; $ 9
. A E9 $7=9 5 76 >
9 . (@_ >$B! 2! +2b*)
XIX. Read and comment on the foIIowing:
REMEMBRANCE DAY (POPPY DAY)
IVIV`RMJTI nMa LH P`HIRxIq K[RPQg[PQK 0RLKMLJ LJ TPVVIVPRMKLPJ Ps K[I VLNNLPJ PR
VPRI 0RLKLH[ HPNqLIRH! HMLNPRH MJq MLRVIJ e[P NPHK K[ILR NLxIH qQRLJg K[I KeP wPRNq wMRH. oJ
K[MK qMa eRIMK[H MRI NMLq MK eMR VIVPRLMNH K[RPQg[PQK K[I TPQJKRa MJq MK iPJqPJlH OIJPKMZ[
(M eMR VIVPRLMN LJ w[LKI[MNN) e[IRI M LgRIMK JQV`IR Ps ZIPZNI gMK[IR KP P`HIRxI K[I KeP
VLJQKI HLNIJTI MJq KP ZIRsPRV K[I MJJQMN IVIV`RMJTI nMa TIRIVPJa. u[I HLNIJTI `IgLJH
MK K[I sLRHK HKRPzI Ps 0Lg 0IJ `PPVLJg ++ PlTNPTz MJq i0 `RPzIJ PJNa `a K[I TRMH[ Ps qLHKMJK
MRKLNNIRa. w[IJ K[I KePVLJQKI HLNIJTI LH PxIR! VIV`IRH Ps K[I PaMN pMVLNa PR K[ILR
RIZRIHIJKMKLxIH MJq ZPNLKLTMN NIMqIRH TPVI sPReMRq KP NMa eRIMK[H MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I^IJPKMZ[.
u[IJ TPVIH K[I VMRT[ ZMHK K[I VIVPRLMN Ps ISHIRxLTIVIJ MJq ePVIJ! sPNNPeIq `a MJ
IJqNIHH NLJI Ps PRqLJMRa TLKLIJH e[P [MxI TPVI [IRI eLK[ K[ILR ZIRHPJMN eRIMK[H MJq K[ILR
HMq VIVPRLIH. oJ K[MK qMa MRKLsLTLMN ZPZZLIH! M HaV`PN Ps VPQRJLJg! MRI KRMqLKLPJMNNa HPNq LJ
K[I HKRIIKH MJq ZIPZNI eIMR K[IV LJ K[ILR `QKKPJ[PNIH.
(From OQHKPVH! uRMqLKLPJH MJq pIHKLxMNH Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ
&y u. j[LVQJLJM! 1. jPJPJ! i. wMNH[I. v! +273)
XX. a) CoIIect information on EngIish traditions and customs.
b) Arrange a taIk between Russian and EngIish students on their nationaI traditions,
customs and habits. (One of the students shouId conduct it: introduce the participants to
each other, make a short introductory speech on the subject, ask questions, etc. to keep the
taIk running on, sum up the discussion.)
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
+. NLHKIJ KP K[I KISK r.JKRPqQTLJg iPJqPJr.
2. IHZPJq KP K[I sPNNPeLJg QHLJg K[I HQggIHKIq VPqINH.
4. OPVZNIKI K[I HIJKIJTIH QHLJg K[I gLxIJ HQggIHKLPJH.
3. uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH LJKP GJgNLH[! QHLJg K[I GHHIJKLMN :PTM`QNMRa Ps }JLK u[RII.
O[ITz aPQR HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[I zIa.
*. NLHKIJ KP HPVI KISK MJq eRLKI LK MH M qLTKMKLPJ! T[ITz K[I HZINNLJg eLK[ K[I zIa. IKINN K[I
KISK.
,. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK ru[I |PQHI Ps OPVVPJHr PR HPVI PK[IR KISK PJ K[I HMVI KPZLT.
IKINN K[I KISK! Mqq VPRI .JsPRVMKLPJ PJ K[I KPZLT.
TOP!: CITY
TEXT A. SOME MORE GLIMPSES OF LONDON
iPJqPJ LH PJI Ps K[I `LggIHK MJq VPHK LJKIRIHKLJg TLKLIH LJ K[I ePRNq.
uRMqLKLPJMNNa LK LH qLxLqIq LJKP K[I wIHK GJq MJq K[I GMHK GJq. u[I wIHK GJq LH sMVPQH
sPR LKH `IMQKLsQN MxIJQIH NLJIq eLK[ ZNMJI KRIIH! `Lg HKPRIH! RLT[ VMJHLPJH! ISZIJHLxI
RIHKMQRMJKH! [PKINH! K[IMKRIH MJq JLg[K TNQ`H. u[I GMHK GJq QHIq KP `I M ZPPR MRIM sLNNIq eLK[
eMRI[PQHIH! sMTKPRLIH! HNQVH MJq VLHIRM`NI [PQHIH. QLKI M NPK Ps ZIPZNI NLxIq sRPV [MJq KP
VPQK[ [IRI. pPR K[I RITIJK aIMRH K[LH MRIM LJTNQqLJg nPTzNMJq [MH KQRJIq LJKP M JIe [PQHLJg
qIxINPZVIJK.
u[I [IMRK Ps iPJqPJ LH K[I OLKa LKH TPVVIRTLMN MJq `QHLJIHH TIJKRI. |IRI LH HLKQMKIq
K[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ K[MK TPVIH sLRHK MVPJg K[I [LHKPRLT `QLNqLJgH Ps K[I TLKa. .s aPQ eMJK KP
gIK HPVI gNLVZHIH Ps iPJqPJ LKlH QHK sRPV [IRI K[MK aPQ [Mq `IKKIR HKMRK HLg[KHIILJg.
u[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ eMH sPQJqIq `a mQNLQH OMIHMR MJq LJ +),, RI`QLNK `a wLNNLMV K[I
OPJfQIRPR. .K eMH QHIq MH M sPRKRIHH! M RPaMN RIHLqIJTI MJq M ZRLHPJ. 1Pe LK LH M VQHIQV Ps
MRVPQR MJq MNHP K[I ZNMTI e[IRI K[I ORPeJ mIeINH MRI zIZK. .J ZRIHIJK qMaH! QHK MH VMJa
TIJKQRLIH MgP! K[I OIRIVPJa Ps K[I jIaH KMzIH ZNMTI MK LKH gMKIH. GxIRa JLg[K e[IJ K[I gQMRq
LH T[MJgIq MK IMT[ gMKI K[IRI LH K[I TRa: r|MLKL w[P gPIH K[IRI{r u[IJ K[I gQMRq RIZNLIH:
ru[I jIaH.r rw[PHI jIaH{r rQIIJ GNLM`IK[lH jIaHcr r\MHH! QIIJ GNLM`IK[lH jIaHc
dNNlH eINN.r dJq HP K[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ LH HMsINa TNPHIq sPR K[I JLg[K.
d KeIJKa VLJQKIHl eMNz sRPV K[I uPeIR eLNN KMzI aPQ KP MJPK[IR [LHKPRLT `QLNqLJg /K.
\MQNlH OMK[IqRMN! K[I gRIMKIHK Ps GJgNLH[ T[QRT[IH. .K eMH `QLNK `a M sMVPQH GJgNLH[ MRT[LKITK!
/LR O[RLHKPZ[IR wRIJ (+,42+724). /K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN eLK[ LKH [QgI qPVI MJq RPeH Ps
TPNQVJH LH TPJHLqIRIq KP `I M sLJI HZITLVIJ Ps IJMLHHMJTI MRT[LKITKQRI. .J PJI Ps LKH KPeIRH
[MJgH PJI Ps K[I NMRgIHK `INNH LJ K[I ePRNq! URIMK \MQN! eILg[LJg M`PQK +7.* KPJH.
wINNLJgKPJ! 1INHPJ MJq PK[IR gRIMK VIJ Ps GJgNMJq MRI `QRLIq LJ K[I OMK[IqRMN.
1PK sMR MeMa! LJ wIHKVLJHKIR! e[IRI VPHK Ps K[I UPxIRJVIJK `QLNqLJgH MRI HLKQMKIq! LH
wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia. vMJa GJgNLH[ HPxIRILgJH! PQKHKMJqLJg HKMKIHVIJ! ZMLJKIRH MJq ZPIKH
(1IeKPJ! nMReLJ! MJq uIJJaHPJ MVPJg K[IV) MRI `QRLIq [IRI.
dTRPHH K[I RPMq sRPV wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia LH wIHKVLJHKIR \MNMTI! K[I HIMK Ps K[I 0RLKLH[
\MRNLMVIJK. .KH KeP gRMTIsQN KPeIRH HKMJq [Lg[ M`PxI K[I TLKa. u[I [Lg[IR Ps K[I KeP TPJKMLJH
K[I NMRgIHK TNPTz LJ K[I TPQJKRa MJq K[I sMVPQH `INN 0Lg 0IJ K[MK HKRLzIH IxIRa fQMRKIR Ps K[I
[PQR.
.s JPe eI eMNz MNPJg w[LKI[MNN! eI H[MNN HPPJ TPVI KP uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI. .K eMH HP
JMVIq LJ VIVPRa Ps K[I xLTKPRa LJ K[I `MKKNI Ps uRMsMNgMR! e[IRI PJ oTKP`IR 2+! +b)* K[I
GJgNLH[ sNIIK QJqIR 1INHPJlH TPVVMJq qIsIMKIq K[I TPV`LJIq sNIIK Ps pRMJTI MJq /ZMLJ. u[I
xLTKPRa eMH ePJ MK K[I TPHK Ps 1INHPJlH NLsI. .J K[I VLqqNI Ps uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI HKMJqH
1INHPJlH VPJQVIJK M KMNN TPNQVJ eLK[ K[I sLgQRI Ps 1INHPJ MK LKH KPZ. u[I TPNQVJ LH
gQMRqIq `a sPQR `RPJI NLPJH.
u[I sLJI `QLNqLJg sMTLJg K[I HfQMRI LH K[I 1MKLPJMN UMNNIRa MJq MqPLJLJg LK (`QK QHK RPQJq
K[I TPRJIR) LH K[I \PRKRMLK UMNNIRa.
1PK sMR MeMa LH K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV K[I `LggIHK vQHIQV LJ iPJqPJ. .K TPJKMLJH M
ZRLTINIHH TPNNITKLPJ Ps qLssIRIJK K[LJgH (MJTLIJK VMJQHTRLZKH! TPLJH! HTQNZKQRIH! IKT.). u[I
0RLKLH[ vQHIQV LH sMVPQH sPR LKH NL`RMRa PJI Ps K[I RLT[IHK LJ K[I ePRNq. .J LKH NMRgI
TLRTQNMR RIMqLJg RPPV vMRS! GJgINH MJq NMKIR iIJLJ QHIq KP ePRz.
dJq JPe! IxIJ Ls aPQ [MxI MNVPHK JP KLVI NIsK sPR sQRK[IR HLg[KHIILJg! aPQ TMJJPK NIMxI
K[I TLKa eLK[PQK xLHLKLJg |aqI \MRz PR rK[I \MRzr MH iPJqPJIRH TMNN LK. w[IJ aPQ MRI eMNzLJg
MNPJg LKH H[Mqa MxIJQIH! HLKKLJg PJ K[I gRMHH! MqVLRLJg LKH `IMQKLsQN sNPeIR`IqH PR eMKT[LJg
HeMJH MJq qQTzH sNPMKLJg PJ K[I ZPJqH! LK HIIVH MNVPHK QJ`INLIxM`NI K[MK MNN MRPQJq K[IRI LH
M NMRgI TLKa eLK[ LKH [IMxa KRMssLT.
TEXT B. SIGHTSEEING
.H LK ZPHHL`NI KP HII MJaK[LJg Ps iPJqPJ LJ PJI PR KeP qMaH{
wINN! aIH! `QK! Ps TPQRHI! JPK [MNs IJPQg[.
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz . PQg[K KP HII sLRHK{
wINN! Ls aPQ MRI LJKIRIHKIq LJ T[QRT[IH MJq [LHKPRLT ZNMTIH aPQ H[PQNq gP KP
wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia! K[I |PQHIH Ps \MRNLMVIJK! /K. \MQNlH MJq K[I uPeIR. nP aPQ NLzI MRK
gMNNIRLIH{
MK[IRc
u[IJ e[a JPK gP KP K[I 1MKLPJMN UMNNIRa MJq K[I uMKI{
.lV KPNq PJI PQg[K KP HII K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV. nP aPQ K[LJz . H[MNN [MxI KLVI sPR K[MK{
wINN! aPQ VLg[K! `QK Ls . eIRI aPQ! . H[PQNq NIMxI K[MK sPR HPVI PK[IR qMa. yPQ TPQNq
HZIJq M e[PNI qMa K[IRI. .KlH VQT[ KPP `Lg KP `I HIIJ LJ MJ [PQR PR HP.
. HQZZPHI LK LH. w[MK M`PQK gPLJg KP K[I PP{
u[MKlH JPK M `Mq LqIM. yPQ TPQNq HZIJq M TPQZNI Ps [PQRH K[IRI TPVsPRKM`Na! PR IxIJ M
e[PNI MsKIRJPPJ! eMKT[LJg K[I eLNq MJLVMNH! `LRqH MJq RIZKLNIH. yPQ TPQNq [MxI KIM K[IRI KPP.
.lNN qP K[MK! K[IJ. |Pe qP . gIK K[IRI{
iIK VI HII. . K[LJz aPQR `IHK eMa sRPV [IRI LH KP eMNz MTRPHH IgIJKlH ZMRz.
.H LK VQT[ Ps M eMNz{
o[! JP! M fQMRKIR Ps MJ [PQR PR HP! `QK! Ls aPQ MRI LJ M [QRRa! e[a JPK KMzI M KMSL{
. K[LJz . eLNN. d[! [IRIlH PJI TPVLJg. uMSLc u[I PP! ZNIMHI.
(From ru[I iLJgQMZ[PJI GJgNLH[ OPQRHIr)
TEXT C. RED SQUARE
Iq /fQMRI [MH eLKJIHHIq VMJa LVZPRKMJK IxIJKH LJ K[I NLsI Ps QHHLMJ ZIPZNI. u[PQg[
KLVI [MH T[MJgIq K[I sMTI Ps Iq /fQMRI LKl [MH RIVMLJIq K[I VMLJ HfQMRI MJq K[I [IMRK Ps
K[I TLKa.
:LHLKPRH sRPV [PVI MJq M`RPMq HKRIMV [IRI KP IJPa K[I `IMQKa Ps K[I [LHKPRLT `QLNqLJgH
MJq VPJQVIJKH Ps e[LT[ K[I jRIVNLJ TPVIH sLRHK. u[I jRIVNLJ RIZRIHIJKH TIJKQRLIH Ps
QHHLMJ [LHKPRa MJq PJI LH QHQMNNa HKRQTz `a K[I MQHKIRI MJq ZPeIRsQN MZZIMRMJTI Ps LKH eMNNH
MJq KPeIRH.
iLzI K[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ K[I jRIVNLJ eMH QHIq MH M sPRKRIHH MJq M HPxIRILgJlH RIHLqIJTI.
1Pe LK [PQHIH K[I \RIHLqIJKlH PssLTI MJq M JQV`IR Ps VQHIQVH LJTNQqLJg K[I dRVPRa
O[MV`IR MJq K[I nLMVPJq pQJq.
.J K[I TIJKRI Ps K[I HfQMRI `a K[I jRIVNLJ eMNN LH K[I iIJLJ vMQHPNIQV! IRITKIq LJ +24)
`a d. /[T[QHIx. u[I MRT[LKITK LJKIRZRIKIq K[I KRMqLKLPJH Ps K[I ZaRMVLqH LJ M VPqIV eMa MJq
gMxI K[I VPJQVIJK M NMTPJLT MRT[LKITKQRMN sPRV e[LT[ eMH ZPZQNMR LJ K[I KeIJKLIH. 0I[LJq
K[I vMQHPNIQV K[IRI LH M JITRPZPNLH Ps HPVI PQKHKMJqLJg HKMKIHVIJ MJq ZPNLKLTMN NIMqIRH.
oJ K[I HPQK[IRJ HLqI Ps Iq /fQMRI LH /K. 0MHLNlH OMK[IqRMN (:MHLNa 0NM[IJa)! M
VMHKIRZLITI Ps MJTLIJK QHHLMJ MRT[LKITKQRI. .K eMH `QLNK LJ +*** ,+ LJ VIVPRa Ps K[I
xLTKPRa PxIR jMMJ (+**2). u[I VPJQVIJK HKMJqLJg LJ sRPJK Ps K[I OMK[IqRMN KINNH QH Ps K[I
ZIPZNIlH xLTKPRa PxIR K[I \PNLH[ LJxMqIRH LJ +,+2. u[I LJHTRLZKLPJ PJ K[I VPJQVIJK RIMqH:
ruP OLKLIJ vLJLJ MJq \RLJTI \P[MRHza sRPV M gRMKIsQN QHHLMr. u[I VPJQVIJK LH K[I ePRz
Ps .. vMRKPH (+7*2+b4*). 1PK sMR sRPV K[I OMK[IqRMN LH e[MK LH TMNNIq K[I iP`JPaI vIHKP!
M ZNMKsPRV Ps e[LKI HKPJI VPRI K[MJ 3)) aIMRH PNq. u[I KHMRlH IqLTKH eIRI ZRPTNMLVIq K[IRI.
\Q`NLT ISITQKLPJH eIRI TMRRLIq PQK PJ M ePPqIJ HTMssPNq IRITKIq JIMR`a. uP K[I RLg[K Ps K[I
OMK[IqRMN PJ K[I KIRRLKPRa Ps K[I jRIVNLJ eI TMJ HII M KMNN KPeIR! VPRI NLzI M TPNQVJ! PxIR
b) VIKRIH [Lg[. .K LH K[I 0INN uPeIR Ps .xMJ K[I URIMK `QLNK LJ K[I +*K[ TIJKQRa. u[IRI MRI
KeIJKaKeP NMRgI `INNH MJq PxIR K[LRKa HVMNN PJIH LJ LK. pPR TIJKQRLIH K[I IMHKIRJ HLqI Ps Iq
/fQMRI [Mq `IIJ MHHPTLMKIq eLK[ KRMqLJg. u[I sLRHK HKPJI H[PZH eIRI `QLNK [IRI LJ K[I +,K[
TIJKQRa. uPqMa PJ K[ILR HLKI HKMJqH K[I /KMKI nIZMRKVIJK /KPRI! `IKKIR zJPeJ MH U}v.
.s eI eMNz QZ sRPV /K. 0MHLNlH KP K[I PZZPHLKI IJq Ps K[I HfQMRI eI sMTI M RIq `RLTz
`QLNqLJg. u[LH LH K[I |LHKPRa vQHIQV. .J K[I eIHK Iq /fQMRI LH MqPLJLJg K[I jRIVNLJ. mQHK
PJ K[I PK[IR HLqI Ps K[I jRIVNLJ eMNN eI TMJ HII K[I `QLNqLJg Ps K[I sPRVIR /IJMKI! MJ
PQKHKMJqLJg MRT[LKITKQRMN VPJQVIJK `QLNK `a vMKxIL jMHMzPx (+74b+b+4)! JPe K[I HIMK Ps
K[I dqVLJLHKRMKLPJ Ps K[I \RIHLqIJK. d JQV`IR Ps eMKT[KPeIRH ZRPKITK K[I jRIVNLJ `RLqgIH.
u[I e[LKI jQKMsaM uPeIR LH K[I `IHK HQRxLxPR Ps MNN Ps K[IV. u[I KMNNIHK PJI LH K[I uRLJLKa
uPeIR (b) V [Lg[). 0QK K[I /ZMHHzMaM uPeIR eLK[ K[I jRIVNLJ TNPTz [MH NPJg HLJTI `ITPVI
PJI Ps K[I HaV`PNH Ps vPHTPe.
Memory Work
Sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge
GMRK[ [MH JPK MJaK[LJg KP H[Pe VPRI sMLR:
nQNN ePQNq [I `I Ps HPQN e[P TPQNq ZMHH `a
d HLg[K HP KPQT[LJg LJ LKH VMIHKa:
u[LH OLKa JPe qPK[ NLzI M gMRVIJK eIMR
u[I `IMQKa Ps K[I VPRJLJg; HLNIJK! `MRI!
/[LZH! KPeIRH! qPVIH! K[IMKRIH! MJq KIVZNIH NLI
oZIJ QJKP K[I sLINqH! MJq KP K[I Hza:
dNN `RLg[K MJq gNLKKIRLJg LJ K[I HVPzINIHH MLR.
1IxIR qLq HQJ VPRI `IMQKLsQNNa HKIIZ
.J [LH sLRHK HZNIJqPR! xMNNIa! RPTz PR [LNN;
1IlIR HMe .! JIxIR sINK! M TMNV HP qIIZc
u[I RLxIR gNLqIK[ MK `LH PeJ HeIIK eLNN:
nIMR UPqc K[I xIRa [PQHIH HIIV MHNIIZ;
dJq MNN K[MK VLg[Ka [IMRK LH NaLJg HKLNNc wLNNLMV
wPRqHePRK[
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
Words
MqPLJ qIsIMK IeIN n MRT[LKITKQRI n
qPVI n
VMJHLPJ n MRVPQR n IRITK RIHLqIJTI n
MxIJQI n
sNPMK HIMK n `QRa sPRKRIHH n
H[Mqa ad%
T[MJgI gQMRq HZITLVIJ n TMK[IqRMN n
[QgI ad%
HKMKIHVMJ n TPJKMLJ
Word Combinations
KP NLxI sRPV [MJq KP VPQK[ KP eLJ K[I xLTKPRa
KP `I NLJIq eLK[ (KRIIH! [PQHIH) MK K[I TPHK Ps HV`.lH NLsI
KP `I sPQJq (LJ HPVI ZNMTI) MK K[I KPZ
M JIe [PQHLJg qIxINPZVIJK RPQJq K[I TPRJIR
KP [MxI (gIK! TMKT[) M gNLVZHI Ps KP `I sMVPQH sPR HVK[.
KP [MxI JP KLVI (VPJIa! IKT.) NIsK LJ ZRIHIJK qMaH
MTRPHH K[I RPMq (sRPV HPVI ZNMTI) w[a JPK qP HVK[.{
KP qP K[I HLg[KH Ps HVK[. LJ VIVPRa Ps
KP qP K[I TLKa (VQHIQVH! ZMRzH! IKT.) QJqIR K[I TPVVMJq
Proper Names
K[I iIJLJ vMQHPNIQV 0Lg 0IJ K[I GMHK GJq
uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI
K[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ K[I jRIVNLJ mQNLQH OMIHMR K[I
wIHK GJq
wLNNLMV K[I OPJfQIRPR /K. 0MHLNlH OMK[IqRMN QIIJ GNLM`IK[ K[I
0INN uPeIR
O[RLHKPZ[IR wRIJ Ps .xMJ K[I URIMK wINNLJgKPJ
K[I |LHKPRa vQHIQV wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia K[I /ZMHHzMaM uPeIR
EXERCISES
I. Study Text A and expIain the meaning of the words and phrases Iisted beIow:
VMJHLPJ! KP NLxI sRPV [MJq KP VPQK[! VLHIRM`NI [PQHIH! KP NLJI K[I HKRIIKH! qPVI! HNQVH! KP
TPVI sLRHK! K[I ORPeJ mIeINH! [QgI! HKMKIHVMJ! MTRPHH K[I RPMq! K[I HIMK (Ps K[I gPxIRJVIJK)!
MK K[I TPHK Ps HPVI`PqalH NLsI! KP sMTI HVK[.! H[Mqa MxIJQIH.
II. Learn the words of the texts and a) copy and transcribe these words:
VMJHLPJ! RIHKMQRMJK! IeIN! gQMRq! [MNK! TPNQVJ! KPJ! HPxIRILgJ! JMKLPJMN! sNPMK! HTQNZKQRI!
HeMJ! eILg[! TPJfQIRPR! HZITLVIJ.
b) TransIate into EngIish and mark the stresses:
6! %$! >! YC6; =6! 6! !
9! ~! .
c) Form derivatives of these verbs by adding the prefix re- (meaning "do smth. again"):
GSMVZNI: `QLNq RI`QLNq
eRLKI! KINN! TPJHKRQTK! MRV! INITK! ZRPqQTI.
III. Answer the questions:
+. |Pe qP K[I KeP ZMRKH Ps iPJqPJ qLssIR sRPV IMT[ PK[IR{ 2. w[a LH LK `IKKIR KP HKMRK
HLg[KHIILJg sRPV K[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ{ 4. w[P sPQJqIq K[I uPeIR MJq e[IJ eMH LK RI`QLNK{
3. w[MK eMH K[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ QHIq sPR{ *. w[MK LH K[I OLKa{ ,. w[MK qPIH K[I Z[RMHI rM
ZNMTI Ps LJKIRIHKr VIMJ{ 7. w[MK qP aPQ zJPe M`PQK /K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN{ b. w[MK LH
w[LKI[MNN MJq LJ e[LT[ ZMRK Ps iPJqPJ LH LK HLKQMKIq{ 2. w[MK qPIH K[I OIRIVPJa Ps K[I
jIaH TPJHLHK Ps{ +). w[MK qP aPQ TMNN K[I `QLNqLJg LJ e[LT[ K[I |PQHIH Ps \MRNLMVIJK MRI
HLKQMKIq{ .K LH PJI `QLNqLJg! e[a K[IJ qP eI HMa ru[I |PQHIH Ps \MRNLMVIJKr{ ++. w[MK LH
0Lg 0IJ{ +2. w[MK zLJq Ps VQHIQV LH K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV{ +4. w[MK qP aPQ zJPe M`PQK
|aqI \MRz{
IV. Read the text and show aII the pIaces of interest mentioned there on the map:
uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI LH K[I JMKQRMN TIJKRI Ps iPJqPJ. OPQNq eI `QK HKMJq +,b sIIK (M`PQK *)
VIKRIH) M`PxI K[I KRMssLT! `IHLqI K[I sLgQRI Ps K[I dqVLRMN! eI RIMNNa TPQNq HII MNN K[I gRIMK
NMJqVMRzH Ps iPJqPJ. w[LKI[MNN! e[LT[ NIMqH PQK Ps K[I HfQMRI KP K[I HPQK[! LH K[I HLKI Ps
VMJa UPxIRJVIJK PssLTIH LJTNQqLJg K[I \RLVI vLJLHKIRlH RIHLqIJTI! pPRILgJ ossLTI! wMR
ossLTI; MK K[I sMR IJq Ps w[LKI[MNN HKMJq! `IHLqI K[I u[MVIH! K[I |PQHIH Ps \MRNLMVIJK eLK[
K[I 0Lg ONPTz uPeIR! MJq wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia; KP K[I NIsK OPxIJK UMRqIJ sRQLK VMRzIK MJq
OPxIJK UMRqIJ oZIRM |PQHI! MJq `IaPJq K[I 0MJz Ps GJgNMJq; MJPK[IR HNLg[K KQRJ NIsK
ePQNq IJM`NI aPQR IaI KP sMNN PJ K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV; sQRK[IR NIsK HKLNN eI H[PQNq HII
K[IMKRINMJq MRPQJq \LTTMqLNNa OLRTQH (LK LH JPK MK MNN M TLRTQH `QK MJ PZIJ HZMTI Ps M TLRTQNMR
sPRV) MJq K[PHI ISZIJHLxI H[PZZLJg ZRPVIJMqIH IgIJK /KRIIK! oSsPRq /KRIIK! 0PJq
/KRIIK; M NLKKNI sQRK[IR! MJq LJKP xLIe ePQNq TPVI |aqI \MRz LJ K[I qLHKMJTI! eLK[! JIMRIR!
0QTzLJg[MV \MNMTI! MJq PaMN nRLxI zJPeJ MH K[I vMNN! e[LT[ NIMqH LJKP uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI.
V. Use Text to practise simiIar conversations on Moscow.
VI. Read and reteII:
d. u[I sMVPQH HfQMRI VLNI Ps K[I OLKa Ps iPJqPJ LH MqVLJLHKIRIq MH MJ LJqIZIJqIJK QJLK!
[MxLJg LKH PeJ iPRq vMaPR MJq OPRZPRMKLPJ MJq LKH PeJ ZPNLTI sPRTI. .K eMH [IRI K[MK K[I
PVMJH `QLNK K[ILR eMNNIq KPeJ Ps iPJqLJLQV! M sIe KRMTIH Ps e[LT[ RIVMLJ KPqMa! MJq LK
eMH [IRI K[MK K[I vIqLIxMN gQLNqH IHKM`NLH[Iq K[ILR [IMqfQMRKIRH. w[IJ MsKIR K[I URIMK pLRI
Ps +,,,! K[I OLKa eMH RI`QLNK! HKPJI MJq `RLTz RIZNMTIq K[I VMJa VMLJNa ePPqIJ VIqLIxMN
[PQHIH MJq sRPV K[MK KLVI K[I OLKa gRMqQMNNa `ITMVI M sLJMJTLMN MJq TPVVIRTLMN TIJKRI.
0. oJI Ps K[I HZITLMN PaH Ps iPJqPJ LH K[I MVPQJK Ps HZMTI gLxIJ PxIR KP ZMRzH! gMRqIJH!
HfQMRIH MJq PZIJ MRIMH. u[Ia ZRPxLqI M eINTPVI xLHQMN MJq Z[aHLTMN `RIMz sRPV K[I VMHH Ps
`QLNqLJgH MJq K[I [IMxa KRMssLT. jIe UMRqIJH MRI sMVPQH 0PKMJLT UMRqIJH PJ K[I `MJzH Ps
K[I u[MVIH. u[I gMRqIJH MJq [PK[PQHIH eLK[ RMRI sNPeIRH! KRIIH MJq H[RQ`H MRI eINN ePRK[
HIILJg. wLK[LJ M HKPJIlH K[RPe Ps 0QTzLJg[MV \MNMTI MRI /K. mMVIHlH \MRz MJq URIIJ \MRz.
/K. mMVIHlH \MRz! K[I PNqIHK LJ iPJqPJ! eMH TRIMKIq `a |IJRa :... MJq RIqIHLgJIq `a [LH
HQTTIHHPRH. URIIJ \MRz! MH LKH JMVI HQggIHKH! VMLJNa TPJHLHKH Ps NMeJH MJq KRIIH.
(From OPNPQRsQN iPJqPJ. 1PReLT[! +2b+)
VII. Make up short situations or diaIogues, using tne foIIowing words and phrases:
+. e[a JPK...! NIK VI HII! KP `I sPQJq! MTRPHH K[I RPMq! KP [MxI JP (KLVI! VPJIa) NIsK; 2. LJ
ZRIHIJK qMaH! KP NLxI sRPV [MJq KP VPQK[; 4. QJqIR K[I TPVVMJq Ps! KP `I sMVPQH sPR! KP
qIsIMK! KP eLJ K[I xLTKPRa! MK K[I TPHK Ps; 3. sPRKRIHH! MRVPQR! LJ VIVPRa Ps! KP TPJKMLJ; *.
HeMJ! NLJIq eLK[ KRIIH! sNPMK! H[Mqa MxIJQIH! MJTLIJK.
VIII. FiII in prepositions:
/TPKNMJq yMRq LH K[I [IMqfQMRKIRH ... K[I vIKRPZPNLKMJ \PNLTI ... iPJqPJ. ...VPHK ZIPZNI! LKH
JMVI LVVIqLMKINa `RLJgH ... VLJq K[I ZLTKQRI ... M qIKITKLxI TPPN! TPNNITKIq! IssLTLIJK!
RIMqa KP KRMTz qPeJ MJa TRLVLJMN.
/TPKNMJq yMRq LH HLKQMKIq ... K[I u[MVIH GV`MJzVIJK TNPHI ... K[I |PQHIH ... \MRNLMVIJK
MJq K[I sMVLNLMR TNPTz KPeIR ... 0Lg 0IJ. u[I JMVI r/TPKNMJq yMRqr PRLgLJMKIH ... K[I ZNPK ...
NMJq MqPLJLJg w[LKI[MNN \MNMTI e[IRI! ... M`PQK K[I +3K[ TIJKQRa! K[I RPaMNKa MJq JP`LNLKa ...
/TPKNMJq HKMaIq e[IJ xLHLKLJg K[I GJgNLH[ OPQRK. u[I ZPZQNMR JLTzJMVI ... K[I iPJqPJ
ZPNLTIVMJ r`P``ar LH M KRL`QKI ... /LR P`IRK \IIN! e[P LJKRPqQTIq K[I ZPNLTI sPRTI ... +b22!
MJq e[PHI O[RLHKLMJ JMVI MKKMT[Iq LKHINs ... VIV`IRH ... K[I sPRTI.
IX. Review Text "Introducing London", texts A, B, Exercises IV, VI, VIII and study the map of
London. Speak on the given topics:
+. iPJqPJ qPVLJMKIH 0RLKLH[ NLsI. 2. u[I wIHK GJq. 4. u[I GMHK GJq. 3. u[I OLKa. *. u[I
uPeIR. ,. u[I qLHKRLTK Ps wIHKVLJHKIR. 7. u[I 0RLKLH[ \MRNLMVIJK. b. w[LKI[MNN MJq pNIIK
/KRIIK. 2. uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI. +). /K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN. ++. u[I ZMRzH Ps iPJqPJ. +2. iPJqPJ
VQHIQVH. +4. iPJqPJ KRMssLT. +3. vPJQVIJKH LJ iPJqPJ.
X. TransIate into EngIish:
+. $$ % (! ;; ;!
; $; ;5; ; ;; ^.^ .
A ; $$ ;5 5 $ $ 7$ (MNNLIH)
> $ < +b+* ;. " !
5D9 $ Y$! 8 6 E5 8. 2. "E (u[I
vMNN) E D5 ! >85 6$! =5 YC6;5
= ;$$ % % ;59 5. <
% ;$85 $ 5 A8 9. h $ 8
; 6 8 ! 6 D89 %
(RILgJ) 8 $8$ >68$ (+b47+2)+). 4. 5;5
= (|Lg[gMKI OIVIKIRa) $! $ 9 $; F ".
+2*, ; 6;! 8 $ 9 % ! $ 8
; $ F ".
XI. Read Text . Say what Iandmarks you wouId mention to a group of tourists standing in
the middIe of Red Square. Use the word combinations given beIow:
KP eLKJIHH! K[I [IMRK Ps K[I TLKa! K[I sMTI Ps Iq /fQMRI! K[I HIMK Ps K[I dqVLJLHKRMKLPJ Ps
K[I \RIHLqIJK! KP [PJPQR K[I VIVPRa! KP HKRIMV KP! ZQ`NLT ISITQKLPJH! K[I `IMKLJg Ps K[I [IMRK
Ps PQR TMZLKMN!
XII. Act out a diaIogue between a Russian tourist and a poIiceman. Choose the exact pIace
(in Moscow or eIsewhere) where you are having your taIk and the pIace you want to get to.
Use in your diaIogue one or two phrases from each set given beIow:
+. GSTQHI VI! .lxI NPHK Va eMa ...; .lV KRaLJg KP gP KP ...; w[LT[ LH K[I RLg[K (`IHK! H[PRKIHK)
eMa KP ...{ \NIMHI H[Pe VI K[I eMa KP ...; |Pe qP . gIK K[IRI{ dV . PJ K[I RLg[K RPMq{ 2.
|Pe sMR LH LK{ .H LK ZPHHL`NI KP eMNz K[IRI{ .H K[IRI M `QH sRPV [IRI KP ...{ .H LK VQT[ Ps M
eMNz{ 4. UP RLg[K KP K[I IJq Ps K[I HKRIIK! K[IJ KQRJ NIsK! gP KeP `NPTzH HKRMLg[K M[IMq MJq
K[IJ KQRJ KP ... ; /KRMLg[K PJ MJq K[I HITPJq KQRJLJg KP K[I RLg[K ...; yPQ MRI gPLJg LJ K[I
PZZPHLKI qLRITKLPJ. 3. w[MK TMJ . qP sPR aPQ{ 1Pe! e[IRI LH LK aPQ eMJK KP gP{ .KlH M NPJg
qLHKMJTI Pss. .KlH M NPJg (H[PRK) eMa KP ...; .KlH fQLKI M qLHKMJTI sRPV [IRI. *. 0I TMRIsQN! K[I
KRMssLT zIIZH KP K[I NIsK LJ K[LH TPQJKRa; iPPz PQK; .K LHJlK HMsI KP TRPHH [IRI; 0I HQRI JPK KP
TRPHH K[I HKRIIK (HfQMRI! IKT.); oJI TMJ JIxIR `I KPP TMRIsQN; wMLK sPR K[I `RIMz LJ K[I KRMssLT;
nPJlK TRPHH K[I HKRIIK e[IJ K[I KRMssLT NLg[K [MH T[MJgIq KP RIq.
XIII. Try your band at teaching.
1. Read the text. Discuss what you wouId do in the teacher's position:
/QHMJ eMH M`HPNQKINa LVZPHHL`NI. oR HP [IR KIMT[IR eMH TPJxLJTIq! sPR /QHMJ qLq JPK NLzI
KP RIMq (M ZRP`NIV IxIRa KIMT[IR sMTIH sRPV KLVI KP KLVI). 0QK K[IRI eIRI K[LJgH K[MK /QHMJ
qLq IJPa. /[I NLzIq `MNNIK. dJq H[I MqPRIq [IR qPg OQRNa. r|Pe TMJ .!r K[PQg[K K[I KIMT[IR!
rLJKRPqQTI /QHMJ KP ZNIMHQRIH Ps RIMqLJg{r
2. Get 4-5 pictures of London (Moscow) attractions and be ready to comment on them. (See
"CIassroom EngIish", Sections II, L, V.)
XIV. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish:
+. X 8 $> 6 & D6 $6$. ~6 $; ;9
$6 ; $6$: $> 96 ;
D$! $> 6 97 $ !
7=$ &! $> $6 ; 95 =
9E>; ; $ ;! $> D6 7 Y$
6D$ ?>A. 2. ~ 8 8 $; 6 "5
([INLTPZKIR)! 8 8 ! $6 8 D %:
8! >8 6$ 8! 7 ; 9 9!
8 89 $;E>89 $ 6 9 ; $ 89
89 $! $89 8$. < $;8$ 5$
(`QLNqLJg HLKIH) %8 8D7 ;$8 ]$8 8 (TRMJIH). 4. "
$85 85 ;; . ( 8 $5 >9
> $7 7 ; E$! 9=7
95 5 (qITPRMKLPJ) 89 $89 %. 3. A$ . (.
AD! 85 (5 (8 AD5) =!
$89 7$89 $ >5 %8. - ; > 8 ;
8 >89 %! 8 7 $! 8 6 $6
7$; E.
XV. Act out a diaIogue between a Muscovite and a Londoner on his first visit to Moscow.
Imagine that you are standing in the middIe of Red Square. Your companion asks you about
everything be sees, gives his opinion about this and that and says what buiIdings,
monuments, etc. remind him of London. Use the prompts of Ex. VII. p. 111.
XVI. a) Get ready to read the text aIoud, b) Write a transIation of the text:
Morning City
u[LH eMH PJI Ps K[PHI VPRJLJgH e[IJ K[I HVPzI MJq K[I u[MVIH :MNNIa VLHK qITLqI KP
ePRz M sIe VLRMTNIH sPR K[ILR iPJqPJ! MJq IHZITLMNNa sPR K[I PNqIHK ZMRK Ps LK! K[I OLKa. u[I
OLKa! PJ K[IHI VPRJLJgH! LH MJ IJT[MJKVIJK. u[IRI LH M sMLJKNa NQVLJPQH [MI! JPe HLNxIR!
JPe PNq gPNq! PxIR IxIRaK[LJg. u[I `QLNqLJgH [MxI H[MZI MJq HPNLqLKa `QK JP eILg[K; K[Ia
[MJg LJ K[I MLR! NLzI ZMNMTIH PQK Ps K[I dRM`LMJ 1Lg[KH; aPQ TPQNq KPZZNI K[I qPVI Pss /K.
\MQNlH eLK[ M sPRIsLJgIR! ZQH[ `MTz K[I vMJHLPJ |PQHI! HIJq K[I vPJQVIJK sNPMKLJg LJKP
HZMTI. oJ K[IHI VPRJLJgH! K[I PNq T[QRT[IH TMJJPK `I TPQJKIq; K[IRI MRI VPRI Ps K[IV K[MJ
IxIR. u[IRI LH JP NIHH KRMssLT K[MJ QHQMN; K[I HTMRNIK HKRIMV Ps `QHIH HKLNN sNPeH K[RPQg[ K[I
MJTLIJK JMRRPe HKRIIKH; K[I ZMxIVIJKH MRI HKLNN K[RPJgIq eLK[ `MJz VIHHIJgIRH! PssLTI `PaH!
ZPNLTIVIJ! TNIRzH! KaZLHKH! TPVVLHHLPJMLRIH! qLRITKPRH! HITRIKMRLIH! TRPPzH! `QHa`PqLIH!
LqNIRH; `QK PJ K[IHI VPRJLJgH MNN K[I `QHIH! KMSLTM`H! xMJH! NPRRLIH MJq MNN K[I ZIqIHKRLMJH NPHI
HPVIK[LJg Ps K[ILR PRqLJMRa HPNLqLKa; K[Ia VPxI `I[LJq gMQI; K[Ia MRI KaRIq LJ xINxIK; K[ILR
xPLTIH MRI VQKIq; K[ILR VPxIVIJK LH LJ HNPe VPKLPJ. w[MKIxIR LH JIe MJq xQNgMR MJq sPPNLH[
TPJKRLxIH KP NPHI LKHINs LJ K[I qIJHIR ZMKT[IH Ps VLHK. 0QK MNN K[I gNLVZHIH Ps MJTLIJK
NPxINLJIHH MRI K[IRI! ZIRsITKNa sRMVIq MJq NLg[KIq: RPQJq IxIRa TPRJIR HPVI`Pqa LH
e[LHZIRLJg M NLJI PR KeP Ps O[MQTIR. dJq PJ K[IHI VPRJLJgH! K[I RLxIR LH HLVZNa JPK KRQI:
K[IRI LH JP gIPgRMZ[a! JPK[LJg `QK ZQRI ZPIKRa! qPeJ K[IRI; K[I eMKIR [MH gPJI MJq H[MZIH
PQK Ps MJ MqxIJKQRPQH qRIMV qRLsK `a PJ M KLqI Ps gLNqIq MJq HLNxIRIq MLR. /QT[ LH K[I OLKa PJ
PJI Ps K[IHI VPRJLJgH! M ZNMTI LJ M UPK[LT sMLRa KMNI! M VLRMgI! M xLHLPJ.
(From "They Walk in the City" by 1. B. Priestley. Abridged)
XVII. RoIe-pIaying:
d gRPQZ Ps gQLqIH HQggIHKH ZPHHL`NI HLg[KHIILJg RPQKIH M`PQK iPJqPJ (vPHTPe) KP K[ILR
PssLTI qLRITKPR. GMT[ PJI HZIMzH LJ sMxPQR Ps [LH/[IR HQggIHKLPJ KRaLJg KP TPJxLJTI `PK[ K[I
qLRITKPR MJq K[I gQLqIH K[MK K[I RPQKI LH K[I `IHK. .J K[I IJq K[I ZMRKLTLZMJKH Ps K[I KMNz T[PPHI
K[I VPHK MZZRPZRLMKI RPQKI.
XVIII. Describe (in writing) a sight or a view that once struck yon as picturesque, beautifuI or
unusuaI.
u[I `IHK IHHMaH VMa `I RIMq LJ TNMHH MJq K[IJ ZNMTIq LJ M eMNN ZMZIR! M HZITLMN `QNNIKLJ
LHHQIq `a K[I NLKIRMRa TNQ`! IKT.
1PKI: u[I KISK M`PxI VMa HIRxI MH M ZIRsITK ISMVZNI Ps HQT[ qIHTRLZKLPJ
XIX. FiIm: "Mr. Brown's HoIiday." FiIm segment 3 "In Dear OId EngIand" (Broadstairs). a)
Watch and Iisten, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the fiIm.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH (III)
u[I TIJKRMN LqIM Ps M ZMRMgRMZ[ LH `QLNK QZ eLK[ K[I [INZ Ps NMRgIR QJLKH K[MJ zIaePRqH!
K[MK LH eLK[ K[I [INZ Ps HPTMNNIq KPZLT HIJKIJTIH.
Topic sentence LH M HQVVMRLLJg HIJKIJTI Ps M ZMRMgRMZ[. uPZLT HIJKIJTIH TMJ MNHP `I
QHIq KP KLI QZ M gRPQZ Ps ZMRMgRMZ[H KPgIK[IR [PNqLJg K[I QJLKa Ps M ZMHHMgI.
UIJIRMNNa K[I KPZLT HIJKIJTI TPVIH sLRHK LJ M ZMRMgRMZ[. .K [INZH KP QJqIRHKMJq K[I KISK MJq
`IgLJ eRLKLJg! !"g" r1QVIRPQH MRKLsLTLMN NMJgQMgIH [MxI `IIJ TMRIsQNNa TPJHKRQTKIq MJq HPVI
Ps K[IV MRI HKLNN LJ NLVLKIq QHI. .J +bb7! MJ MRKLsLTLMN NMJgQMgI! GHZIRMJKP! eMH TRIMKIq.
GHZIRMJKP [MH NLKKNI gRMVVMR MJq qRIe LKH xPTM`QNMRa sRPV MNN K[I GQRPZIMJ NMJgQMgIH...r
(From roJI iMJgQMgI sPR K[I wPRNqr &y v. \IL). u[I eRLKIR ZRPTIIqH sRPV M gIJIRMN
HKMKIVIJK KP ZMRKLTQNMRH.
oTTMHLPJMNNa K[I KPZLT HIJKIJTI TPVIH NMHK! e[IJ K[I eRLKIR eLH[IH sLRHK KP ZRIZMRI [LH
RIMqIR sPR K[I gIJIRMN LqIM PR M TPJTNQHLPJ! !"g" ryPQlRI NLzI KeP sRLIJqH e[P eMJK KP KMzI
K[ILR [PNLqMa KPgIK[IR! `QK PJI Ps K[IV eMJKH KP TNLV` URIIJNMJqlH HJPea VPQJKMLJH e[LNI
K[I PK[IR eMJKH KP sLH[ Pss .JqLMlH TPRMN HKRMJq. o`xLPQHNa LKlH JPK gPLJg KP ePRzr (From ru[I
MPRlH GqgIr &y w. /. vMQg[MV).
Assignments:
1. Read the passage "Introducing London" and mark paragraphs with topic
sentences. What central idea do they summarize? Where are they placed within the
paragraph?
2. Find the topic sentence that holds the unity of the whole passage.
3. Mark the key-words that emphasize the main points of the information about
London.
4. Paragraph 8 includes the key-word "parks", develop it into a topic sentence
summarizing the central idea of the paragraph.
5. Write a paragraph describing the picture on pp. 114-115. Try your hand at
various topic sentences that help to hold the unity of the paragraph.
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
1. Listen to the text "Some More Glimpses of London."
2. Listen to the dialogue "Sightseeing". Repeat the text in the intervals and record
your versions.
Compare your version with the original and correct your pronunciation mistakes if
any.
3. Translate the sentences into English, check them with the key.
4. Listen to the test "Behind the Scenes" or some other text on the topic "London".
Discuss the text in class.
5. Listen to the "Sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge". Mark the stresses
and tunes. Learn it by heart.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
1. Why is the clock on the Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament called "Big
Ben"?
2. What is the "Cenotaph"? Where can it be found? What is the origin of the name?
3. The security of the Tower of London is mainly the responsibility of the Yeomen
Warders or "Beefeaters" as they are popularly called. What is the origin of the word
"Beefeater"?
4. What is the "Union 1ack"? What does it look like? What is its origin? Where and
when can it be seen?
5. Name five of the numerous bridges which cross the Thames. Show them on the
map of London and comment on their names.
6. What is "Soho"? Where is it situated? What are its peculiar features?
UNIT FOUR
I SPEECH PATTERNS
+. vPK[IR i0 hard.y IxIR a&.e to have M KRIMK NLzI K[MK.
M) u[Ia MRI [MRqNa IxIR M`NI KP gP HLg[KHIILJg.
oJI LH [MRqNa IxIR M`NI KP gIK KLTzIKH sPR K[LH H[Pe.
wI MRI [MRqNa IxIR M`NI KP KMNz KP IMT[ PK[IR MNPJI.
|I eMH [MRqNa IxIR M`NI KP TMKT[ K[I ,.4) KRMLJ [PVI.
`) yPQlNN [MRqNa `I M`NI KP gIK KP K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV KPqMa `IsPRI K[I TNPHLJg [PQRH.
/[I eLNN [MRqNa `I M`NI KP gIK PxIR [IR sIMR Ps [IMxa KRMssLT.
2. pMK[IR eMH MsRMLq K[MK vPK[IR might ta/e TPNq Ls H[I )ame"
. K[PQg[K K[MK H[I VLg[K HZPLN [IR TPVZNISLPJ Ls H[I eIJK PJ HVPzLJg.
|I HMLq eI VLg[K `I NMKI Ls K[I `QH qLqJlK TPVI HPPJ.
GqeMRq [PZIq [I VLg[K VIIK K[I gLRN MgMLJ Ls [I TMVI IxIRa qMa KP K[I HKRIIK H[I NLxIq LJ.
u[I ZPNLTIVMJ KPNq K[I `Pa [I VLg[K `I RQJ PxIR Ls [I eMH TMRINIHH e[IJ TRPHHLJg K[I
HKRIIK.
4. wI MNN sINK K[MK Ls wou.d never do to .et pMK[IR HKMa [PVI.
.K eLNN JIxIR qP KP QJqIRNLJI ePRqH LJ M NL`RMRa `PPz.
.K eLNN JIxIR qP KP K[RPe TLgMRIKKIIJqH PJ K[I sNPPR.
w[a MRI aPQ H[PQKLJg MK K[I KPZ Ps aPQR xPLTIH{
.K eLNN JIxIR qP. yPQ [MxI KRIMKIq [IR xIRa `MqNa.
QqIJIHH eLNN JIxIR qP.
u[I `Pa HMLq LK ePQNq JIxIR qP sPR M aPQJg gLRN KP QHI HP VQT[ VMzIQZ.
3. u[MK /e(t @other &u0y sPR M NLKKNI e[LNI.
dK JLg[K . MNeMaH zIIZ Va eLJqPe PZIJ.
u[Ia JIxIR zIIZ K[ILR qPPR H[QK.
jIIZ aPQR sIIK eMRV PR aPQlNN TMKT[ TPNq.
|I zIZK [LH RPPV HTRQZQNPQHNa TNIMJ.
/[I KPNq K[I T[LNq MJ LJKIRIHKLJg HKPRa KP zIIZ [LV MeMzI.
jIIZLJg K[I T[LNq eMRV LH JPK K[I HMVI K[LJg MH zIIZLJg [LV [IMNK[a.
EXERCISES
I. Paraphrase toe foIIowing, using some of the patterns above:
\MKKIRJ +: +. .K LH JPK PsKIJ K[MK PQR VPK[IR gPIH KP K[I K[IMKRI. 2. .K LH JPK PsKIJ K[MK PQR
HKQqIJKH TMJ NLHKIJ KP JMKLxI GJgNLH[ HZIIT[. 4. /[I xIRa HINqPV TMJ MssPRq KP gIK [IRHINs M
JIe qRIHH. 3. u[Ia TMJJPK MssPRq KP HZIJq K[ILR [PNLqMa MK K[I HIMHLqI. *. |I TMJ JIxIR RIsQHI
[INZLJg [LH TPVRMqIH.
\MKKIRJ 4: +. .K LH `Mq VMJJIRH KP HKMRI MK ZIPZNI. 2. u[I KIMT[IR HMLq LK eMH LVZPNLKI MJq
RQqI KP [MJq LJ [PVIePRz eRLKKIJ TMRINIHHNa. 4. r. HMa! uQRJIR! . qPJlK NLzI K[I eMa aPQ KRIMK
aPQR TPVRMqIH. .KlH KPP `Mq.r 3. va VPK[IR HMLq K[MK LK eMH KPP `Mq KP NIK [IR qP MNN K[I ePRz
MNPJI. *. .K LH eLTzIq KP [QRK MJLVMNH. ,. ryPQ [MxI TPVI QJZRIZMRIq MgMLJ. .K LH
QJZMRqPJM`NI!r HMLq K[I KIMT[IR.
II. Describe toe foIIowing situations in one sentence, using Pattern 2:
GSMVZNI: .J HQT[ TPNq eIMK[IR LK eMH IMHa sPR K[I T[LNq KP TMKT[ TPNq! Ls [I eIJK sPR M
eMNz. u[MK eMH K[I TMQHI Ps K[I VPK[IRlH sIMR.
u[I VPK[IR eMH MsRMLq K[MK K[I T[LNq VLg[K TMKT[ TPNq Ls [I eIJK sPR M eMNz LJ
HQT[ TPNq eIMK[IR.
+. /[I ePRzIq xIRa NLKKNI qQRLJg K[I KIRV! MJq LK eMH fQLKI ZPHHL`NI sPR [IR KP sMLN MK [IR
ISMVLJMKLPJ. wI MNN KPNq [IR HP. 2. .K eMH [MRqNa ZPHHL`NI KP NIK K[I `Pa HKMa MK [PVI MNPJI.
|I TPQNq VMzI KRPQ`NI Ls [I qLq. wI MNN zJIe K[MK. 4. /[I ePRzIq KPP [MRq! MJq [IR sRLIJqH
eIRI MsRMLq K[MK LK ePQNq RIHQNK LJ [IR sMNNLJg LNN. 3. u[I VPK[IR eMJKIq K[I `Pa KP `ITPVI M
gRIMK ZLMJLHK! MJq HP H[I VMqI [LV ZRMTKLHI qMa MJq JLg[K. *. wI eMJKIq KP gP MJq HII PQR
HLTz sRLIJq! `QK K[I qPTKPR qLqJlK MNNPe K[MK HMaLJg K[MK K[IRI eMH M T[MJTI Ps PQR TMKT[LJg K[I
qLHIMHI.
III. SuppIy adjectives:
+. .K LH qMJgIRPQH KP zIIZ K[I eLJqPeH ... qQRLJg M K[QJqIRHKPRV. 2. /[I zIZK [IR qPPR ...
MJq qLqJlK NIK MJaPJI LJ. 4. \QK K[I NIVPJMqI LJ K[I RIsRLgIRMKPR KP zIIZ LK.... 3. u[I IZLqIVLT
eMH MK LKH [ILg[K! MJq MNN K[I qPTKPRH Ps K[I KPeJ eIRI zIZK.... *. . ZQK K[I KQNLZH LJ K[I eMKIR
KP zIIZ K[IV .... ,. jIIZ aPQR IaIH ... MJq aPQR VPQK[ ... . {. u[LH sQR TPMK LH HQRI KP zIIZ
aPQ ... LJ MJa sRPHK. b. w[MK LH K[I KIMT[IR KP qP KP zIIZ [LH ZQZLNH ...{
IV. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using the patterns:
+. |I ; >6 $D9. 2. <$ ; 86
; 895 6. 4. ; ! 8 $>D6 6! $D6
;. 3. < 5 % 6! . *. <9D 66
C$ ;89 D. ,. _5$ 5 5 $ D$6!
;7 C. 7. 5 >5 6 >6 88$. b.
<6 6 $;! 8 D6 6. 2. > $ ;!
$> ; 7=$ ;.
V. Make up diaIogues or situations, using the patterns.
TEXT. HOW WE KEPT MOTHER'S DAY

by Stephen Leacock
iIMTPTz! /KIZ[IJ (+b,2+233) M sMVPQH OMJMqLMJ eRLKIR Ps K[I 2)K[ TIJKQRa. |LH HKPRLIH! sQNN Ps
[QVPQR MJq HMRTMHV! ISZPHI K[I TPJKRMqLTKLPJH Ps NLsI LJ VPqIV `PQRgIPLH HPTLIKa.
iIMTPTz HMaH K[MK K[I `MHLH Ps [QVPQR NLIH LJ K[I TPJKRMHKH PssIRIq `a NLsI LKHINs! `QK rK[I qIIZ `MTzgRPQJq
K[MK NLIH `I[LJq MJq `IaPJq e[MK eI TMNN [QVPQR LH RIxIMNIq PJNa KP K[I sIe e[P. `a LJHKLJTK PR `a IssPRK
[MxI gLxIJ K[PQg[K KP LK.r
/P eI qITLqIq KP [MxI M HZITLMN TINI`RMKLPJ Ps vPK[IRlH nMa. wI K[PQg[K LK M sLJI LqIM. .K
VMqI QH MNN RIMNLI [Pe VQT[ vPK[IR [Mq qPJI sPR QH sPR aIMRH! MJq MNN K[I IssPRKH MJq
HMTRLsLTI K[MK H[I [Mq VMqI sPR PQR HMzI.
wI qITLqIq K[MK eIlq VMzI LK M gRIMK qMa! M [PNLqMa sPR MNN K[I sMVLNa! MJq qP IxIRaK[LJg
eI TPQNq KP VMzI vPK[IR [MZZa. pMK[IR qITLqIq KP KMzI M [PNLqMa sRPV [LH PssLTI! HP MH KP
[INZ LJ TINI`RMKLJg K[I qMa! MJq Va HLHKIR dJJI MJq . HKMaIq [PVI sRPV TPNNIgI TNMHHIH! MJq
vMRa MJq Va `RPK[IR wLNN HKMaIq [PVI sRPV |Lg[ /T[PPN.
.K eMH PQR ZNMJ KP VMzI LK M qMa QHK NLzI ^VMH PR MJa `Lg [PNLqMa! MJq HP eI qITLqIq KP
qITPRMKI K[I [PQHI eLK[ sNPeIRH MJq eLK[ VPKKPIH PxIR K[I VMJKINZLITIH! MJq MNN K[MK zLJq Ps
K[LJg. wI gPK vPK[IR KP VMzI VPKKPIH MJq MRRMJgI K[I qITPRMKLPJH! `ITMQHI H[I MNeMaH qPIH
LK MK ^VMH.
u[I KeP gLRNH K[PQg[K LK ePQNq `I M JLTI K[LJg KP qRIHH LJ PQR xIRa `IHK sPR HQT[ M `Lg
PTTMHLPJ MJq HP K[Ia `PK[ gPK JIe [MKH. vPK[IR KRLVVIq `PK[ K[I [MKH! MJq K[Ia NPPzIq sLJI!
MJq pMK[IR [Mq `PQg[K HLNz KLIH sPR [LVHINs MJq QH `PaH MH M HPQxIJLR Ps K[I qMa KP RIVIV`IR
vPK[IR `a. wI eIRI gPLJg KP gIK vPK[IR M JIe [MK KPP! `QK LK KQRJIq PQK K[MK H[I HIIVIq KP
RIMNNa NLzI [IR PNq gRIa `PJJIK `IKKIR K[MJ M JIe PJI! MJq `PK[ K[I gLRNH HMLq K[MK LK eMH
MesQNNa `ITPVLJg KP [IR.
wINN! MsKIR `RIMzsMHK eI [Mq LK MRRMJgIq MH M HQRZRLHI sPR vPK[IR K[MK eI ePQNq [LRI M
VPKPR TMR MJq KMzI [IR sPR M `IMQKLsQN qRLxI MeMa LJKP K[I TPQJKRa. vPK[IR LH [MRqNa IxIR M`NI
KP [MxI M KRIMK NLzI K[MK! `ITMQHI eI TMJ PJNa MssPRq KP zIIZ PJI VMLq! MJq HP vPK[IR LH `QHa
LJ K[I [PQHI JIMRNa MNN K[I KLVI.
0QK PJ K[I xIRa VPRJLJg Ps K[I qMa eI T[MJgIq K[I ZNMJ M NLKKNI `LK! `ITMQHI LK PTTQRRIq KP
pMK[IR K[MK M K[LJg LK ePQNq `I `IKKIR KP qP IxIJ K[MJ KP KMzI vPK[IR sPR M VPKPR qRLxI ePQNq
`I KP KMzI [IR sLH[LJg; Ls aPQ MRI gPLJg KP sLH[! K[IRI LH M qIsLJLKI ZQRZPHI LJ sRPJK Ps aPQ KP
[ILg[KIJ K[I IJPaVIJK.
/P eI MNN sINK K[MK LK ePQNq `I JLTIR sPR vPK[IR KP [MxI M qIsLJLKI ZQRZPHI; MJq MJaeMa! LK
KQRJIq PQK K[MK pMK[IR [Mq QHK gPK M JIe RPq K[I qMa `IsPRI.
/P eI gPK IxIRaK[LJg MRRMJgIq sPR K[I KRLZ! MJq eI gPK vPK[IR KP TQK QZ HPVI HMJqeLT[IH
MJq VMzI QZ M HPRK Ps NQJT[ LJ TMHI eI gPK [QJgRa! K[PQg[ Ps TPQRHI eI eIRI KP TPVI `MTz
[PVI MgMLJ KP M `Lg qLJJIR LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I qMa! QHK NLzI ^VMH PR 1Ie yIMRlH nMa.
vPK[IR ZMTzIq LK MNN QZ LJ M `MHzIK sPR QH RIMqa KP gP LJ K[I VPKPR.
wINN! e[IJ K[I TMR TMVI KP K[I qPPR! LK KQRJIq PQK K[MK K[IRI [MRqNa HIIVIq MH VQT[ RPPV
LJ LK MH eI [Mq HQZZPHIq.
pMK[IR HMLq JPK KP VLJq [LV! [I HMLq K[MK [I TPQNq QHK MH eINN HKMa [PVI; MJq K[MK [I eMH
HQRI K[MK [I TPQNq ZQK LJ K[I KLVI ePRzLJg LJ K[I gMRqIJ; [I HMLq K[MK eI eIRI JPK KP NIK K[I
sMTK Ps [LH JPK [MxLJg [Mq M RIMN [PNLqMa sPR K[RII aIMRH HKMJq LJ PQR eMa; [I eMJKIq QH KP gP
RLg[K M[IMq MJq `I [MZZa MJq [MxI M `Lg qMa.
0QK Ps TPQRHI eI MNN sINK K[MK LK ePQNq JIxIR qP KP NIK pMK[IR HKMa [PVI! IHZITLMNNa MH eI
zJIe [I ePQNq VMzI KRPQ`NI Ls [I qLq. u[I KeP gLRNH! dJJI MJq vMRa! ePQNq gNMqNa [MxI
HKMaIq MJq [INZIq K[I VMLq gIK qLJJIR! PJNa LK HIIVIq HQT[ M ZLKa KP! PJ M NPxINa qMa NLzI
K[LH! [MxLJg K[ILR JIe [MKH. 0QK K[Ia `PK[ HMLq K[MK vPK[IR [Mq PJNa KP HMa K[I ePRq! MJq
K[Ialq gNMqNa HKMa [PVI MJq ePRz. wLNN MJq . ePQNq [MxI qRPZZIq PQK! [QK QJsPRKQJMKINa eI
ePQNqJlK [MxI `IIJ MJa QHI LJ gIKKLJg K[I qLJJIR.
/P LJ K[I IJq LK eMH qITLqIq K[MK vPK[IR ePQNq HKMa [PVI MJq QHK [MxI M NPxINa RIHKsQN
qMa RPQJq K[I [PQHI! MJq gIK K[I qLJJIR. .K KQRJIq PQK MJaeMa K[MK vPK[IR qPIHJlK TMRI sPR
sLH[LJg! MJq MNHP LK eMH QHK M NLKKNI `LK TPNq MJq sRIH[ PQK Ps qPPRH! K[PQg[ LK eMH NPxINa MJq
HQJJa! MJq pMK[IR eMH RMK[IR MsRMLq K[MK vPK[IR VLg[K KMzI TPNq Ls H[I TMVI.
/P eI MNN qRPxI MeMa eLK[ K[RII T[IIRH sPR vPK[IR! MJq pMK[IR eMxIq [LH [MJq `MTz KP
[IR IxIRa sIe VLJQKIH KLNN [I [LK [LH [MJq PJ K[I `MTz IqgI Ps K[I TMR! MJq K[IJ HMLq K[MK [I
qLqJlK K[LJz K[MK vPK[IR TPQNq HII QH MJa NPJgIR.
wINN! eI [Mq K[I NPxINLIHK qMa QZ MVPJg K[I [LNNH K[MK aPQ TPQNq ZPHHL`Na LVMgLJI.
.K eMH fQLKI NMKI e[IJ eI gPK `MTz! JIMRNa HIxIJ PlTNPTz LJ K[I IxIJLJg! `QK vPK[IR [Mq
gQIHHIq K[MK eI ePQNq `I NMKI! HP H[I [Mq zIZK `MTz K[I qLJJIR HP MH KP [MxI LK QHK JLTINa
RIMqa MJq [PK sPR QH. oJNa sLRHK H[I [Mq KP gIK KPeINH MJq HPMZ sPR pMK[IR MJq TNIMJ K[LJgH sPR
[LV KP ZQK PJ! `ITMQHI [I MNeMaH gIKH HP VIHHIq QZ eLK[ sLH[LJg! MJq K[MK zIZK vPK[IR `QHa
sPR M NLKKNI e[LNI! K[MK MJq [INZLJg K[I gLRNH gIK RIMqa.
0QK MK NMHK IxIRaK[LJg eMH RIMqa! MJq eI HMK qPeJ KP K[I gRMJqIHK zLJq Ps qLJJIR RPMHK
KQRzIa MJq MNN HPRKH Ps K[LJgH NLzI PJ ^VMH nMa. vPK[IR [Mq KP gIK QZ MJq qPeJ M gPPq `LK
qQRLJg K[I VIMN sIKT[LJg K[LJgH `MTz MJq sPReMRq.
u[I qLJJIR NMHKIq M NPJg e[LNI! MJq eMH gRIMK sQJ! MJq e[IJ LK eMH PxIR MNN Ps QH eMJKIq
KP [INZ TNIMR K[I K[LJgH QZ MJq eMH[ K[I qLH[IH! PJNa vPK[IR HMLq K[MK H[I ePQNq RIMNNa VQT[
RMK[IR qP LK! MJq HP eI NIK [IR! `ITMQHI eI eMJKIq QHK sPR PJTI KP [QVPQR [IR.
.K eMH fQLKI NMKI! e[IJ LK eMH MNN PxIR! MJq e[IJ eI MNN zLHHIq vPK[IR `IsPRI gPLJg KP
`Iq! H[I HMLq LK [Mq `IIJ K[I VPHK ePJqIRsQN qMa LJ [IR NLsI! MJq . K[LJz K[IRI eIRI KIMRH LJ
[IR IaIH. /P eI MNN sINK MesQNNa RIZMLq sPR MNN K[MK eI [Mq qPJI.
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. to get (got, got) ti +. 6! 86; to get smb. smth., to get smth. for
smb., !"g" . TMJ gIK K[LH `PPz sPR aPQ. (. TMJ gIK aPQ K[LH `PPz.)
2. 6! !"g" nLq aPQ gIK ( RITILxI) Va KINIgRMV{
4. 6! 6! !"g" u[I KeP gLRNH gPK JIe [MKH.
3. 86! 6! ;6! !"g" wI TMJJPK gIK KP vPHTPe KPJLg[K. .K eMH
xIRa NMKI e[IJ [I gPK [PVI.
*. ;6! ;6! 6! !"g" .K eMH qITLqIq K[MK vPK[IR ePQNq HKMa
[PVI MJq gIK K[I qLJJIR ( gIK LK RIMqa).
,. 6 ;. . 6! 6! 8 . . ! !"g" wI gPK
vPK[IR KP MRRMJgI K[I qITPRMKLPJH.
A" 6 (a0 a .in/=ver&:, !"g" .K eMH gIKKLJg qMRz e[IJ eI MRRLxIq MK K[I HKMKLPJ. .
gPK xIRa TPNq e[LNI eMLKLJg LJ K[I HKRIIK.
#yn" to become
to get smth. done! !"g" . gPK IxIRaK[LJg MRRMJgIq LJ KLVI.
have got have! I! g. . [MxI gPK HPVIK[LJg KP KINN aPQ. . [MxIJlK gPK K[I `PPz aPQlRI
KMNzLJg M`PQK (Ts.: . [MxI JP `PPzH `a K[LH MQK[PR.).
N t e: .J VPqIRJ TPJxIRHMKLPJMN GJgNLH[ K[I ePRq TPV`LJMKLPJ [MxI gPK LJ K[I VIMJLJg Ps $6!
6 LH QHIq VQT[ VPRI PsKIJ K[MJ K[I xIR` [MxI V K[I HMVI VIMJLJg! IHZITLMNNa eLK[ M TPJTRIKI P`ITK.
have got to do smth.! !"g" . [MxI gPK KP ( VQHK) sLJLH[ Va ePRz LJ KLVI. .K [MH gPK KP `I
qPJI.
to get back to come back! !"g" dK e[MK KLVI H[MNN eI gIK `MTz{
to get over a disease (sIMR! qLssLTQNKLIH! gRLIs! IKT.)! !"g" nPJlK ePRRa! K[I T[LNq eLNN HPPJ
gIK PxIR [LH LNNJIHH.
to get up and down, !"g" vPK[IR [Mq KP gIK QZ MJq qPeJ M gPPq `LK qQRLJg K[I VIMN
sIKT[LJg K[LJgH `MTz MJq sPReMRq.
to get on smb.'s nerves, !"g" nPJlK gIK QZ MJq qPeJ IxIRa VLJQKI! aPQlRI gIKKLJg PJ Va
JIRxIH.
2. to turn ti 1. =6()! 6()! 6)! !"g" dK [IMRLJg [IR xPLTI .
KQRJIq (KQRJIq Va [IMq). u[I TMR KQRJIq K[I TPRJIR.
2. =6()! $6() (LJKP HVK[.)! !"g" u[I eMKIR LJ K[I ZPJq KQRJIq LJKP LTI
MH K[I JLg[K [Mq `IIJ sRPHKa.
to turn away (from smb. or smth.) 6 ()
to turn back 6
to turn inside out 86() ! !"g" va QV`RINNM KQRJIq LJHLqI PQK LJ K[I
eLJq.
to turn out 6! !"g" |I KQRJIq PQK M `Mq MTKPR. u[I qMa KQRJIq PQK (KP `I) M sLJI
PJI. .K KQRJIq PQK K[MK K[IRI eIRI JP xMTMJK HIMKH LJ K[I `QH.
as it turned out... as it happened
to turn over 6()! !"g" |I KQRJIq PxIR M ZMgI. |I KQRJIq PxIR LJ `Iq.
to turn up ()6! 5! !"g" wI ISZITKIq [LV KP PLJ QH! `QK [I JIxIR KQRJIq QZ.
to turn smth. upside down 6 9 $! 6! !"g" /PVIPJI [MH
KQRJIq IxIRaK[LJg QZHLqI qPeJ LJ Va qRMeIR.
3. to treat t +. =6()! 96! 6; to treat smb. well, kindly,
coldly, IKT.! !"g" nPJlK KRIMK VI MH Ls . eIRI M T[LNq. 0IKKIR KRIMK [LH ePRqH MH M PzI. yPQ
KRIMKr K[I VMKKIR KPP NLg[KNa.
2. 6; to treat smb. for smth. with smth., !"g" w[P KRIMKIq aPQR T[LNq sPR HTMRNIK
sIxIR{ w[MK VIqLTLJI MRI aPQ KRIMKIq eLK[{
4. ;=6 $n. (X!!J" 6 6); to treat smb. to smth., !"g" .lNN
KRIMK aPQ MNN KP ( .lNN `Qa aPQ) HPVI LTITRIMV. wPQNqJlK aPQ NLzI [LV KP KRIMK aPQ ( KP ZMa
sPR aPQR KLTzIK) KP M `MNNIK{ . H[MNN KRIMK VaHINs KP M eIIzIJq [PNLqMa.
treat n 1. 6! >! !"g" .lxI JIxIR [Mq M KRIMK NLzI K[MKc w[MK M KRIMK LK
LH JPK KP [MxI KP gIK QZ IMRNac GxIRa T[MJTI KP NLHKIJ KP gPPq VQHLT LH M gRIMK KRIMK KP [IR.
2. ;=
treatment n +. = ( $n.)! !"g" |IR KRIMKVIJK Ps K[I ZQZLNH LH MNeMaH zLJq MJq
ZMKLIJK! (prep, "of")
2. ! !"g" |MxI aPQ [IMRq Ps M JIe KRIMKVIJK sPR ZJIQVPJLM{ (prep, "for")
4. afford K (86 ) 6 (QHQ. eLK[ TMJ! TPQNq! `I M`NI KP)
smth.; !"g" . TMJlK MssPRq KLVI sPR VPxLIH.
to afford
to do smth., !"g" OMJ aPQ MssPRq KP gP MeMa sPR M [PNLqMa{
5. to keep (kept, kept) ti +. >6 ( 89 NYNH*Z:9 ) 96! !"g" /[I
MNeMaH zIIZH PNq NIKKIRH.; `) >6! 6! !"g" yPQ VMa zIIZ K[I `PPz! . qPJlK
eMJK LK aIK.; ) () >6 ( . .)! !"g" < MNeMaH zIIZH [LH ZRPVLHI.; q)
>6! !"g" vR. wMKHPJ [Mq M eLsI MJq sMVLNa KP zIIZ.; I) >6! 6 >6!
!"g" .lV HPRRa . zIZK aPQ eMLKLJg.
2. 6! 6! !"g" r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar; /[I MNeMaH zIIZH [IR
`LRK[qMa.
to keep smth. ad%", !"g" u[LH ePRz zIZK K[I T[LNqRIJ `QHa. yPQ VQHK zIIZ aPQR sIIK
eMRV.
to keep to smth.! !"g" jIIZ KP K[I qLIK. iIKlH zIIZ KP K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I RPMq.
to keep on doing smth., !"g" /[I zIZK PJ eRLKLJg e[IJ . TMVI LJ (not u0ed of a 0tate, &ut
on.y of a)tivitie0" Cf": |I zIZK PJ HKMJqLJg QZ. 'ut |I RIVMLJIq HKMJqLJg.).
to keep smb. from doing smth.! !"g" .K zIZK VI sRPV mPLJLJg aPQ.
to keep (smth.) back! !"g" u[I aPQJg VIJ zIZK K[I TRPeq `MTz. .lV HQRI [I LH zIIZLJg
HPVIK[LJg `MTz ( JPK KINNLJg MNN; TPJTIMNLJg HPVIK[LJg). vPK[IR [Mq gQIHHIq K[MK eI ePQNq
`I NMKI! HP H[I [Mq zIZK `MTz K[I qLJJIR.
6. to occur i +. 6! 96! !"g" /QT[ LJTLqIJKH PTTQR IxIRa qMa. .K VQHK
JIxIR PTTQR MgMLJ.
2. 96 $! !"g" .K PTTQRRIq KP VI K[MK HPVIK[LJg VLg[K `I eRPJg eLK[ [IR.
nLqJlK LK PTTQR KP aPQ KP TNPHI K[I eLJqPe KP zIIZ K[I JPLHI `MTz{
7. to enjoy i 6 6! >6! !"g" . IJPaIq K[I KRLZ xIRa
VQT[. .lxI IJPaIq HIILJg aPQ.
to enjoy oneself, !"g" . IJPaIq VaHINs MK K[I TPJTIRK NMHK JLg[K.
enjoyment n 6! >
8. fun n +. 6! ! ! !"g" O[LNqRIJ MRI sPJq Ps sQJ. w[MK sQJ eI [Mq
e[IJ eI eIRI KPgIK[IRc |I LH sQNN Ps sQJ.
to make fun of 8$6! D6! !"g" |IlH sPJq Ps VMzLJg sQJ Ps ZIPZNI.
1P`Pqa NLzIH KP `I VMqI sQJ Ps.
to do smth. in (for) fun 6 . D! !"g" . HMLq LK PJNa LJ (sPR) sQJ.
2. $ D! 6! 6! !"g" u[I ZMRKa (aPQR sRLIJq) eMH
gRIMK sQJ.
funny ad% $D5! 85! !"g" . [MxI M sQJJa HKPRa KP KINN aPQ.
NOTES ON STYLE
+. .J iIMTPTzlH HKPRa r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar aPQ eLNN sLJq JQVIRPQH ePRqH MJq
Z[RMHIH Ps LJsPRVMN sQJTKLPJMN HKaNI (/II 1PKI d PJ Z. *2)! !"g" a.. that /ind of thing (Ts. K[I
QHHLMJ @ B)! awfu..y (LJ rMesQNNa `ITPVLJgr! )f" K[I QHHLMJ @> ;
7= %B)! a .itt.e &it (@66B)! have a &ig day (@
$B)! get me00ed u( (@$6! 86 ;B)! the dinner... wa0 great fun
(@ 8 $B)! IKT.
1PKI MNHP K[I LJKIRITKLPJ we.. LJKRPqQTLJg HPVI Ps K[I ZMHHMgIH (e[LT[ JPRVMNNa PTTQRH
LJ PRMN HZIIT[)! K[I PVLHHLPJ Ps K[I TPJQJTKLPJ that MJq K[I HaJKMS LVLKMKLJg K[MK Ps PRMN
TPVVQJLTMKLPJ `a LKH sRII MJq TMRINIHH HKRQTKQRIH.
2. u[I HKPRa ZRIHIJKH MJ LJKIRIHKLJg ISMVZNI Ps K[I LJqLRITK VIK[Pq Ps T[MRMTKIRLMKLPJ.
u[I MQK[PR qPIH JPK HMa qLRITKNa K[MK K[I VIV`IRH Ps K[I sMVLNa eIRI HINsLH[! TMNNPQH MJq
[MRq[IMRKIq ZIPZNI (K[MK ePQNq `I K[I qLRITK VIK[Pq Ps T[MRMTKIRLMKLPJ) `QK VMzIH K[IV
MTK MJq NIKH K[I RIMqIR qRMe [LH PeJ TPJTNQHLPJ.
4. r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar LH M [QVPRPQH HKPRa. |QVPQR LJ sLTKLPJ VMa `I Ps KeP
ZRLJTLZMN KaZIH. .K VMa `I [QVPQR Ps HLKQMKLPJ e[IJ K[I MQK[PR VMzIH QH NMQg[ MK TIRKMLJ
sQJJa PR M`HQRq sMTKH! !"g" K[I VIV`IRH Ps K[I sMVLNa `QaLJg ZRIHIJKH sPR K[IVHINxIH PJ
vPK[IRlH nMa! `QK `QaLJg JPK[LJg sPR K[ILR VPK[IR. u[IRI LH MNHP [QVPQR Ps ePRqH e[IJ K[I
RIMqIR qPIH JPK NMQg[ MK e[MK LH [MZZIJLJg LJ K[I HKPRa `QK MK [Pe LK LH ZQK `a K[I MQK[PR. -"
g" 0QK Ps TPQRHI eI MNN sINK K[MK LK ePQNq JIxIR qP KP NIK pMK[IR HKMa MK [PVI! IHZITLMNNa MH eI
zJIe [I ePQNq VMzI KRPQ`NI Ls [I qLq.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
MssPRq sQJJa ad% RIZMa IssPRK n
gIK HMTRLsLTI , n IJPa gQIHH
KRIMK , n IHZITLMNNa adv [LRI KRIMKVIJK n
sIKT[ zIIZ KRLV sQJ n
PTTQR KQRJ ZQRZPHI n QJsPRKQJMKINa
adv
Word Combinations
sPR HV`.lH HMzI KP gIK PxIR HVK[.
KP HKMa (MK) [PVI sRPV TPNNIgI (TNMHHIH! HT[PPN) KP KMzI HV`. sPR M qRLxI
KP qRIHH LJ PJIlH `IHK (ePRHK) LJ TMHI
QHK MH eINN KP HKMJq (`I) LJ HV`.lH eMa
sPR HQT[ MJ PTTMHLPJ KP VMzI KRPQ`NI
KP KQRJ PQK KP `I JP QHI
LJ K[I IJq KP gIK PJ HV`.lH JIRxIH
KP TMRI sPR HV`. (PR HVK[.) KP KQRJ LJHLqI PQK
KP zIIZ `MTz KP KQRJ PxIR
sPR M NLKKNI (H[PRK! NPJg) KP KQRJ QZ
e[LNI KP KQRJ QZHLqI qPeJ
KP gIK QZ MJq qPeJ sPR (LJ) sQJ
KP gIK KP HPVI ZNMTI KP VMzI sQJ Ps HV`.
EXERCISES
1. Read Text of Unit Four and the Notes on StyIe and taIk on the foIIowing points (A.
Grammar, B. Word usage. . StyIe):
A. 1. w[LT[ xIR`H QHIq LJ K[I KISK MRI VPqMN xIR`H{ OPVVIJK PJ K[ILR VIMJLJgH MJq
KRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH LJ e[LT[ K[Ia MRI QHIq.
2. w[MK MRI K[I VIMJLJgH Ps K[I xIR`H to get, to ma/e, to /ee(, to ta/e LJ K[I KISK{
(uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[IHI xIR`H.)
4. @other MJq Father MRI TMZLKMNLIq MJq QHIq eLK[PQK MRKLTNIH LJ K[I KISK. |Pe ePQNq aPQ
QHI K[I ePRqH LJ RIZPRKIq HZIIT[ (PRMN MJq eRLKKIJ){
B. 1. LJ K[I Z[RMHIH to de)orate the hou0e MJq to trim the hat0 eI [MxI KeP qLssIRIJK
IfQLxMNIJKH Ps @D6B. w[MK TMJ `I KRLVVIq PR qITPRMKIq{
2. wI HMa in the morning (evening, afternoon:, `QK LJ K[I Z[RMHI rPJ K[I xIRa VPRJLJg Ps
K[I qMar on LH QHIq. w[a{ (Cf: on that evening, on the morning of hi0 arriva.":
C. 1. \PLJK PQK MH VMJa TPNNPfQLMN ePRqH MJq Z[RMHIH MH aPQ TMJ sLJq. /QZZNa K[ILR
QHHLMJ IfQLxMNIJKH Ls ZPHHL`NI. w[MK LH K[I MQK[PRlH ZQRZPHI LJ LJKRPqQTLJg HP VMJa QJLKH Ps
LJsPRVMN HKaNI{
2. \PLJK PQK K[I ZMHHMgIH e[LT[ T[MRMTKIRLI K[I VIV`IRH Ps K[I sMVLNa MJq K[ILR RIMN
MKKLKQqI KP K[I VPK[IR. w[MK LH K[I VIK[Pq Ps T[MRMTKIRLMKLPJ QHIq `a K[I MQK[PR{
4. w[LT[ HIJKIJTIH PR ZMHHMgIH `IMR KPQT[IH Ps [QVPQR{ uRa KP ISZNMLJ [Pe K[I
[QVPRPQH IssITK LH MT[LIxIq LJ IMT[ TMHI. w[LT[ KaZI Ps [QVPQR ZRIxMLNH LJ K[I HKPRa{ (/II
1PKIH PJ /KaNI.)
II. a) Search the text for EngIish equivaIents of the phrases Iisted beIow and write them ia
your exercise book:
$6 (6) 6 "! 5 D! 6 $
(6)! 6 $D! $! 5 .... $; 8
$ > 9$ 6 $! 6 $! 8 8 5 68!
D6 6! 6 ! 9 8 E !
> ;! ; ! 5 85 6! $D
;! 6 $5 $ ! > $; $! ;
6 % $! 86! .!.! $9 5 5! 6!
6 6 .! $8 ;>8$ ...
b) Get the student sitting next to yon transIate haIf of the Russian phrases into EngIish (in
writing) and check them with the key in your notebook. TransIate the other haIf yourseIf and
ask your neighbour to correct your transIation.
III. TransIate in writing these passages. Compare and discuss different variants of students'
transIation:
+. .K PTTQRRIq KP pMK[IR K[MK M K[LJg LK ePQNq `I `IKKIR KP qP IxIJ K[MJ KP KMzI vPK[IR sPR M
VPKPR qRLxI ePQNq `I KP KMzI [IR sLH[LJg; Ls aPQ MRI gPLJg KP sLH[! K[IRI LH M qIsLJLKI ZQRZPHI
LJ sRPJK Ps aPQ KP [ILg[KIJ K[I IJPaVIJK. 2. pMK[IR HMLq JPK KP VLJq [LV! [I HMLq K[MK [I
TPQNq QHK MH eINN HKMa [PVI; [I HMLq K[MK eI eIRI JPK KP NIK K[I sMTK Ps [LH JPK [MxLJg [Mq M
RIMN [PNLqMa sPR K[RII aIMRH HKMJq LJ PQR eMa!
IV. Try your hand at teaching:
A. Preparation. \LTz PQK sRPV K[I KISK MNN K[I ePRqH eLK[ K[I NIKKIR g LJ K[IV. ONMHHLsa
K[IV MTTPRqLJg KP K[I eMa g LH ZRPJPQJTIq MJq ZQK K[IV qPeJ LJ TPNQVJH. vMzI QZ M NLHK Ps
ePRqH KP LNNQHKRMKI K[I HMVI RQNIH.
B. Work in Class. M) /[Pe K[I KM`NI KP K[I TNMHH MJq NIK K[I HKQqIJKH TPVVIJK PJ LK.
`) nLTKMKI K[I ePRqH LJ TNMHH eLK[ PJI HKQqIJK eRLKLJg K[IV PJ K[I `PMRq. OPRRITK K[I
VLHKMzIH PJ K[I `PMRq. (/II lONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJH .:! :..! :....)
V. a) Write the words beIow in the Past Indefinite. CIassify them into two groups: one with
the finaI r doubIed, the other one with one finaI r in the Past Indefinite.
b) ExpIain to the students when the finaI r shouId be doubIed:
IJKIR! PTTQR! PssIR! RIVIV`IR! TNIMR! RIsIR WRIfE:! T[IIR! `MR! QKKIR WAtq! HKMR! ZRIsIR!
HKLR WHKE:.
VI. a) Write an outIine of the text (see Ex. IX on p. 59). (The outIine may be written in the
Present or Past Indefinite tenses.)
b) Discuss the outIines written by severaI students and choose the best one. Improve it by
using some variants from other students' works. Write it down on the board and make the
students copy it in their exercise books.
VII. Write two questions to each item of the outIine: one shouId heIp to reveaI the
contradictions between what the members of the famiIy said and did, the other (with a modaI
verb) - what they couId or ought to have done.
e"g" +" nLq K[I gLRNH RIMNNa K[LJz K[MK K[ILR VPK[IRlH PNq `PJJIK eMH rMesQNNa `ITPVLJgr KP
[IR{ 2. nPJlK aPQ K[LJz K[Ia H[PQNq [MxI `PQg[K HPVIK[LJg sPR K[ILR VPK[IR KPP{ (vMzI K[I
HKQqIJKH RIMHPJ PQK K[ILR MJHeIRH.)
VIII. Study the VocabuIary Notes end EssentiaI VocabuIary (I) and a) Paraphrase the
foIIowing (in writing):
+. KP VMzI HV`. qP HVK[.; 2. KP [MxI HVK[. MRRMJgIq; 4. KP RITPxIR MsKIR M qLHIMHI; 3. KP
HKMJq QZ MJq HLK qPeJ; *. KP NPPz LJ K[I PZZPHLKI qLRITKLPJ; ,. KP TPVI KP PJIlH VLJq; 7. KP
MZZIMR QJISZITKIqNa; b! M gRIMK ZNIMHQRI; 2. MK NMHK; +). KP `I M`NI (KP HZIJq VPJIa PJ HVK[.!
IKT.); ++. KP TPJKLJQI KP qP HVK[.; +2. JPK KP NIK HV`. qP HVK[.; +4. KP TPJTIMN HPVI KMTK; +3.
KP IJPa PJIHINs; +*. KP NPxI (KMzI LJKIRIHK LJ); +,. sPR M H[PRK KLVI; +7. KP KMzI M KMSL; +b. KP
`ITPVI qLRKa; +2. KP NMQg[ MK (VPTz) HV`.; 2). KP gIK PK[IR ZIPZNI LJKP M VIHH.
b) Make op sentences with the phrases yea have written.
IX. A word in one Ianguage may have different equivaIents in another.
!"g" $ RPPV! ZNMTI > HMTRLsLTI! xLTKLV 6 sIKT[!
`RLJg
a) Look op the words given above in an EngIish-Russian dictionary,

find out the exact
meaning of each pair of words and write sentences iIIustrating the difference in their use.
b) Ask the students to transIate the Russian variants of your sentences.
X. TransIate the sentences into EngIish using EssentiaI VocabuIary (1);
+. F 6 D6 c 2. A % 5 ;= $
>8$. 4. 87 ! E $8 5 $ 8. 3.
; 6 %$ 5 ;5. *. A$ > 6
9 $! 8 5 5 { ,. "6 !
6! ; . 7. 6! 5 =7
5. b. ' $; >6 D5. 2. "8
$ >. 8 6 . +). E 9 ;! 9
>. ++. 5 > 6 9D (zLJqNa) =6 >8$. +2.
F 8 $; $6! 5 5c +4. 9! 8
>D6 c +3. D 6 5 6! { A6! $
E ; 9 ;. +*. h 6 $; . '! >
86! > 8 $. +,. F ;6 E ;c +7. k68 =
? $6 ; 8$ 7$$. +b. F Dc
XI. ReteII the test foIIowing the outIine (see Ex. VI, p. 132). Speak about the contradictions
between the words and the behaviour of the members of the famiIy:
!"g" ... u[Ia HMLq! K[Ia RIMNLIq e[MK K[ILR VPK[IR [Mq HMTRLsLTIq sPR K[ILR HMzI MJq eMJKIq
KP K[MJz [IR sPR IxIRaK[LJg H[I [Mq `IIJ qPLJg sPR K[IV. .J sMTK! . `INLIxI! K[Ia QHK eMJKIq
KP VMzI LK M [PNLqMa sPR K[IVHINxIH. u[Ia HKMaIq MK [PVI ... IKT.
XII. a) TransIate these sentences into Russian.
.. wI VMa just as well qMJTI JPe. 2. . would rather [LRI M KMSL. .lV xIRa KLRIq. 4. It will
never do KP ZQJLH[ K[I T[LNq sPR e[MK [I [MH JPK qPJI. 3. |I JIxIR keeps people waiting Ls
[I TMJ [INZ LK. *. wI VQHK keep him from making trouble. ,. uMzI Va gNPxIH! K[Ia eLNN
keep your hands warm. 7. It's no use KRLVVLJg K[LH PNq [MK! LK ePJlK NPPz `IKKIR. b. wI got
everything arranged sPR K[I KRLZ `a 2 PlTNPTz. 2. wI got her to believe PQR HKPRa. +). u[I
MRRMJgIVIJKH sPR K[I ZMRKa eLNN keep me busy K[I e[PNI qMa! .lV MsRMLq. ++. yPQ H[PQNqJlK
keep the children out MsKIR qMRz. +2. Keep the ticket Ls aPQ qPJlK eMJK KP `I sLJIq.
b) Write sentences of your own using the phrases in boId type. Address them to the other
students who shouId repIy them expressing their approvaI or disapprovaI.
\ R P V Z K H: |Pe JLTI (gPPq! TNIxIR! `Mq! MesQN) Ps aPQ ([LV! [IR)c . qPJlK K[LJz aPQ
H[PQNq [MxI qPJI LK. /QRI. 0QK K[MKlH JPK fQLKI KRQI. 1P ePJqIR. . MV qINLg[KIq MK aPQR LqIM.
XIII. Make up a conversation which took pIace after the day described in the text between:
the two girIs, the two boys, the father and his son, the mother and her friend, two
neighbours. You may find the foIIowing openings usefuI:
. HMa...; |PJIHKNa...; .s aPQ MHz VI...; yPQ zJPe e[MK . K[LJz...; u[I ZPLJK LH...; nPJlK aPQ
MgRII K[MK...; . VQHK HMa K[MK...; uINN aPQ e[MK!..; GxIJKQMNNa...; dTKQMNNa...; nIsLJLKINa... .
XIV. FiII in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:
.. u[I qRIHH LH QHK ePJqIRsQN. .K LH xIRa `ITPVLJg ... aPQ. 2. . [MxIJlK HIIJ aPQ ... MgIH.
|Pe MRI aPQ gIKKLJg ...{ 4. . NLzIq K[I TMzI aPQ KRIMKIq VI .... |Pe qP aPQ VMzI LK{ 3.
uQRJ ... K[I ZMgI MJq qP GSIRTLHI 4. *. |I KQRJIq ... M xIRa gPPq HKPRaKINNIR. . IJPaIq ... [LH
HKPJIH LVVIJHINa. ,. wI H[MNN qLHTQHH K[I VMKKIR ... PQR eMa [PVI. 7. .lV HQRI aPQlNN gIK... MNN
K[I qLssLTQNKLIH ... K[I IJq. b. \IKI qLqJlK eMJK KP KMzI [LH aPQJgIR `RPK[IR sLH[LJg! [I eMH
MsRMLq K[MK [I ePQNq `I ... [LH eMa. 2. u[I HKQqIJKH... URPQZ 4 eLNN [INZ KP qITPRMKI K[I [MNN...
sNPeIRH MJq VPKKPIH. +). u[I sMK[IR [Mq ZRPVLHIq KP KMzI K[I `PaH ... M qRLxI ... K[I TPQJKRa ...
/QJqMa. 0QK QJsPRKQJMKINa K[I eIMK[IR T[MJgIq ... K[I VPRJLJg MJq K[Ia [Mq KP HKMa ... [PVI.
++. OINLM eMxIq [IR [MJq ... iMJJa QJKLN K[I KRMLJ eMH PQK... HLg[K. +2.... HQT[ M `Lg PTTMHLPJ
MNN K[I T[LNqRIJ eIRI qRIHHIq ... K[ILR `IHK. +4. w[IJ MNN K[I K[LJgH eIRI ZMTzIq ... M HQLKTMHI!
LK KQRJIq ... K[MK Va KLTzIK [Mq HPVI[Pe gPK K[IRI KPP! MJq . [Mq KP KQRJ IxIRaK[LJg ......LJ
HIMRT[ ... LK. +3. u[I T[LNqRIJ eIRI MNNPeIq KP HKMa ... [PVI ... HT[PPN! MH K[I VPK[IRlH
`LRK[qMa eMH M gRIMK PTTMHLPJ ... MNN K[I sMVLNa.
XV. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using EssentiaI VocabuIary (I) and Patterns 1-4:
+. - $ $; ! $; 6 6 $. 2:
$ D! 5 $ ;. ! 6 5 $. 4. <
$; 6! 8 $ 6 E . 3. $;
6 6 5 ;5 . *. 76! $8 $ 6
% $ ;! . ,. (; ; 6$.
' D! ; $ 8 ; $> > 6
6! 96 . 7. 8 $ 6! 9
89. < ; 6 $ $. b. _ ! 9
6 E$ . 2. t 8 $5 $! !
. +). '! > 86! ; ]. ++. ? $; 6
$6! E D{ +2. <> 8 $>D6 6
$ 6 6{ +4. $5 $ ;$! 9
; D6 6 $ ;6 . +3. h % 6 %.
XVI. Review the text. Say a few words about the styIe and Ianguage of Leacock's story. Be
sure to touch on a) seIection of words, b) syntax, c) method of characterization, d) humour.
XVII. Try your hand at teaching.
1. Say what you wouId do in the teacher's position:
mP[JlH sLRHK qMa LJ HT[PPN eIJK HVPPK[Na. oJ K[I HITPJq qMa! MJPK[IR T[LNq HMK LJ K[I ZNMTI
mP[J eMJKIq. mP[J RIsQHIq KP HLK LJ MJa Ps K[I xMTMJK ZNMTIH MJq eMH gLxIJ K[I T[PLTI Ps
HLKKLJg qPeJ MK MJPK[IR ZNMTI PR HKMJqLJg. |I T[PHI KP HKMJq. |LH ZMRIJKH TMVI KP HT[PPN
HIxIRMN KLVIH LJ K[I JISK sIe eIIzH! xIRa qLHKRIHHIq K[MK MNN mP[J qLq MK HT[PPN eMH HKMJq.
2. Practise your "CIassroom EngIish".
Ask your pupiIs: a) to do Exercise XIV on p. 134 (written work); b) to get ready with Exercise
XVm (oraIIy).
XVIII. a) TransIate the text beIow into Russian:
uP VI LK [MH MNeMaH HIIVIq K[MK K[I xIRa IHHIJTI Ps gPPq [QVPQR LH K[MK LK VQHK `I
eLK[PQK [MRV MJq eLK[PQK VMNLTI. . MqVLK K[MK K[IRI LH LJ MNN Ps QH M TIRKMLJ xILJ Ps K[I PNq
PRLgLJMN qIVPJLMTMN [QVPQR PR Pa LJ K[I VLHsPRKQJI Ps MJPK[IR e[LT[ HKLTzH KP QH NLzI PQR
PRLgLJMN HLJ. .K PQg[K JPK KP `I sQJJa KP HII M VMJ! IHZITLMNNa M sMK MJq ZPVZPQH VMJ! HNLZ
HQqqIJNa PJ M `MJMJM HzLJ. 0QK LK LH. w[IJ M HzMKIR PJ K[I ZPJq e[P LH qIHTRL`LJg gRMTIsQN
TLRTNIH MJq H[PeLJg Pss `IsPRI M TRPeq! `RIMzH K[RPQg[ K[I LTI! IxIRa`Pqa H[PQKH eLK[ Pa.
uP MJ PRLgLJMN HMxMgI! K[I TRIMV Ps K[I PzI LJ HQT[ TMHIH eMH sPQJq Ls M VMJ e[P HNLZZIq
`RPzI [LH JITz! PR M VMJ e[P eIJK K[RPQg[ K[I LTI JIxIR TMVI QZ MgMLJ. . TMJ LVMgLJI M
gRPQZ Ps ZRI[LHKPRLT VIJ HKMJqLJg RPQJq K[I LTI[PNI e[IRI [I [Mq qLHMZZIMRIq MJq
NMQg[LJg KLNN K[ILR HLqIH HZNLK. .s K[IRI [Mq `IIJ HQT[ K[LJgH MH M ZRI[LHKPRLT JIeHZMZIR! K[I
MssMLR ePQNq [MxI `IIJ [IMqIq QZ: rdVQHLJg .JTLqIJK. }JzJPeJ UIJKNIVMJ 0RIMzH
u[RPQg[ .TI MJq .H nRPeJIqr.
0QK PQR HIJHI Ps [QVPQR QJqIR K[I TLxLNLMKLPJ [MH `IIJ eIMzIJIq. vQT[ Ps K[I sQJ Ps
K[LH HPRK Ps K[I K[LJg [MH `IIJ NPHK PJ QH. (From r|QVPQR
dH . /II .Kr &y /KIZ[IJ iIMTPTz)
b) Discuss the foIIowing questions:
+. nP aPQ MgRII eLK[ iIMTPTz K[MK gPPq [QVPQR VQHK `I eLK[PQK [MRV MJq eLK[PQK
VMNLTI{ 2. w[MK ZQRZPHI H[PQNq [QVPQR HIRxI{ 4. .H iIMTPTz RLg[K e[IJ [I HMaH K[MK
[QVPQR [MH `IIJ eIMzIJIq QJqIR TLxLNLMKLPJ{ nPIH [I RIMNNa VIMJ LK{ 3. nP aPQ MgRII KP
iIMTPTzlH PZLJLPJ K[MK [QVPRPQH /LLIH Ps NLsI MRI RIxIMNIq PJNa KP K[I sIe e[P [MxI gLxIJ
K[PQg[K KP LK{ *. nP aPQ K[LJz K[MK [LH HKPRa r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar MJq K[I NLzI VMa
gIK ZIPZNI KP QJqIRHKMJq K[ILR LVZIRsITKLPJH MJq KRa KP gIK RLq Ps K[IV{ ,. .H K[MK HKPRa KRQI KP
NLsI{ 7. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz LH K[I IHHIJTI Ps gPPq [QVPQR{
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
+. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRH nMar! VMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH! RIZIMK K[I
KISK sPNNPeLJg K[I VPqIN.
2. vMzI aPQR HIJKIJTIH NIHH TMKIgPRLT `a QHLJg K[I gLxIJ VPqIN.
4. wRLKI M HZINNLJgKRMJHNMKLPJ KIHK. O[ITz LK eLK[ K[I zIa. O[ITz aPQR HZINNLJg eLK[ M
qLTKLPJMRa.
3. \MRMZ[RMHI K[I HIJKIJTIH QHLJg K[I gLxIJ ZMKKIRJH.
*. GSKIJq K[I sPNNPeLJg HIJKIJTIH.
,. uRMJHNMKI K[I gLxIJ HIJKIJTIH. O[ITz aPQR KRMJHNMKLPJ eLK[ K[I zIa.
7. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK r0ILJg M |PQHI[QH`MJqr PR HPVI PK[IR KISK PJ K[I KPZLT rpMVLNa
|PNLqMaHr. pLJq K[I GJgNLH[ IfQLxMNIJKH Ps K[I gLxIJ QHHLMJ Z[RMHIH. UIK RIMqa KP HZIMz PJ
K[I ZMRK Ps K[I eLsI.
TOP!: MEALS
TEXT A. AN ENGLISHMAN'S MEALS
pPQR VIMNH M qMa MRI HIRxIq KRMqLKLPJMNNa LJ 0RLKMLJ: `RIMzsMHK! NQJT[! KIM MJq qLJJIR.
.J VMJa TPQJKRLIH `RIMzsMHK LH M HJMTz RMK[IR K[MJ M VIMN `QK K[I GJgNLH[ `RIMzsMHK IMKIJ
MK M`PQK ILg[K PlTNPTz LJ K[I VPRJLJg! LH M sQNN VIMN! VQT[ `LggIR K[MJ PJ K[I OPJKLJIJK.
/PVI ZIPZNI `IgLJ eLK[ M ZNMKIsQN Ps ZPRRLqgI `QK VPRI PsKIJ TPRJsNMzIH eLK[ VLNz MJq
HQgMR. u[IJ TPVIH MK NIMHK PJI HQ`HKMJKLMN TPQRHI! HQT[ MH zLZZIRH PR `MTPJ MJq IggH.
dsKIReMRqH TPVIH KPMHK eLK[ `QKKIR MJq VMRVMNMqI PR MV. u[I VIMN LH reMH[Iq qPeJr eLK[
KIM PR TPssII.
vPHK 0RLKLH[ ZIPZNI JPe [MxI HQT[ M sQNN `RIMzsMHK PJNa PJ /QJqMa VPRJLJgH. oJ
eIIzqMaH LK LH QHQMNNa M fQLTz VIMN: QHK TPRJsNMzIH! KPMHK MJq KIM.
GJgNLH[ NQJT[! e[LT[ LH QHQMNNa IMKIJ MK PJI PlTNPTz! LH `MHIq PJ ZNMLJ! HLVZNaTPPzIq
sPPq. .K HKMRKH eLK[ HPQZ PR sRQLK QLTI. GJgNLH[ ZIPZNI HPVIKLVIH HMa K[MK HPQZ sLNNH K[IV QZ
eLK[PQK NIMxLJg HQssLTLIJK RPPV sPR K[I VPRI LVZPRKMJK TPQRHI e[LT[ TPJHLHKH Ps VIMK!
ZPQNKRa PR sLH[ MTTPVZMJLIq `a ZNIJKa Ps xIgIKM`NIH.
dZZNIZLI LH M sMxPQRLKI HeIIK! MJq GJgNLH[ ZQqqLJgH Ps e[LT[ K[IRI MRI xIRa VMJa! MRI MJ
ISTINNIJK IJqLJg KP M VIMN! IHZITLMNNa LJ eLJKIR. pLJMNNa M TQZ Ps TPssII `NMTz PR e[LKI.
uIM! K[I K[LRq VIMN Ps K[I qMa! LH KMzIJ `IKeIIJ sPQR MJq sLxI PlTNPTz IHZITLMNNa e[IJ
HKMaLJg LJ M [PKIN e[IJ M ZPK Ps KIM eLK[ M Qg Ps VLNz MJq M `PeN Ps HQgMR MRI `RPQg[K LJ.
0LHTQLKH MRI [MJqIq RPQJq.
dK K[I eIIzIJqH MsKIRJPPJ KIM LH M xIRa HPTLM`NI KLVI. pRLIJqH MJq xLHLKPRH MRI PsKIJ
ZRIHIJK.
/PVI ZIPZNI NLzI KP [MxI K[I HPTMNNIq r[Lg[ KIMr e[LT[ LH M VLSKQRI Ps KIM MJq HQZZIR
sPR ISMVZNI VIMK! T[IIHI MJq sRQLK VMa `I MqqIq KP `RIMq MJq `QKKIR! ZMHKRLIH MJq KIM.
nLJJIR LH K[I VPHK HQ`HKMJKLMN VIMN Ps K[I qMa. u[I QHQMN KLVI LH M`PQK HIxIJ PlTNPTz MJq
MNN K[I VIV`IRH Ps K[I sMVLNa HLK qPeJ KPgIK[IR. u[I sLRHK TPQRHI VLg[K `I HPQZ. u[IJ TPVIH
K[I HITPJq TPQRHI: sLH[ PR VIMK! ZIR[MZH K[I KRMqLKLPJMN RPMHK `IIs Ps PNq GJgNMJq. u[IJ K[I
qIHHIRK LH HIRxIq: HPVI zLJq Ps HeIIK. 0QK e[IK[IR M ZIRHPJ LJ sMTK gIKH HQT[ M VIMN qIZIJqH
PJ [LH [PQHIzIIZLJg `QqgIK. /PVI ZIPZNI LJ K[I KPeJH MJq JIMRNa MNN TPQJKRa ZIPZNI [MxI
qLJJIR LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I qMa LJHKIMq Ps NQJT[. u[Ia [MxI KIM M NLKKNI NMKIR! `IKeIIJ sLxI MJq
HLS PlTNPTz! e[IJ K[Ia VLg[K [MxI M NLg[K VIMN MJ PVINIKKI! PR HMQHMgIH PR sRLIq sLH[ MJq
T[LZH PR e[MKIxIR K[Ia TMJ MssPRq.
u[IJ `IsPRI gPLJg KP `Iq! K[Ia VMa [MxI M NLg[K HJMTz PR HQZZIR !"g" M TQZ Ps [PK VLNz
eLK[ M HMJqeLT[ PR `LHTQLK.
u[I IxIJLJg VIMN MH eI [MxI HMLq MNRIMqa gPIH QJqIR xMRLPQH JMVIH: KIM! r[Lg[ KIMr!
qLJJIR PR HQZZIR qIZIJqLJg QZPJ LKH HLI MJq MNHP K[I HPTLMN HKMJqLJg Ps K[PHI IMKLJg LK.
(/II: 7otter #" GxIRaqMa GJgNLH[ sPR pPRILgJ /KQqIJKH. iJq.! +2,4
TEXT B. AT TABLE
1L: . HMa! VQV! .lV KIRRL`Na [QJgRa. . [MxIJlK [Mq M K[LJg MNN qMa. . TPQNq qP eLK[ M
HJMTz.
vPK[IR: w[a! aPQlRI QHK LJ KLVI sPR qLJJIR.
1L: 1P HPQZ sPR VI. .lq RMK[IR [MxI `IIsHKIMz.
vPK[IR: dRI aPQ fQLKI HQRI aPQ ePQNqJlK NLzI HPVI HPQZ{ .K KMHKIH MNN RLg[K.
1LTz: u[IRI LH JPK[LJg NLzI HKIMz MJq T[LZH. .lNN gP MJq eMH[ Va [MJqH.
vPK[IR: |PelH K[I HKIMz{ .lV MsRMLq LKlH QJqIRqPJI.
1LTz: o[! LKlH qPJI KP M KQRJ! QHK KP Va NLzLJg. . qPJlK NLzI VIMK PxIRqPJI. vMa . [MxI
MJPK[IR [INZLJg Ps T[LZH{
vPK[IR: yIH! TIRKMLJNa. |MJq VI aPQR ZNMKI! ZNIMHI! MJq [INZ aPQRHINs KP K[I HMNMq. mQHK KP
HII [Pe LK KMHKIH.
1LTz: o[! LKlH qINLTLPQH.
vPK[IR: /[MNN . ZQK HPVI VQHKMRq PJ aPQR HKIMz{
1LTz: 1P! K[MJzH! . qPJlK TMRI sPR VQHKMRq. .lq RMK[IR KMzI M HZPPJsQN Ps HMQTI. \MHH VI K[I
HMQTI! ZNIMHI.
vPK[IR: |IRI aPQ MRI. o[! LHJlK K[IRI M HVINN Ps HPVIK[LJg `QRJLJg{
1L: /P K[IRI LH.
vPK[IR: .lxI NIsK K[I NMaIRTMzI LJ K[I PxIJ.
1LTz: pPR gPPqJIHHl HMzI gIK LK PQK fQLTz.
vPK[IR ()oming &a)/:: o[! 1LTzc |Pe MezeMRq Ps aPQ KP [MxI HZLNK K[I HMQTI PxIR K[I
KM`NITNPK[. UIK M ZMZIR JMZzLJ sRPV K[I HLqI`PMRq MJq TPxIR LK QZ.
1LTz: .lV KIRRL`Na HPRRa. . eMH fQLKI QZHIK M`PQK Va sMxPQRLKI TMzI gIKKLJg HZPLNIq.
vPK[IR: nPJlK ePRRa. |IRI LK LH! `RPeJ MJq TRLHZ PJ K[I PQKHLqI. w[MK eLNN aPQ [MxI! KIM
PR TPssII{
1L: d TQZ Ps KIM.
vPK[IR: dJa VLNz{ /[MNN . ZQK `QKKIR PJ aPQR `RIMq{
1LTz: 1P! K[MJzH. . TMJlK HII K[I HQgMR`MHLJ.
vPK[IR: .KlH `I[LJq K[I `RIMqZNMKI. |MxI M `IKKIR NPPz.
1LTz: .lV MsRMLq LKlH K[I HMNKTINNMR.
vPK[IR: /P LK LH. .J Va [QRRa . VQHK [MxI NIsK LK LJ K[I qRIHHIR.
1LTz: .KlH MNN RLg[K .lNN gIK LK VaHINs.
vPK[IR: |INZ aPQRHINs KP K[I TMzI. u[IRIlH JPK[LJg INHI KP sPNNPe.
1LTz: .lxI [Mq M qINLTLPQH VIMN.
TEXT C. IN THE DINING-HALL
iIKlH gP KP K[I qLJLJg[MNN. wI [MxIJlK VQT[ KLVI NIsK! `QK eIlNN VMJMgI LK MNN RLg[K Ls
aPQ [QRRa. yPQ KMzI M ZNMTI LJ K[I fQIQI MJq .lNN HII e[MK eI TMJ gIK sPR qLJJIR.
dNN RLg[K. w[MK LH PJ K[I VIJQ{
OM``MgI HPQZ eLK[ VIMK! T[LTzIJ HPQZ eLK[ JPPqNIH MJq ZIM HPQZ.
. qPJlK zJPe e[IK[IR .lNN [MxI MJa. w[MK [MxI K[Ia gPK sPR HITPJqH{
pRLIq sLH[ MJq VMH[Iq ZPKMKPIH! `IIsHKIMz! `MTPJ MJq IggH.
dJq sPR qIHHIRK{
d NPK Ps K[LJgH. wI TMJ [MxI HKIeIq sRQLK PR TRMJ`IRRa INNa PR HKRMe`IRRLIH MJq TRIMV.
u[IJ! .lNN KMzI TM``MgI HPQZ eLK[ HPQR TRIMV MJq... wINN! MJq e[MK M`PQK HPVI HKMRKIR{
wIlxI TPVZNIKINa sPRgPKKIJ M`PQK LK.
dH eI MRI LJ M [QRRa . `INLIxI eI TMJ qP eLK[PQK LK. . JIxIR K[PQg[K aPQ eIRI M `Lg
IMKIR.
1ILK[IR qLq .. 0QK . ePQNqJlK VLJq [MxLJg HPVIK[LJg HQ`HKMJKLMN JPe.
/P eIlNN KMzI PJI TQTQV`IR HMNMq MJq PJI KPVMKP HMNMq. u[MKlNN qP sPR K[I KLVI `ILJg. .
K[LJz . TMJ VMJMgI M `LK Ps sLH[INNa MH eINN MJq K[IJ T[LTzIJ HPQZ eLK[ JPPqNIH. u[MKlNN `I
sLJI.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
Words
`MTPJ n JMZzLJ n HJMTz n
`LHTQLK n JPPqNI HPQZ n HPTLM`NI ad%
`RIMqZNMKI n PVINIK (KI) n HPQR TRIMV n
T[LZH n ZMHKRa n HKMRKIR n
TPRJsNMzIH n ZIZZIR`PS (ZPK) n (`IIs) HKIMz n
TRIMV n ZPRRLqgI n HKIeIq sRQLK n
sRQLK QLTI n ZPQNKRa n HQgMR`MHLJ n
INNa n ZQqqLJg n HeIIK n
Qg n RPMHK `IIs n KM`NITNPK[ n
VMRVMNMqI n HMNKTINNMR n KPMHK n
VQHKMRqZPK n HMQTI`PMK n
Word Combinations
KP `PLN VIMK (ZPKMKPIH! TM``MgI! KP sRa `MTPJ! IggH! ZPKMKPIH!
IggH! eMKIR! VLNz! IKT) sLH[ (TPq! ZIRT[! ZLzI! [Mq
KP HKIe sRQLK (xIgIKM`NIH! VIMK) qPTz! KRPQK! HMNVPJ)
TRQHK Ps `RIMq KP KMHKI gPPq (`Mq! qINL
KP HLK MK KM`NI ([MxLJg M VIMN) TLPQH! IKT.)
(Ts.: KP HLK MK K[I KM`NI eRLKLJg KP `I qPJI KP M KQRJ (PxIR
M NIKKIR! IKT.) qPJI! QJqIRqPJI)
KP [MxI (KMzI) HVK[. sPR qLJJIR TRLHZ KPMHK
(sPR K[I sLRHK! HITPJq TPQRHI! KP [INZ PJIHINs KP HVK[.
PR qIHHIRK) KP ZMHH HVK[. KP HV`!
KP `QKKIR PJIlH `RIMq (RPNN! IKT.) KP qLJI in (PQK)
KP [MxI M HJMTz (M `LKI Ps sPPq) LKlH KP Va NLzLJg
KP [MxI MJPK[IR [INZLJg Ps HVK[. K[IRIlH JPK[LJg NLzI LTI
KP RPMHK VIMK (VQKKPJ! ZPRz! TRIMV (HKIMz! IKT.)
`IIs)! sPeN (T[LTzIJ! qQTz! K[IRIlH JPK[LJg INHI TPVLJg
gPPHI! KQRzIa)! ZPKMKPIH sPR M T[MJgI
Study the meanings and use of these items of your EssentiaI VocabuIary:
1. Food and MeaI. Food LH M gIJIRMN KIRV sPR MJaK[LJg K[MK ZIPZNI IMK: `RIMq! VIMK!
sLH[! xIgIKM`NIH! sRQLK! VLNz! KLJJIq gPPqH! HeIIKH! IKT.
!"g" vMJ TMJJPK NLxI eLK[PQK sPPq. u[I qPTKPR HMLq K[MK K[I ZMKLIJK JIIqIq gPPq
JPQRLH[LJg sPPq. w[IRI qP aPQ `Qa aPQR sPPq{
Meal LH M gIJIRMNLLJg TPNNITKLxI KIRV sPR `RIMzsMHK! NQJT[! KIM! qLJJIR MJq HQZZIR (Ts. K[I
QHHLMJ MRT[! ).
!"g" |Pe VMJa VIMNH M qMa qP aPQ [MxI{ /QZZIR LH MJ IxIJLJg VIMN. . qPJlK eMJK MJa [PK
VIMN; . K[LJz .lNN qP eLK[ M HJMTz.
2. Course LH M qLH[ HIRxIq MK M VIMN; M ZMRK Ps M VIMN HIRxIq MK PJI KLVI.
!"g" nLJJIR VMa TPJHLHK Ps KeP PR VPRI TPQRHIH. w[MK H[MNN eI KMzI sPR PQR HITPJq
TPQRHI{ /PQZ eMH sPNNPeIq `a M sLH[ TPQRHI.
3. To fry, to roast, to stew. uP sRa VIMJH rKP TPPz (PR `I TPPzIq) LJ `PLNLJg sMKr. wI
QHQMNNa sRa sLH[! ZPKMKPIH! IggH! `MTPJ! ZMJTMzIH! IKT.
To roast VIMJH rKP TPPz (PR `I TPPzIq) LJ MJ PxIJ PR PxIR MJ PZIJ sLRI.r .J K[LH eMa eI
VMa TPPz VIMK (xIMN! ZPRz)! sPeN (T[LTzIJ! KQRzIa)! IKT.
To stew VIMJH rKP TPPz `a HNPe `PLNLJg LJ M TNPHIq ZMJ eLK[ NLKKNI eMKIR.r .J K[LH eMa
VIMK VMa `I TPPzIq! MNHP xIgIKM`NIH! sRQLK! IKT.
4. Starter ((. H) LH M qLH[ HIRxIq `IsPRI PR MK K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps M VIMN (LK VMa `I HMNMq!
sLH[! PNLxIH! HPQZ! sRQLK QLTI! IKT.) |PRH qlPIQxRI ((. H) LH QHQMNNa QHIq PJ VIJQTMRqH.
5. OmeIette LH IggH `IMKIJ KPgIK[IR eLK[ VLNz MJq sRLIq PR `MzIq LJ M ZMJ. u[I GJgNLH[
sPR % LH rsRLIq IggHr. wI IMK sRLIq IggH! HPsK`PLNIq IggH! [MRq`PLNIq IggH! HTRMV`NIq
IggH! ZPMT[Iq IggH! sPQRVLJQKI `PLNIq IggH.
6. Porridge LH M qLH[ Ps PMKVIMN PR PK[IR VIMN (`QTze[IMK! HIVPNLJM! VLNNIK! IKT.) `PLNIq
LJ HPVI eMKIR. vLNz MJq HQgMR PR VLNz MJq HMNK MRI MqqIq KP LK.
7. Toast LH HNLTIq `RIMq VMqI `RPeJ MJq TRLHZ PJ K[I PQKHLqI `a [IMKLJg LJ M KPMHKIR.
uPMHK LH ZNMTIq PJ M KPMHKRMTz.
8. Chips MRI sRLIq ZLITIH Ps ZPKMKP! PsKIJ IMKIJ eLK[ sRLIq sLH[.
9. Soft and strong drinks 968 .
Soft drinks MRI NIVPJMqI! sRQLK qRLJzH! sRQLK QLTI! IKT. Strong drinks MRI eLJI! NLfQIQRH!
`RMJqa! xPqzM! IKT.
10. JeIIy LH QHQMNNa VMqI `a `PLNLJg sRQLK (TRMJ`IRRLIH! HKRMe`IRRLIH! RMHZ`IRRLIH!
gPPHI`IRRLIH! TQRRMJKH! MZRLTPKH! IKT.) MJq HQgMR. /PVIK[LJg LH MqqIq KP VMzI K[I VLSKQRI
HKLss.
11. MarmaIade LH M zLJq Ps MV VMqI sRPV PRMJgI PR NIVPJ TQK QZ MJq `PLNIq eLK[
HQgMR.
12. Pudding LH M xIRa ZPZQNMR GJgNLH[ qLH[. .K LH M K[LTz VLSKQRI Ps sNPQR! HQIK! VIMK!
sRQLK! IKT.! TPPzIq `a `PLNLJg! HKIMVLJg PR `MzLJg. u[IRI MRI VMJa zLJqH Ps ZQqqLJg. /PVI Ps
K[IV MRI fQLKI HQ`HKMJKLMN MJq HIRxI MH K[I VMLJ TPQRHI Ps NQJT[ PR qLJJIR. oK[IRH MRI RMK[IR
NLzI HeIIK TMzI MJq IMKIJ sPR qIHHIRK.
EXERCISES
I. Study Text A and a) speII and transcribe EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing:
(85) ! D! C! ! ! $$! ! 85!
;! $; 6 ()! C! $! ! 9 6.
b) give the four forms of the foIIowing verbs:
IMK! sRa! RPMHK! MTTPVZMJa! sLNN! `RLJg.
c) expIain the meaning of the foIIowing phrases:
M sQNN VIMN! ZNMLJ sPPq! M HPTLM`NI KLVI! M [PQHIzIIZLJg `QqgIK! KP gP QJqIR xMRLPQH
JMVIH! HPTLMN HKMJqLJg.
II. Try your hand at teaching:
A. Preparation. wRLKI +* fQIHKLPJH M`PQK uISK d. /II KP LK K[MK M ePRq PR Z[RMHI sRPV
GS. . LH QHIq ILK[IR LJ IMT[ Ps aPQR fQIHKLPJH PR LJ MJHeIRH KP K[IV.
B. Work in Class. dHz aPQR fQIHKLPJH LJ TNMHH MJq TPRRITK K[I HKQqIJKHl VLHKMzIH (HII
rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJH .! ..! ...! :...! .^).
III. Study Texts and and
a) expIain the meaning of:
qINLTLPQH (M`PQK sPPq)! NMaIRTMzI! PxIJ! JMZzLJ! M `Lg IMKIR! qPJI KP M KQRJ! HITPJqH.
b) give the Infinitive oft
PxIRqPJI! HZLNK! QZHIK! VMH[Iq! HKIeIq.
IV. a) Give a summary of Text in reported speech.
GSMVZNI: uISK ( LH M KMNz `IKeIIJ KeP sRLIJqH LJ K[I qLJLJg [MNN Ps K[ILR .JHKLKQKI. u[Ia
HIIV xIRa [QJgRa! `QK K[Ia [MxIJlK gPK VQT[ KLVI NIsK `IsPRI K[I IJq Ps K[I `RIMz! HP PJI Ps
K[IV HKMJqH LJ K[I NLJI! e[LNI K[I PK[IR RIMqH K[I VIJQ. u[IRI LH M RLT[ T[PLTI Ps qLH[IH LJ LK
`QK MH K[Ia MRI LJ M [QRRa K[Ia KMzI PJNa HMNMqH! sLH[ INNa MJq T[LTzIJ HPQZ! e[LT[ H[PeH K[MK
K[Ia MRI P`xLPQHNa QHHLMJH: K[I GJgNLH[ MRI JPK PxIRsPJq Ps HPQZ! MH aPQ zJPe.
b) Learn Text by heart and recite it Ia pairs.
V. Study EssentiaI VocabuIary II and the commentary to it and answer the foIIowing
questions:
+. w[MK zLJqH Ps sPPq qP aPQ zJPe{ ULxI MH VMJa JPQJH qIJPKLJg sPPq MH aPQ TMJ. 2.
w[MK VIMNH qP aPQ zJPe{ 4. w[MK qLH[IH qP aPQ zJPe{ ULxI MH VMJa JMVIH Ps qLH[IH MH
aPQ TMJ. 3. w[MK LH QJqIRHKPPq `a M rTPQRHIr{ w[MK MKKRL`QKIH VMa fQMNLsa K[LH ePRq{ *.
w[MK TMJ `I `PLNIq{ ,. nP eI sRa VIMK PR qP eI RPMHK LK{ A" w[MK LH MJ PVINIKKI VMqI sRPV{
b. w[MK MRI TPRJsNMzIH gIJIRMNNa IMKIJ eLK[{ 2. w[MK LH K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ sRLIq ZPKMKPIH
MJq T[LZH{ +). w[MK zLJq Ps VIMN LH sLxI PlTNPTz KIM LJ GJgNMJq{ nP aPQ zJPe PK[IR JMVIH
sPR K[LH VIMN{ ++. w[MK zLJqH Ps sRQLK qP aPQ zJPe{ +2. nP eI RPMHK sLH[{ w[MK LH K[I eMa
KP TPPz LK{ +4. nP aPQ IxIR [MxI HKIeIq sRQLK sPR qIHHIRK{ +3. nP aPQ QHQMNNa [MxI M HKMRKIR
`IsPRI qLJJIR PR qP aPQ qP eLK[PQK LK{ +*. w[IRI qP aPQ [MxI aPQR VIMNH PJ eIIzqMaH MJq
PJ /QJqMaH{
VI. FiII in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:
+. uMzI MJPK[IR [INZLJg ... HMNMq. 2. . K[LJz .lNN KRPQ`NI aPQ ... M HITPJq TQZ Ps KIM. 4. wLNN
aPQ ZNIMHI ZMHH ... K[I HQgMR. 3. /[I LH gPLJg KP VMzI HPVI sLH[ HPQZ ... qLJJIR. *. vMRVMNMqI
LH VMqI ... PRMJgI ZIIN. ,. u[I Igg LH IMKIJ ... M HVMNN HZPPJ. 7. u[ILR VIMN TPJHLHKIq ... KeP
TPQRHIH. b. w[MK TMJ aPQ RITPVVIJq ... K[I sLRHK TPQRHI{ 2. u[I VIMK LH qPJI ... M KQRJ. +).
1P HQgMR ... VI! K[MJz aPQ. ++.... VLqqMa ZIPZNI [MxI K[ILR VIMNH ... [PVI PR ... K[I TMJKIIJ.
+2. OQHKMRq LH VMqI ... IggH MJq VLNz. +4. u[I sLH[ LH QHK... Va NLzLJg. +3. GxIJLJg VIMN gPIH
... xMRLPQH JMVIH ... GJgNMJq. +*. . qPJlK KMzI VLNz ... Va KIM. +,. |INZ aPQRHINs ... HPVI
ZMHKRa. +7. 0RPK[ LH VMqI ... `PLNLJg T[LTzIJ. +b. wLNN aPQ ZNIMHI [MJq ... K[I HMNKTINNMR{ +2.
w[MK qP aPQ QHQMNNa PRqIR ... qIHHIRK{ 2). u[I eMa KP RIsQHI ... M qLH[ LH ... HMaLJg r1P! K[MJz
aPQ.r 2+. yPQ VMa MHz ... M HITPJq [INZLJg.
VII. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. < C $$. _$ >85 .
2. <$> 6 ;55 . X9 $87
$$ >$$. 4. _ 9! D. 3. ' 8
9 7. " 7 6D$ $ =5. _
$ $. *. Y 8$85 @6D5 5B 6$ 6
. ,. ' ; 6! 8>! @ 6B. 7. <;
$ $c b. CD 85{ A$$! >.
$ >! 5! . 2. t > { F
6 8 7! 8. +). $ ; D >5 D!
! $ >. ++" (6 $ 9{
;7 ! 67 5 9. &$ $! >5.
VIII. a) Act out the diaIogues beIow:
A. Inviting someone out
/.: |MNNP! 0LNN! [MxI aPQ gPK MJa ZNMJH sPR K[LH IxIJLJg{
.: 1P! RIMNNa! JP.
/.: wINN! ePQNq aPQ NLzI KP [MxI M VIMN eLK[ VI{
.: o[! eINN! .lV JPK HQRI . TMJ VMJMgI K[MK.
/.: u[IRIlH M JLTI O[LJIHI RIHKMQRMJK LJ KPeJ K[I sPPqlH xIRa gPPq K[IRI.
.: o[! K[MK HPQJqH xIRa JLTI! K[MJzH.
/.: .lNN TMNN sPR aPQ M`PQK b! K[IJ.
.: b PlTNPTz. pLJI! K[MJzH.
B. Asking your friends to do you a favour.
m.: .lV QHK gPLJg H[PZZLJg. nP aPQ eMJK MJaK[LJg{
v.: dRI aPQ gPLJg ZMHK K[I `MzIRlH `a MJa T[MJTI! mMJ{
m.: yIH.
v.: wINN! . ePJqIR Ls aPQ TPQNq gIK VI sLsKIIJ nMJLH[ ZMHKRLIH.
m.: pLsKIIJ{ . TMJlK LVMgLJI e[a aPQ eMJK sLsKIIJ.
v.: wINN! . eMJK KP gLxI IxIRaPJI LJ K[I TNMHH PJI sPR KIM.
m.: ojc . [PZI .lNN gIK PJI Ps K[IV.
v.: os TPQRHI! K[MJzH M NPK. (pQJTKLPJH Ps GJgNLH[. uIMT[IRlH 0PPz. OMV`RLqgI
}JLx. \RIHH! +2b+)
b) Make up diaIogues of your own using word combinations from the texts.
.^. dHz aPQR ZMRKJIR
+. d`PQK K[I qLJJIR [I QHQMNNa [MH (KLVI! ZNMTI! qLH[IH). 2. .s [I KMzIH MJa HKMRKIR MJq e[MK
[I NLzIH sPR LK. 4. w[MK zLJq Ps HPQZ [I NLzIH `IHK Ps MNN. 3. w[MK [LH sMxPQRLKI VIMK qLH[IH
MRI. <" w[MK zLJqH Ps sLH[ [I zJPeH. ,. .s [I NLzIH HKIeIq TMRRPKH. 7. w[MK PK[IR HKIeIq
xIgIKM`NIH PR sRQLK [I IMKH. b. w[MK [I eMJKH sPR qIHHIRK. 2. |Pe VMJa NQVZH Ps HQgMR [I
KMzIH eLK[ [LH KIM. +). .s [I ZRIsIRH HKRPJg PR eIMz KIM. ++. w[MK [I QHQMNNa qPIH Ls [I HZLNNH
HPVI NLfQLq PJ K[I KM`NITNPK[. +2. .s [I TMJ TPPz MJa qLH[IH. +4. d`PQK K[I eMa [I TPPzH
VIMK (sRa! RPMHK! HKIe). +3. .s [I HPVIKLVIH IMKH PQK. +*. .s [I ZRIsIRH IMKLJg PQK.
X. Compose diaIogues between a Russian and an EsgIish student discussing a) EngIish and
Russian meaIs; b) their favourite dishes; c) where each of them has his meaIs.
XI. a) Study the text:
Bread -and-Butter Pudding
0IMK QZ KeP IggH MJq Mqq KP K[IV PJI ZLJK Ps VLNz MJq M NLKKNI sNMxPQRLJg. 0QKKIR K[I ZLI
qLH[ MJq TQK K[RII HNLTIH Ps `RIMqMJq`QKKIR LJ sLJgIRH! RIVPxLJg K[I TRQHKH. \QK M NMaIR Ps
`RIMq LJ K[I qLH[! HZRLJzNI eLK[ HQgMR MJq M sIe TNIMJIq TQRRMJKH PR RMLHLJH! Mqq VPRI `RIMq!
sRQLK MJq HQgMR MJq K[IJ ZPQR PxIR K[I VLNz MJq K[I IggH. iIMxI KP HPMz sPR PJI [PQR! K[IJ
`MzI LJ M HNPe PxIJ M`PQK MJ [PQR. /ZRLJzNI eLK[ HQgMR `IsPRI HIRxLJg.
b) Describe the way you cook your favourite dish. You may need some verbs besides those
in the text, such as min"e, mi#, grate, grind, "hop, sift, roll, bake.
XII. Try your band at teaching:
d. Preparation. pLJq 4 ZRPxIR`H qIMNLJg eLK[ K[I KPZLT. uRMJHNMKI K[IV MJq gLxI K[ILR
QHHLMJ IfQLxMNIJKH.
0. Work in Class. UIK M VIV`IR Ps K[I TNMHH KP eRLKI PJI Ps K[IV PJ K[I `NMTz`PMRq.
vMzI MJPK[IR HKQqIJK KRMJHNMKI LK MJq gLxI LKH QHHLMJ IfQLxMNIJK. uINN K[I TNMHH KP K[LJz Ps M
H[PRK HLKQMKLPJ LNNQHKRMKLJg K[I ZRPxIR`. OPRRITK K[I VLHKMzIH. (iPPz QZ K[I ePRqH aPQ VMa
JIIq KP qP K[I ISIRTLHI LJ TNMHH LJ rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJ :....)
XIII. a) Read the text beIow and comment on it:
Tea
0RLKPJH qRLJz M fQMRKIR Ps MNN K[I KIM gRPeJ LJ K[I ePRNq IMT[ aIMR. u[Ia MRI K[I ePRNqlH
gRIMKIHK KIM qRLJzIRH. vMJa Ps K[IV qRLJz LK PJ MK NIMHK ILg[K qLssIRIJK PTTMHLPJH qQRLJg K[I
qMa. u[Ia qRLJz LK `IKeIIJ VIMNH MJq MK VIMNH. u[Ia qRLJz LK eMKT[LJg KINIxLHLPJ. mPLJ K[I
uIM: HIKc HMaH PJI eINNzJPeJ KIM MqxIRKLHIVIJK.
(/II: @u0man P" 0RLKMLJ uPqMa. iJq.! +273)
b) What is the attitude towards tea drinking in this country?
XIV. TransIate toe foIIowing sentences:
+. @(6 6 8 { . ?; 6
> 6B. 2. ' ] 7 D! 9 ;! $
9 6. 4. (; $7 6 $8 7! D8 =! 5 ;!
8 > $> C$ . 3. (6 $
9{ 9 *. < 9 = $; { ;7 ! $
. ,. ( 85{ = ! 6 ;5. 7. 8
! 8 7 { b. 8 5 7 5 5
85{ < 6 5! >5. 2. t ; { 8
D5. +). ' 5. X. Y $6 9 $${ !
6$. +2. - ; 8 ;5 ! ; $8 ;6.
8 8 9 8 6. +4. ' > . +3.
' 7 8 8 6D! $ >. +*. E$ $ ;5
; ;=7 D 8$ 8$ ;$ (MZZNIKMRK). '
8 . +,. ~ $> 7! ;! $6 (KMzI
M ) ; . h =. ~$ 8 D 56
$. +7. Y8 > 8 { < =. < $; 5 7 6.
XV. a) Study the text:
Pubs
pPR VMJa 0RLKLH[ ZIPZNI! K[I ZQ` LH K[I TIJKRI Ps K[ILR HPTLMN NLsI. \IPZNI sRPV HPVI
TPQJKRLIH sLJq K[LH RMK[IR H[PTzLJg! `QK sPR VPHK ZIPZNI LJ 0RLKMLJ M ZQ` LH M ZNMTI eLK[ M
sRLIJqNa MKVPHZ[IRI e[IRI K[Ia TMJ VIIK K[ILR sRLIJqH MJq KMNz PxIR M qRLJz MJq PsKIJ
PxIR M VIMN.
dK NQJT[KLVI aPQ TMJ PsKIJ gIK HMJqeLT[IH PR M ZNPQg[VMJlH NQJT[ (`RIMq MJq T[IIHI).
.J K[I IxIJLJg VMJa ZQ`H HIRxI l`MHzIK VIMNHl (IHZITLMNNa T[LTzIJ MJq T[LZH HIRxIq LJ M
`MHzIK) MK K[I `MR! MJq HPVI [MxI RIHKMQRMJKH e[IRI aPQ TMJ gIK M TPVZNIKI VIMN.
.K LH fQLKI JPRVMN sPR ePVIJ KP gP LJKP ZQ`H LJ 0RLKMLJ! `QK NLzI IxIRa`Pqa INHI K[Ia VQHK
sPNNPe K[I NLTIJHLJg NMeH. u[IHI MRI xIRa TPVZNLTMKIq MJq TPJKRPN K[I KLVI ZQ`H MRI MNNPeIq
KP PZIJ. (/II rdZZRPMT[IH.r OMV`RLqgI +272.)
b) Comment on the text adding some more information on the topic.
XVI. Make up diaIogues:
Suggested Situations
d. |INIJ [MH LJxLKIq HPVI sRLIJqH KP M qLJJIR ZMRKa. /[I [MH TPPzIq MLN K[I qLH[IH [IRHINs
MJq ZRPQqNa VIJKLPJH K[I sMTK. |IR sRLIJqH qP JPK sLJq IxIRaK[LJg fQLKI KP K[ILR NLzLJg! `QK KRa
JPK KP H[Pe LK. oJ K[I e[PNI! IxIRa PJI LH [MxLJg gRIMK sQJ.
0! dJ LRRLKM`NI [QH`MJq LH HLKKLJg MK qLJJIR MJq TRLKLTLLJg [LH eLsIlH TPPzLJg. |I LH KRaLJg
KP KIMT[ [IR K[I eMa K[LH PR K[MK qLH[ H[PQNq `I TPPzIq K[PQg[ [I zJPeH xIRa NLKKNI M`PQK LK.
u[I eLsI LH qPLJg [IR `IHK KP qIsIJq [IRHINs.
O. d [PHKIHH LH KRIMKLJg M NMqaxLHLKPR KP M VIMN. u[I xLHLKPR zIIZH RIZIMKLJg K[MK H[I LH PJ
M HNLVVLJgqLIK! K[MK H[I JIxIR IMKH MJaK[LJg sMKKIJLJg MJq K[MK! LJ gIJIRMN! H[I IMKH NLzI M
NLKKNI `LRq. yIK H[I [INZH [IRHINs KP K[LH MJq K[MK xIRa [IMRKLNa! KLNN K[I [PHKIHH `IgLJH eMKT[LJg
K[I qLHMZZIMRLJg sPPq eLK[ HPVI MJSLIKa.
n. d HNPe eMLKRIHH LH KMzLJg MJ PRqIR sRPV M [QJgRa MJq LVZMKLIJK TNLIJK. dNN K[I TNLIJKlH
IssPRKH KP PRqIR K[LH PR K[MK qLH[ MRI RIsQHIq PJ MNN zLJqH Ps ZRIKISKH: K[I ZPRz LH sMK; K[I `IIs LH
KPQg[; K[Ia [MxIJlK gPK MJa VPRI ZPKMKPIH LJ K[I zLKT[IJ; K[I LTITRIMV [MH VINKIq; K[I TPPz
[MH M KPPK[MT[I! IKT.
G. ueP xIRa aPQJg MJq ISKRIVINa LJISZIRLIJTIq [PQHIeLxIH MRI MqxLHLJg IMT[ PK[IR MH KP
K[I `IHK eMa Ps sIIqLJg K[ILR [QH`MJqH. oJI Ps K[IV LH LJTNLJIq KP KMzI K[I NLJI Ps NIMHK
RIHLHKMJTI MJq KP HIRxI PJNa KLJJIq sPPq sPR MNN K[I VIMNH. u[I PK[IR ZPLJKH PQK K[MK KLJJIq
sPPq MNPJI eLNN JIxIR qP MJq HQggIHKH PK[IR eMaH Ps HPNxLJg K[I ZRP`NIV.
XVII. Brash up your tabIe manners.
A. Answer the foIIowing questions and then check your answers by comparing Iitem with
the answers beIow:
+. w[MK LH K[I TPRRITK eMa KP HLK MK KM`NI{ 2. /[PQNq aPQ QHI aPQR sPRz PR aPQR zJLsI sPR
KMzLJg M HNLTI Ps `RIMq sRPV K[I `RIMqZNMKI{ 4. |Pe H[PQNq aPQ gIK M HNLTI Ps `RIMq sRPV K[I
ZNMKI HKMJqLJg PJ K[I sMR IJq Ps K[I KM`NI{ 3. w[MK LH K[I TPRRITK eMa Ps QHLJg HZPPJ! sPRz
MJq zJLsI{ *. |Pe H[PQNq aPQ TQK aPQR VIMK{ ,. w[MK MRI K[I qLH[IH sPR e[LT[ zJLsI
H[PQNqJlK `I QHIq{ 7. w[MK i0 K[I eMa KP IMK T[LTzIJ{ b. w[MK LH PJI HQZZPHIq KP qP eLK[ K[I
HKPJIH e[LNI IMKLJg HKIeIq sRQLK{ 2. w[MK H[PQNq aPQ qP eLK[ K[I HZPPJ MsKIR HKLRRLJg aPQR
KIM{ +). w[MK H[PQNq aPQ qP Ls aPQR sPPq LH KPP [PK{ ++. w[MK H[PQNq aPQ HMa KP RIsQHI M
HITPJq [INZLJg{ +2. w[MK H[PQNq aPQ HMa Ls aPQ NLzI K[I qLH[ xIRa VQT[{ +4. w[MK H[PQNq
aPQ HMa Ls aPQ qLHNLzI K[I qLH[{ +3. w[MK H[PQNqJlK PJI qP e[LNI IMKLJg{ +*. w[IRI H[PQNq
PJI zIIZ K[I JIeHZMZIR PR K[I `PPz qQRLJg M VIMN! PJ K[I KM`NI PR PJ PJIlH NMZ{
. Make up diaIogues discussing good and bad tabIe manners. Use the materiaI of Section A
for questions and that of Section for answers.
Answers to Exercise XVII.
M) r.K KMHKIH (RIMNNa) sLJIr or r.K LH qINLTLPQH.r
`) 1IxIR IMK K[I HKPJIH (KRaLJg KP `I PxIRZPNLKI). 1ILK[IR ePQNq LK `I M gPPq LqIM KP
qLHZPHI Ps K[IV `a qRPZZLJg K[IV QJqIR K[I KM`NI! ZNMTLJg K[IV LJ aPQR ZPTzIK PR LJ aPQR
JILg[`PQRlH eLJIgNMHH. mQHK KMzI K[IV sRPV aPQR VPQK[ PJ aPQR HZPPJ MJq ZNMTI K[IV PJ
aPQR PeJ HMQTIR.
T) 1Pe[IRI JIMR K[I KM`NI. IMqLJg MK PJIlH VIMNH LH M `Mq [M`LK; LK LH `Mq sPR aPQR
qLgIHKLPJ MJq LVZPNLKI KPeMRqH PK[IRH HLKKLJg MK K[I HMVI KM`NI.
q) /LK HKRMLg[K MJq TNPHI KP K[I KM`NI. nPJlK ZQK aPQR IN`PeH PJ K[I KM`NI. nPJlK TRPHH aPQR
NIgH PR HZRIMq K[IV MNN PxIR K[I ZNMTI QJqIR K[I KM`NI.
I) 1IxIR NIMJ MTRPHH K[I KM`NI PR PxIR aPQR JILg[`PQRH KP gIK HPVIK[LJg PQK Ps aPQR RIMT[.
mQHK HMa: r\NIMHI ZMHH K[I `RIMq.r Cr" rwPQNq aPQ VLJq ZMHHLJg K[I `RIMq! ZNIMHI{r
s) 1PK[LJg. jIIZ aPQR LVZRIHHLPJH KP aPQRHINs MJq qPJlK IV`MRRMHH aPQR [PHKIHH.
g) pLH[ qLH[IH MRI gIJIRMNNa IMKIJ eLK[PQK QHLJg zJLsI. .s PJI qPIH! LK LH TPJHLqIRIq M
HIRLPQH `RIMT[ Ps gPPq KM`NI VMJJIRH. u[I HMVI RIsIRH KP RLHHPNIH! TIRIMN MJq! LJ gIJIRMN! KP
MJaK[LJg K[MK LH HPsK IJPQg[ KP `I TPVsPRKM`Na IMKIJ eLK[ HZPPJ PR sPRz.
[) 1ILK[IR. yPQR [MJq LH fQLKI TPRRITK sPR gIKKLJg M HNLTI Ps `RIMq sPR aPQRHINs. dsKIR MNN! LK
LH aPQ e[P LH gPLJg KP IMK LK.
L) w[LNI IMKLJg! PJI H[PQNq ZRPqQTI MH NLKKNI JPLHI PR HPQJq MH ZPHHL`NI. .K LH qITLqIqNa `Mq
VMJJIRH KP HZIMz eLK[ aPQR VPQK[ sQNN. nPJlK ZQK aPQR `RIMq LJ aPQR HPQZ. nPJlK ZPQR aPQR
KIM LJ aPQR HMQTIR. nPJlK NIMxI VQT[ PJ K[I ZNMKI: LK LH LVZPNLKI KPeMRqH aPQR [PHKIHH. .s aPQ
[MxI NLzIq K[I qLH[! LK qPIHJlK sPNNPe K[MK aPQ H[PQNq ZPNLH[ K[I ZNMKI eLK[ aPQR `RIMq.
) nPJlK [PNq aPQR HZPPJ LJ aPQR sLHK! qPJlK KLNK LK HP MH KP HZLNN LKH TPJKIJKH. u[I sPRz H[PQNq
`I [INq LJ aPQR NIsK [MJq! K[I zJLsI LJ aPQR RLg[K.
z) .K LH eRPJg sLRHK KP TQK MNN K[I VIMK aPQ [MxI gPK PJ aPQR ZNMKI LJ HVMNN ZLITIH MJq K[IJ
IMK LK. OQK Pss M HNLTI MK M KLVI! IMK LK! K[IJ TQK Pss MJPK[IR! [PNqLJg aPQR zJLsI LJ K[I RLg[K
[MJq MJq aPQR sPRz LJ K[I NIsK.
N) r1P VPRI! K[MJz aPQ.r
V) OQK Pss MJq IMK MH VQT[ MH ZPHHL`NI `a QHLJg aPQR zJLsI MJq sPRz; K[I RIVMLJLJg ZMRK
IMK `a [PNqLJg K[I ZLITI LJ aPQR [MJq `a K[I IJq Ps K[I `PJI.
n) 1IxIR TPPN aPQR sPPq `a `NPeLJg MK LK. mQHK eMLK M `LK! K[IRI LH JP [QRRa.
P) nPJlK NIMxI aPQR HZPPJ LJ K[I gNMHH e[LNI qRLJzLJg. \QK LK PJ aPQR HMQTIR.
XVIII. a) Read and transIate the foIIowing extracts:
+. 0RIMzsMHK LJ K[I mIJHHIJ [PVI eMH JPK VQT[ qLssIRIJK sRPV `RIMzsMHK LJ M TPQZNI Ps
[QJqRIq K[PQHMJq [PVIH LJ K[I URIMK OLKa. wMNKIR mIJHHIJ [Mq [LH ZMZIR ZRPZZIq MgMLJHK K[I
xLJIgMR TRQIK MJq K[I HQgMR `PeN. |I RIMq ISZIRKNa! JPK IxIJ KMzLJg [LH IaIH Pss K[I ZRLJKIq
ZMgI e[IJ [I RMLHIq [LH TPssII TQZ KP [LH VPQK[. \MQN mIJHHIJ! HIxIJ gPLJg PJ ILg[K! eMH
IMKLJg [LH [PK TIRIMN! e[LT[ [Mq KP `I HeIIKIJIq [IMxLNa KP gIK [LV KP KPQT[ LK. vaRJM
mIJHHIJ! wMNKIRlH sLxIaIMRPNq qMQg[KIR! eMH HTRMKT[LJg [IR KPe[IMq eLK[ [IR NIsK [MJq
e[LNI H[I sIq [IRHINs eLK[ [IR RLg[K. vaRJM! KPP! eMH ISZIRK LJ [IR sMH[LPJ: H[I ePQNq ZQK K[I
HZPPJ LJ [IR VPQK[! HNLqI K[I TIRIMN Pss! MJq `RLJg PQK K[I HZPPJ QZHLqI qPeJ. GNHLI mIJHHIJ
(vRH. wMNKIR) [Mq HKPZZIq IMKLJg VPVIJKMRLNa K[I `IKKIR KP ISZNPRI eLK[ [IR KPJgQI M
`LTQHZLq (5 ) K[MK HIRLPQHNa JIIqIq MKKIJKLPJ.
(From ru[I .qIMN vMJr &y m. ol|MRM)
b) Comment on the tabIe manners of the Jenssen famiIy and say what you wouId do if you
were the father or the mother:
2. w[LNI dJJM ZRIZMRIq [IRHINs KP VIIK [IR TNMHH Ps sPRKaHLS NLxINa MJq LJfQLHLKLxI
T[LNqRIJ [IR NMJqNMqa eMH `QHa ZRIZMRLJg K[I [Lg[ KIM sPR [IR [QH`MJq MJq K[I JIe NPqgIR.
/[I [Mq HTRIeIq K[I PNq VLJTIR KP K[I zLKT[IJ KM`NI MJq JPe sIq LK eLK[ RMK[IR KPQg[
HKRLZH Ps `IIs! K[I RIVMLJH Ps K[I /QJqMa PLJK. u[IRI eMH JPK VQT[! KP `I HQRI! `QK vRH.
pNaJJlH ZLJT[ZIJJa HZLRLK [Mq `IIJ RPQHIq KP VIIK K[LH T[MNNIJgI MJq K[I [IIN Ps M `RPeJ
NPMs! M NMRgI PJLPJ! MJq M KPVMKP PJ K[I KM`NI eIRI K[I LJgRIqLIJKH Ps K[I RIHK Ps K[I ZRPZPHIq
TPKKMgI ZLI.
r.s . PZIJ M KLJ Ps `MzIq `IMJH!r HMLq vRH. pNaJJ MNPQq! rK[IRIlNN `I JP JIIq sPR gRMxa! .
H[MJlK eMHKI gMH QJJITIHHMRLNacr /[I ZQRHIq [IR K[LJ NLZH eLK[ HMKLHsMTKLPJ! RIVIV`IRLJg!
eLK[ HQqqIJ ZNIMHQRI! K[MK H[I [Mq `PQg[K K[I `IMJH MK M RIqQTIq ZRLTI MH ru[LH wIIzlH
dVMLJg ossIRr MK K[I NPTMN gRPTIRlH. /[I KeLRNIq K[I [MJqNI Ps K[I VLJTIR eLK[ MqqIq IHK.
yIHKIRqMalH HKIeIq MZZNI! H[I K[PQg[K `QHLNa! TPQNq `I HIRxIq PQK eLK[ M NLKKNI IxMZPRMKIq
VLNz! LJ K[RII LJqLxLqQMN qLH[IH. d T[IRRa PJ KPZ Ps IMT[ ePQNq VMzI M JLTI sIHKLxI KPQT[!
qITLqIq vRH. pNaJJ LJ M eLNq `QRHK Ps ISKRMxMgMJTI. /[I HKRMLg[KIJIq QZ sRPV [IR VLJTLJg
MJq PZIJIq K[I HKPRI TQZ`PMRq e[IRI H[I zIZK [IR KLJJIq MJq `PKKNIq sPPq. .J K[I sRPJK RPe M
HVMNN MR Ps T[IRRLIH gNIMVIq RPHLNa. pPR PJI NPJg VLJQKI vRH. pNaJJ HKQqLIq LKH T[MRVH! KPRJ
`IKeIIJ PZZPHLKI sPRTIH Ps MRK MJq K[RLsK. :LTKPRa eMH MTTPVZNLH[Iq IMHLNa. r\LKa KP PZIJ
K[IV!r HMLq vRH. pNaJJ! HNMVVLJg K[I TQZ`PMRq qPPR MJq RIKQRJIq KP [IR VLJTLJg. (From
rpRIH[ sRPV K[I OPQJKRar &y v. IIq)
c) Comment on the character of the IandIady. Prove your statement.
XIX. Try your hand at teaching:
A. Preparation. pLJq HPVI ZLTKQRIH MJq PzIH PJ K[I KPZLT MJq ZRIZMRI KP ePRz eLK[ K[IV
LJ TNMHH. (/II rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJH :..! :....)
B. Work in Class. +. uINN M PzI PR H[Pe MJq qIHTRL`I M ZLTKQRI KP K[I TNMHH. 2. dHz HPVI
fQIHKLPJH KP HII Ls K[I NLHKIJIRH [MxI gRMHZIq K[I VIMJLJg Ps aPQR HKPRa. 4. .s aPQ eMJK K[I
HKQqIJKH KP QHI HPVI JIe ePRqH eRLKI K[IV PJ K[I `NMTz`PMRq! KRMJHNMKI K[IV! ZRMTKLHI K[ILR
ZRPJQJTLMKLPJ (LJ T[PRQH) PR QHMgI (`a VMzLJg K[I HKQqIJKH KRMJHNMKI aPQR HIJKIJTIH sRPV
GJgNLH[ PR QHHLMJ). 3. uINN K[I PzI PR qIHTRL`I K[I ZLTKQRI PJTI VPRI. *. vMzI +2
HKQqIJKH RIKINN K[I PzI (qIHTRL`I K[I ZLTKQRI) PR VMzI QZ M qLMNPgQI PJ K[I HQ`ITK. ,. OPRRITK
K[I VLHKMzIH MsKIR K[I HKQqIJK [MH sLJLH[Iq HZIMzLJg. (/II rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJH .^!
^.)
XX. RoIe-pIaying:
dRRMJgI M KIMZMRKa (MK [PVI PR LJ K[I TMJKIIJ). ueP Ps K[I HKQqIJKH MRI KP MTK MH [PHK MJq
[PHKIHH! [MxLJg HPVI sRLIJqH RPQJq (2 PR 4 Ps K[IV MRI GJgNLH[). u[I VMLJ KPZLT qLHTQHHIq MK
K[I ZMRKa LH KRMqLKLPJH TPJJITKIq eLK[ VIMNH. GMT[ VIV`IR Ps K[I gRPQZ VQHK KINN M H[PRK
HKPRa! PzI PR ZRPxIR` KP IJKIRKMLJ K[I ZMRKa.
XXI.. Arrange short debates on the foIIowing questions:
+. /[PQNq eI HKLTz KP PQR TQHKPV Ps gLxLJg PQR gQIHKH M HQ`HKMJKLMN VIMN{ 2. |Pe qP aPQ
NLzI K[I LqIM Ps TINI`RMKLJg sMVLNa [PNLqMaH LJ M TMsI PR RIHKMQRMJK{ 4. dRI PNq KRMqLKLPJH!
ePRK[ zIIZLJg{
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH
IV
IZIMKLJg zIaePRqH LJ qLssIRIJK eMaH MJq QHLJg KPZLT HIJKIJTIH ZRPZIRNa eLK[LJ M
ZMRMgRMZ[ MRI JPK K[I PJNa eRLKLJg KIT[JLfQIH. UPPq eRLKLJg JP VMKKIR e[IK[IR aPQ MRI
qIHTRL`LJg! JMRRMKLJg! MRgQLJg! PR ISZNMLJLJg H[PQNq `I eINN PRgMJLIq; K[MK LH! LK H[PQNq `I
QJqIR TPJKRPN Ps K[I TIJKRMN LqIM Ps K[I KPZLT. 0IsPRI HKMRKLJg KP eRLKI MJa ZLITI Ps ZRPHI aPQ
H[PQNq PRgMJLI aPQR K[PQg[KH MRPQJq M KPZLT! aPQ VQHK [MxI M ZNMJ PR MJ PQKNLJI.
Plan LH M NLHK Ps ZPLJKH e[LT[ aPQ LJKIJq KP qIxINPZ LJ aPQR eRLKLJg LJ NPgLTMN PRqIR PR LJ
PRqIR Ps LVZPRKMJTI eLK[ RIsIRIJTI KP KLVI! KP ZPLJK Ps xLIe MJq KP HLKQMKLPJ.
Note: u[I ePRqH rZNMJr MJq rPQKNLJIr MRI HPVIKLVIH QHIq eLK[PQK HIJHI qLHTRLVLJMKLPJ. 0QK LK LH `IKKIR KP
QHI rZNMJr e[IJ K[I TPVZPHLKLPJ LH JPK aIK eRLKKIJ PR ZNMJJLJg LH VMqI `a K[I MQK[PR. u[I ePRq rPQKNLJIr LH
QHIq RMK[IR e[IJ qIMNLJg eLK[ M ePRz MNRIMqa eRLKKIJ `a HPVIPJI INHI.
u[I `IHK eMa KP NIMRJ [Pe KP VMzI M gPPq ZNMJ Ps aPQR eRLKLJg LH KP NIMRJ [Pe KP VMzI MJ
PQKNLJI Ps PRLgLJMN ZLITIH Ps ZRPHI. u[IRI MRI qLssIRIJK eMaH Ps eRLKLJg MJ PQKNLJI. .K TMJ `I
ISZRIHHIq LJ: +) zIaePRqH PR `RLIs KPZLT Z[RMHIH (KPZLT PQKNLJI); 2) TPVZNIKI HIJKIJTIH
(HIJKIJTI PQKNLJI); 4) gRPQZH Ps HIJKIJTIH TPJKMLJLJg K[I KPZLT PR VMLJ LqIM (ZMRMgRMZ[
PQKNLJI). u[I T[PLTI qIZIJqH PJ K[I NIJgK[ MJq TPVZNISLKa Ps K[I eRLKLJg MJq ISZIRLIJTI Ps
K[I `IgLJJIR.
GSMVZNIH: M) d HMVZNI KPZLT PQKNLJI Ps rd nMalH wMLKr.
+. d xIRa HLTz `Pa Ps JLJI aIMRH PNq.
2. nPTKPRlH xLHLK.
4. pIINLJg K[I HMVI.
3. iIMxLJg K[I `Pa sPR M e[LNI.
*. u[I `PalH KMNz M`PQK qIMK[.
,. dRgQVIJK M`PQK KIVZIRMKQRI.
7. INMSMKLPJ MJq JIRxPQH `RIMzqPeJ.
`) d HMVZNI HIJKIJTI PQKNLJI Ps rd nMalH wMLKr.
+. u[I `Pa eMH H[LxIRLJg eLK[ sIxIR! QJeLNNLJg KP gP KP `Iq.
2. u[I qPTKPR KPPz K[I `PalH KIVZIRMKQRI MJq HMLq K[IRI eMH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQK.
4. u[I `Pa HIIVIq qIKMT[Iq MJq zIZK NPPzLJg MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq.
3. u[I sMK[IR eIJK sPR M eMNz.
*. |I TMVI `MTz MJq sPQJq K[I `Pa HKLNN HKMRLJg MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq.
,. u[I `Pa eMH HQRI [I eMH gPLJg KP qLI.
7. u[I sMK[IR ISZNMLJIq K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I pM[RIJ[ILK MJq OIJKLgRMqI
K[IRVPVIKIRH.
b. u[I `Pa RINMSIq! `QK K[I JISK qMa [I TRLIq xIRa IMHLNa MK NLKKNI K[LJgH K[MK eIRI Ps JP
LVZPRKMJTI.
Assignments:
+. IMq K[I HKPRa r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar MJq VMzI M KPZLT PQKNLJI Ps .KH TPJKIJKH.
2. vMzI M HIJKIJTI PQKNLJI Ps K[I HKPRa.
4. vMzI M ZNMJ Ps aPQR JMRRMKLPJ M`PQK K[I ZIPZNI ZRIHIJKIq LH K[I ZLTKQRI (HII Z. +4b).
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
+. M) NLHKIJ KP K[I KIHK rdJ GJgNLH[VMJlH vIMNHr! VMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH. `) IZIMK LK
LJ K[I LJKIRxMNH sPNNPeLJg K[I VPqIN.
2. M) iLHKIJ KP K[I qLMNPgQI rdK uM`NIr.
`) IZIMK LK LJ K[I LJKIRxMNH sPNNPeLJg K[I VPqIN.
T) iIMRJ K[I KISK `a [IMRK.
4. dJHeIR K[I fQIHKLPJH QHLJg K[I gLxIJ ZMKKIRJH.
3. vMzI QZ HIJKIJTIH QHLJg K[I gLxIJ ZMKKIRJH.
*. wRLKI M qLTKMKLPJ.
,. \MRMZ[RMHI K[I gLxIJ HIJKIJTIH.
7. uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH LJKP GJgNLH[. O[ITz K[IV eLK[ K[I zIa.
b. NLHKIJ KP K[I KISK r|I wMH uPP uLVLqr PR HPVI PK[IR KISK PJ K[I KPZLT rvIMNHr. UIK
RIMqa KP gLxI K[I HQVVMRa LJ TNMHH.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
+. w[MK LH rvPK[IRlH nMar{ w[IRI MJq e[IJ LH LK TINI`RMKIq{
2. w[MK LH M ZQ`{ w[MK KRMqLKLPJH MRI TPJJITKIq eLK[ Ls{
4. w[MK LH M `MJz [PNLqMa LJ 0RLKMLJc
3. nIHTRL`I HPVI KRMqLKLPJH PR TQHKPVH TPJJITKIq eLK[ sMVLNa PR ZQ`NLT [PNLqMaH LJ
GJgNMJq.
*. w[MK qP K[I KIRVH rwINH[ 0M``LKr! r\MJTMzI nMar MJq rnQKT[ uRIMKr VIMJ{
,. pLJq M HKPRa (MJ IHHMa) PR M ZMHHMgI LJ M JPxIN `a MJ GJgNLH[ PR dVIRLTMJ eRLKIR
qIHTRL`LJg M VIMN. ULxI LKH HQVVMRa LJ TNMHH.
UNIT FIVE
I SPEECH PATTERNS
+. . eMH HQRI KP `I ZQK qPeJ LJ TNMHH JISK KP K[I gLRN... MJq H[I wou.d whi0(er MJq gLggNI.
u[I T[LNqRIJ MNeMaH TMVI KP HII K[ILR gRMJqVPK[IR PJ /QJqMaH! MJq H[I ePQNq gLxI K[IV
qINLTLPQH ZMHKRLIH.
w[IJ MHzIq K[LH fQIHKLPJ! [I ePQNq HVLNI MJq HMa JPK[LJg.
w[IJ ZIPZNI VIK [LV LJ K[I HKRIIK K[Ia ePQNq KQRJ MeMa MJq ZRIKIJq JPK KP zJPe [LV.
2. mQqa HMLq H[I qLqJlK zJPe K[MK ZIPZNI QHId to &e VPJzIaH.
M) u[Ia QHIq KP `I gRIMK sRLIJqH.
u[IRI QHIq KP `I M KINIZ[PJI`PPK[ RPQJq K[I TPRJIR. . QHIq KP zJPe [LV. }HIq aPQ KP
zJPe [LV.
`) |I QHIq KP KRMxIN `a ZNMJI! }HI(q)nlK [I{ PR Sidn6t [I{ ()o..o8":
|I QHIq KP ePRz NMKI MK JLg[K.
nLq [I QHI KP ePRz NMKI MK JLg[K{ (TPNNPf.)
mQqalH sINNPeHKQqIJKH QHIq KP NMQg[ MK [IR LgJPRMJTI.
4. .lV JPK u0ed to re)eiving ZRIHIJKH.
/[I eMH JPK QHIq KP `ILJg KRIMKIq QJzLJqNa.
.K LH KPP `Mq e[IJ M TPNNIgI HKQqIJK LH JPK QHIq KP RIMqLJg `PPzH.
u[I VPK[IR eMH QHIq KP qPLJg MNN K[I ePRz M`PQK K[I [PQHI MNPJI.
oQR HKQqIJKH MRI QHIq KP ePRzLJg eLK[ M TMHHIKKIRITPRqIR.
4. .K wa0 mQqa e[P [Mq KP RIMq ZNMLJ `PPzH.
.K eMH H[MVI! JPK sIMR! K[MK VMqI [IR TRa. .K eMH K[I NMHK TPQRHI K[MK KMHKIq IHZITLMNNa
gPPq. .K eMH K[I VPK[IR e[P qITPRMKIq K[I [PQHI MJq ZRIZMRIq IxIRaK[LJg sPR K[I
TINI`RMKLPJ.
.K eMH Va HLHKIRH e[P TPPzIq MNN K[I qLH[IH.
EXERCISES
I. Paraphrase the foIIowing using Patterns 1-3:
\ M K K I R J +: +. 0a K[I IJq Ps K[I ePRzLJgqMa [I QHQMNNa eMLKIq sPR [IR MK K[I sMTKPRa
gMKI MJq K[Ia eIJK [PVI KPgIK[IR. 2. u[I HZRLJg qMaH eIRI eMRV MJq HQJJa! MJq K[I
T[LNqRIJ HZIJK VQT[ KLVI PQKPsqPPRH. 4. w[IJ K[Ia HPVIKLVIH MHzIq [LV M`PQK [LH TPNNIgI
qMaH! [I MNeMaH MJHeIRIq K[MK [I [Mq gRIMKNa IJPaIq gPLJg KP TPNNIgI. 3. u[I VPK[IR JIxIR
TPVZNMLJIq; QHQMNNa H[I PJNa HLg[Iq MJq eIJK PJ eLK[ [IR ePRz. *. |IR [QH`MJq PsKIJ TMVI
`MTz [PVI KLRIq MJq MJgRa; MK KM`NI [I MgMLJ MJq MgMLJ sPQJq sMQNK eLK[ K[I TPPzLJg. ,.
w[IJ eI KPNq K[I VPK[IR [Pe gPPq IxIRaK[LJg KMHKIq! H[I MNeMaH HMLq r|QJgIR LH K[I `IHK
HMQTI.r
\ M K K I R J 2: +. |I eMH LJ K[I [M`LK Ps HMaLJg K[MK K[IRI LH JP gMVI NLzI sPPK`MNN. 2. /[I
MNeMaH NIsK K[I qLH[IH QJeMH[Iq LJ K[I zLKT[IJ HLJz MJq eIJK MeMa. 4. w[IJ [I eMH M
HKQqIJK [I eIJK KP K[I NL`RMRa IxIRa PK[IR qMa. 3. va VPK[IR MNeMaH VMqI M HZNIJqLq
T[PTPNMKI KMRK sPR Va `LRK[qMa. *. w[IJ . eMH M T[LNq! PQR sMVLNa MNeMaH eIJK KP K[I HIMHLqI
sPR HQVVIR [PNLqMaH. ,. w[IJ [I eMH aPQJgIR! [I eMH M ZRIKKa gPPq qMJTIR.
\ M K K I R J 4:+. .KlH HPVIK[LJg JIe sPR VI KP `I KRIMKIq LJ K[LH eMa. 2. 0ILJg VMqI sQJ Ps
eMH HPVIK[LJg fQLKI QJQHQMN sPR [IR. 4. .K eMH JPK K[I sLRHK KLVI K[MK K[I qPTKPR eMH KP KRIMK
K[LH [PRRL`NI qLHIMHI. 3. . MNeMaH ePRz `a HQT[ NLg[K! LK LH JPRVMN sPR VI. *. u[I T[LNq eMH
JIxIR RIsQHIq MJaK[LJg MJq TPJHLqIRIq LK M JPRVMN HKMKI Ps K[LJgH.
II. Make the foIIowing sentences emphatic using Pattern 4 as in the exampIe:
GSMVZNI: va sRLIJq KPNq VI IxIRaK[LJg M`PQK LK.
.K eMH Va vIJq e[P KPNq VI IxIRaK[LJg M`PQK LK.
+. nPTKPR uIVZNI TQRIq vRH. URIIJIlH [QH`MJq Ps [LH HKPVMT[ qLHIMHI. 2. /KIxI KRIMKIq
K[IV MNN KP LTITRIMVH. 4. |IR `RPK[IR KPNq QH MNN M`PQK K[MK KIRRL`NI MTTLqIJK. 3. yPQR
RQqIJIHH VMqI [IR TRa. *. va VPK[IR qPIH K[I TPPzLJg sPR MNN K[I sMVLNa. ,. u[PHI `PPzH
VMqI M qIIZ LVZRIHHLPJ PJ [LV MJq qITLqIq [LH sQKQRI. 7. u[LH JPLHI qPIHJlK NIK VI
TPJTIJKRMKI PJ Va ePRz. b. u[IHI HKQqIJKH RITLKIq K[ILR PeJ ZPIVH MK K[I NMHK ZMRKa eLK[ M
gRIMK HQTTIHH.
III. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. ' $ 8 ;6! D 89 5
. 2. h $$! ! %$. 4. F>85 ! ;
9 $ ;! 8 > 8 6. 3. 8
6 5 6D5 5! ; 7. *. ~; E$
$ ;8! ;9. ,. ?6D 8 9 $5
; >. 7. F>85 ! ; D >6! 9>. b. ?
8! 8 $ =6 . 2. Y! $$!
"{ < 6 $ 8 $ E; >; D. +). $
$ %! ! .
IV. Answer the questions: use would or used to.
N o t e: w[IJ K[I VIMJLJg LH TQHKPVMRa! RIZIMKIq PR [M`LKQMN MTKLxLKa V K[I ZMHK! QHIq KP PR ePQNq MRI
LJKIRT[MJgIM`NI! !"g" oQR KIMT[IR QHIq KP gLxI [IR HKQqIJKH M eRLKKIJ KIHK IxIRa u[QRHqMa. /[I ePQNq RIMq
K[IV M HKPRa IxIRa eIIz KPP.
pPR gRIMKIR IVZ[MHLH PJ K[I LqIM Ps ZMHK TQHKPV QHIq KP LH ZRIsIRM`NI! !"g" |I QHIq KP eMKT[ M T[LNqRIJlH
ZRPgRMV MK K[MK [PQR.
uP ISZRIHH xPNLKLPJ! PR ZIRHLHKIJTI RIsIRRLJg KP K[I ZMHK ePQNq LH QHQMNNa QHIq; !"g" /IxIRMN KLVIH [I KRLIq KP
gIK MeMa! `QK K[Ia ePQNq JPK NIK [LV gP.
+. |Pe PsKIJ ePQNq aPQ eRLKI M TPVZPHLKLPJ e[IJ aPQ eIRI LJ K[I JLJK[ sPRV{ 2. wPQNq
aPQR KIMT[IRH MNeMaH TPRRITK aPQR TPVZPHLKLPJH{ 4. w[P QHIq KP [INZ aPQ eLK[ aPQR
[PVIePRz{ 3. w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP qQRLJg K[I HQVVIR{ *. w[IRI qLq aPQ QHI KP gP sPR aPQR
xMTMKLPJ{ ,. w[IJ aPQ eIRI M T[LNq e[MK qLq aPQ QHI KP qP PJ /MKQRqMa MsKIRJPPJ{ 7. w[MK
ePQNq aPQ QHQMNNa qP PJ /QJqMa{ b. w[IJ aPQR `RPK[IR eMH aPQJgIR! [I QHIq KP ZNMa KIJJLH!
QHI(q)nlK [I{
V. Make up short situations (no more than two or three sentences) or diaIogues to iIIustrate
Patterns 1-4
VI. Search the books you read for sentences with these patterns (1-4) to add up to your
student's workbook; practise the best exampIes in cIass.
TEXT. A FRESHMAN'S EXPERIENCE $rom "Daddy Long-Legs" by Jean
Webster
u[I `PPz rnMqqa iPJgiIgHr `a MJ dVIRLTMJ eRLKIR mIMJ wI`HKIR (+b7,+2+,) LH M JPxIN eRLKKIJ LJ K[I
sPRV Ps NIKKIRH. u[I MQK[PR Ps K[IHI NIKKIRH! M aPQJg gLRN! mQqa `a JMVI! eRLKIH K[IV KP [IR gQMRqLMJ! M RLT[
VMJ e[PV H[I [MH JIxIR HIIJ.
mQqa eMH `RPQg[K QZ LJ MJ PRZ[MJ MHaNQV e[IRI [IR NLsI eMH [MRq. u[I T[LNqRIJ eIRI e[PNNa qIZIJqIJK PJ
T[MRLKa. u[Ia eIRI `MqNa sIq MJq [Mq KP eIMR PK[IR ZIPZNIlH TMHKPss TNPK[IH. mQqa eMH M xIRa `RLg[K gLRN MJq
e[IJ H[I sLJLH[Iq HT[PPN! [IR gQMRqLMJ HIJK [IR KP TPNNIgI.
mQqa sIINH xIRa [MZZa M`PQK LK. /[I [PZIH KP `ITPVI M eRLKIR MJq ZMa `MTz K[I VPJIa HZIJK PJ [IR
IqQTMKLPJ `a [IR gQMRqLMJ. d`PQK K[I NMKKIR K[I gLRN zJPeH MNVPHK JPK[LJg: H[I zJPeH K[MK [I LH M xIRa KMNN
VMJ. u[MK LH e[a H[I PzLJgNa TMNNH [LV nMqqa iPJgiIgH.
u[LH KISK LH PJI Ps [IR NIKKIRH gLxLJg QH M gNLVZHI Ps [IR IMRNa TPNNIgI LVZRIHHLPJH.
oTKP`IR! 2*K[
nIMR nMqqa iPJgiIgH!
OPNNIgI gIKH JLTIR MJq JLTIR! . NLzI K[I gLRNH MJq K[I KIMT[IRH MJq K[I TNMHHIH MJq K[I
TMVZQH MJq K[I K[LJgH KP IMK. wI [MxI LTITRIMV KeLTI M eIIz MJq eI JIxIR [MxI TPRJVIMN
VQH[.
u[I KRPQ`NI eLK[ TPNNIgI LH K[MK aPQ MRI ISZITKIq KP zJPe HQT[ M NPK Ps K[LJgH aPQlxI
JIxIR NIMRJIq. .KlH xIRa IV`MRRMHHLJg MK KLVIH. . VMqI MJ MesQN VLHKMzI K[I sLRHK qMa.
/PVI`Pqa VIJKLPJIq vMQRLTI vMIKIRNLJTz! MJq . MHzIq Ls H[I eMH M sRIH[VMJ. u[I PzI [MH
gPJI MNN PxIR TPNNIgI.
nLq aPQ IxIR [IMR Ps vLT[MINMJgINP{ |I eMH M sMVPQH MRKLHK e[P NLxIq LJ .KMNa LJ K[I
vLqqNI dgIH. GxIRa`Pqa LJ GJgNLH[ iLKIRMKQRI HIIVIq KP zJPe M`PQK [LV! MJq K[I e[PNI
TNMHH NMQg[Iq `ITMQHI . K[PQg[K [I eMH MJ MRT[MJgIN. |I HPQJqH NLzI MJ MRT[MJgIN! qPIHJlK
[I{
0QK JPe! e[IJ K[I gLRNH KMNz M`PQK K[I K[LJgH K[MK . JIxIR [IMRq Ps! . QHK zIIZ HKLNN MJq
NPPz K[IV QZ LJ K[I IJTaTNPZIqLM. dJq MJaeMa! .lV QHK MH `RLg[K LJ TNMHH MH MJa Ps K[I
PK[IRH! MJq `RLg[KIR K[MJ HPVI Ps K[IVc
dJq aPQ zJPe! nMqqa! . [MxI M JIe QJ`RIMzM`NI RQNI: JIxIR KP HKQqa MK JLg[K! JP VMKKIR
[Pe VMJa eRLKKIJ RIxLIeH MRI TPVLJg LJ K[I VPRJLJg. .JHKIMq! . RIMq QHK ZNMLJ `PPzH .
[MxI KP! aPQ zJPe! `ITMQHI K[IRI MRI ILg[KIIJ `NMJz year0 `I[LJq VI. yPQ ePQNqJlK `INLIxI
e[MK MJ M`aHH Ps LgJPRMJTI Va VLJq LH; . MV QHK RIMNLLJg K[I qIZK[H VaHINs.
. JIxIR RIMq rnMxLq OPZZIRsLINqr! PR rOLJqIRINNMr! PR rNxMJ[PIr! PR rdNLTI LJ
wPJqIRNMJqr! PR rP`LJHPJ ORQHPIr! PR rmMJI GaRIr. . qLqJlK zJPe K[MK |IJRa K[I GLg[K[
eMH VMRRLIq VPRI K[MJ PJTI PR K[MK /[INNIa eMH M ZPIK. . qLqJlK zJPe K[MK ZIPZNI QHIq KP `I
VPJzIaH! PR K[MK UIPRgI GNLPK eMH M NMqa. . [Mq JIxIR HIIJ M ZLTKQRI Ps K[I rvPJM iLHMr MJq
(LKlH KRQI `QK aPQ ePJlK `INLIxI LK) . [Mq JIxIR [IMRq Ps /[IRNPTz |PNVIH.
1Pe . zJPe MNN Ps K[IHI K[LJgH MJq M NPK Ps PK[IRH `IHLqIH! `QK aPQ TMJ HII [Pe VQT[ .
JIIq KP TMKT[ QZ.
1PxIV`IR! +*K[
yPQR sLxI gPNq ZLITIH eIRI M HQRZRLHIc .lV JPK QHIq KP RITILxLJg O[RLHKVMH ZRIHIJKH. nP
aPQ eMJK KP zJPe e[MK . `PQg[K eLK[ K[I VPJIa{
+. d HLNxIR eMKT[ KP eIMR PJ Va eRLHK MJq gIK VI KP RITLKMKLPJH LJ KLVI.
2. vMKK[Ie dRJPNqlH ZPIVH.
4. d [PKeMKIR `PKKNI.
3. d qLTKLPJMRa Ps HaJPJaVH (KP IJNMRgI Va xPTM`QNMRa).
*. (. qPJlK VQT[ NLzI KP TPJsIHH K[LH NMHK LKIV! `QK . eLNN.) d ZMLR Ps HLNz HKPTzLJgH.
dJq JPe! nMqqa! JIxIR HMa . qPJlK KINN MNNc
.K eMH M xIRa NPe VPKLxI! Ls aPQ VQHK zJPe LK! K[MK ZRPVZKIq K[I HLNz HKPTzLJgH. mQNLM
\IJqNIKPJ! M HPZ[PVPRI! TPVIH LJKP Va RPPV KP qP gIPVIKRa! MJq H[I HLKH TRPHHNIggIq PJ
K[I TPQT[ MJq eIMRH HLNz HKPTzLJgH IxIRa JLg[K. 0QK QHK eMLK MH HPPJ MH H[I gIKH `MTz
sRPV xMTMKLPJ! . H[MNN gP LJ MJq HLK PJ [IR TPQT[ LJ Va HLNz HKPTzLJgH. yPQ HII K[I VLHIRM`NI
TRIMKQRI K[MK . MV `QK MK NIMHK .lV [PJIHK; MJq aPQ zJIe MNRIMqa! sRPV Va MHaNQV RITPRq!
K[MK . eMHJlK ZIRsITK! qLqJlK aPQ{
0QK! nMqqa! Ls aPQlq `IIJ qRIHHIq LJ T[ITzIq gLJg[MVH MNN aPQR NLsI! aPQlq QJqIRHKMJq
[Pe . sIIN. dJq e[IJ . HKMRKIq KP K[I [Lg[ H[PPN! . IJKIRIq QZPJ MJPK[IR ZIRLPq IxIJ ePRHI
K[MJ K[I T[ITzIq gLJg[MVH. u[I ZPPR `PS.,
yPQ TMJlK zJPe [Pe . sIMRIq MZZIMRLJg LJ HT[PPN LJ K[PHI VLHIRM`NI ZPPR`PS qRIHHIH. .
eMH ZIRsITKNa HQRI KP `I ZQK qPeJ LJ TNMHH JISK KP K[I gLRN e[P sLRHK PeJIq Va qRIHH! MJq H[I
ePQNq e[LHZIR MJq gLggNI MJq ZPLJK LK PQK KP K[I PK[IRH.
uP RITMZLKQNMKI (K[MKlH K[I eMa K[I GJgNLH[ LJHKRQTKPR `IgLJH IxIRa PK[IR HIJKIJTI)! . MV
xIRa VQT[ P`NLgIq sPR Va ZRIHIJKH.
. RIMNNa `INLIxI .lxI sLJLH[Iq. nMqqa. .lxI `IIJ eRLKLJg K[LH NIKKIR Pss MJq PJ sPR KeP qMaH!
MJq . sIMR `a JPe aPQ MRI `PRIq.
0QK .lxI `IIJ HP ISTLKIq M`PQK K[PHI JIe MqxIJKQRIH K[MK . VQHK KMNz KP HPVI`Pqa! MJq
aPQ MRI K[I PJNa PJI . zJPe. .s Va NIKKIRH `PRI aPQ! aPQ TMJ MNeMaH KPHH K[IV LJKP K[I eMHKI
`MHzIK.
UPPq`aI! nMqqa! . [PZI K[MK aPQ MRI sIINLJg MH [MZZa MH . MV.
yPQRH IxIR! mQqa.
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. bright ad% +. 5! 85! !"g" u[I NIMxIH Ps K[I KRIIH MRI `RLg[K gRIIJ LJ HZRLJg.
\PNLH[Iq HKIIN LH `RLg[K.
2. $85! 85! $8D85! !"g" u[IRI MRI HIxIRMN `RLg[K ZQZLNH LJ [IR TNMHH. u[I
`Pa [Mq M `RLg[K sMTI.
4. $85! !"g" GxIRa`Pqa eMH `RLg[K MJq gMa MK K[I ZMRKa.
bright(ly) adv ! ! >! $! !"g" /[I HKPPq LJ K[I qPPReMa HVLNLJg
`RLg[KNa MsKIR [LV. u[I sLRI H[LJIH `RLg[K.
brighten it 6; 6 ! 6 : D6! !"g" u[I Hza LH
`RLg[KIJLJg. u[LH eMNNZMZIR eLNN `RLg[KIJ PQR RPPV. w[MK TMJ aPQ qP KP `RLg[KIJ K[I NLsI Ps
K[I HLTz VMJ{
brightness n 6! ! >6 $
2. pIain ad% +. 85! 85! 85! !"g" u[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I ePRq LH fQLKI
ZNMLJ! LHJlK LK{ . NLzI [IR ZNMLJ HZIIT[. /[I HZPzI ZNMLJ GJgNLH[.
#yn" clear
2. 5! 885; ;5! ( 5*JTZ:, !"g" u[Ia NLzI e[MK K[Ia
TMNN ZNMLJ sPPq. /[I NPPzIq xIRa ZRIKKa LJ [IR ZNMLJ e[LKI qRIHH. /[I `PQg[K M ZNMLJ `NQI
VMKIRLMN.
#yn" simple
N t e: u[I qLssIRIJTI LJ K[I VIMJLJgH Ps K[I HaJPJaVH ZNMLJ TNIMR MJq ZNMLJ HLVZNI LH HP HNLg[K K[MK
eI VMa PsKIJ QHI PJI LJHKIMq Ps K[I PK[IR! !"g" ZNMLJ (TNIMR) VIMJLJg! ZNMLJ (HLVZNI sPPq! ZNMLJ (HLVZNI) VMJ.
yIK! K[IRI MRI HPVI TMHIH e[IJ PJNa PJI Ps K[I KeP HaJPJaVH VMa `I QHIq! !"g" KP HZIMz ZNMLJ GJgNLH[; KP
VMzI M TNIMR HKMKIVIJK; KP NLxI M HLVZNI NLsI; KP gIK M HLVZNI KMHz.
4. 85! !"g" |I NLzIq [IR ZNMLJ! `QK [PJIHK sMTI.
Os.: ugly 85 (85)
3. bIank ad% 5! 85! a0 M `NMJz H[IIK Ps ZMZIR; M `NMJz ZMgI (sPRV!
IKT.). $.0o fig", !"g" u[IRI eMH M `NMJz NPPz PJ [IR sMTI.
blankly adv, !"g" /[I NPPzIq MK VI `NMJzNa. |I HMK PJ K[I IqgI Ps K[I `Iq HKMRLJg `NMJzNa
`IsPRI [LV.
blank n +. $! ! !"g" iIMxI M `NMJz MsKIR IMT[ ePRq. pLNN LJ K[LH `NMJz.;
2. ! !"g" /[I `PQg[K KeP KINIgRMZ[ `NMJzH.
1PKI: u[I QHHLMJ ePRq X[N\ [MH HIxIRMN IfQLxMNIJKH LJ GJgNLH[: +. 5 (85) `NMJz
H[IIK (ZMgI); 2. 5 (; >=5) IVZKa RPPV (`PS! `PKKNI); 4. 5 (985)
H[MNNPe ZIRHPJ (LqIMH! LJKIRIHKH); 3. 5 (85) xMTMJK RPPV ([PQHI! sNMK).
4. ignorance n >; ! ! !"g" mQqalH LgJPRMJTI VMqI K[I gLRNH
NMQg[. |I qLq LK sRPV (K[RPQg[) LgJPRMJTI.
ignorant ad% >85! 7=5! !"g" u[I `Pa [MH JIxIR `IIJ KP HT[PPN MJq
LH fQLKI LgJPRMJK. . MV LgJPRMJK Ps [LH ZNMJH.
5. prompt t" +. >6! D6! !"g" w[MK ZRPVZKIq aPQ KP NPPz sPR [LV LJ PQR
KPeJ{
2. 86; C6! !"g" /[IlNN ZRPVZK aPQ Ls aPQ sPRgIK K[I ePRqH. 1P
ZRPVZKLJg! ZNIMHI.
prompt n! !"g" dRIJlK aPQ MH[MVIq KP eMLK sPR M ZRPVZK{
prompter n C;
6. re`cord of 1. 86! ;6! !"g" < RITPRqIq MNN K[I IxIJKH Ps K[I qMa.
2. 86 ! ! !"g" oJ K[I xIRa qMa Ps [LH MRRLxMN K[Ia RITPRqIq
[LH HZIIT[.
record n +. 6! ! ; 9! ! !"g" d TMRIsQN RITPRq
eMH VMqI Ps MNN K[PHI M`HIJK. u[I `PalH HT[PPN RITPRq NIMxIH VQT[ KP `I qIHLRIq.
2. ;$$C ! !"g" |MxI aPQ gPK MJa RITPRqH Ps 0MT[{
cassette(tape)-recording n 6! !"g" .lq RMK[IR VMzI QHI Ps TMHHIKKIRITPRqLJg KP
RIxLIe K[I VMKIRLMN.
cassete (tape)-recorder n $;C! !"g" /PVIK[LJg [MH gPJI eRPJg eLK[ K[I
TMHHIKKIRITPRqIR! LK qPIHJlK ePRz.
7. point t 1. 86 6%$! 86 (KP)! !"g" < ZPLJKIq KP K[I VPJQVIJK.
u[I JIIqNI Ps K[I TPVZMHH ZPLJKH KP K[I 1PRK[.
2. 6! %6 (MK)! !"g" u[I `Pa ZPLJKIq M HKLTz MK K[I qPg.
to point out smth., !"g" u[I KIMT[IR ZPLJKIq PQK PQR VLHKMzIH.
to point out that, !"g" |I ZPLJKIq PQK K[MK MNN K[I TPNNIgI RQNIH H[PQNq `I P`IaIq.
8. bore t 6! 6! !"g" yPQR sRLIJq `PRIH VI.
to bore to death by smth. $ 6! !"g" . eMH `PRIq KP qIMK[.
bore n 85! 85 ! ! !"g" . qPJlK eMJK KP HII [LV MgMLJ!
[I LH HQT[ M `PRI.
boring ad% 85! !"g" u[LH LH M xIRa `PRLJg `PPz.
boredom n
9. excite t +" >6! 6! 6! !"g" u[I ZMKLIJK LH xIRa LNN MJq VQHK
JPK `I ISTLKIq.
to be excited by, !"g" GxIRa`Pqa eMH ISTLKIq `a K[I JIeH.
to get excited about (PxIR)! !"g" .KlH JPK[LJg KP gIK ISTLKIq M`PQK. nPJlK gIK ISTLKIq PxIR
HQT[ KRLsNIH.
(s.: u[IRIlH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQK. /[I MNeMaH ePRRLIH M`PQK NLKKNI K[LJgH.
2. 886 (9= ..)! !"g" u[I JIeTPVIR ISTLKIq IxIRa`PqalH
LJKIRIHK.
exciting ad% >7=5! 7=5! 987=5! !"g" w[MK ISTLKLJg JIeH
aPQlxI `RPQg[Kc . TPQNq [MRqNa gIK PxIR K[MK ISTLKLJg VPVIJK. /[I KPNq HQT[ MJ ISTLKLJg
HKPRa.
excited (( 85
excitement n >! ! QHQ. KP TMQHI ISTLKIVIJK! !"g" u[I qITLHLPJ KP
zIIZ vPK[IRlH nMa TMQHIq gRIMK ISTLKIVIJK LJ K[I sMVLNa.
excitedly adv,
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
`NMJz ad%, n ISTLKI LKIV n
`PRI , n ISTLKIVIJK n ZNMLJ ad%
`PRLJg ad% ISTLKLJg ad% ZPLJK
`PRIqPV n ISTLKIq (( ZRPVZK
`RLg[K ad% ISTLKIqNa adv lRITPRq n
`RLg[K(Na) adv ISZIRLIJTI n RIlTPRq
`RLg[KIJ sRIH[VMJ n RITPRqIR n
`RLg[KJIHH n LgJPRMJTI n HPZ[PVPRI n
TPJsIHH LgJPRMJK Mq
Word Combinations
K[I KRPQ`NI eLK[ ... LH K[MK... JISK KP
MK KLVIH KP ZPLJK PQK HVK[. (K[MK)
KP zIIZ HKLNN IxIRa PK[IR (HIJKIJTI! qMa! IKT.)
aPQ ePQNqJlK `INLIxI e[MK ([Pe)... KP `I VQT[ P`NLgIq KP HV`.! sPR HVK[.
KP `I M HQRZRLHI KP HV`. KP `I `PRIq (KP qIMK[)
KP IJNMRgI PJIlH xPTM`QNMRa KP TMQHI ISTLKIVIJK
EXERCISES
I. Read the text and do the foIIowing (A. Grammar, B. Word usage):
d. +. /IMRT[ K[I KISK sPR ZMHHLxI xPLTI TPJHKRQTKLPJH MJq TNMHHLsa K[IV MTTPRqLJg KP KIJHI
gRPQZH. 2. OPVZMRI K[I rif=TNMQHIHr QHIq LJ K[I KISK MJq ISZNMLJ K[ILR VIMJLJg. 4. .qIJKLsa
K[I sQJTKLPJ Ps K[I =ing= sPRVH QHIq LJ K[I KISK. 3. /INITK ISMVZNIH KP LNNQHKRMKI K[I TPVZPQJq
ZRIqLTMKI. *. GSZNMLJ e[a K[IRI LH JP MRKLTNI LJ with )o..ege, from va)ation, in ).a00"
0. +. GSZNMLJ K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I sPNNPeLJg ePRqH QHIq LJ K[I KISK: di)tionary
vo)a&u.ary, gigg.e .augh, to00 throw, (air )ou(.e" 2. /IMRT[ K[I KISK sPR K[I xIR`
get, KRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH. 4. w[MK LH K[I VPHK sMxPQRLKI ePRq LJ mQqalH xPTM`QNMRa{ wPQNq
aPQ RITPVVIJq aPQR ZQZLNH KP QHI LK{
II. Choose two or three paragraphs from the text of Unit Five for transIation. Reason your
choice and discuss possibIe variants of the transIation.
III. Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[MK qLq mQqa VIMJ `a ).a00e0 MJq )am(u0] 2. w[a qLq mQqa VIJKLPJ i)e=)ream MJq
Nrn=mea. mu0h LJ [IR NIKKIR{ 4. w[MK qLq mQqa K[LJz eMH K[I KRPQ`NI eLK[ TPNNIgI{ 3. w[MK
PzI [Mq gPJI MNN PxIR TPNNIgI{ *. w[a qLq mQqa zIIZ HKLNN e[IJ K[I gLRNH HZPzI M`PQK K[LJgH
H[I qLqJlK zJPe{ ,. w[a qLqJlK mQqa HKQqa MK JLg[K! JP VMKKIR [Pe VMJa eRLKKIJ RIxLIeH
eIRI TPVLJg LJ K[I VPRJLJg{ 7. .J e[MK eMa qLq mQqa eMJK KP TMKT[ QZ eLK[ K[I gRPQZ{ b.
w[MK qLq mQqa VIMJ `a HMaLJg K[MK H[I eMH MK NIMHK [PJIHK{ 2. w[MK qLq mQqa VIMJ `a
HMaLJg writing thi0 .etter off and on for two day0] +). w[IRI [Mq mQqa HKQqLIq `IsPRI
TPNNIgI{ ++. w[a qLq mQqa sIIN IV`MRRMHHIq MK KLVIH{ +2. w[MK qLq mQqa VIMJ `a &.an/
year0 MJq a&y00 of ignoran)e] +4. w[MK H[PeH K[MK K[I KISK eMH eRLKKIJ `a MJ dVIRLTMJ
eRLKIR{
IV. Write an outIine of die Ietter. (Differentiate between significant and insignificant events
described in the Ietter. Leave out the insignificant ones.)
V. Try your hand at teaching:
d. \RIZMRMKLPJ. /IMRT[ K[I KISKH Ps }JLKH oJI! ueP (.)! u[RII (.)! pPQR (.)! pLxI (.) sPR
ZPNaHaNNM`NIH eLK[ KeP HKRIHHIH! ZRMTKLHI K[ILR ZRPJQJTLMKLPJ.
0. wPRz LJ ONMHH. M) \RPJPQJTI qLHKLJTKNa IMT[ ePRq sLSLJg K[I HKQqIJKHl MKKIJKLPJ PJ K[I
HKRIHHIH.
`) vMzI K[I HKQqIJKH RIZIMK K[I ePRqH MsKIR aPQ.
T) dHz K[I HKQqIJKH LJqLxLqQMNNa MJq TPRRITK K[ILR VLHKMzIH. (/II rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r!
/ITKLPJ :....)
VI. Study VocabuIary Notes and transIate the iIIustrative exampIes into Russian.
VII. ExpIain (in EngIish) what is meant by and give Russian equivaIents of:
d. `NMJz eMNN! `NMJz NPPz! `NMJz xIRHI! `NMJz H[IIK! `NMJz sPRV! `NMJz T[IfQI! `NMJz
aIMRH! `NMJz VLJq! `NMJz sMTI;
0. IVZKa RPPV! H[MNNPe LJKIRIHKH! xMTMJK [PQHI! H[MNNPe gLRN! `RLg[K qRIHH! `RLg[K sMTI!
`RLg[K T[LNq! `RLg[K IaIH! LgJPRMJK ZIRHPJ! LJTPVZMRM`NI `PRI.
VIII. Paraphrase the foIIowing sentences:
+. |I HKMRIq MK [IR LJ QKKIR MHKPJLH[VIJK. 2. |I PZIJIq [LH IaIH sPR M H[PRK e[LNI `QK K[IJ
NPHK [LH TPJHTLPQHJIHH MgMLJ. 4. d sMLJK HVLNI IJNLxIJIq [IR sMTI sPR M VPVIJK. 3. u[IRI eMH
M gMZ LJ Va VIVPRa. *. u[IRI MRI VMJa LJKIRIHKLJg LKIVH LJ K[I JIeHZMZIR KPqMa. ,. u[I HLNz
HKPTzLJgH TMQHIq mQqalH IJxa. 7. |I QHIq KP `I M TMZM`NI ZQZLN. b. u[I NIKKIR MRPQHIq gRIMK
LJKIRIHK. 2. dK KLVIH H[I sINK xIRa QJ[MZZa. +). u[I KRPQ`NI eLK[ [LV LH K[MK [I LH M NLg[K
VLJqIq ZIRHPJ. ++. u[LH sRQLK LH fQLKI IMKM`NI! .lq HMa. +2. yPQR sRLIJq qLssIRH VQT[ sRPV
e[MK [I eMH aIMRH MgP.
IX. a) Write 20 questions about the second part of the text of Unit Five using the foIIowing
words and phrases:
+. O[RLHKVMH ZRIHIJK; 2. KP `I M HQRZRLHI; 4. eRLHK; 3. KP gIK KP (PJIlH) RITLKMKLPJH; *. M [PK
eMKIR `PKKNI; ,. KP IJNMRgI PJIlH xPTM`QNMRa; 7. KP TPJsIHH; b. M NPe VPKLxI; 2. KP qP
gIPVIKRa; +). KP HLK TRPHHNIggIq; ++. M VLHIRM`NI TRIMKQRI; +2. KP zJPe (sRPV); +4. KP `I
xIRa VQT[ P`NLgIq sPR; +3. IxIRa PK[IR HIJKIJTI; +*. KP `I `PRIq; +,. KP `I ISTLKIq M`PQK; +7.
KP KPHH LJKP K[I eMHKI`MHzIK; +b. KP KMNz KP (HV`.); +2. MK NIMHK.
b) Ask your feIIow-students to give their responses.
X. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish:
+. 8 9D 7 6 $ > C{ 2. F! > 8
! 55 $ 8 . 4. ' 6 6!
$ 8 8$. 3. D$ D6 896
> ;! 6 6. *. ' Y 8
$ $ (ePRz[PQHI). ( ; $ 96 $; 6!
6 > 6 . 6D 5!
>8 7! 6 > =6 6$! ,. < 85. '
$; . 7. $ > 6 6
6. b. A 6 >$$8 6 D 5. 2. F> "6 8
! 8! =D %! 8 . +). XE ; 6
! 6D$ $. ++. # $6 >. +2. >
7 D 6 ;! ; ; $6. +4. (>5
9 = $ > 5. +3. $$ 5 6!
$> 8 ; ;. < 8 8! $ 8
6. +*. = 8 6 $;C$. +,. $!
8 $; 9 5.
XI. a) ReteII the contents of Judy's Ietter in Indirect Speech.
b) ReteII the contents of Judy's Ietter as her guardian might describe it to a friend of his.
c) Describe Judy's first steps in coIIege as JuIia PendIeton might be describing them to a
friend of hers.
d) Give a summary of the text
XII. Insert prepositions or adverbs where necessary:
L. u[I KRPQ`NI ... K[I `PPz LH K[MK LKlH `PRLJg VI ... qIMK[. 2. .K eLNN KMzI VI ... NIMHK M VPJK[
KP TMKT[......K[I gRPQZ. 4. w[MK qLq aPQ `Qa... K[I VPJIa aPQ gPK... aPQR sMK[IR{ 3. . JIIq MJ
MNMRV TNPTz KP eMzI VI QZ ... KLVI. *. .lxI `IIJ eRLKLJg K[I NIKKIR ... MJq......KeP qMaH! JPe
.lxI sLJLH[Iq LK... NMHK. ,. . eMH ZIRsITKNa HQRI KP `I ZQK......K[I qIHz JISK... K[I gLRK e[PV .
qLqJlK NLzI KP HLK.... 7. |LH xLHLK eMH M HQRZRLHI ... VI! . qLqJlK zJPe [I eMH ... KPeJ. b. w[IJ .
TPVI ... HPVI GJgNLH[ ePRqH e[LT[ . qPJlK zJPe . MNeMaH NPPz K[IV......K[I qLTKLPJMRa. 2. .J
[LH HZIIT[ [I ZPLJKIq ... MNN K[I qRMe`MTzH ... PQR ePRz. +). u[I qRLNNH PJ K[I GJgNLH[ HPQJqH
`PRI VI ... KLVIH! `QK . zJPe K[MK K[Ia MRI xIRa QHIsQN. ++. |I [INZIq VI M NPK... Va
VMK[IVMKLTH MJq .lV VQT[ P`NLgIq ... [LV ... LK.
XIII. Revise EssentiaI VocabuIary (I) and transIate the foIIowing:
+. 8 >8 ;6 ;! 8 $; D6 $ 6. 2. '
$ $ $ 9 79. 4. - ; 55 $ 6
D >5 65. 3. $! $ 5 6 *) .
t $; 6 E 6;{ *. F 8 $; 89 8 !
9 $7 . ,. 8 D >$ $ >. 7.
; A! ; ! ! 9 8>6
E$! $ 6D $6. b. A;! 8 7!
; 7 E$8! 2. Y 6 $! 8 ! 8
8> 6 E. +). 7! 9! 55 $
! $ 6. ++. h >5! 685
$6 6 '! 6$. +2! $
$=6. +4. 8 >8 6 6D! E $ 6 D6 D
. +3. ' $ $ $7=$ ;$! 8D!
;7. +*. ( 5 $ 6 $5{ +,. -6
;8 D ! ] !
8$ > 66! 8 >6 9. +7. A D
E5 . +b. " 6 $ 85 $ 6. +2.
t >{ 7= 9 6; 9
85 6 ;$. 2). ' 8 ; 9D$ 6$. A
$; 6! $ 6. 2+. ( !
>5 .
XIV. Compose 20 sentences about the text, using modaI verbs must, "an, may, ought, might
with the perfect infinitive:
vPqINH: M) mQqalH gQMRqLMJ VQHK [MxI (JIxIR) RIMq [IR NIKKIRH (> 86! () ).
`) mQqa TPQNq [MxI `PQg[K HPVI PK[IR K[LJgH eLK[ [IR gQMRqLMJlH VPJIa ($;
8 6...).
T) mQqalH gQMRqLMJ VLg[K [MxI HIIJ mQqa HPVIe[IRI (! $>!
...).
q) nPJlK aPQ K[LJz K[MK mQqalH gQMRqLMJ PQg[K KP [MxI MJHeIRIq [IR NIKKIR ($
8 6 6$).
XV. a) TransIate the text into Russian:
nIMR nMqqa iPJgiIgH!
yPQ JIxIR MJHeIR MJa fQIHKLPJH! aPQ JIxIR H[Pe K[I HNLg[KIHK LJKIRIHK LJ MJaK[LJg . qP. .
[MxIJlK M qPQ`K K[MK aPQ K[RPe Va NIKKIRH LJKP K[I eMHKI`MHzIK eLK[PQK RIMqLJg K[IV.
|IRIMsKIR . H[MNN eRLKI PJNa M`PQK ePRz.
va RIISMVLJMKLPJH LJ iMKLJ MJq UIPVIKRa TMVI NMHK eIIz. . ZMHHIq K[IV `PK[ MJq MV
JPe M /PZ[PVPRI.
. TMVI QZ M sPRKJLg[K MgP! HPRRa KP NIMxI K[I sMRV! `QK gNMq KP HII K[I TMVZQH MgMLJ. .K LH
ZNIMHMJK KP TPVI `MTz KP HPVIK[LJg sMVLNLMR! . MV `IgLJJLJg KP sIIN MK [PVI LJ TPNNIgI.
. MV `IgLJJLJg T[IVLHKRa! M VPHK QJQHQMN HKQqa. .lxI JIxIR HIIJ MJaK[LJg NLzI LK `IsPRI. .
MV MNHP KMzLJg NPgLT. dNHP [LHKPRa Ps K[I e[PNI ePRNq. dNHP ZNMaH Ps wLNNLMV /[MzIHZIMRI.
dNHP pRIJT[.
. H[PQNq RMK[IR [MxI INITKIq GTPJPVLTH K[MJ pRIJT[! `QK . qLqJlK qMRI! `ITMQHI . eMH
MsRMLq K[MK QJNIHH . RIINITKIq pRIJT[! K[I \RPsIHHPR ePQNq JPK NIK VI ZMHH MH LK eMH. . QHK
VMJMgIq KP HfQIII K[RPQg[ K[I mQJI ISMVLJMKLPJH. 0QK . eLNN HMa K[MK Va [Lg[HT[PPN
ZRIZMRMKLPJ eMH JPK xIRa gPPq.
dJq [IRI LH JIeH sPR aPQ. . [MxI `IgQJ KP `I MJ MQK[PR. d ZPIV IJKLKNIq rpRPV Va
uPeIRr MZZIMRH LJ K[I pI`RQMRa rvPJK[Nar PJ K[I sLRHK ZMgI! e[LT[ LH M xIRa gRIMK [PJPQR
sPR M pRIH[VMJ. va GJgNLH[ LJHKRQTKPR HKPZZIq VI PJ Va eMa PQK. Ps TPNNIgI NMHK JLg[K! MJq
HMLq LK eMH M T[MRVLJg ZLITI Ps ePRz ISTIZK sPR K[I HLSK[ NLJI! e[LT[ [Mq KPP VMJa sIIK.
0QK HPVIKLVIH M qRIMqsQN sIMR TPVIH PxIR VI K[MK .lV JPK M gIJLQH.
yPQRH KRQNa! mQqa
(From rnMqqa iPJgiIgHr &y mIMJ wI`HKIR)
b) Comment on the Ietter above. Point out in what it differs from Judy's earIier Ietters (see
the text). ExpIain the Iast Iine of this Ietter. Is Judy quite serious here?
XVI. Speak about Judy. Describe her as fuIIy as you can. When pointing out this or that trait
in her character, give your reasons. (See the text of Unit Five and Ex. XV.).
XVII. Compose diaIogues and perform them in cIass:
1. between Judy and JuIia PendIeton about Judy's guardian;
2. between two of Judy's feIIow-students about Judy;
3. between Judy and the EngIish instructor.
XVIII. Write a composition in the form of a Ietter describing some of your (or your friend's)
experiences as a fresher. Use words and phrases from EssentiaI VocabuIary (I). See aIso
Judy's Ietter (Ex. XV).
XIX. Try your hand at teaching.
%. Say what you wouId do in the teacher's positions
oJTI! MsKIR [MxLJg [MHKLNa eRLKKIJ MJ MHHLgJVIJK PJ K[I `NMTz`PMRq K[I KIMT[IR NIsK K[I
TNMHH MNPJI sPR M sIe VLJQKIH. }ZPJ [IR RIKQRJ H[I sPQJq HIxIRMN ePRqH PJ K[I `NMTz`PMRq
eIRI TLRTNIq eLK[ TPNPQRIq T[MNz. dK K[I `PKKPV eMH eRLKKIJ! rOMRINIHH eRLKLJg! ZNIMHI qP
PxIR.r
2. Practise your "CIassroom EngIish".
a) Every teacher is faced with the probIem of keeping discipIine in the cIassroom, A teacher
shouId know how to do it to goad EngIish. Describe the teacher's reaction in the foIIowing
situation:
+) dJJ LH JPK ZMaLJg MKKIJKLPJ.
2) uIq i0 HKMJqLJg QZ.
4) UIPRgI aPQ TMJ HII PJNa K[I `MTz Ps [LH [IMq.
3) /KIxI sLJqH LK LVZPHHL`NI KP `I HLNIJK sPR VPRI K[MJ M VLJQKI MK M KLVI.
*) mIJJa LH JPK NPPzLJg MK K[I `NMTz`PMRq.
,) \IKIR LH HZRMeNIq PQK MTRPHH [LH qIHz.
7) dNLHPJ LH qLHKQR`LJg K[I gLRN HLKKLJg JISK KP [IR.
b) 0IK[ LH TPZaLJg K[I MJHeIR sRPV HPVI`Pqa INHI.
2) dNMJ MJq \MQN MRI MRgQLJg M`PQK HPVIK[LJg.
+)) dJqa K[I HNPeIHK MJq qRIMVLIHK `Pa LJ K[I TNMHH.
b) PIay the part of a young teacher describing a Iesson in a very unruIy cIass to his/her
feIIow teachers. (See "CIassroom EngIish", Section VII.)
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "A Freshman's Experience", mark the stresses and tunes, repeat
the text following the model.
2. Paraphrase the given sentences.
3. Extend the given sentences.
4. Write a spelling-translation test Check it with the key.
5. Translate the sentences into English. Check them with the key.
6. listen to the text 'Town and Gown" or some other text on the history of English
Education. Write the summary of the text. Comment on it in class.
TOPIC: EDUCATION
iL`RMRLIH sQNN Ps `PPzH [MxI `IIJ eRLKKIJ PJ K[I IqQTMKLPJ HaHKIV LJ 0RLKMLJ! `QK RITIJKNa
LK [MH `IIJ T[MJgLJg TPJHLqIRM`Na.
OPVZQNHPRa IqQTMKLPJ `IgLJH MK *! MJq T[LNqRIJ MKKIJq ZRLVMRa HT[PPN QJKLN K[Ia MRI ++.
1PRVMNNa K[I ZRLVMRa HT[PPN LH qLxLqIq LJKP .JsMJKH (*7) MJq mQJLPRH (7++).
dK K[I MgI Ps ++ VPHK T[LNqRIJ gP KP M TPVZRI[IJHLxI HT[PPN e[IRI K[Ia HKMa QJKLN K[Ia
MRI +,. .J K[I ZMHK T[LNqRIJ eIJK KP qLssIRIJK KaZIH Ps HITPJqMRa HT[PPNH! `QK LJ VPHK ZMRKH Ps
K[I TPQJKRa IxIRa`Pqa JPe gPIH KP M TPVZRI[IJHLxI.
/PVI ZMRIJKH! e[P qP JPK eMJK K[ILR T[LNqRIJ KP gP KP M TPVZRI[IJHLxI ZMa KP HIJq K[IV
KP M ZRLxMKI HT[PPN. u[I VPHK ISZIJHLxI MJq ZRIHKLgLPQH ZRLxMKI HT[PPNH MRI MTKQMNNa TMNNIq
ZQ`NLT HT[PPNH.
dK K[I MgI Ps +, ZIPZNI KMzI K[ILR ISMVLJMKLPJH. vPHK KMzI UIJIRMN OIRKLsLTMKI Ps
GqQTMKLPJ (U.(.G.). oRqLJMRa iIxINH JPRVMNNa TMNNIq QHK lol iIxINH. \IPZNI KMzI lol
iIxINH LJ MH VMJa HQ`ITKH MH K[Ia eMJK KP; HPVI KMzI PJI PR KeP! PK[IRH KMzI MH VMJa MH
JLJI PR KIJ.
.s aPQ gIK gPPq lol iIxIN RIHQNKH! aPQ TMJ HKMa PJ MK HT[PPN QJKLN aPQ MRI +b! LJ K[I /LSK[
pPRV. |IRI aPQ ZRIZMRI sPR dqxMJTIq iIxIN GSMVH (ldl iIxINH). dgMLJ! aPQ KMzI MH VMJa Ps
K[IHI MH aPQ eMJK KP! `QK VPHK ZIPZNI KMzI KeP PR K[RII.
.J TMHI aPQ ZMHH aPQR ISMVH eINN aPQ [MxI M T[MJTI Ps gPLJg PJ KP QJLxIRHLKa K[PQg[ K[LH
LH JPK MQKPVMKLT. u[I JQV`IR Ps ZIPZNI e[P HKQqa K[IRI LH HKRLTKNa TPJKRPNNIq. oK[IR KaZIH Ps
sQRK[IR IqQTMKLPJ MRI PssIRIq MK ZPNaKIT[JLTH MJq TPNNIgIH Ps [Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ. \PNaKIT[JLTH
PssIR K[I T[MJTI KP HKQqa HQ`ITKH LJ M VPRI ZRMTKLTMN eMa! MJq VMJa TPNNIgIH Ps [Lg[IR
IqQTMKLPJ HZITLMNLI LJ KIMT[IR KRMLJLJg.
(/II: Dohn0on ^" MJq @orrow ^" dZZRPMT[IH. OMV`RLqgI! +272)
TEXT A. HIGHER EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING IN GREAT
BRITAIN
1PeMqMaH KIMT[IR KRMLJLJg LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ LH RIMNLIq MK QJLxIRHLKLIH! ZPNaKIT[JLTH MJq
TPNNIgIH Ps [Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ.

/KQqIJKH ePRzLJg sPR K[ILR sLRHK qIgRII MK QJLxIRHLKa MRI TMNNIq
QJqIRgRMqQMKIH. w[IJ K[Ia KMzI K[ILR qIgRII eI HMa K[MK K[Ia gRMqQMKI MJq K[IJ K[Ia MRI
TMNNIq gRMqQMKIH. .s K[Ia TPJKLJQI HKQqaLJg MK QJLxIRHLKa MsKIR K[Ia [MxI gRMqQMKIq! K[Ia MRI
TMNNIq ZPHKgRMqQMKIH. .J gIJIRMN! K[I sLRHK qIgRII Ps 0MT[INPR LH gLxIJ KP HKQqIJKH e[P ZMHH
ISMVLJMKLPJH MK K[I IJq Ps K[RII PR sPQR aIMRH Ps HKQqa.
pQRK[IR HKQqa PR RIHIMRT[ LH RIfQLRIq MK K[I VPqIn QJLxIRHLKLIH sPR K[I sLRHK ZPHKgRMqQMKI
qIgRII Ps vMHKIR! MJq MK MNN 0RLKLH[ QJLxIRHLKLIH sPR K[MK Ps nPTKPR.
.J 0RLKMLJ sQNNKLVI QJLxIRHLKa HKQqIJKH (HKQqIJKH e[P HZIJq MNN K[ILR KLVI HKQqaLJg MJq
[MxI JP PK[IR IVZNPaVIJK)! [MxI K[RII KIRVH Ps M`PQK KIJ eIIzH LJ IMT[ aIMR.
}JLxIRHLKa KIMT[LJg TPV`LJIH NITKQRIH gLxIJ `a ZRPsIHHPRH! RIMqIRH PR NITKQRIRH! ZRMTKLTMN
TNMHHIH (LJ HTLIJKLsLT HQ`ITKH) MJq HVMNN gRPQZ KIMT[LJg LJ HIVLJMRH PR KQKPRLMNH.
u[I TPQRHI Ps HKQqa sPR LJKIJqLJg KIMT[IRH LH `MHIq QZPJ TPVZQNHPRa MJq PZKLPJMN
HQ`ITKH.
u[I \RPgRMVVI QHQMNNa TPJHLHKH Ps K[RII TPRI TPVZPJIJKH: /T[PPN`MHIq ISZIRLIJTI!
/Q`ITK HKQqLIH MJq GqQTMKLPJ HKQqLIH.
u[IPRa Ps GqQTMKLPJ LH PJI Ps K[I VMLJ HQ`ITKH. dK K[I IJq Ps K[I sLRHK PR HITPJq aIMR
HKQqIJKH MRI KP VMzI K[ILR T[PLTI MH KP K[I MgIRMJgI Ps T[LNqRIJ K[Ia eLH[ KP ZRIZMRI KP
KIMT[.
mQJLPR HKQqIJKH gP LJKP HT[PPNH sPR PJI qMa IMT[ eIIz! eMKT[LJg ISZIRLIJTIq KIMT[IRH MK
ePRz. u[Ia KMzI ZMRK LJ K[I NLsI Ps K[I HT[PPN! [INZ eLK[ gMVIH! HPTLIKLIH PR ZNMa ZRPqQTKLPJH.
/IJLPR HKQqIJKH HZIJq sLsKIIJ eIIzH PJ KIMT[LJg ZRMTKLTI. u[Ia NIMRJ K[I QHI Ps qLssIRIJK
IqQTMKLPJMN MLqH! MQqLPxLHQMN sMTLNLKLIH! P`HIRxI NIHHPJH MJq KMzI MJ MTKLxI ZMRK LJ qLHTQHHLJg
K[IV eLK[ M HQZIRxLHPR (KQKPR) PJ HT[PPN ZRMTKLTI.
GSMVLJMKLPJH MRI [INq MK K[I IJq Ps IMT[ KIRV. pLJMN ISMVLJMKLPJH (PR sLJMNH) MRI KMzIJ MK
K[I IJq Ps K[I TPQRHI.
(/II: uL``LKH G. i. GSIRTLHIH LJ IMqLJg OPVZRI[IJHLPJ. iPJgVMJ! +273)
TEXT B. DIALOGUE
d J J : |QNNP! /KIxI. |MxI aPQ gPK M VLJQKI{
/ K I x I : /QRI! aIH. w[MK TMJ . qP sPR aPQ{
d.: .lxI RIMq M JQV`IR Ps `PPzH PJ K[I 0RLKLH[ HaHKIV Ps [Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ `QK . TMJlK VMzI
[IMq PR KMLN Ps LK.
/.: vV... JP ePJqIR. w[MKlH K[I ZRP`NIV{
d.: QLKI M NPK Ps ZRP`NIVH. w[MK . eMJK KP qLHTQHH LH K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ M QJLxIRHLKa
MJq M TPNNIgI.
/.: .KlH NLzI K[LH! aPQ HII... u[I ZRPgRMVVI LH qLssIRIJK. dK M QJLxIRHLKa LK LH VQT[ eLqIR.
URIMK MKKIJKLPJ LH ZMLq KP HTLIJKLsLT HQ`ITKH.
d: .K HPQJqH MH K[PQg[ VPHK ZIPZNI ZRIsIR M QJLxIRHLKa.
/.: wINN... K[MK RMK[IR qIZIJqH.
d.: /ZIMzLJg M`PQK QJLxIRHLKLIH .lV JPK fQLKI TNIMR M`PQK KQKPRLMNH K[IRI. w[MK LH M KQKPRLMN
ISMTKNa{
/.: o[! LKlH e[IJ HKQqIJKH qLHTQHH KPZLTH eLK[ M KQKPR LJ xIRa HVMNN gRPQZH QHQMNNa K[IRI
MRI JPK VPRI K[MJ K[RII PR sPQR HKQqIJKH MJq HPVIKLVIH PJNa PJI.
d.: . HII... dJq TPVLJg `MTz KP TPNNIgIH... .lV HKLNN JPK KIRRL`Na HQRI e[MK M RIHLqIJKLMN
TPNNIgI LH.
/.: GRV... .KlH M TPNNIgI eLK[ M [MNN Ps RIHLqIJTI PJ K[I HMVI gRPQJqH MH K[I ZRLJTLZMN
`QLNqLJg. .J sMTK MNN K[I HKQqIJKH NLxI LJ [MNN.
d: IMNNa{ MJq e[MK M`PQK K[I KIMT[LJg HKMss{
/.: dTKQMNNa K[I VMPRLKa Ps K[I KIMT[LJg HKMss NLxI K[IRI KPP. 0QK K[IRI MRI MNHP fQLKI M NPK
Ps JPJRIHLqIJKLMN TPNNIgIH.
d: dJq aPQ HKQqLIq MK QJLxIRHLKa{
/.: yIH...
d.: .lq NLzI KP sLJq VaHINs LJ K[MK QJLxIRHLKa. w[MK eMH LK NLzI{
/.: wINN... M `Lg gRIa `QLNqLJg HQRRPQJqIq `a KRIIH.
d: 0IMQKLsQN{
/.: 1PK[LJg xIRa RIVMRzM`NI. os TPQRHI K[IRI eIRI NITKQRI [MNNH! TNMHHRPPVH MJq M JQV`IR
Ps NM`PRMKPRLIH.
d: dJa sMTLNLKLIH sPR HZPRK MJq \.G.
/.: iIK VI HII... yIH... d gaVJMHLQV eLK[ T[MJgLJg RPPVH MJq H[PeIRH! M KIJJLH TPQRK...
w[MK INHI... d ZNMaLJg sLINq sPR JIK`MNN MJq sPPK`MNN...
d.: . `INLIxI HKQqIJKH HZIJq M NPK Ps KLVI KPgIK[IR! qPJlK K[Ia{
/.: nIsLJLKINa. wI [Mq HKQqIJKHl HPTLIKLIH MJq TNQ`H.
d.: dV . RLg[K KP `INLIxI K[MK K[Ia MRI sPR K[PHI LJKIRIHKIq LJ qRMVM MJq VQHLT{
/.: QLKI... MJq MNHP ZPNLKLTH! VPqIRJ NMJgQMgIH! NLKIRMKQRI! HTLIJTI MJq MK[NIKLTH.
d: d[... K[MKlH ePRK[ zJPeLJg.
/.: dJq e[MK .lq NLzI KP Mqq LH K[MK HKQqIJKH K[IVHINxIH PRgMJLI MNN K[PHI TNQ`H MJq
HPTLIKLIH. u[IRI LH QHQMNNa M /KQqIJKHl OPQJTLN PR }JLPJ.
d.: wINN /KIxI. u[MJzH xIRa VQT[. yPQlxI `IIJ VPHK [INZsQN.
TEXT C. HOW TO GET A DEGREE
m.: wINN! dRJPNq! . RIVIV`IR aPQ HMLq PJTI aPQ eIRI M 0. d. \IR[MZH aPQ TPQNq KINN VI
[Pe fQLTzNa aPQ gPK K[PHI NIKKIRH MsKIR aPQR JMVI{
d.: dK QJLxIRHLKa . HKQqLIq [LHKPRa. .K eMH M 4aIMR TPQRHI. dJq MsKIR K[MK . gPK M 0. d
qIgRII.
m.: 0.d. HKMJqH sPR 0MT[INPR Ps dRKH qIgRII! qPIHJlK LK{
d.: yIH! e[LT[ RIVLJqH VI Ps Va JILg[`PQR e[PHI HPJ [Mq QHK gPK [LH 0. d. d sRLIJq
MHzIq xIRa HIRLPQHNa: r. HQZZPHI aPQR HPJ eLNN KRa KP gIK MJ v. d. PR \[. n.r JISK KP e[LT[
Va JILg[`PQR MJHeIRIq: r1PK MK MNN! JPe [I LH KRaLJg KP gIK M mo0.r
d: d[... [I VIMJK M P`c u[MKlH M gPPq PzIc (/II: GJgNLH[ 2)4! 0PPz ,.
iJq.! +27b)
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
Words and Word Combinations
d. IqQTMKLPJ HaHKIV HTLIJKLsLT HQ`ITKH
TPVZQNHPRa IqQTMKLPJ MJ LJKIJqLJg KIMT[IR
ZRLVMRa HT[PPN PZKLPJMN
HITPJqMRa HT[PPN TPRI TPVZPJIJK (TPRI)
TPVZRI[IJHLxI HT[PPN HT[PPN (KIMT[LJg) ZRMTKLTI
ZQ`NLT HT[PPN /T[PPN`MHIq ISZIRLIJTI
sQRK[IR IqQTMKLPJ /Q`ITK HKQqLIH
ZPNaKIT[JLT GqQTMKLPJ HKQqLIH
TPNNIgI Ps [Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ (u[IPRa Ps) GqQTMKLPJ
KP HZITLMNLI LJ VMLJ HQ`ITK
KIMT[IR KRMLJLJg MgIRMJgI
qIgRII QJLPR HKQqIJKH
QJqIRgRMqQMKI HIJLPR HKQqIJKH
gRMqQMKI ZNMa ZRPqQTKLPJ
ZPHKgRMqQMKI IqQTMKLPJMN MLqH
sQNNKLVI HKQqIJK MQqLPxLHQMN sMTLNLKLIH
ZMRKKLVI HKQqIJK xLHQMN MLqH
RIMqIR KP P`HIRxI M NIHHPJ
NITKQRIR HQZIRxLHPR (KQKPR)
ZRMTKLTMN TNMHHIH KP [PNq ISMVLJMKLPJH
sLJMN ISMVLJMKLPJH (sLJMNH)
B. KQKPRLMN T[MJgLJg RPPV
RIHLqIJKLMN TPNNIgI HKQqIJKHl HPTLIKa
JPJRIHLqIJKLMN TPNNIgI /KQqIJKHl OPQJTLN (}JLPJ)
[MNN Ps RIHLqIJTI (. 0.d.! 0.Gq.! 0./T! 0./.G.!
KP NLxI LJ [MNN 0./.v. qIgRII (0MT[INPR Ps
ZRLJTLZMN `QLNqLJg (K[I dRKH! GqQTMKLPJ! /TLIJTI!
/IJMKI) GJgLJIIRLJg! vIqLTLJI IKT.)
KIMT[LJg HKMss v.d.! v.Gq (vMHKIR Ps
\[aHLTMN GqQTMKLPJ (\.G.) dRKH! GqQTMKLPJ! IKT.)
gaVJMHLQV (gaV) \[n. (nPTKPR Ps \[LNPHPZ[a)
EXERCISES
I. Study Text A and write EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing words and phrases. Transcribe
them:
;; ( 5)! 95 !
> 8D; ! 6! 8! ! ! 65D
! 6 ! $;! ; !
; ! (2 ePRqH)! ! =5 6! 86
8$ $n.! 685! C685! D!
; $! $ $ ;;; %! ;;!
C7= %! ;! 8 $D9 !
68! 8 D9 ! 8 ! 68
! =6 ! 6 (2 ePRqH)! 6
E$8! 88 E$8.
II. Write 15 questions on Text A, using new words and expressions in each question. Ask
your comrades to repIy them. Summarize what you have Iearned about the British system of
higher education.
III. Study Texts and and write EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing words and phrases:
$ 8D; ! ! > =>$!
> =>! => ()! >
()! >6 => ( 9)! ;;5 ! %85
! ;$5 ! ! =! 5 !
;$89 ! $; ;$89 ! CC9 .
IV. Ask your feIIow-students:
+. d`PQK K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ M QJLxIRHLKa! ZPNaKIT[JLT MJq TPNNIgI Ps [Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ.
2. w[a LK LH ZRIsIRM`NI KP HKQqa MK QJLxIRHLKa. 4. w[MK HQ`ITKH K[I \RPgRMVVI Ps M QJLxIRHLKa
LH `MHIq QZPJ. 3. w[MK aPQ zJPe M`PQK KQKPRLMNH. *. d`PQK K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ M
RIHLqIJKLMN MJq M JPJRIHLqIJKLMN TPNNIgI (QJLxIRHLKa). ,. w[P NLxIH LJ [MNN. 7. w[MK RPPVH TMJ
`I sPQJq LJ M QJLxIRHLKa `QLNqLJg. b. w[MK HZPRK sMTLNLKLIH K[IRI MRI MK M QJLxIRHLKa. 2. w[MK
TNQ`H MJq HPTLIKLIH MRI ZPZQNMR LJ 0RLKLH[ TPNNIgIH MJq QJLxIRHLKLIH. +). w[P RQJH K[PHI TNQ`H
MJq HPTLIKLIH. ++. w[MK M 0. d. LH. +2. |Pe fQLTzNa PJI TMJ gIK K[PHI NIKKIRH `IsPRI [LH JMVI.
+4. w[MK M v. d. LH. +3. w[LT[ qIgRII LH [Lg[IR: v. d. PR \[. n.{ +*. .s LK LH IMHa sPR M
0MT[INPR Ps dRKH KP sLJq M P`.
V. ReteII Text in indirect speech using new words and word combinations.
VI. FiII in prepositions. Ask the others to give their responses to the given sentences so as
to make up micro-diaIogues:
+.... URIMK 0RLKMLJ K[I TPQRHI... HKQqa... LJKIJqLJg KIMT[IRH LH `MHIq ... TPVZQNHPRa MJq
PZKLPJMN HQ`ITKH. 2. u[I \RPgRMVVI QHQMNNa TPJHLHKH ... K[RII TPRI TPVZPJIJKH. nP aPQ
RIVIV`IR e[MK K[Ia MRI{ 4. dRI aPQ gPLJg KP HZITLMNLI ... GqQTMKLPJ{ 3. .K LH LVZPRKMJK... M
HKQqIJK KP NIMRJ K[I QHI ... qLssIRIJK xLHQMN MLqH ... [LH `NPTzKIMT[LJg ZRMTKLTI. *. va HT[PPN
ZRMTKLTI `IgMJ e[IJ . eMH ... K[I sLRHK aIMR. ,.... PQR qIZMRKVIJK ISMVLJMKLPJH MRI [INq ... K[I
IJq ... IMT[ KIRV; ... IMT[ ISMVLJMKLPJ HKQqIJKH MRI gLxIJ HIxIRMN qMaH e[LT[ K[Ia HZIJq ...
RIxLHLJg K[I VMKIRLMN. 7. u[I GJgNLH[ TNQ` PRgMJLIq ... K[I HKQqIJKH LH TPJTIRJIq ..! ISKRM
TQRRLTQNMR MTKLxLKLIH. b. nP aPQ IJPa aPQR NITKQRIH ... u[IPRa ... GqQTMKLPJ{ dRI K[Ia
HQZZNIVIJKIq... HIVLJMRH{
VII. a) ReteII Text in indirect speech; b) act it out.
VIII. Speak about the EngIish Department at your University (use EssentiaI VocabuIary on
the topic).
IX. Make up diaIogues, using EssentiaI VocabuIary on the topic Suggested situations:
d. d QHHLMJ HKQqIJK MJq MJ GJgNLH[ HKQqIJK MRI IST[MJgLJg LJsPRVMKLPJ PJ HaHKIVH Ps
[Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ LJ K[ILR TPQJKRLIH.
0. ueP HKQqIJKH Ps K[I GJgNLH[ qIZMRKVIJK MRI qLHTQHHLJg K[ILR TPNNIgI NLsI. oJI Ps K[IV
LH IJK[QHLMHKLT M`PQK IxIRaK[LJg! K[I PK[IR LH M qLHHMKLHsLIq gRQV`NIR MJq sLJqH sMQNK eLK[
IxIRa NLKKNI K[LJg.
O. d HKQqIJK Ps K[I GJgNLH[ qIZMRKVIJK LH HZIMzLJg M`PQK K[I ZRPgRMVVI MJq K[I TPQRHI
Ps HKQqa eLK[ M sRLIJq Ps [LH ([IRH).
n. d HKRLTK sMK[IR (VPK[IR) LH qIVMJqLJg MJ ISZNMJMKLPJ sRPV M HPJ (qMQg[KIR) MsKIR M
sMLNQRI LJ M TPNNIgI ISMV. u[I HPJ LH gLxLJg MNN zLJqH Ps NMVI ISTQHIH HZIMzLJg M`PQK
rPxIRTRPeqIq HaNNM`QHr! LJQHKLTI Ps ZRPsIHHPRH MJq `Mq NQTz LJ gIJIRMN.
X. a) Bead and transIate into Russian:
Oxford
/P K[LH LH oSsPRq. dH HPPJ MH eI IVIRgI LJKP K[I TNIMJ! `RPMq HKRIIKH! K[IRI MRI HLgJH
IJPQg[ K[MK K[LH LH K[I MJTLIJK HIMK Ps GJgNLH[ NIMRJLJg. UPeJH MJq VPRKMR `PMRqH. yPQJg
QJqIRgRMqQMKIH LJ NPPHI `NMTz K[Lg[NIJgK[ gPeJH. d gRMqQMKIlH gPeJ LH gIJIRMNNa Ps zJII
NIJgK[ MJq sPR TIRIVPJLMN PTTMHLPJH MK NIMHK! [MH M [PPq NLJIq LJ HLNz Ps K[I TPNPQR ZRIHTRL`Iq
`a K[I eIMRIRlH sMTQNKa.
oSsPRqlH VMLJ RMLNeMa HKMKLPJ LH HPVI [MNs M VLNI KP K[I eIHK Ps K[I MRIM LJ e[LT[ MRI
TNQHKIRIq VPHK Ps K[I TPNNIgIH: QIIJlH OPNNIgI MJq }JLxIRHLKa OPNNIgI! vMgqMNIJ OPNNIgI
MJq fQLKI M JQV`IR Ps PK[IRH.
dNN K[IHI KPgIK[IR VMzI QZ K[I }JLxIRHLKa Ps oSsPRq.
u[I TIJKRMN }JLxIRHLKa! LJ gIJIRMN! MRRMJgIH NITKQRIH sPR K[I e[PNI `Pqa Ps HKQqIJKH LJ M
ZMRKLTQNMR HQ`ITK MJq [PNqH ISMVLJMKLPJH MJq gRMJKH qIgRIIH; MJ LJqLxLqQMN TPNNIgI ZRPxLqIH
sPR RIHLqIJTI MJq KQKPRLMNH. URIMK IVZ[MHLH LH NMLq MK oSsPRq MJq OMV`RLqgI PJ e[MK MRI
TMNNIq rKQKPRLMNHr! LJ e[LT[ M nPJ gLxIH ZIRHPJMN LJHKRQTKLPJ LJ [LH HKQqa MK NIMHK PJTI M eIIz
KP HKQqIJKH JQV`IRLJg JPK VPRI K[MJ sPQR MK M HLKKLJg.
pPR M NPxIR Ps PNq MRT[LKITKQRI! oSsPRq [MH VQT[ KP PssIR. vMJa Ps K[I TPNNIgIH ZRIHIJK M
NPxINa ZLTKQRI Ps MJTLIJK ZIMRNgRIa eMNNH! JP`NI KPeIRH! ZLTKQRIHfQI gPK[LT MRT[eMaH. dNN
[MxI gRMHH NMeJH Ps xINxIK HVPPK[JIHH e[LT[ VQHK `I HIIJ KP `I `INLIxIq! MJq VMJa [MxI! LJ
HQVVIR! VPHK VMgJLsLTIJK qLHZNMaH Ps sNPeIRH.
($fter ru[I 0RLKLH[ /TIJIr &y UIPRgI 0LqeINN)
b) Argue the pros and cons of: 1. TutoriaI system. 2. Students' uniform. 3. ResidentiaI
coIIeges.
XI. Describe the pictures on p. 183:
XII. Try your hand at teaching:
A. Preparation. UIK RIMqa sPR M KMNz PJ PJI Ps K[I sPNNPeLJg KPZLTH:
+. |Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ LJ QHHLM.
2. |Lg[IR IqQTMKLPJ LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ.
4. oSsPRq }JLxIRHLKa.
3. OMV`RLqgI }JLxIRHLKa.
*. uIMT[IR KRMLJLJg LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ MJq LJ QHHLM.
B. Work in Class. iLHKIJ KP K[I HKQqIJKHl KMNz MJq HMa M sIe ePRqH M`PQK K[I TPJHKRQTKLPJ
Ps IMT[ KMNz: LKH `IgLJJLJg! qIxINPZVIJK! TPJTNQHLPJ! MJq K[I gIJIRMN `MNMJTI Ps K[IHI ZMRKH.
/ZIMz PJ e[MK aPQ K[LJz VMa HQRZRLHI M QHHLMJ HKQqIJK MK MJ GJgNLH[ }JLxIRHLKa
(oSsPRq! OMV`RLqgI): M) ZRPgRMVVI! `) KIMT[LJg VIK[PqH! T) HKQqIJKHl ISKRMTQRRLTQNMR
MTKLxLKLIH.
\RPVZKH: . K[LJz (HQZZPHI! gQIHH! `INLIxI! qMRI HMa)...; wINN! Va PZLJLPJ LH K[MK...; va
xLIe LH K[MK...; uRQI! `QK...; yPQ VMa `I RLg[K... `QK MNN K[I HMVI...; . ePQNqJlK HMa K[MK; 0QK PJ
K[I PK[IR [MJq.
XIII. Read the text. Comment on its content:
Students in Tents
u[RII HVMNN KIJKH KeP `NQI MJq PJI z[MzL MRI ZLKT[Iq MVPJg KRIIH PJ M [LNN M`PxI
/QHHIS }JLxIRHLKa TMVZQH. u[LH eIIzIJq K[Ia MRI l[PVIl KP K[RII HKQqIJKH e[P TMJJPK sLJq M
`Iq LJ K[I JILg[`PQRLJg KPeJ Ps 0RLg[KPJ.
u[Ia MRI MJ MZK HaV`PN Ps MJ MTTPVVPqMKLPJ TRLHLH K[MK LH MssITKLJg K[PQHMJqH Ps HKQqIJKH
K[RPQg[PQK K[I TPQJKRa. uPJLg[K b) PK[IR /QHHIS HKQqIJKH eLNN `Iq qPeJ PJ VMKKRIHHIH PJ
K[I sNPPR Ps K[I QJLxIRHLKa HIJMKI T[MV`IR. .K eLNN `I K[I HLSK[ MJq ZRP`M`Na sLJMN JLg[K
Ps MlZRPKIHK PTTQZMKLPJc
.J IxIRa VMPR TLKa K[IRI MRI HKQqIJKH PJ TMVZ `IqH LJ JPPzH MJq TRMJJLIH MJq PK[IRH
lTRMH[LJgl PJ K[I sNPPRH Ps sRLIJqHl sNMKH.
u[I 1MKLPJMN }JLPJ Ps /KQqIJKH qIHTRL`IH LK MH K[I ePRHK IxIR HKQqIJK MTTPVVPqMKLPJ
TRLHLHc u[I LJqLTMKLPJH MRI K[MK LK LH M sPRIKMHKI Ps M VMHHLxI ZRP`NIV.
}JNIHH HPVIK[LJg RMqLTMN LH qPJI! K[I TPJTIZK Ps M HKQqIJK [MxLJg K[I RLg[K KP gP MeMa KP
QJLxIRHLKa VMa HPPJ `I qIMq. (/II: 2tofi C", Creed 2"
#" GJgNLH[ LJ vLJq. iJq.! +2b2)
XIV. Speak on:
+. yPQR LJKIJKLPJH MH KP aPQR KIMT[LJg TMRIIR.
2. w[MK aPQ MRI gPLJg KP qP KP `ITPVI M [Lg[NafQMNLsLIq HZITLMNLHK.
XV. RoIe-pIaying.
Work in two groups, one pIaying the university Iecturers, the other presenting students.
Both groups are discussing one and the same exam. Compare their versions and make your
concIusion as to the difference in approach:
GSMV: GJgNLH[ iLKIRMKQRI.
IHQNKH: nMxI P`IRKHPJ /MK O[MRNIH |PZI \PPR
nQJTMJ |PNVIH UPPq nPRPK[a 0MLRq :IRa UPPq
mIJJa LT[MRqH UPPq
XVI. Compose a short story to which the pictures on pp. 187-189 might serve as an
iIIustration. Use prompt words and phrases Iisted betow:
Z[aHLTLHK; K[IPRa Ps RINMKLxLKa; KRIMqLJg PJ MLR; sQNN Ps HeIIK RIVLJLHTIJTIH;
TMHK M gNMJTI; M HQqqIJ H[PTz; TPVI KP RIMNLI; M gQLNKa TPJHTLIJTI;
sLRHK KRMTIH Ps sMKLgQI; KLRIqPQK;
eLK[ M eIK KPeIN RPQJq [LH [IMq; LJ sRQHKRMKLPJ; M qMIq NPPz; M KQ` Ps eMKIR; HTMKKIRIq MNN
PxIR; ZIIZLJg LJHLqI; ZQNIq;
HKRMJgI xLHLPJH; eINTPVI T[IIRsQNNa; MRVLJMRV; M TMJI;
LJ M sRIJa Ps IJK[QHLMHV; NIMJLJg PJ; NQJMKLT MHaNQV.
XVII. FiIm "Mr. Brown's HoIiday". FiIm segment 5 "Is it Good to be a Student?" (Chrichester).
a) Watch and Iisten, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the fiIm.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH
V
d zLJq Ps eRLKLJg KIT[JLfQI K[MK [INZH KP MT[LIxI gPPq RIHQNKH LH HQVVMRLLJg K[I TPJKIJKH
Ps eRLKKIJ ePRzH.
/QVVMRa LH M RIZRIHIJKMKLPJ Ps K[I TPJKIJKH Ps TPVZNIKI ePRzH LJ `RLIs. .K LH ISZITKIq KP
`I M`PQK M HLSK[ PR M KIJK[ Ps K[I PRLgLJMN LJ NIJgK[. .K LH IMHLIR KP VMzI M HQVVMRa Ps HKPRLIH!
JPxINH MJq ZNMaH e[LT[ [MxI M ZNPK.
\NPK LH M HaHKIVMKLT MRRMJgIVIJK Ps IxIJKH `a VIMJH Ps e[LT[ K[I eRLKIR `QLNqH QZ M
VIMJLJgsQN HLKQMKLPJ MJq H[PeH K[I T[MRMTKIRH. }HQMNNa M ZNPK TPJHLHKH Ps M gPPq `IgLJJLJg! M
VLqqNI! MJq MJ IJq.
.J PRqIR KP VMzI M gPPq TNIMR HQVVMRa Ps M HKPRa aPQ [MxI KP gP K[RPQg[ K[I sPNNPeLJg
HKMgIH:
+. IMq K[I HKPRa TMRIsQNNa HP MH KP QJqIRHKMJq LKH ZNPK.
2. vMzI M NLHK Ps MNN K[I ZPLJKH aPQ sLJq LVZPRKMJK. u[IHI JPKIH H[PQNq `I xIRa `RLIs! xIRa
VQT[ NLzI K[I KPZLT ZNMJ (HII K[I HMVZNI LJ }JLK pPQR).
4. }HLJg K[I NLHK Ps ZPLJKH! eRLKI M RPQg[ qRMsK Ps K[I HQVVMRa. yPQ VMa ZMRMZ[RMHI MJq
VPqLsa KPZLT HIJKIJTIH. u[LH eLNN [INZ aPQ KP RIZRPqQTI K[I TPJKIJKH Ps K[I HKPRa LJ aPQR PeJ
ePRqH.
3. dsKIR [MxLJg eRLKKIJ M RPQg[ qRMsK H[PRKIJ LK MJq eRLKI M sMLR TPZa Ps aPQR HQVVMRa.
Note: uMzI TMRI JPK KP T[MJgI K[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I PRLgLJMN PR Mqq KP LK. yPQR HQVVMRa VMa sPNNPe K[I
PQKNLJI Ps K[I HKPRa LJ `RLIs.
|IRI LH M HMVZNI HQVVMRa Ps rd nMalH wMLKr (HII }JLK ueP).
d `Pa Ps JLJI sINN LNN. |I eMH RQJJLJg M [Lg[ KIVZIRMKQRI (+)2p). u[I qPTKPR qLMgJPHIq
K[I LNNJIHH MH sNQ. |I HMLq K[IRI eMH JPK[LJg KP ePRRa M`PQK Ls K[I sIxIR qLq JPK gP M`PxI PJI
[QJqRIq MJq sPQR qIgRIIH. u[I `Pa NMa HKLNN LJ K[I `Iq. |I HIIVIq qIKMT[Iq MJq eMH NPPzLJg
xIRa HKRMJgINa MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq. w[IJ K[I sMK[IR KPPz [LH KIVZIRMKQRI MgMLJ K[I `Pa
MHzIq [LV M`PQK K[I KLVI [I eMH gPLJg KP qLI. |I MRgQIq eLK[ [LH sMK[IR M`PQK K[I
KIVZIRMKQRI `ITMQHI e[IJ `ILJg MK HT[PPN LJ pRMJTI [I NIMRJIq sRPV K[I `PaH K[MK aPQ TMJlK
NLxI eLK[ K[I KIVZIRMKQRI Ps sPRKasPQR qIgRIIH. u[I sMK[IR RIMHHQRIq [LV ISZNMLJLJg K[I
qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I pM[RIJ[ILK MJq OIJKLgRMqI K[IRVPVIKIRH. u[I `Pa RINMSIq MsKIR rM
qMalH eMLKr! K[PQg[ K[I JISK qMa [I eMH HKLNN HQssIRLJg sRPV M JIRxPQH `RIMzqPeJ.
Assignments:
+. wRLKI M HQVVMRa Ps K[I HKPRa r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar. (/II }JLK pPQR.)
2. uRa KP VMzI M HQVVMRa Ps mQqalH NIKKIRH. (nPJlK sPRgIK KP VMzI M NLHK Ps K[I VPHK
LVZPRKMJK ZPLJKH `IsPRI eRLKLJg M RPQg[ qRMsK.)
4. wRLKI M HQVVMRa Ps K[I qLMNPgQI `IKeIIJ dJJ MJq /KIxI. (/II uISK 0.) u[LJz Ps K[I
`IHK KPZLT HIJKIJTIH LJKRPqQTLJg PR/MJq TPVZNIKLJg aPQR HQVVMRa.
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
+. iLHKIJ KP uISKH d MJq 0! VMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH. IZIMK K[IV sPNNPeLJg K[I VPqIN
2. iLHKIJ KP uISK ( vMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH. IZIMK LK sPNNPeLJg K[I VPqIN.
4. wRLKI M HZINNLJgKRMJHNMKLPJ KIHK. O[ITz LK eLK[ K[I zIa.
3. wRLKI M qLTKMKLPJ. O[ITz aPQR HZINNLJg eLK[ M qLTKLPJMRa.
*. uRMJHNMKI K[I HIJKIJTIH MJq T[ITz aPQR KRMJHNMKLPJ eLK[ K[I zIa (eRLKKIJ ePRz).
,. NLHKIJ KP K[I KISK rOMV`RLqgIll PR HPVI PK[IR KISK PJ K[I KPZLT rGqQTMKLPJr. wRLKI K/
fQIHKLPJH KP K[I KISK UIK RIMqa KP qLHTQHH LK LJ TNMHH.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
I. Test your "I. Q." and compare it to 1udy's "abyss of ignorance". Say what you
know about:
+. vMQRLTI vMIKIRNLJTz.
2. vLT[INIMJgINP.
4. rnMxLq OPZZIRsLINqr MJq K[I MQK[PR Ps K[I `PPz.
3. r.xMJ[PIr MJq K[I MQK[PR Ps K[I `PPz.
*. rmMJI GaRIr MJq K[I MQK[PR Ps K[I `PPz.
,. rP`LJHPJ ORQHPIr MJq K[I MQK[PR Ps K[I `PPz.
7. rdNLTI LJ wPJqIRNMJqr.
b. |IJRa K[I GLg[K[.
2. /[INNIa.
+). UIPRgI GNLPK.
++. vPJM iLHM.
+2. /[IRNPTz |PNVIH.
II. Give the names of humorists: a) you appreciate most of all; b) of British or
American origin; c) of world reputation.
UNIT SIX
I SPEECH PATTERNS
1. . needn6t have hurried"
Cf" yPQ JIIqJlK gP K[IRI KPVPRRPe. yPQ JIIqJlK [MxI gPJI K[IRI aIHKIRqMa.
. JIIqJlK KINN [LV K[MK; [I zJPeH LK. . JIIqJlK [MxI KPNq [LV K[MK; [I zJIe LK MNRIMqa.
u[I KIMT[IR JIIqJlK ISZNMLJ HQT[ HLVZNI K[LJgH; K[I ZQZLNH zJPe K[IV. u[I KIMT[IR
JIIqJlK [MxI ISZNMLJIq HQT[ HLVZNI K[LJgH; K[I ZQZLNH zJIe K[IV.
yPQ JIIqJlK MHz K[LH fQIHKLPJ. yPQ JIIqJlK [MxI MHzIq K[LH fQIHKLPJ.
2. |Ilq `IIJ KMNzLJg more than u0ua."
yPQlxI TPVI NMKIR K[MJ QHQMN.
oQR [PVIePRz KPqMa LH NPJgIR K[MJ QHQMN.
yIHKIRqMa K[LH MTKRIHH ZNMaIq `IKKIR K[MJ QHQMN.
uPVPRRPe . MV KP gIK QZ IMRNLIR K[MJ QHQMN.
3. |I NPPzIq MK VI eLK[ tho0e zLJq `NQI eye0 of hi0"
. zJIe KPP eINN K[MK T[MRVLJg HVLNI Ps [IRH.
yPQ JIIqJlK RIZIMK KP VI K[PHI NLIH Ps aPQRH.
. RIMNNa qPJlK zJPe e[MK KP qP eLK[ K[LH JMQg[Ka T[LNq Ps VLJI.
. qPJlK NLzI K[MK H[MRZ xPLTI Ps aPQR sRLIJqlH.
w[P HMLq K[MK{ os TPQRHI! K[MK qIMR [QH`MJq Ps vMRalH.
EXERCISES
I. Paraphrase the foIIowing sentences, using Patten 1:
\MKKIRJ +: +. w[a qLq aPQ MJHeIR K[LH fQIHKLPJ{ .K eMH JPK VIMJK sPR aPQ. 2. |I HZPzI KPP
NPJg! LK `PRIq IxIRa`Pqa ZRIHIJK. 4. u[IRI eMH JP RIMHPJ e[a H[I H[PQNq gIK HP ISTLKIq PxIR
M NLKKNI K[LJg NLzI K[MK. 3. wMH LK JITIHHMRa KP `PK[IR HQT[ M `QHa VMJ eLK[ K[LH QJLVZPRKMJK
fQIHKLPJ{ *. w[a [MxI aPQ TPVI KP VIIK VI{ u[IRI eMH JP JIIq sPR aPQ KP `PK[IR.
II. CompIete the foIIowing sentences, using the patterns:
\MKKIRJ 2: +. uPqMa H[I [MH `IIJ MJHeIRLJg [IR KMHz IxIJ `IKKIR ... . 2. dRI aPQ LNN{ yPQ
MRI NPPzLJg ... . 4. u[I eMa KP [LH PssLTI HIIVIq KP [LV PJ K[MK qMa ... . 3. |I eMH LJ NPxI! MJq
K[I HQJ HIIVIq KP H[LJI .... *.... IMRNLIR K[MJ QHQMN. ,. u[I HPQZ KMHKIH IxIJ .... 7.... NMKIR K[MJ
QHQMN.
\MKKIRJ 4:+. /[I MqqRIHHIq QH MJgRLNa LJ K[MK [MRH[ ... . 2. nLq aPQ [MZZIJ KP HII K[MK
T[MRVLJg ... { 4. . qLqJlK eMJK KP TPVI QZ KP aPQ! `ITMQHI aPQ eIRI HP `QHa HZIMzLJg KP K[MK
qIMR .... 3. . qPJlK NLzI K[I eMa H[I KRIMKH K[MK VLHIRM`NI .... *. . eLH[ . zJIe [Pe . H[PQNq
`RLJg QZ K[LH qIMR .... ,. 1P PJI MJa NPJgIR `INLIxIH K[PHI ... . 7. .s . eIRI aPQ! . H[PQNq K[RPe
MeMa K[IHI .... b. w[P TPQNq [MxI qPJI HQT[ M K[LJg `QK...{ 2. . [MxI [IMRq M NPK M`PQK K[MK....
III. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. $ > 8 96 7 . < = D. 2. X
E9 9 89 C6 D. "8 6
>! $ 8! ! ! > D. 4. E 6 > 8 6
5! $ 8. ' $ ;$! ; 5
6D7 D$ $ E;
; .
IV. Make up short situations to iIIustrate Patterns 1, 2, 3 (three situations for each pattern).
V. Make up diaIogues, using aII the patterns.
TEXT. A FRIEND IN NEED by WiIIiam Somerset Maugham &abridged'
vMQg[MV! wLNNLMV /PVIRHIK (+b73+2,*): MJ GJgNLH[ eRLKIR. |I MT[LIxIq M gRIMK HQTTIHH MH M JPxINLHK
eLK[ HQT[ JPxINH MH ros |QVMJ 0PJqMgIr! ru[I MPRlH GqgIr MJq PK[IRH! MH M qRMVMKLHK eLK[ vH eLKKa
HMKLRLTMN ZNMaH roQR 0IKKIRHr! ru[I OLRTNIr! IKT.! `QK [I LH `IHK zJPeJ `a [LH H[PRK HKPRLIH.
dK K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps [LH NLKIRMRa TMRIIR vMQg[MV eMH gRIMKNa LJsNQIJTIq `a pRIJT[ JMKQRMNLHV. iMKIR PJ!
[LH PQKNPPz PJ NLsI T[MJgIq. .K `ITMVI TPPN! QJIVPKLPJMN MJq ZIHHLVLHKLT. |I HMaH K[MK NLsI LH KPP KRMgLT MJq
HIJHINIHH KP `I qIHTRL`Iq. d eRLKIR TMJlK T[MJgI NLsI! [I VQHK PJNa KRa KP MVQHI [LH RIMqIR! HKLR [LH
LVMgLJMKLPJ. dJq K[LH LH e[IRI vMQg[MV MT[LIxIH ZIRsITKLPJ: [LH HKPRLIH MRI MNeMaH sMHTLJMKLJg. vMQg[MVlH
HzLNN LJ qIZLTKLJg HTIJIH MJq T[MRMTKIRH eLK[ M sIe KPQT[IH LH MVMLJg MJq e[IK[IR [I VIMJH LK PR JPK [LH
JPxINH! HKPRLIH MJq ZNMaH RIxIMN K[I xMJLKa! [aZPTRLHa MJq `RQKMNLKa Ps K[I HPTLIKa [I NLxIH LJ. /P qPIH K[I HKPRa
rd pRLIJq LJ 1IIqr. 0QRKPJ! M ZRPHZIRPQH `QHLJIHHVMJ! LH JPK.LJ K[I NIMHK TPJTIRJIq M`PQK K[I KRPQ`NIH MJq
JIIqH Ps K[PHI e[P [MxI sMLNIq LJ NLsI. wLK[PQK M VPVIJKlH [IHLKMKLPJ [I HIJqH M VMJ KP qIMK[ QHK `ITMQHI [LH
ZRIHIJTI `PRIH [LV! MJq NMKIR PJ [I RIVIV`IRH K[I sMTK eLK[ M rzLJqNa T[QTzNIr.
w[IJ vMQg[MV qIHTRL`Iq ZIPZNI MJq ZNMTIH LJ [LH H[PRK HKPRLIH! [I qLq LK VPHKNa sRPV [LH ZIRHPJMN
ISZIRLIJTI.
r.KlH RMK[IR M sQJJa HKPRa!r [I HMLq. r|I eMHJlK M `Mq T[MZ. . NLzIq [LV. |I eMH MNeMaH
eINNqRIHHIq MJq HVMRKNPPzLJg. |I eMH [MJqHPVI LJ M eMa! eLK[ TQRNa [MLR MJq ZLJz
MJqe[LKI T[IIzH. wPVIJ K[PQg[K M NPK Ps [LV. u[IRI eMH JP [MRV LJ [LV! aPQ zJPe! [I eMH
PJNa eLNq. os TPQRHI [I qRMJz KPP VQT[. u[PHI HPRK Ps sINNPeH MNeMaH qP. d `LK Ps VPJIa
QHIq KP TPVI LJ sPR [LV PJTI M fQMRKIR MJq [I VMqI M `LK VPRI `a TMRqZNMaLJg. |I ePJ M
gPPq qIMN Ps VLJI! . zJPe K[MK.r
0QRKPJ gMxI M zLJqNa NLKKNI T[QTzNI. . zJIe sRPV Va PeJ ISZIRLIJTI K[MK [I TPQNq NPHI
VPJIa MK `RLqgI eLK[ M gPPq gRMTI.
r. HQZZPHI K[MK LH e[a [I TMVI KP VI e[IJ [I eIJK `RPzI! K[MK MJq K[I sMTK K[MK [I eMH M
JMVIHMzI Ps VLJI. |I TMVI KP HII VI LJ Va PssLTI PJI qMa MJq MHzIq VI sPR M P`. . eMH
RMK[IR HQRZRLHIq. |I KPNq VI K[MK K[IRI eMH JP VPRI VPJIa TPVLJg sRPV [PVI MJq [I
eMJKIq KP ePRz. . MHzIq [LV [Pe PNq [I eMH.
ru[LRKasLxI!r [I HMLq.
rdJq e[MK [MxI aPQ `IIJ qPLJg [LK[IRKP{r . MHzIq [LV.
rwINN! JPK[LJg xIRa VQT[!r [I HMLq.
. TPQNqJlK [INZ NMQg[LJg.
r.lV MsRMLq . TMJlK qP MJaK[LJg sPR aPQ QHK aIK!r . HMLq. rOPVI `MTz MJq HII VI LJ MJPK[IR
K[LRKasLxI aIMRH! MJq .lNN HII e[MK . TMJ qP.r
|I qLqJlK VPxI. |I eIJK RMK[IR ZMNI. |I [IHLKMKIq sPR M VPVIJK MJq K[IJ KPNq VI K[MK [I
[Mq [Mq `Mq NQTz MK TMRqH sPR HPVI KLVI. |I [MqJlK `IIJ eLNNLJg KP HKLTz KP `RLqgI! [Ilq `IIJ
ZNMaLJg ZPzIR! MJq [Ilq gPK KRLVVIq. |I [MqJlK M ZIJJa. |Ilq ZMeJIq IxIRaK[LJg [I [Mq. |I
TPQNqJlK ZMa [LH [PKIN `LNN MJq K[Ia ePQNqJlK gLxI [LV MJa VPRI TRIqLK. |I eMH qPeJ MJq PQK.
.s [I TPQNqJlK gIK HPVIK[LJg KP qP [Ilq [MxI KP TPVVLK HQLTLqI.
. NPPzIq MK [LV sPR M `LK. . TPQNq HII JPe K[MK [I eMH MNN KP ZLITIH. |Ilq `IIJ qRLJzLJg
VPRI K[MJ QHQMN MJq [I NPPzIq sLsKa. u[I gLRNH ePQNqJlK [MxI K[PQg[K HP VQT[ Ps [LV Ls
K[Ialq HIIJ [LV K[IJ.
rwINN! LHJlK K[IRI MJaK[LJg aPQ TMJ qP ISTIZK ZNMa TMRqH{r . MHzIq [LV.
r. TMJ HeLV!r [I HMLq.
r/eLVcr
. TPQNq [MRqNa `INLIxI Va IMRH; LK HIIVIq HQT[ MJ LJHMJI MJHeIR KP gLxI.
r. HeMV sPR Va QJLxIRHLKa.r
. gPK HPVI gNLVVIRLJg Ps e[MK [I eMH qRLxLJg MK. .lxI zJPeJ KPP VMJa VIJ e[P eIRI
NLKKNI KLJ gPqH MK K[ILR QJLxIRHLKa KP `I LVZRIHHIq `a LK.
r. eMH M ZRIKKa gPPq HeLVVIR VaHINs e[IJ . eMH M aPQJg VMJ!r . HMLq.
/QqqIJNa . [Mq MJ LqIM.
\MQHLJg LJ [LH HKPRa! 0QRKPJ KQRJIq KP VI.
rnP aPQ zJPe jP`I{r [I MHzIq.
r1P!r . HMLq! r. ZMHHIq K[RPQg[ LK PJTI! `QK . PJNa HZIJK M JLg[K K[IRI.r
ru[IJ aPQ qPJlK zJPe K[I /[LPaM ONQ`. w[IJ . eMH M aPQJg VMJ . HeMV sRPV K[IRI
RPQJq K[I `IMTPJ MJq NMJqIq MK K[I TRIIz Ps uMRQVL. .KlH PxIR K[RII VLNIH MJq LKlH RMK[IR
qLssLTQNK PJ MTTPQJK Ps K[I TQRRIJKH RPQJq K[I `IMTPJ. wINN! . KPNq Va aPQJg JMVIHMzI M`PQK
LK MJq . HMLq KP [LV K[MK Ls [Ilq qP LK .lq gLxI [LV M P`. . TPQNq HII [I eMH RMK[IR KMzIJ M`MTz.
ryPQ HMa aPQlRI M HeLVVIR!r . HMLq.
r.lV JPK LJ xIRa gPPq TPJqLKLPJ!r [I MJHeIRIq.
. qLqJlK HMa MJaK[LJg. . H[RQggIq Va H[PQNqIRH. |I NPPzIq MK VI sPR M VPVIJK MJq K[IJ [I
JPqqIq.
rdNN RLg[K!r [I HMLq. rw[IJ qP aPQ eMJK VI KP qP LK{r
. NPPzIq MK Va eMKT[. .K eMH QHK MsKIR KIJ.
ru[I HeLV H[PQNqJlK KMzI aPQ VQT[ PxIR MJ [PQR MJq M fQMRKIR. .lNN qRLxI RPQJq KP K[I
TRIIz MK [MNs ZMHK KeINxI MJq VIIK aPQ. .lNN KMzI aPQ `MTz KP K[I TNQ` KP qRIHH MJq K[IJ eIlNN
[MxI NQJT[ KPgIK[IR!r
rnPJI!r [I HMLq.
wI H[PPz [MJqH. . eLH[Iq [LV gPPq NQTz MJq [I NIsK VI. . [Mq M NPK Ps ePRz KP qP K[MK
VPRJLJg MJq . PJNa QHK VMJMgIq KP gIK KP K[I TRIIz MK uMRQVL MK [MNs ZMHK KeINxI. 0QK .
JIIqJlK [MxI [QRRLIq; [I JIxIR KQRJIq QZ.r
rnLq [I sQJz LK MK KPI NMHK VPVIJK{r . MHzIq.
r1P! [I qLqJlK sQJz LK. |I HKMRKIq MNN RLg[K. 0QK Ps TPQRHI [Ilq RQLJIq [LH TPJHKLKQKLPJ `a
qRLJz MJq qLHHLZMKLPJ. u[I TQRRIJKH RPQJq K[I `IMTPJ eIRI VPRI K[MJ [I TPQNq VMJMgI. wI
qLqJlK gIK K[I `Pqa sPR M`PQK K[RII qMaH.r
. qLqJlK HMa MJaK[LJg sPR M VPVIJK PR KeP! . eMH M KRLsNI H[PTzIq. u[IJ . MHzIq 0QRKPJ M
fQIHKLPJ.
rw[IJ aPQ VMqI [LV K[MK PssIR Ps M P`! qLq aPQ zJPe [Ilq `I qRPeJIq{r
|I gMxI M NLKKNI VLNq T[QTzNI MJq [I NPPzIq MK VI eLK[ K[PHI zLJq MJq TMJqLq `NQI IaIH Ps
[LH. |I RQ``Iq [LH T[LJ eLK[ [LH [MJq.
rwINN! . [MqJlK gPK M xMTMJTa LJ Va PssLTI MK K[I VPVIJK.r
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. to curI ti" +. 6()! 6()! e"g" /[I [MH TQRNIq [IR [MLR. u[I PNq
VMJ eMH TQRNLJg [LH NPJg VPQHKMT[I.
2. 6! 6! !"g" nPIH [IR [MLR TQRN JMKQRMNNa PR qPIH H[I TQRN LK LJ TQRNIRH{ u[I
HVPzI sRPV PQR TMVZsLRIH TQRNIq QZeMRqH MVPJg K[I KRIIH.
to curl one's lip 6 6 ! !"g" . qPJlK NLzI K[I eMa H[I TQRNH [IR NLZ
e[IJ KMNzLJg KP VI.
to curl up 86()! !"g" u[I T[LNq TQRNIq QZ LJ K[I MRVT[MLR MJq eIJK KP HNIIZ.
curling ad% 67=5 ( HN*Z:
Cf" curled ad% 5 MJq TQRNa ad% 85! !"g" . qPJlK NLzI TQRNIq [MLR. 'ut . NLzIq
K[LH ZNQVZ TQRNa[IMqIq NLKKNI `Pa.
curl n +. ! ; 2. ! $ C$ ! !"g" u[I gLRN [Mq NPJg TQRNH
PxIR [IR H[PQNqIRH. |Pe qP aPQ zIIZ aPQR [MLR LJ TQRN{ /PPJ eI HMe K[I TQRNH Ps HVPzI RLHI
QZeMRqH.
2. to break (broke, broken) ti +. $6()! 6()! !"g" < sINN MJq `RPzI
[LH NIg. w[P `RPzI K[I eLJqPe{ UNMHH `RIMzH IMHLNa.
to break (HVK[.) LJ KeP (K[RII! IKT.) 6()! $6()! 6()
( ..) ! !"g" u[I VPK[IR `RPzI K[I `RIMq LJ KeP MJq gMxI IMT[ T[LNq M ZLITI.
to break to pieces 6() ;! !"g" u[I xMHI sINN MJq `RPzI KP ZLITIH.
2. 6 8$ ($6! C)! 6! QHQ. to be broken!
!"g" < eMH TPVZNIKINa `RPzIJ MH K[I RIHQNK Ps K[I sMLNQRI Ps [LH `QHLJIHH. /[I eMH `RPzIJ
MsKIR [IR [QH`MJqlH qIMK[.
4. D6! a0 KP `RIMz K[I NMe! M ZRPVLHI! PJIlH ePRq! MJ MZZPLJKVIJK
$nt" to keep! !"g" /[I `RPzI K[I MZZPLJKVIJK. /[I qLq JPK zIIZ LK
to break with smb. or smth. (PNq [M`LKH! KRMqLKLPJH! IKT.) 6 ..! 6 ...! .g.
< TMJlK `RIMz eLK[ [LH `Mq [M`LKH.
to break off 6 (*+,, _!N!U[:, !"g" w[IJ H[I TMVI LJ [I `RPzI
Pss. |I `RPzI Pss LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps M HIJKIJTI.
N o t e: 1P P`ITK MsKIR break off. Cf" LJ QHHLMJ: 6 ;.
to break out 6 ! 896 (_ `XKU!YKK, XV*!, \J!:, !"g" d
sLRI `RPzI PQK qQRLJg K[I JLg[K.
to break through (smth.) 86()! !"g" u[I ZMRKLHMJH `RPzI K[RPQg[ K[I IJIValH
NLJI.
to break the record 6
break n $! 8 ( *_!, [4!_! ..)! !"g" . sIIN KLRIq! NIKlH [MxI M `RIMz.
wIlRI ePRzLJg HLJTI JLJI PlTNPTz eLK[PQK M `RIMz.
3. to stick (stuck, stuck) ti +. 6()! 6; 6;
6! a0 KP HKLTz M HKMVZ PJ M NIKKIR! KP HKLTz M JPKLTI PJ M `PMRq. u[IHI HKMVZH ePJlK
HKLTz. u[I JLTzJMVI HKQTz KP [LV.
2. 6; >6! >6{ 6 $! !"g" pRLIJqH H[PQNq HKLTz
KPgIK[IR. yPQ VQHK HKLTz KP aPQR ZRPVLHI. u[PQg[ uPV HMe K[MK JP`Pqa `INLIxIq [LV! [I
HKQTz KP [LH ePRqH. /KLTz KP `QHLJIHHc (|I 56c)
4. 86! 86; 86! !"g" u[I gLRN HKQTz M sNPeIR LJ [IR [MLR. |I HKQTz [LH
[MJqH LJ [LH ZPTzIKH.
3. 6! 6! !"g" u[I HZNLJKIR HKQTz LJ Va sLJgIR. u[I TMR HKQTz LJ K[I VQq.
u[I zIa HKQTz LJ K[I zIa[PNI.
4. to drive (drove, driven) ti 1. ;6 (); 6 ()! !"g" <
qRPxI K[I [PRHIH LJKP K[I sPRIHK.
2. 6! 6 ($D5! $$)! !"g" |IlH NIMRJLJg KP qRLxI.
4. 96 ( $! E>)! !"g" /[MNN eI qRLxI [PVI PR eMNz{
N o t e: wLK[ RIsIRIJTI KP KRMxINNLJg PJ M `LTaTNI! PJ M [PRHI PR PK[IR MJLVMN
K[I xIR` KP RLqI LH QHIq! !"g" |I QVZIq PJ [LH [PRHI MJq RPqI MeMa. |I RPqI
PxIR PJ [LH `LTaTNI KP HII VI aIHKIRqMa.
to drive up (away) ]>6 (]>6)! e"g" wI qRPxI QZ KP K[I [PQHI.
to drive at ()o..o8": 6 $.! $6 .! !"g" . TPQNq JPK QJqIRHKMJq
e[MK [I eMH qRLxLJg MK.
to drive smb. mad 6 $
drive n ! ! ; ( *Y_KH!, `5KX*V!:, !"g" wI [Mq M JLTI qRLxI.
to go for a drive 6! D6 ; $! !"g" /[MNN eI gP sPR
M qRLxI RPQJq K[I KPeJ{
driver n DC! 6! $D! a0 M `QHqRLxIR! KRMVqRLxIR! KMSLqRLxIR! IJgLJI
qRLxIR
5. pause n ! 8; 8D! !"g" u[IRI eMH M H[PRK ZMQHI e[LNI K[I JISK
HZIMzIR gPK PJ KP K[I ZNMKsPRV. d ZMQHI LH VMqI `ITMQHI Ps qPQ`K PR [IHLKMKLPJ PR sPR K[I
HMzI Ps ISZRIHHLxIJIHH e[IJ HZIMzLJg! HLJgLJg! RIMqLJg! IKT.
#yn" break
to make a pause 6 ! 6! !"g" u[I HZIMzIR VMqI M H[PRK ZMQHI KP
HKRIHH [LH ePRqH.
to pause i 6 ! 6! !"g" < ZMQHIq KP TPNNITK [LH K[PQg[KH. |I
eIJK PJ eLK[PQK ZMQHLJg.
/aJ. stop
N t e: to stop LH QHQMNNa QHIq e[IJ K[I MTKLPJ LH JPK HQZZPHIq KP TPJKLJQI; KP
ZMQHI LH QHIq e[IJ K[IRI LH PJNa M KIVZPRMRa `RIMz LJ K[I MTKLPJ! IHZITLMNNa LJ
HZIIT[ PR eRLKLJg! !"g" |I ZMQHIq QJKLN K[I JPLHI HKPZZIq.
6. to nod it +. 6 ;5! !"g" . MHzIq [LV Ls [I TPQNq RLJg VI QZ MJq [I JPqqIq.
/[I JPqqIq KP VI MH H[I ZMHHIq.
#yn" bow
N t e: KP HPq RIsIRH NP M fQLTz VPKLPJ Ps K[I [IMq PJNa! MJq LH NIHH
sPRVMN K[MJ KP `Pe! e[LT[ LH M HNPeIR! sPRVMN `IJqLJg! QHQMNNa Ps K[I
`Pqa MH eINN MH K[I [IMq! !"g" u[I HIRxMJK `PeIq MJq NIsK K[I RPPV.
$nt to shake one's bead
2. $6! 6 $! !"g" /[I HMK LJ K[I MRVT[MLR JPqqLJg PxIR [IR `PPz.
nod n ! !"g" /[I ZMHHIq VI eLK[ M JPq. /[I gMxI VI M JPq.
(. ruin n +. ;6! D! ! !"g" u[I qIMK[ Ps nMxalH VPK[IR eMH K[I RQLJ
Ps [LH [PZIH.
to bring smb. (smth.) to ruin 6! ;6! !"g" < `RPQg[K [LH sMVLNa KP RQLJ.
2. 8 (often (.:, 8! !"g" u[I RQLJH Ps PVI. u[I IJIVa NIsK K[I TLKa LJ RMLJH.
RMLJ t ;6! D6! 6
to ruin one's life (hopes, business, constitution), !"g" |I zJIe K[MK [I [LVHINs [Mq
RQLJIq [LH NLsI `a HKIMNLJg K[I VPJIa.
to rain oneself 6! !"g" u[I sINNPe RMLJIq [LVHINs `a TMRqZNMaLJg.
ruinous ad% 685! ;685! D685
8. to rub ti 6()! 6! !"g" u[I gaVJMHK RQ``Iq [LH [MJqH eLK[ KMNT. u[I
qPg RQ``Iq LKH JPHI MgMLJHK Va TPMK.
to rub smth. qRa 86 9! !"g" < RQ``Iq vH sMTI ([MJqH) qRa.
to rub in 6 ($6 . .)! !"g" Q` K[I PLN LJ eINN.
to rub off 6 (6 9)! !"g" Q` K[I ePRqH Pss K[I `NMTz`PMRq.
to rub out 6 (J*XKN*JJ! 4!JKH*YK, 5**JU*aY:, " U" /[I RQ``Iq MNN K[I
ZIJTLN VMRzH PQK.
to rub one's hands (together) 6 6! !"g" |LH VMJJIR Ps
RQ``LJg `LH [MJqH gIKH PJ Va JIRxIH.
rub n! !"g" /[I gMxI K[I HZPPJH M gPPq RQ`.
9. vacant ad% 85! 85; 85! 5! !"g" u[I KINIZ[PJI `PPK[
eMH xMTMJK MJq . eMH M`NI KP KINIZ[PJI MK PJTI. /[I gMIq LJKP xMTMJK HZMTI.
N o t e: u[I QHHLMJ ePRqH N_UJ\ MJq X[N\ [MxI qLssIRIJK GJgNLH[ IfQLxMNIJKH:
+. N_UJ\ VMa `I KRMJHNMKIq `a vacant, free, not engaged, spare, loose.
vacant VIMJH rJPK PTTQZLIq!r a0 M xMTMJK HIMK (RPPV! [PQHI! sNMK); M xMTMJK ZPHK
(ZPHLKLPJ); M xMMJK VLJq
free VIMJH rLJqIZIJqIJK!r a0 M sRII ZIRHPJ; M sRII HKMKI; sRII eLNN
not engaged VIMJH rJPK PTTQZLIq! JPK `QHa!r !"g" yPQ MRI JPK IJgMgIq JPe! MRI aPQ{
$nt" engaged, busy
Spare VIMJH rMqqLKLPJMN KP e[MK LH QHQMNNa JIIqIq!r !"g" . [MxI HZMRI KLVI KPqMa. .lxI gPK
HZMRI TMH[ M`PQK VI MJq TMJ NIJq aPQ 4 PR * RPQ`NIH.
loose VIMJH rJPK KLg[K PR JPK sLKKLJg TNPHI!r !"g" |I [Mq NPPHI TNPK[IH PJ. dNN K[I eLJqPe
sRMVIH LJ Va sNMK MRI NPPHI.
$nt tight
2. X[N\ [MH K[I sPNNPeLJg GJgNLH[ IfQLxMNIJKH: vacant, IVZKa! `NMJz! H[MNNPe.
(/II K[I JPKIH KP K[I ePRq `NMJz PJ Z. +,3.)
vacancy n >6! !"g" wI [MxI M xMTMJTa PJ PQR HKMss. wI MqxIRKLHIq sPR
M HITRIKMRa KP sLNN K[I xMTMJTa.
NOTES ON WORD-FORMATION
u[I xIR` to .and eMH VMqI sRPV K[I JPQJ .and `a VIMJH Ps TPJxIRHLPJ e[LT[ LH M xIRa
ZRPqQTKLxI eMa Ps VMzLJg JIe ePRqH LJ VPqIRJ GJgNLH[.
.J TPJxIRHLPJ! M JIe ePRq MJq K[I PJI sRPV e[LT[ LK LH ZRPqQTIq [MxI K[I HMVI Z[PJIKLT
H[MZI `QK MNeMaH `INPJg KP qLssIRIJK TMKIgPRLIH PR ZMRKH Ps HZIIT[! HP K[MK xIR`H VMa `I
ZRPqQTIq sRPV JPQJH PR MqITKLxIH (!"g" KP [MJq 6; KP TPV` 86; KP ZPTzIK
6 $; KP ZMNI 6)! JPQJH sRPV xIR`H (!"g" `RIMz 8; qRLxI ;
sLJq 9)! IKT.
u[I PK[IR KeP VMLJ eMaH Ps ePRq`QLNqLJg MRI MssLSMKLPJ (PR HP TMNNIq qIRLxMKLPJ) MJq
TPVZPHLKLPJ.
.J MssLSMKLPJ JIe ePRqH MRI ZRPqQTIq eLK[ K[I [INZ Ps MssLSIH (K[MK LH HQssLSIH MJq
ZRIsLSIH)! . g: `IMQKLsQN! HeLVVIR! QJ`INLIxM`NI.
.J TPVZPHLKLPJ JIe ePRqH MRI ZRPqQTIq sRPV KeP PR VPRI HKIVH! !"g": TNMHHRPPV! eMNN
JIeHZMZIR! gPPqsPRJPK[LJg! `NQIIaIq! IKT.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
`RIMz , n [IHLKMKI RQLJ , n
TQRN , n NMJq RQLJPQH ad%
TQRNIq ad% JMVIHMzI n H[PTz
TQRNLJg ad% nod , n HVMRK (NPPzLJg) ad%
TQRNa ad% ZMQHI , n HKLTz
TQRRIJK a" RMK[IR adv xMTMJK ad%
qRLxI , n RQ` xMTMJTa n
qRLxIR n
Word Combinations
LJ M eMa KP `RIMz Pss KP `I eLNNLJg KP
qP HVK[.
KP `RIMz PQK KP HKLTz KP HVK[. (HV`.) KP `RIMz K[I
RITPRq
KP `I qPeJ MJq PQK KP `RIMz eLK[ KP TPVVLK
HQLTLqI
KP TQRN PJIlH NLZ KP qRLxI MK KP TQRN QZ
PJ MTTPQJK Ps KP qRLxI QZ (MeMa) to `I KMzIJ
M`MTz
KP qRLxI HV`. VMq KP H[RQg PJIlH H[PQNqIRH KP VMzI M ZMQHI
KP [MxI `Mq (gPPq) NQTz KP RQ` PJIlH [MJqH (KPgIK[IR)
KP RQV QZ KP `RLJg 0m&" (HVK[.) KP RQLJ
EXERCISES
I. Read the text and do the foIIowing (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, C. Word-formation).
A. +. \LTz PQK sRPV K[I KISK MNN K[I LRRIgQNMR xIR`H MJq gLxI K[ILR sPQR sPRVH. 2. /IMRT[ K[I
KISK sPR ingsPRVH MJq TNMHHLsa K[IV MTTPRqLJg KP K[ILR sQJTKLPJH LJ K[I HIJKIJTIH. 4. vMRz
MNN K[I TMHIH Ps /IfQIJTI Ps uIJHIH LJ K[I KISK MJq TPVVIJK PJ K[IV (ISZNMLJ K[I RQNIH). 3.
/INITK HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[I xIR` go QHIq MH M NLJz xIR`; e[MK PK[IR xIR`H TMJ `I QHIq LJ K[I
HMVI sQJTKLPJ{
B. +. \LTz PQK sRPV K[I KISK ePRqH MJq Z[RMHIH qIHTRL`LJg MZZIMRMJTI. 2. uLTz Pss MNN
LJKRPqQTKPRa Z[RMHIH QHIq `a 0QRKPJ; QHI K[IV LJ HIJKIJTIH Ps aPQR PeJ. 4. \LTz PQK MNN K[I
HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[I ePRq rather MJq KRMJHNMKI K[IV LJKP QHHLMJ. 3. \MRMZ[RMHI MNN K[I
HIJKIJTIH eLK[ K[I xIR` get"
C. +. \LTz PQK sRPV K[I KISK MNN TPVZPQJq ePRqH MJq LqIJKLsa K[ILR KaZI. 2. OPJHKRQTK
HPVI TPVZPQJqH VPqINNLJg K[IV MsKIR we..=dre00ed MJq 0mart=.oo/ing" 4. /IMRT[ K[I KISK
sPR xIR`H MJq JPQJH sPRVIq `a VIMJH Ps TPJxIRHLPJ.
II. TransIate in writing three paragraphs from the text: 1) the first paragraph, 2) the
paragraph beginning with "He didn't move" and 3) the paragraph from "Swim!" up to
"SuddenIy I had an idea".
Read the transIation in cIass and discuss it with your feIIow-students.
III. a) Transcribe these words:
[MJqHPVI! eINNqRIHHIq! fQMRKIR! ISZIRLIJTI! NPHI! HQLTLqI! ZMQHLJg! TQRRIJK! M`MTz!
H[PQNqIR! qRPeJIq.
b) Transcribe and expIain the ruIes of reading these words:
eLNq! RMK[IR! TQRN! ZMeJ! ZMHH! TPJHKLKQKLPJ! qLHHLZMKLPJ! `IMTPJ! fQIHKLPJ! [MNs! xMTMJTa!
ZPzIR! KRLsNI.
IV. Write twenty speciaI questions about the text In each question use one of the phrases
from EssentiaI VocabuIary (I).
V. FiII in prepositions:
+. [MJqHPVI ... M eMa; 2. KP zJPe... PJIlH PeJ ISZIRLIJTI; 4. |I TPQNq NPHI VPJIa ...
`RLqgI ... M gPPq gRMTI. 3. KP [MxI `Mq NQTz ... TMRqH; *. |I qLq JPK eMJK KP HKLTz ... `RLqgI. ,.
|I eMH MNN... ZLITIH. 7. . QJqIRHKMJq e[MK [I eMH qRLxLJg .... b. . NMJqIq ... K[I TRIIz Ps
uMRQVL. 2.... MTTPQJK...; +). |I JIxIR KQRJIq....
VI. Study VocabuIary Notes and transIate the iIIustrative exampIes into Russian.
VII. Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. 0QRKPJ K[PQg[K K[MK e[MK [I eMH KINNLJg eMH rRMK[IR M sQJJa HKPRa.r nP aPQ MNHP K[LJz
HP{ w[a qPJlK aPQ{ w[a qLq 0QRKPJ K[LJz LK sQJJa{ 2. w[MK zLJq Ps VMJ eMH aPQJg
0MRKPJ{ w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps [LH eMa Ps NLxLJg{ nP aPQ MZZRPxI Ps LK{ w[a JPK{ 4. w[a qP
aPQ K[LJz aPQJg 0QRKPJ KQRJIq KP [LH JMVIHMzI sPR [INZ e[IJ [I eMH RMLJIq{ 3. w[MK eMH
K[I HLKQMKLPJ LJ e[LT[ [I sPQJq [LVHINs{ *. w[MK qLq 0QRKPJ VIMJ `a HMaLJg K[MK [LH aPQJg
JMVIHMzI eMH rqPeJ MJq PQKr{ K[MK [I eMH rMNN KP ZLITIHr{ ,. w[MK qLq aPQJg 0QRKPJ VIMJ
e[IJ [I HMLq K[MK [I rHeMV sPR [LH }JLxIRHLKar{ 7. oJ e[MK TPJqLKLPJ qLq 0QRKPJ ZRPVLHI M
P` LJ [LH PssLTI KP [LH JMVIHMzI{ w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps K[LH TPJqLKLPJ{ b. w[a qLq aPQJg
0QRKPJ MTTIZK LK{ |I zJIe [I eMH JPK LJ gPPq TPJqLKLPJ! qLqJlK [I{ 2. w[MK [MZZIJIq KP
[LV{ +). nP aPQ K[LJz PNq 0QRKPJ zJIe K[MK `LH JMVIHMzI ePQNq `I qRPeJIq{ w[a qP aPQ
K[LJz HP{ ++. w[a qLq 0QRKPJ HIJq [LH JMVIHMzI KP MNVPHK HQRI qIMK[{ +2. w[MK zLJq Ps
VMJ qP aPQ K[LJz PNq 0QRKPJ eMH{ +4. w[a qPIH K[I MQK[PR IVZ[MHLI e[IJ HZIMzLJg M`PQK
PNq 0QRKPJ [LH rzLJqNa T[QTzNI!r rVLNq T[QTzNI!r rK[PHI TMJqLq MJq zLJq `NQI IaIH Ps [LHr{
VIII. Write an outIine of the story. You may try three ways: a) foIIowing the chain of true
events; b) sticking to the story as toId by the author or c) buiIding it up round the main idea
of the story.
IX. a) FiII in different EngIish equivaIents of the Russian words )*+,- and ./0102+
&engaged, busy, o""upied or 3a"ant, free, spare':
+. dH [I eMH ... aIHKIRqMa [I TPQNqJlK PLJ PQR TPVZMJa. 2. . KRLIq KP gIK [LV PJ K[I Z[PJI
`QK K[I NLJI eMH ... dH . eMH ... . qITLqIq KP RLJg [LV QZ NMKIR. 4. .H K[I ZNMTI JISK KP aPQ ...{
1P! LK LH ... . 3. w[IJ . IJKIRIq K[I [MNN MNN K[I HIMKH eIRI ... MJq . TPQNq [MRqNa sLJq M ...
HIMK. *. wLNN aPQ `I ... KPVPRRPe{ iIKlH gP KP K[I TPQJKRa. 1P! .lNN `I ... MK Va PssLTI. ,.
iIKlH sLJq M ... TNMHHRPPV MJq RI[IMRHI PQR qLMNPgQI K[IRI. .lV MsRMLq MK K[LH [PQR MNN K[I
RPPVH MRI HQRI KP `I ... . 7. |MxI aPQ MJa ... KLVI KPqMa{ b. dK K[LH NMKI [PQR MNN KMSLH eLNN
`I ... . 2. . MV aPQJg! [IMNK[a! MJq ... KP qP MH . ZNIMHI.
b) Think of situations or microdiaIogues consisting of a statement (or a question) and a
repIy to it using the words mentioned above.
X. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. ' 6$ 6 $ ; 85 =. 2.
6 ; >6 $. 4. F7 $! $; 86 6.
3. 8 ; 8{ F >7! $ $. *.
($6 ; 8 8 D$ 9 ; > ,. ~6 ;%
8 ${ F >7! $ 8. 7. & $8
;68 6. b. E >{ 7 9 . 2. -
; 8 8 6 ! ; 8 . +). ;
> 6 #. ++. ' ! 8 6
$8$. +2. $ 6! 9D $D. +4. _
8 D D. " FE! 85 E; $ $ $
! ;86 $. +3. 7 6
6; . +*. -6 >! 9 ;8! 6
E; > ]. +,. ' ! 6 D. +7. '
= $6 $! > =. +b. - $! 6
6 ;5 .
XI. Read the story carefuIIy and answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[IJ qP aPQ QHQMNNa: RQ` aPQR T[LJ; gLxI M NLKKNI T[QTzNI; MHz M`PQK HV`.lH MgI; gP
ZMNI; [IHLKMKI; H[RQg aPQR H[PQNqIRH; NPPz MK aPQR eMKT[; H[MzI [MJqH{
2. .J e[MK HLKQMKLPJH qLq PNq 0QRKPJ MJq [LH JMVIHMzI ZIRsPRV K[I HMVI MTKLPJH MH LJ
\PLJK +. OPVVIJK PJ IMT[ HLKQMKLPJ.
XII. Try your band at teaching:
A. Preparation. +. \RIZMRI KP ISZNMLJ K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I xIR`H: 0to( MJq (au0e,
nod MJq &ow 0o MH KP VMzI HQRI K[MK aPQR ZQZLNH TMJ QHI K[IHI xIR`H ZRPZIRNa. 2. wRLKI MJ
ISIRTLHI KP ZRMTKLHI K[I sPNNPeLJg MJKPJaVH: to &rea/ MJq to /ee(, to nod MJq to 0ha/e, free
MJq engaged, .oo0e MJq tight 4. u[LJz Ps K[I MJHeIRH aPQ ePQNq gLxI Ls aPQR ZQZLNH MHzIq
aPQ: +) |Pe NPJg LH M VLNI{ 2) nLq 0QRKPJ VIMJ NMJq VLNIH PR JMQKLTMN VLNIH e[IJ [I HMLq
K[IRI eIRI PxIR K[RII VLNIH `IKeIIJ K[I /[LPaM ONQ` MJq K[I TRIIz Ps uMRQVL{ 4) .J e[MK
ZMRK Ps K[I ePRNq qLq K[I IxIJKH KMzI ZNMTI{
B. Work in Class. +. dHz K[I TNMHH KP MJHeIR K[I fQIHKLPJH gLxIJ LJ .KIVH + MJq 4 MJq KP
qP aPQR ISIRTLHI sRPV .KIV 2.
2. OPRRITK K[I VLHKMzIH! TPVVIJK PJ K[I MJHeIRH MJq HMa M sIe ePRqH `a eMa Ps
ISZNMJMKLPJ Ls JIIqIq. (}HI rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r! /ITKLPJH .! .:! :...)
XIII. Write a summary of the story "A Friend in Need". Before writing it find answers to the
foIIowing questions that may serve as the key points of the story.
-" U": w[MK qLq aPQJg 0QRKPJ MHz sPR{
w[MK qLq [I gIK{
w[MK eMH [LH PTTQZMKLPJ MJq K[MK Ps PNq 0QRKPJ{
w[MK eIRI K[I MqxMJKMgIH MJq qLHMqxMJKMgIH Ps PNq 0QRKPJlH ZPHLKLPJ MJq K[PHI Ps [LH
JMVIHMzI{
w[MK eIRI aPQJg 0QRKPJlH T[MJTIH{
OPQNq [I VMJMgI KP TPxIR K[RII VLNIH{
w[P gMLJIq MJaK[LJg sRPV K[LH ZIRsPRVMJTI{
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz `PK[ Ps K[IV H[PQNq [MxI qPJI QJqIR K[I TLRTQVHKMJTIH{
w[MK eIRI aPQR sIINLJgH MsKIR RIMqLJg K[I HKPRa{
XIV. Speak on the characters of the story;
M) oNq 0QRKPJ ([LH MZZIMRMJTI! T[MRMTKIR MJq e[MK aPJ K[LJz Ps [LV).
`) yPQJg 0QRKPJ ([LH MZZIMRMJTI! T[MRMTKIR MJq e[MK aPJ K[LJz Ps [LV).
T) u[I HKPRaKINNIR (e[MK zLJq Ps ZIRHPJ [I eMH; [Pe [I eMH LVZRIHHIq `a 0QRKPJlH HKPRa;
eLK[ e[PV [LH HaVZMK[LIH eIRI).
XV. Paraphrase the foIIowing sentences, using coIIoquiaI words and phrases from the text
instead of the words in itaIic type which are styIisticaIIy neutraI:
+. va HLHKIRlH [QH`MJq eMH zLNNIq LJ K[I eMR! MJq HPPJ MsKIR K[MK [IR INqIR T[LNq qLIq Ps
ZJIQVPJLM. 1P ePJqIR H[I eMH &ro/en (hy0i)a..y and 0(iritua..y" 2. |I ruined him0e.f
`ITMQHI [I ZNMaIq TMRqH MJq qRMJz M NPK. w[IJ . VIK [LV! there 0eemed to &e no way out sPR
[LV. yIK! [I [Mq MNeMaH `IIJ M JLTI VMJ MJq had never done any harm to any&ody" 4. .
&egan to under0tand e[MK H[I meant to 0ay" 3. /[I LH RMK[IR M gPPq TPPz! LHJlK H[I{
wPVIJ of that /ind MNeMaH MRI. *. vIJ of thi0 /ind are a.way0 a great 0u))e00 with ePVIJ.
,. yPQ HMLq aPQ qLqJlK )ome to K[I ISMV PJ vPJqMa `ITMQHI aPQ eIRI 0o i.. you )ou.dn6t
move" . qPJlK `INLIxI LK. .lV HQRI aPQ were 0im(.y afraid" 7. OPQNqJlK aPQ NIJq VI a .itt.e
more VPJIa{ . am in a ho(e.e00 (o0ition"
XVI. Revise the story and discuss the foIIowing:
1. How does the author make the reader realize what kind of man Burton the Elder
was? Which method of characterization does he use, direct or indirect? (See Notes on
Style, p. 120.)
2. Point out the lines and passages in which the ironical attitude of the author
towards Burton the Elder is felt. Is it expressed by lexical or syntactical means?
(Analyse each case.) Comment on the title of the story.
3. What is the message (the main idea) of the story?
XVII. Perform a diaIogue between oId Burton and his namesake.
Don't forget that old Burton was busy in his office, not very easily impressed,
indifferent to other people's troubles; his namesake was down and out, all to pieces and
not in very good condition to swim.
XVIII. RoIe-pIaying.
Role-play a Trial at which you will try Burton for wilful murder. It may be arranged
in the following way:
/KQqIJK d HZIMzLJg sPR the judge.
/KQqIJK d HZIMzLJg sPR the prosecution ([I eLNN qIHTRL`I MNN K[I sMTKH ZRPxLJg 0QRKPJlH
gQLNK).
/KQqIJK ( HZIMzLJg sPR the defence ([I eLNN KRa MJq ZRIHIJK MNN K[I sMTKH K[MK VMa HZIMz
LJ 0QRKPJlH sMxPQR).
/KQqIJK n RIZRIHIJKLJg 0QRKPJ ([I eLNN! JMKQRMNNa! KRa KP qIsIJq [LVHINs).
/KQqIJKH G! p! U MTKLJg MH witnesses sPR K[I ZRPHITQKLPJ PR K[I qIsIJTI.
u[I RIHK Ps K[I gRPQZ MRI MTKLJg MH members of the jury MJq eLNN `RLJg M xIRqLTK Ps
rgQLNKar PR rJPK gQLNKar.
u[I QqgI TPJqQTKH K[I KRLMN! ZQKH fQIHKLPJH! ISMVLJIH K[I qPTQVIJKH MJq IxLqIJTI.
Counsel for the prosecution () MqqRIHHIH K[I QRa MJq ZRIHIJKH [LH TMHI! MsKIR
e[LT[ [I TMNNH eLKJIHHIH e[P HeIMR KP KINN K[I KRQK[! K[I e[PNI KRQK[! MJq JPK[LJg `QK K[I
KRQK[.
Counsel for the defence ZRPTIIqH LJ K[I HMVI eMa. u[I QqgI VMa LJKIRsIRI MK MJa ZPLJK
MJq MHz fQIHKLPJH.
w[IJ K[I KeP HLqIH [MxI ZRIHIJKIq K[ILR TMHIH! K[I QqgI gLxIH [LH HQVVLJg QZ. u[I QRa
RIKLRIH KP TPJHLqIR LKH xIRqLTK: UQLNKa PR 1PK UQLNKa. .s the defendant LH sPQJq gQLNKa! K[I
QqgI passes sentence PJ [LV.
XIX. Think of a different end to the story (comicaI, puzzIing, etc.).
XX. Write a short story to iIIustrate the proverb "A friend in need is a friend indeed". Use
EssentiaI VocabuIary of the Iesson. ReteII your story in cIass.
XXI. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish, using the word rather.
+. h ; 6 ! 6$ D ;7. 2! t$ $! 76!
8 > ; 7 >. 4. ~= D { ! >5! 3. h
6 $; ;. *. ! >5! 6$ E . ,. '
>! $ ;. 7. < 6 ; 5 9. b. '
8; 6 5 9$5 ;. 2. ' 6
$ 6 5 D5.
XXII. a) Read the text:
GxIRa HQVVIR VMJa ZIPZNI! gLRNH MJq ePVIJ a0 we.. a0 `PaH MJq VIJ! KRa KP HeLV sRPV
GJgNMJq KP pRMJTI PR sRPV pRMJTI KP GJgNMJq. u[I qLHKMJTI at the neare0t (oint0 LH PJNa
M`PQK KeIJKa VLNIH! `QK &e)au0e of the 0trong tide0 the di0tan)e that mu0t &e 0wum LH QHQMNNa
more than twi)! a0 far"
u[IRI LH M HKRPJg KLqI sRPV K[I dKNMJKLT oTIMJ. u[LH qLxLqIH LJ KeP LJ PRqIR to (a00 round
K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH. u[I KeP KLqIH VIIK JIMR K[I VPQK[ Ps K[I u[MVIH! MJq HKRPJg TQRRIJKH K[Ia
TMQHI VMzI LK LVZPHHL`NI KP HeLV LJ M HKRMLg[K NLJI MTRPHH K[I O[MJJIN.
u[I sLRHK VMJ to 0u))eed LJ HeLVVLJg K[I O[MJJIN eMH OMZKMLJ wI``! MJ GJgNLH[VMJ.
u[LH eMH LJ dQgQHK +b7*. |I .anded in pRMJTI 2+ [PQRH 3* VLJQKIH MsKIR entering the water
MK nPxIR. /LJTI K[IJ K[IRI [MxI `IIJ VMJa 0u))e00fu. 0wim0 MJq the time ha0 &een
0hortened" oJI pRIJT[ HeLVVIR TRPHHIq LK LJ ++ [PQRH MJq * VLJQKIH.
0ITMQHI K[I HIM LH QHQMNNa TPNq! HeLVVIRH )over their &odie0 with grea0e" u[LH! K[Ia HMa!
[INZH to /ee( out the )o.d" u[Ia MRI sIq qQRLJg K[I HeLV `a VIJ e[P gP eLK[ K[IV LJ HVMNN
`PMKH.
b) ReteII the text above using the phrases in itaIic type.
c) Comment on the text. Say if you think such a competition is a sport.
XXIII. Try your hand at teaching.
1. Say what you wouId do in the teacher's position:
dJJM! M sPQRK[ sPRV ZQZLN! HQRZRLHIq MJq H[PTzIq K[I T[LNqRIJ LJ TNMHH `ITMQHI Ps K[I NPJg
qMJgNLJg IMRRLJgH H[I eMH eIMRLJg. dK sLRHK K[I KIMT[IR qITLqIq KP LgJPRI K[LH! [PZLJg K[I
T[LNqRIJ ePQNq HPPJ LgJPRI LK MNHP. |PeIxIR! K[I HQ`qQIq `QK ISTLKIq JPLHI TPJKLJQIq.
GxIRaPJI eMJKIq KP HII MJq KPQT[ K[I IMRRLJgH.
2. Practise your CIassroom EngIish.
\RIZMRI M H[PRK KIHK PJ K[I xPTM`QNMRa Ps }JLK /LS. \NMa K[I ZMRK Ps K[I KIMT[IR MJq gLxI K[I
KIHK LJ TNMHH! T[ITz LK MJq TPVVIJK PJ IMT[ ePRz. (/II rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r. /ITKLPJH :..!
.^.)
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "A Friend in Need", mark the stresses and tunes. Read the text
following the model.
2. a) Paraphrase the given sentences,
b) Make up sentences contrasting to the given ones using the verb need and a
suggested noun.
c) Respond to the remarks using the given pattern.
3. Write a spelling-translation test.
4. Change the given sentences according to the model.
5. Task I. Listen to the English sentences and write down the Russian translation.
Check your translation with the key (written work).
Task II. Translate your phrases back into English and check them with the key.
6. Listen to the text "The Story of Arthur Bloxham" or some other story on
students' life; write 10 questions to the text. Get ready to discuss it in class.
TOP!: SPORTS AND GAMES
TEXT A. WHAT MAKES ALL PEOPLE KIN
\IPZNI MNN PxIR K[I ePRNq MRI xIRa sPJq Ps HZPRKH MJq gMVIH. u[MK LH PJI K[LJg LJ e[LT[
ZIPZNI Ps IxIRa JMKLPJMNLKa MJq TNMHH MRI QJLKIq.
u[I VPHK ZPZQNMR PQKqPPR eLJKIR HZPRKH MRI H[PPKLJg! [QJKLJg! [PTzIa MJq! LJ K[I
TPQJKRLIH e[IRI K[I eIMK[IR LH sRPHKa MJq K[IRI LH VQT[ HJPe HzMKLJg! HzLLJg MJq
KP`PggMJLJg. /PVI ZIPZNI gRIMKNa IJPa sLgQRIHzMKLJg MJq HzLQVZLJg.
/QVVIR MssPRqH ISTINNIJK PZZPRKQJLKLIH sPR HeLVVLJg! `PMKLJg! aMT[KLJg! TaTNLJg! gNLqLJg
MJq VMJa PK[IR HZPRKH. dVPJg PQKqPPR gMVIH sPPK`MNN KMzIH K[I sLRHK ZNMTI LJ ZQ`NLT LJKIRIHK;
K[LH gMVI LH ZNMaIq LJ MNN K[I TPQJKRLIH Ps K[I ePRNq. u[I PK[IR gMVIH K[MK [MxI sLRVNa
IHKM`NLH[Iq K[IVHINxIH LJ sMxPQR LJ qLssIRIJK TPQJKRLIH MRI gPNs! NMeJKIJJLH! TRLTzIK! xPNNIa
`MNN! `MHzIK`MNN! MJq HP PJ. 0MqVLJKPJ LH MNHP xIRa ZPZQNMR.
dNN K[I aIMR RPQJq VMJa ZIPZNI LJqQNgI LJ `PSLJg! eRIHKNLJg! MK[NIKLTH! gaVJMHKLTH MJq
KRMTz MJq sLINq IxIJKH. /TPRIH Ps aPQJg gLRNH MJq ePVIJ gP LJ sPR TMNNLHK[IJLTH.
dVPJg LJqPPR gMVIH K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR MRI `LNNLMRqH! KM`NI KIJJLH! qRMQg[KH MJq HPVI
PK[IRH! `QK K[I gRIMK LJKIRJMKLPJMN gMVI LH T[IHH! Ps TPQRHI. u[I RIHQNKH Ps T[IHH KPQRJMVIJKH
MRI HKQqLIq MJq qLHTQHHIq `a K[PQHMJqH Ps IJK[QHLMHKH LJ qLssIRIJK TPQJKRLIH.
/P eI VMa HMa K[MK HZPRK LH PJI Ps K[I K[LJgH K[MK VMzIH MNN ZIPZNI zLJ.
TEXT B. SPORTS AND GAMES POPULAR IN ENGLAND
w[MK ePQNq aPQ HMa MRI K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR gMVIH LJ GJgNMJq KPqMa{
wINN! . HQZZPHI sPPK`MNN! K[MK LH! HPTTIR PR RQggIR! MJq TRLTzIK.
w[MK MRI K[I PK[IR PQKqPPR gMVIH{
o[! K[IRIlH KIJJLH! [PTzIa! gPNs! MJq HP PJ. uIJJLH LH ZNMaIq MNN K[I aIMR RPQJq PJ
[MRq TPQRKH PR gRMHH TPQRKH LJ HQVVIR! MJq PJ [MRq PR TPxIRIq TPQRKH LJ eLJKIR.
w[MK M`PQK [PRHIRMTLJg{
. H[PQNq HMa K[MK LH PJI Ps K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR HZPRKH LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ. u[IJ K[IRI MRI! Ps
TPQRHI! eMNzLJgRMTIH! RQJJLJg! HeLVVLJg MJq `PSLJg.
.lxI `IIJ KPNq K[MK K[IRI MRI JP eLJKIR HZPRKH LJ GJgNMJq.
wINN! aPQ HII! K[I GJgNLH[ eLJKIR LHJlK xIRa HIxIRI MH M RQNI! MJq eI qPJlK PsKIJ [MxI
K[I T[MJTI Ps HzLLJg! HzMKLJg PR KP`PggMJLJg! `QK eLJKIR LH K[I gRIMK KLVI sPR [QJKLJg! ZRPxLq
Iq K[I gRPQJq LH JPK KPP [MRq.
.H K[IRI MJa gPNs KP `I [Mq JIMR iPJqPJ{
o[! aIH! MJa MVPQJK. u[IRI MRI qPIJH Ps gPPq gPNsNLJzH eLK[LJ MJ [PQR PR HP Ps
iPJqPJ. yPQ PQg[K KP PLJ M gPNs TNQ` Ls aPQlRI zIIJ PJ K[I gMVI.
. K[LJz . H[MNN Ls . gIK K[I T[MJTI. w[MK M`PQK LJqPPR gMVIH{
wINN! K[IRIlH T[IHH! `LNNLMRqH! TMRqH! KM`NI KIJJLH... 0a K[I eMa! qP aPQ ZNMa `LNNLMRqH{
wINN! . qP! `QK Ps TPQRHI! .lV JPK M ZRPsIHHLPJMN PR M T[MVZLPJ! QHK MJ PRqLJMRa
MVMKIQR! MJq JPK M xIRa gPPq PJI MK K[MK!
TEXT C. THE FOOTBALL MATCH (A Conversation)
Characters - Mr. Priestley, Lucille, Frieda, Pedro, Olaf, Hob.
iQTLNNI: w[MK HZNIJqLq HIMKHc wIlNN `I M`NI KP HII IxIRaK[LJg sRPV [IRI.
\IqRP: yIH! mMJ [MH TIRKMLJNa NPPzIq MsKIR QH eINN. wIlNN [MxI KP KMzI [LV PQK KP qLJJIR
MsKIR K[I VMKT[.
u[I PK[IRH: UPPq LqIM! \IqRP! eI TIRKMLJNa VQHK.
|P`: dJq eI VQHK H[PQK sPR [LH KIMV. . [PZI mMJ LH LJ sPRV KPqMa.
vR. \RLIHKNIa: .[PZI [I LH. . [IMR K[Ia MRI KP T[PPHI K[I ZNMaIRH KPVPRRPe sPR K[I
LJKIRJMKLPJMN VMKT[ MJq Ls [I ZNMaH eINN KPqMa mMJ VMa `I T[PHIJ.
\IqRP: yIH! . [IMRq K[MK K[I /INITKLPJ OPVVLKKII ePQNq `I MK K[I VMKT[ MJq . KPNq mMJ [I
eMH KP ZNMa [LH `IHK KPqMa `ITMQHI K[Ia eIRI eMKT[LJg [LV.
'+Ms: .K VQHK `I ISTLKLJg KP ZNMa LJ MJ LJKIRJMKLPJMN VMKT[.
\IqRP: |IRI MRI K[I KIMVH TPVLJg PQK. mMJ LH NIMqLJg K[I iPJqPJ KIMV. |I VQHK `I K[I
TMZKMLJ.
pRLIqM: yIH! [I LH.
|P`: mMJ VQHK `I M gPPq ZNMaIR.
oNMs: |I LH; aPQ [MxI KP `I M gPPq ZNMaIR KP `I TMZKMLJ Ps iPJqPJ KIMV.
iQLNNI .s mMJ LH T[PHIJ sPR K[I LJKIRJMKLPJMN VMKT[! eLNN [I [MxI KP gLxI QZ [LH HKQqLIH MJq
gP LJKP KRMLJLJg{
pRLIqM: |I VQHKJlK qP K[MK. |I VQHK gP PJ eLK[ [LH HKQqLIH. u[Ia MRI VPRI LVZPRKMJK K[MJ
sPPK`MNN.
v;. ?;LIHNNIa: |I JIIqJlK gLxI QZ [LH HKQqLIH. |I [MH `IIJ ZNMaLJg RIgQNMRNa MJq LH LJ
gPPq sPRV.
|P`: mMJlH NPHK K[I KPHH MJq K[I oSsPRq TMZKMLJ [MH qITLqIq KP ZNMa eLK[ K[I eLJq.
oNMs: o[! eINN! K[IalNN [MxI KP ZNMa MgMLJHK K[I eLJq LJ K[I HITPJq [MNs. . HII mMJ LH ZNMaLJg
TIJKRIsPReMRq. |IlH QHK gIKKLJg RIMqa KP zLTz Pss. u[IRI K[Ia gP.
|P`: OPVI PJ! iPJqPJc
(d`PQK an hour and a ha.f .ater:
vR. \RLIHKNIa: u[LH [MH `IIJ M gRMJq gMVI. . [MRqNa RIVIV`IR IxIR HIILJg M `IKKIR PJI.
mMJ [MH ZNMaIq K[I gMVI Ps [LH NLsI.
iQTLNNI: .lxI JIMRNa NPHK Va xPLTI eLK[ H[PQKLJg rOPVI PJ! iPJqPJcr o[! . eLH[ iPJqPJ
TPQNq eLJ.
vR. \RLIHKNIa: . qPJlK K[LJz K[Ia TMJ. .K VQHK `I JIMRNa KLVI JPe. .KlH PJI gPMN IMT[! MJq
K[I oSsPRq qIsIJTI LH VMgJLsLTIJK
oNMs: yIH! Ls Va eMKT[ LH RLg[K! K[Ia [MxI K[RII VLJQKIH KP gP.
pRLIqM: iPPzc mMJ [MH gPK K[I `MNN. |IlH gPLJg NLzI NLg[KJLJg KPeMRqH K[I oSsPRq gPMN. o[!
gP PJ! mMJc
\IqRP: u[MK oSsPRq TIJKRI[MNs LH KRaLJg KP HKPZ [LV.
iQTLNNI: UP PJ! mMJ. yPQ VQHKJlK NIK [LV HKPZ aPQ.
vR. \RLIHKNIa: mMJ ZMHHIq K[I `MNN KP K[I LJHLqI RLg[K! M ePJqIRsQN ZMHH.
iQLN+I: o[c u[I LJHLqIRLg[K LH qPeJ; [IlH [Mq KP ZMRK eLK[ K[I `MNN.
oNMs: iPPz! mMJlH gPK LK MgMLJ! [IlH `IMKIJ K[I sQNN`MTz MJq LH RMTLJg KPeMRqH K[I gPMN.
|P`: /[PPK! mMJ! H[PPKc .KlH M gPMNc
\IqRP: o[! e[MK M H[PKc u[I gPMNzIIZIR [MqJlK M T[MJTI.
vR. \RLIHKNIa: dJq K[IRIlH K[I e[LHKNI sPR sQNN KLVI! MJq iPJqPJ [MxI ePJ. wINN! K[Ia
[MxI KP T[PPHI mMJ sPR K[I LJKIRJMKLPJMN VMKT[ JPe.
(From rGHHIJKLMN GJgNLH[ sPR pPRILgJ /KQqIJKHr! 0PPz 3! &y O. G. GTzIRHNIa. d&ridged:
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
Words
/PVI ZPZQNMR HZPRKH
MRT[IRa HzMKLJg MRKLHKLT
gaVJMHKLTH (TMNNLHK[IJLTH) HzLLJg `PSLJg
TRPHHTPQJKRa HzLLJg TMR (VPKPRTaTNI) RMTLJg qPeJ[LNN HzLLJg
TaTNLJg HzLQVZ qLxLJg
HNMNPV sIJTLJg Hza qLxLJg
(ZMRMT[QKLJg)
sLgQRIHzMKLJg HeLVVLJg gaVJMHKLTH
eILg[KNLsKLJg gNLqLJg eLJqHQRsLJg
[MJg gNLqLJg eRIHKNLJg VPQJKMLJIIRLJg
MRVeRIHKNLJg RPeLJg MJq TMJPILJg aMT[KLJg
MK[NIKLTH (KRMTzMJqsLINq) VMRMK[PJ (RMTI) qLHTQH ([MVVIR!
MxINLJ)
ZPNI xMQNK (xMQNKLJg) K[RPeLJg RMTI/RQJ
[Lg[ (NPJg! KRLZNI) QVZ H[PK ZQKKLJg [QRqNI RMTIH
HKIIZNIT[MHI
Some popular games
Open-air games
`MqVLJKPJ n JIK`MNN n
`MHzIK`MNN n RQg`a n ()o..o8" RQggIR)
TRLTzIK n (NMeJ) KIJJLH n
sPPK`MNN n ()o..o8" HPTTIR) xPNNIa`MNN n
gPNs n eMKIR ZPNP
[PTzIa n
Indoor games
T[IHH n HfQMH[ n
qRMQg[KH n KM`NIKIJJLH n
Sports Terms
MVMKIQR (ZRPsIHHLPJMN) HZPRK TQZ (sLJMN! HIVLsLJMN) VMKT[
LJqPPR (PQKqPPR PR PZIJMLR) HZPRKH T[MVZLPJH[LZ n, !"g" JMKLPJMN
sPPK`MNN T[MVZLPJH[LZ HZPRK n
TPVZIKI x HZPRKH n IxIJKH
TPVZIKLKLPJ n! !"g" LJKIR HZPRKH ad%, !"g" HZPRKH MTzIK
TPNNIgI TQZ TPVZIKLKLPJ (H[LRK)
TPJlKIHK x HZPRKLJg ad%
lTPJKIHK n! !"g" ePRNq gaV JMHKLTH KPQRJMVIJK n
TPJKIHK (RLxMNRa LJ HLJgLJg! `IMQKa)
Participants
TRIe n (QHIq sPR HZPRKHVIJ PZZPJIJK (RLxMN) n
RPeLJg PR HMLNLJg M `PMK) HZPRKHVMJ (MK[NIKI) n
JMKLPJMN (oNaVZLT! TPNNIgI) HZPRKHePVMJ n KIMV
PssLTLMN (QVZLRI! RIsIRII! QqgI) n
Audience
sMJ (TPNNPf.) n! !"g" M sPPK HZITKMKPR n
`MNN sMJ HZPRKH IJK[QHLMHK
H[PQK sPR x HQZZPRK x
Scoring system
`IHK (RITPRq! sMHKIHK) KLVI ZPLJK n, !"g" |Pe VMJa
qIsIMK x ZPLJKH [MxI K[Ia ePJ{
qRMe n, !"g" u[I VMKT[ RQJJIRQZ n
IJqIq LJ M qRMe. HTPRI n! !"g" u[I HTPRI Ps K[I
qRMe x! !"g" u[I KeP KIMVH qRIe. gMVI eMH ,:3 (HLS KP sPQR).
gPMN n HTPRI x! !"g" |I HTPRIq
NPHI x 2) ZPLJKH. 1ILK[IR HLqI
NPHIR n HTPRIq LJ K[I gMVI (I
xLTKPRa n ;).
Competition sites and sports equipment
`MR`INN n JIK n
`IMV n ZNMagRPQJq n
T[IHH`PMRq n ZQTz n
T[IHHVMJ n RMTzIK n
TNQ` (HKLTz) n RLJgH n
qLHTQH n HzL QVZ
qRMQg[KHVMJ n HZPRKH [MNN
gaV n `PSLJg gNPxIH
MxINLJ n KRMVZPNLJI () n
QVZLJg (HZRLJg) `PMRq QJIxIJ (ZMRMNNIN)! MHaVVIKRLT `MRH
Word Combinations
MK[NIKLT KRMLJLJg KP eLJ K[I KIMV (ZIRHPJMN!
KP sPNNPe M KPQRJMVIJK JMKLPJMN! ePRNq) T[MVZLPJ
(TPVZIKLKLPJ! IKT.) H[LZ
KP zLTz K[I `MNN KP eLJ `a 2 (4! IKT.) gPMNH
KP HTPRI M gPMN (2) ZPLJKH) (ZPLJKH)
KP zIIZ K[I HTPRI KP eLJ eLK[ K[I HTPRI 3 KP )
KP IJq M gMVI LJ M qRMe LJ HV`.lH sMxPQR
(KP qRMe M gMVI) KP HIK QZ (`RIMz) M RITPRq
KP eLJ M ZRLI (M TQZ! K[I RITPRq [PNqIR
xLTKPRa) K[I ePRNq (JMKLPJMN! GQRPZIMJ) RITPRq
EXERCISES
I. Study Texts A and and transcribe these words:
KP`PggMJLJg! aMT[KLJg! NMeJKIJJLH! eRIHKNLJg! MK[NIKLTH! gaVJMHKLTH! TMNNLHK[IJLTH!
`LNNLMRqH! qRMQg[KH! KPQRJMVIJK! IJK[QHLMHK! HPTTIR! RQggIR! TPQRK! MVMKIQR.
II. Write 15 questions about Texts A and B; b) ReteII Texts A and (in indirect speech).
EvaIuate the reports of your feIIow students according to deIivery: generaI cIarity,
pronunciation, fIuency, rythm, intonation.
III. Study EssentiaI VocabuIary (II), ExpIanatory Notes and name: a) as many kinds of sport
as you can; b) some open-air games; c) some indoor games.
IV. What do yon caII a person who goes Ia for:
eRIHKNLJg! TaTNLJg! eILg[KNLsKLJg! HeLVVLJg! qLxLJg! RQJJLJg! VPQJKMLJIIRLJg! `PSLJg!
HzLLJg! RMTLJg! [QJKLJg! ZNMaLJg sPPK`MNN! ZNMaLJg T[IHH! ZNMaLJg qRMQg[KH! MK[NIKLTH! HzMKLJg!
ZNMaLJg xPNNIa`MNN! ZNMaLJg `MHzIK`MNN! ZNMaLJg [PTzIa{
V. a) FiII in prepositions if necessary:
/ZPRK LH xIRa ZPZQNMR ... 0RLKMLJ. ... PK[IR ePRqH M NPK... 0RLKLH[ ZIPZNI NLzI K[I LqIM ... HZPRK!
M NPK IxIJ eMKT[ HZPRK! IHZITLMNNa... K[I u:. |PeIxIR! K[I JQV`IR e[P MTKLxINa KMzI ZMRK ...
HZPRK LH ZRP`M`Na fQLKI HVMNN. ... K[I e[PNI 0RLKLH[ ZIPZNI ZRIsIR KP `I sMK RMK[IR K[MJ sLK
u[I VPHK ZPZQNMR HZITKMKPR HZPRK LH sPPK`MNN. pPPK`MNN LH ZNMaIq ... M /MKQRqMa MsKIRJPPJ ...
VPHK 0RLKLH[ KPeJH MJq K[I sMJH! PR HQZZPRKIRH ... M ZMRKLTQNMR KIMV eLNN KRMxIN... PJI IJq ...
K[I TPQJKRa... K[I PK[IR KP HII K[ILR KIMV ZNMa!
vMJa PK[IR HZPRKH MRI MNHP ZNMaIq ... 0RLKMLJ! LJTNQqLJg gPNs ... e[LT[ aPQ KRa KP zJPTz M
`MNN ... M [PNI; TRPfQIK... e[LT[ aPQ KRa KP zJPTz M `MNN... HPVI [PPZH; `MHzIK`MNN... e[LT[ aPQ
KRa KP gIK M `MNN... M net9 tenni0 ... e[LT[ aPQ try to [LK M . `MNN HP K[MK aPQR PZZPJIJK TMJJPK [LK
LK MJq TRLTzIK e[LT[ i0 ZNMaIq ... M `MNN! `QK LH PK[IReLHI LJTPVZRI[IJHL`NI. dH aPQ TMJ HII! Ls
K[I `MNN [Mq JPK `IIJ LJxIJKIq! K[IRI ePQNq [MxI `IIJ JP HZPRK.
dTKQMNNa K[MKlH JPK fQLKI KRQI. dK[NIKLTH LH JPK ZNMaIq ... M `MNN! JPR LH [PRHIRMTLJg. \IR[MZH
K[MK ISZNMLJH e[a K[Ia MRI JPK HP ZPZQNMR MH sPPK`MNN. (/II
rdZZRPMT[IHr. OMV`RLqgI +272)
b) ReteII the text.
VI. Answer the foIIowing questions. Do not answer in one sentence. Add something:
+. w[MK zLJq Ps HZPRK qP aPQ gP LJ sPR{ 2. nP aPQ ZNMa qRMQg[KH{ 4. nP aPQ MKKIJq [PTzIa
VMKT[IH{ 3. w[MK sPPK`MNN KIMV qP aPQ HQZZPRK{ *. nLq aPQ IxIR KRa sLgQRIHzMKLJg{ ,. w[P
QHQMNNa NLzIH KP`PggMJLJg{ {. w[MK qP HZITKMKPRH qP MK K[I HKMqLQVH{ b. w[IRI MRI `PMKRMTIH
[INq LJ vPHTPe{ 2. w[MK LH K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR HZPRK LJ QHHLM{ +). nP QHHMLJ KIMVH
ZMRKLTLZMKI LJ LJKIRJMKLPJMN VMKT[IH{ ++. w[P TPMT[IH aPQR xPNNIa`MNN KIMV{ +2. w[IRI MRI
K[I oSsPRq MJq OMV`RLqgI `PMKRMTIH [INq{ +4. w[MK LH K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ M rHZPRKr MJq
M rgMVIr{ +3. w[MK HZPRKH MJq gMVIH qP aPQ zJPe{ +*. w[MK gMVIH KMzI K[I sLRHK ZNMTI LJ
ZQ`NLT LJKIRIHK{ +,. w[MK LH K[I gRIMK JMKLPJMN HZPRK LJ GJgNMJq{
VII. Read Text and try to expIain the phrases Iisted beIow. Do not mereIy transIate them
into Russian. Change them into a type of EngIish that is more easiIy understood and expIain
what they mean in the context of the conversation.
H[PQK sPR [LH KIMV; LH LJ gPPq sPRV KPqMa; NPHK K[I KPHH; KP ZNMa eLK[ (MgMLJHK) K[I eLJq; KP
zLTz Pss; TPVI PJ; K[I gMVI Ps [LH NLsI; 4 VLJQKIH KP gP.
VIII. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish:
+. 7 ;7 6. 2. $7 6
7. 4. (; $; >6! C$. 3. &7 $ $
'$5$ ;$. *. ' $; $ C5 ;. ,.
7 C67 $ @(B. 7. <D ; 6 67. b. '
9 6 C9. 2. 8 $6 ;5 5{ +).
C; 6$ 6 $ . ++. "6 $
6 9$ 6 $ 7D D5. +2. (6 $
$ D9$$ ${ +4. ? 8 9 8 6
E$ { +3. F 85 ;{ +*. 8 5 E ${
+,. (6 8$ $ . +7. <
>! 8;7 $ 2:). +b. ~$ 9D C; . +2.
=8 ;7 C! { X;7! . 2). F
D; DD${ ' D9 . 2+. <
6 6D $ 89 > $. 22.
7 9>7 ;$ 7$ ;$ . 24. "8
$>$ $ 6! $8 ;8. 23. 8 6
6 9 ;{ '6. 2*. ! ;
67. 2*. - 85 $> 9D5 C
5 ;.
IX. Correct the wrong statements. Add a few more sentences to make up a diaIogue:
+. u[IRI LH JP qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ rHPTTIRr MJq rRQg`ar. 2. 0MqVLJKPJ TMJ `I ZNMaIq PJNa
LJqPPRH. 4. u[I gPMNzIIZIR MTKH MH M QqgI LJ sPPK`MNN. 3. .TI [PTzIa LH ZPZQNMR eLK[ ePVIJ.
*. d KIJJLH `MNN LH HKRQTz eLK[ M TNQ`. ,. wPVIJ MRI gPPq sPPK`MNN ZNMaIRH MH M RQNI. 7. \IPZNI
e[P ZNMa qRMQg[KH MRI TMNNIq qRMQg[KHVIJ. b. wI QHI `MNNH e[IJ ZNMaLJg `MqVLJKPJ. 2. UPNs
LH ZNMaIq PJ LTI sLINqH. +). |PTzIa LH PJI Ps K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR HQVVIR gMVIH. ++. uM`NI
KIJJLH MJq NMeJKIJJLH MRI PJI MJq K[I HMVI gMVI. +2. .J [PTzIa M [MJq`MNN MJq RMTzIKH MRI
QHIq. +4. 0PSIRH sLg[K eLK[ `MRI [MJqH. +3. uRMTz MJq sLINq IxIJKH MRI JIxIR LJTNQqIq LJ
oNaVZLT UMVIH. +*. yPQ VMa KPQT[ K[I `MNN eLK[ aPQR [MJqH e[IJ ZNMaLJg sPPK`MNN.
Prompts: . QHK qPJlK MgRII...; .lV JPK HP HQRI...; dNN . zJPe LH... `QK MK NIMHK...; |Pe TMJ
aPQ HMa HQT[ M K[LJgc yPQ HIIV KP K[LJz K[MK...; u[MK LH QHK K[I PK[IR eMa RPQJq. yPQ MRI
`MqNa VLHKMzIJ.
X. Try to describe your favourite game. Use a dictionary to Iook up any speciaI words. Let
your partners guess which game you are describing. Speak according to the pIan that is
given in the exampIe:
E x a m p l e:
1. Number of players (per team):
ueP KIMVH Ps INIxIJ ZNMaIRH IMT[.
2. Equipment necessary: M `MNN.
GMT[ ZNMaIR eIMRH H[PRKH MJq HZITLMN `PPKH.
3. Place where played: M HZITLMN sLINq e[LT[ [MH gPMN ZPHKH MK `PK[ IJqH.
4. How to play and win: K[I ZNMaIRH zLTz K[I `MNN KP IMT[ PK[IR. u[Ia KRa KP zLTz LK
`IKeIIJ K[I gPMN ZPHKH Ps K[I PZZPHLJg KIMV. u[I PZZPHLJg KIMV KRa KP HKPZ K[IV! u[I KIMV
HTPRLJg K[I gRIMKIHK JQV`IR Ps rgPMNHr eLJH.
5. Length of game: PJI [PQR MJq M [MNs! eLK[ M `RIMz LJ K[I VLqqNI.
6. Some of the rules: PJNa K[I KeP gPMNzIIZIRH (e[P HKMJq LJ sRPJK Ps K[I KeP gPMNH) MRI
MNNPeIq KP KPQT[ K[I `MNN eLK[ K[ILR [MJqH; JP PJI TMJ zLTz PR ZQH[ MJPK[IR ZNMaIR.
(/II rdZZRPMT[IH!r OMV`JqgI! +272)
XI. a) Speak on each kind of sport on the Iist beIow; briefIy describe it as weII as the
quaIities it requires from the sportsman, .g. strength, endurance, quickness of reaction,
courage, etc. Say a few words about its advantages and attractive features:
VPQJKMLJIIRLJg! RPeLJg! aMT[KLJg! [PTzIa! KIJJLH! `MHzIK`MNN! xPNNIa`MNN! T[IHH! `PSLJg!
eRIHKNLJg! sIJTLJg! MRKLHKLT gaVJMHKLTH! sLgQRIHzMKLJg! HzLLJg! HzMKLJg! HzLQVZLJg! Hza
qLxLJg! MRT[IRa! qLHTQH K[RPeLJg! eLJqHQRsLJg! HKIIZNIT[MHI! VMRMK[PJ.
b) Make up diaIogues discussing one (or severaI) of the sports from the Iist above. Use the
foIIowing:
LJ Va PZLJLPJ ...; K[IRIlH JPK[LJg NLzI ...; . qPJlK fQLKI HII e[MK ZIPZNI sLJq LJ ...; [Pe TMJ
aPQ HMa HQT[ M K[LJgc; . qPJlK zJPe MJaK[LJg VPRI ISTLKLJg K[MJ ...; . HII JPK[LJg ISTLKLJg
LJ ...; . TMJlK MgRII eLK[ aPQ K[IRI; M`HPNQKINa VMRxINNPQH; . NLzI LK LVVIJHINa.
XII. a) Read the text and comment on it:
Hang Gliding The Sport of the 1980s
|MJg gNLqLJg! NLzI eLJqHQRsLJg! TPVIH sRPV dVIRLTM. u[I ZIRHPJ e[P K[PQg[K Ps K[LH
HZPRK! pRMJTLH PgMNNP! gPK K[I LqIM e[IJ [I eMH eMKT[LJg HZMTI TMZHQNIH sMNNLJg KPeMRqH K[I
HIM. u[I TMZHQNIH [Mq M HPRK Ps eLJg e[LT[ [INZIq K[IV KP gP VPRI HNPeNa QJKLN K[Ia RIMT[Iq
K[I HIM.
0QK K[LH LqIM LHJlK MH JIe MH aPQ VLg[K K[LJz: LJ K[I sLsKIIJK[ TIJKQRa! iIPJMRqP qM :LJT[L
qRIe ZLTKQRIH Ps M [MJg gNLqIR; LK eMH M HPRK Ps zLKI e[LT[ TPQNq TMRRa M ZIRHPJ.
u[I VPqIRJ [MJg gNLqIR TMJ gP eLK[ K[I eLJq PR MgMLJHK LK! MJq K[I ZLNPK TMJ T[MJgI
qLRITKLPJ `a VPxLJg K[I TPJKRPN `MR. |MJg gNLqIRH RLHI MJq sMNN eLK[ K[I VPxIVIJKH LJ K[I MLR
JIMR NQNNH! sPR ISMVZNI! K[Ia QHQMNNa gP QZ.
dNN PxIR K[I ePRNq! K[IHI gLMJK `QKKIRsNLIH MRI `ITPVLJg VPRI MJq VPRI ZPZQNMR! MH ZIPZNI
qLHTPxIR K[I sQJ Ps sNaLJg. (From rvPqIRJ GJgNLH[
.JKIRJMKLPJMNr. vPMLzM! +2b3! 1P. 2,3)
b) What do you know of the kinds of sport which recentIy appeared! Describe them and say
what attracts peopIe in them.
XIII. Act out the foIIowing situations:
+. ueP sRLIJqH MRI KMNzLJg MsKIR M sPPK`MNN VMKT[. oJI LH [MZZa [LH sMxPQRLKI KIMV [MH
ePJ; K[I PK[IR LH JPK MH [LH KIMV [MH NPHK K[I VMKT[.
2. .VMgLJI M qLMNPgQI `IKeIIJ KeP HZPRKH sMJH M`PQK K[ILR sMxPQRLKI HZPRKH.
4. d sRLIJq Ps aPQRH TNMLVH KP `I MJ rMNNRPQJq HZPRKHVMJr. oJTI aPQ TMNN PJ [LV MJq sLJq
[LV HQRRPQJqIq `a M K[LTz TNPQq Ps TLgMRIKKI HVPzI. yPQ [MxI M KMNz eLK[ [LV.
3. .KlH /QJqMa MsKIRJPPJ. .J M sIe VLJQKIH! K[IRI eLNN `I M sPPK`MNN VMKT[ PJ u:! e[LNI PJ
MJPK[IR T[MJJIN K[IRI eLNN `I M sMH[LPJ H[Pe. dRgQVIJK `IKeIIJ [QH`MJq MJq eLsI.
*. yPQ MRI LJ K[I [MNN Ps aPQR LJHKLKQKI. yPQ MRI MJ MRqIJK MK[NIKI MJq NLzI KP gIK QZ MK
HQJRLHI! MK e[LT[ aPQR RPPVVMKI LH gRQV`NLJg. yPQ KRa KP VMzI [LV qP MK NIMHK [LH VPRJLJg
ISIRTLHIH.
XIV. TransIate into EngIish:
+. ! >! 7 E; . ' 8 ; 8$ ;$! 6
$89 $. 2. <> ! $
; { ! $ ; ;8 ; $ ;9 4.
$; 6 $ D$! ; $ ! $ D;
8; $ ,:). 3. < 8 6. (
95 ;8. *. ' 8 D ! ; $ ! ; $
;. ,. " D $ 9>5 ;$5 >
;. 7. ! ;D ; 6 67. "8 $; ;6!
$; C$. b. ( ;5 = 6. 2.
F$ 8 5 $5 8>$ 8{
XV. a) TransIate the text into Russian:
The Football Match
/PVIK[LJg xIRa fQIIR LH [MZZIJLJg LJ K[MK JMRRPe K[PRPQg[sMRI KP K[I eIHK Ps K[I KPeJ. d
gRIagRIIJ KLqI sNPeH HNQggLH[Na qPeJ LKH NIJgK[. .K LH M KLqI Ps TNPK[ TMZH.
u[IHI TMZH [MxI QHK NIsK K[I gRPQJq Ps K[I 0RQqqIRHsPRq }JLKIq dHHPTLMKLPJ pPPK`MNN
ONQ`. uP HMa K[MK K[IHI VIJ ZMLq K[ILR H[LNNLJg KP eMKT[ KeIJKaKeP [LRINLJgH zLTz M `MNN LH
VIRINa KP HMa K[MK M xLPNLJ LH ePPq MJq TMKgQK! K[MK r|MVNIKr LH HP VQT[ ZMZIR MJq LJz. pPR M
H[LNNLJg K[I 0RQqqIRHsPRq }JLKIq d.p.O. PssIRIq aPQ OPJsNLTK MJq dRK; LK KQRJIq aPQ LJKP M
TRLKLT! [MZZa LJ aPQR QqgIVIJK Ps sLJI ZPLJKH! RIMqa LJ M HITPJq KP IHKLVMKI K[I ePRK[ Ps M
eINNQqgIq ZMHH! M RQJ qPeJ K[I KPQT[ NLJI! M NLg[KJLJg H[PK! M TNIMRMJTI zLTz `a `MTz PR
gPMNzIIZIR; LK KQRJIq aPQ LJKP M ZMRKLHMJ! [PNqLJg aPQR `RIMK[ e[IJ K[I `MNN TMVI HMLNLJg
LJKP aPQR PeJ gPMNVPQK[! ITHKMKLT e[IJ aPQR sPReMRqH RMTIq MeMa KPeMRqH K[I PZZPHLKI
gPMN! INMKIq! qPeJTMHK! `LKKIR! KRLQVZ[MJK `a KQRJH MK K[I sPRKQJIH Ps aPQR HLqI! eMKT[LJg M
`MNN H[MZI .NLMqH MJq oqaHHIaH sPR aPQ; MJq e[MK LH VPRI! LK KQRJIq aPQ LJKP M VIV`IR Ps M
JIe TPVVQJLKa! MNN `RPK[IRH KPgIK[IR sPR MJ [PQR MJq M [MNs! sPR JPK PJNa [Mq aPQ IHTMZIq
sRPV K[I TNMJzLJg VMT[LJIRa Ps K[LH NIHHIR NLsI! sRPV ePRz! eMgIH! RIJK! qPNIH! HLTz ZMa!
LJHQRMJTI TMRqH! JMggLJg eLxIH! MLNLJg T[LNqRIJ! `Mq `PHHIH! LqNI ePRzVIJ! `QK aPQ [Mq
IHTMZIq eLK[ VPHK Ps aPQR VMKIH MJq aPQR JILg[`PQRH! eLK[ [MNs K[I KPeJ! MJq K[IRI aPQ
eIRI! T[IIRLJg KPgIK[IR! K[QVZLJg PJI MJPK[IR PJ K[I H[PQNqIRH! HePZZLJg QqgIVIJKH NLzI
NPRqH Ps K[I IMRK[! [MxLJg ZQH[Iq aPQR eMa K[RPQg[ M KQRJHKLNI LJKP MJPK[IR MJq MNKPgIK[IR
VPRI HZNIJqLq zLJq Ps NLsI! [QRKLJg eLK[ OPJsNLTK MJq aIK ZMHHLPJMKI MJq `IMQKLsQN LJ LKH dRK.
vPRIPxIR! LK PssIRIq aPQ VPRI K[MJ M H[LNNLJglH ePRK[ Ps VMKIRLMN sPR KMNz qQRLJg K[I RIHK Ps
K[I eIIz. (From rUPPq OPVZMJLPJHr &y m. 0. \RLIHKNIa. $&ridged:
b) Comment on the extract:
+. GSZNMLJ K[I ePRqH: ruP HMa K[MK K[IHI VIJ ZMLq K[ILR H[LNNLJg KP eMKT[ KeIJKaKeP
[LRINLJgH zLTz M `MNN LH VIRINa KP HMa K[MK M xLPNLJ LH ePPq MJq TMKgQK! K[MK r|MVNIKr LH HP
VQT[ ZMZIR MJq LJz.r 2. GSZNMLJ K[I ePRqH: rpPR M H[LNNLJg K[I 0RQqqIRHsPRq }JLKIq d.p.O.
PssIRIq aPQ OPJsNLTK MJq dRK.r 4. w[MK! LJ K[I MQK[PRlH PZLJLPJ! qPIH sPPK`MNN gLxI ZIPZNI{ 3.
nP aPQ MgRII eLK[ K[I MQK[PR LJ K[MK{ w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz M`PQK HQT[ gMVIH MH sPPK`MNN MJq
[PTzIa MJq K[I HITRIK Ps K[ILR ZPZQNMRLKa{
XVI. a) Study the text and search for some arguments in favour of sport. Summarize the text:
How Healthy Are You?
O[ITz aPQR zJPeNIqgI.
w[MK HPRK Ps H[MZI MRI aPQ LJ{ dRI aPQ K[I HPRK Ps ZIRHPJ e[P gPIH sPR M RQJ IMT[
VPRJLJg! PR MRI aPQ K[I PK[IR zLJq e[P gIKH PQK Ps `RIMK[ e[IJ RIMT[LJg sPR M TLgMRIKKI{
vMa`I aPQ [MxI M NPK Ps IJIRga. yPQ gP KP ePRz PR HT[PPN! aPQ VMzI qITLHLPJH MNN qMa!
aPQ qP ISKRM ePRz MK [PVI. GSIRTLHI{ yPQ qPJlK [MxI IJPQg[ KLVI e[a `PK[IR MJaeMa{
wINN! K[I MJHeIR KP K[MK fQIHKLPJ LH aPQR `Pqa qIHLgJ. |QVMJ `ILJgH eIRIJlK `QLNK sPR
HLKKLJg MK M qIHz MNN qMa: aPQR `Pqa LH TPJHKRQTKIq sPR [QJKLJg! QVZLJg! NLsKLJg! RQJJLJg!
TNLV`LJg MJq M xMRLIKa Ps PK[IR MTKLxLKLIH. .s aPQ qPJlK gIK K[I ISIRTLHI K[MK aPQR `Pqa eMJKH!
K[IJ K[LJgH TMJ gP `MqNa eRPJg. yPQR VLJq ePRzH MNN qMa! MJq aPQR `Pqa qPIH JPK[LJg: K[I
RIHQNKH TMJ xMRa sRPV qIZRIHHLPJ KP HIxIRI LNNJIHH KP IMRNa qIMK[.
1PK M xIRa T[IIRsQN K[PQg[K! MJq Ps TPQRHI K[I JMKQRMN RIMTKLPJ LH r.KlH JPK gPLJg KP [MZZIJ
KP VI.r vMa`I! VMa`I JPK. |IRI MRI KeP eMaH Ps NPPzLJg MsKIR aPQRHINs: sLRHKNa! `a HIILJg Ls
aPQ MRI qPLJg K[I RLg[K HPRK Ps ISIRTLHI! MJq HITPJqNa `a HIILJg Ls aPQ [MxI K[I RLg[K zLJq Ps
qLIK.
(From rvPqIRJ GJgNLH[ .JKIRJMKLPJMNr. vPMLzM. +2b3! 1P. 2,4)


b) Persuade your partner to start practising sport immediateIy.
c) Speak on: 1. the roIe of sport in modern Iife; 2. sport as part of schooI and coIIege Iife.
XVII. RoIe-pIaying.
Work in groups of four or fire. You are people of different age and social standing.
Express your attitude to sport and sportsmen in general.
XVIII. Describe these pictures in suds a way as if you have seen the event with your own
eyes. Use some detaiIs, try to sound as convincing as possibIe. Use some words and
phrases given beIow:
K[I HKMqLQV eLK[ M HIMKLJg TMZMTLKa Ps ...; M ZPNIQVZIR; LJ gPPq sPRV; M RIsIRII; M HKMRKIR;
M TRPHH`MR;
eMxI M HKMRK; RQH[LJg KPeMRqH; NLzI NLg[KJLJg;
RMTI ZMHK; TMRRaLJg K[I ZPNI; ZQNIq;
ZNMJK K[I ZPNI; QZ LJ K[I MLR; eLK[ M HVLNI PJ [LH sMTI; MeIHKRLTzIJ;
ZRIKKaNPPzLJg; IV`MRRMHHIq; eLK[ [IR IaIH qPeJTMHK; eLK[ [LH [MJqH ZRIHHIq; NMJq PJKP;
`RIMz K[I RITPRq; K[I RITPRq Ps [LH NLsI; TMJqLqMKI VMHKIR Ps HZPRKH Ps QHHLM.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH
VI
u[I ZNPK LH M xIRa LVZPRKMJK MHZITK Ps eRLKKIJ ePRzH. 0QK K[IRI LH HPVIK[LJg IxIJ VPRI
LVZPRKMJK! K[MK LH! K[I VMLJ LqIM PR K[I VIHHMgI.
Message LH K[I VMLJ LqIM K[MK M eRLKIR eMJKH KP TPVVQJLTMKI LJ [LH ePRz K[RPQg[ K[I
T[MRMTKIRH MJq K[ILR `I[MxLPQR! K[I Z[aHLTMN MJq IVPKLPJMN `MTzgRPQJq PR HPVIKLVIH K[RPQg[
[LH PeJ gIJIRMNLLJg HKMKIVIJKH. uP VMzI LK TNIMR MJq QJqIRHKMJqM`NI aPQ [MxI KP NIMRJ [Pe
KP eRLKI K[I gLHK.
Gist LH TPVVPJNa QJqIRHKPPq MH K[I IHHIJTI PR VMLJ ZPLJK (Ps MJ MRKLTNI! ZMRMgRMZ[ PR
MRgQVIJK)! MNHP MH K[I IHHIJKLMN ZMRK Ps M HKPRa! JPxIN! PR ZNMa K[MK [INZH KP QJqIRHKMJq K[I
VMLJ LqIM.
/QVVMRa qIMNH eLK[ K[I ZNPK Ps TPVZNIKI eRLKKIJ ePRzH! HQT[ MH M HKPRa! JPxIN PR ZNMa.
ULHK qIMNH eLK[ K[I VMLJ LqIM Ps MJa K[PQg[KsQN eRLKLJg! JP VMKKIR e[IK[IR LK LH M ZMRMgRMZ[
PR M JPxIN. .K LH ISZITKIq KP `I xIRa H[PRK MJq TNIMR.
.J PRqIR KP eRLKI K[I gLHK Ps M HKPRa (rd nMalH wMLKr! sPR ISMVZNI) aPQ [MxI KP qP K[I
sPNNPeLJg:
+. IMq K[I HKPRa TMRIsQNNa! ZMaLJg MKKIJKLPJ KP K[I T[MRMTKIRH! gIJIRMN MKVPHZ[IRI MJq K[I
MQK[PRlH RIVMRzH PR HKMKIVIJKH (!"g" M `RLg[K TPNq qMa! M ZMNIsMTIq MJq H[LxIRLJg `Pa! K[I
gRPeLJg HKRMLJ)! K[I MKVPHZ[IRI Ps HQHZIJHI.
2. mPK qPeJ K[I VMLJ ZPLJKH MJq HII [Pe K[Ia MRI NLJzIq (!"g" K[I `Pa LH LNN `QK [I ePJlK gP
KP `Iq; [I LH HKLNN ePRRLIq MJq zIIZH HKMRLJg MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq; [I TMJ [MRqNa `INLIxI K[MK
[I [MH JP RIMHPJ KP ePRRa M`PQK [LH [IMNK[).
4. \PLJK PQK K[I MQK[PRlH RIVMRzH (K[I `Pa eMH NPPzLJg MK K[I sPPK Ps K[I `Iq HKRMJgINa;
K[MKlH M HLNNa eMa KP KMNz; [I [Mq `IIJ eMLKLJg KP qLI MNN qMa; RINMSMKLPJ eMH xIRa HNPe).
3. UP PxIR K[IHI ZPLJKH! RITPJHLqIR K[IV TMRIsQNNa MJq sPRVQNMKI K[I VMLJ LqIM! !"g" .K LH M
HKPRa KINNLJg QH [Pe sIMR MJq HINsZLKa K[RPQg[ LgJPRMJTI PR VLHNIMqLJg LJsPRVMKLPJ VMa
TMQHI ePRRa MJq HQssIRLJg PR [Pe RIVMRzM`Na ZMKLIJK K[I T[LNqlH IJqQRMJTI VMa `I.
Assignments:
1. Give your own version of the gist of "A Day's Wait" and "How We Kept Mother's
Day".
2. Write the gist of "A Friend in Need". When writing analyse the title of the story.
3. Write the gist of two letters written by 1udy and compare them. What is their
message?
LABORATORY EXERCISES ()
1. Listen to the dialogue "Sports and Games Popular in England". Mark the stresses
and tunes. Repeat the text following the model.
2. Listen to the text "The Football Match", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat it
following the model.
3. Write a spelling-translation test Check it with a dictionary.
4. Task I: Translate the English sentences into Russian (in writing) and check them
with the key.
Task : Translate your sentences hack into English (orally) and check them with the
key.
5. Listen to the text "Sport in Great Britain".
Task I: Write down the Russian equivalents given in the exercise. Task II: Listen to
the text again and write down the English equivalents of the Russian phrases.
Task m: Write 10 questions on the text Be ready to discuss it in class.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
1. Say in what countries the following sports and games are popular:
TRLTzIK! HQRsLJg! zMRMKI! RILJqIIR RMTLJg! RQg`a! `MHI`MNN! QqP (QLKHQ)! NMTRPHHI! NMHHP
K[RPeLJg! HPTTIR! TRPfQIK
II. Which is better - to be a specialist or a generalist?
Divide your class into 2 teams. Match each specific term in column I. with the
generic term in column II. The team which is the first to match the terms correctly
wins the score.
. ..
`MR`INN `MHzIK`MNN
RMTzIK TRLTzIK
eLTzIK gPNs
MNZIJHKPTz sIJTLJg
zJPTzPQK sLgQRIHzMKLJg
`LH[PZ KIJJLH
TMKT[IR LTI[PTzIa
gMQJKNIK VPQJKMLJIIRLJg
ZQTz `MHI`MNN
KII `PSLJg
HZLJ T[IHHZNMaLJg
HZLzI eILg[K NLsKLJg
III. Read one of the short stories by W. S. Maugham and speak about it in class.
Speak not only on the contents, but also give analyses of the characters, the author's
mastership, methods of characterization, style and language. See Notes on Style, p. 52.
UNIT SEVEN
I SPEECH PATTERNS
1. u[IRI i0 hard.y M TPQJKRa LJ K[I ePRNq e[IRI HQT[ M xMRLIKa Ps HTIJIRa TMJ `I sPQJq.
u[IRI LH [MRqNa M `PPz `a K[LH MQK[PR e[LT[ [I [MH JPK RIMq.
u[IRI eMH [MRqNa M sPPK`MNN VMKT[ e[LT[ [I VLHHIq.
u[IRI LH [MRqNa MJPK[IR KIMV eLK[ `IKKIR PZZPRKQJLKLIH KP eLJ.
2. u[MK ePQNq ma/e you thin/ aPQ eIRI LJ |PNNMJq.
u[I KIMT[IR VMqI mMTz RQ` PQK MNN K[I LJz VMRzH LJ [LH KISK`PPz.
u[Ia TPQNqJlK VMzI wLNNLMV uINN `Pe `IsPRI K[I KaRMJKlH TMZ.
u[I HNLg[KIHK JPLHI ePQNq VMzI [LV HKMRK.
vMzI [LV RIZIMK K[I RQNI. (0QR: |I eMH VMqI to RIZIMK K[I RQNI.)
EXERCISES
I. Change the foIIowing sentences to as to use the patterns:
Pattern 1: +. . qPJlK K[LJz K[IRI LH MJPK[IR [PTzIaKIMV Ps IfQMN ZPZQNMRLKa. 2. u[IRI eMH
JPK M HLJgNI ePRNq T[MVZLPJH[LZ [I VLHHIq. 4. .lV JPK HQRI eI [MxI M xMTMJTa PJ PQR HKMss.
3. wIlxI JP VPRI KLVI! `QK aPQ TMJ sLJLH[ K[I TPVZPHLKLPJ Pss MK [PVI. *. u[IRI eMH
HTMRTINa M NLxLJg HPQN MK K[I HKMqLQV. ,. . qPJlK K[LJz K[IRI LH MJa RIMHPJ sPR K[ILR NPHLJg K[I
gMVI.
Pattern 2: +. u[I TPMT[ sPRTIq K[I MK[NIKIH KP ZPHKZPJI K[ILR KRMLJLJg. 2. u[I HKRMJgIRH
eMJKIq PgIR KP qRLxI QZ KP K[I `MTz aMRq! MJq [I P`IaIq. 4. u[Ia eLNN JIxIR sPRTI dJqRIe
KP `RIMz [LH ZRPVLHI. 3. nQRLJg K[I TPJxIRHMKLPJ H[I sINK QJIMHa. *. |I eLNN JPK `RIMz eLK[
[LH `Mq [M`LKH! JP VMKKIR e[MK aPQ MRI HMaLJg.
II. CompIete tee foIIowing, using Pattern 2:
+. w[MK IxIJKH VMqI aPQ ...{ 2. w[P TPQNq VMzI aPQR sRLIJq ...{ 4. w[LT[ Ps K[I
ISZIRLVIJKH VMqI K[I HTLIJKLHK...{ 3. w[MK zLJq Ps NIHHPJ VMzIH aPQ .!.{ *. w[MK VMqI iIP
uPNHKPa ...{ ,. u[I JIe TPMT[ VMqI QH ... .
III. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish, using the patterns:
+. ~ 5 ! 5 8 8 85 $. 2. ~ 6
;5 ; $ $! Y. 4. ~ 9 8 ;
$>6 6 '. 3. ~ 5 ! 85 7
5 6; . *. ->c A>5 ;; ! 8 6
$ $$. ,. A>5 8 ;
D9$$! 8 . 7. ~ 5 ;5 ! 5
$685 85. b. t D; 6 { 2.
D ' 6 . +). $!
; D6 =! ( 5. ++. X;
6 6! $6! +2. t 5 >6
;; { +4. t &E 6 ({ +3. h E
$D $7 ! $ .
IV. Respond to the foIIowing statements and questions, using the patterns. (Make use of the
conversationaI formuIas given in the Reminder.)
+. . `INLIxI K[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ TPVIH sLRHK MVPJg K[I [LHKPRLT `QLNqLJgH Ps iPJqPJ. 2. .
K[LJz :MHLNa 0NM[IJa OMK[IqRMN LH fQLKI QJLfQI. 4. u[I OLKa Ps iPJqPJ LH PxIRTRPeqIq LJ
K[I qMaKLVI. 3. O[RLHKPZ[IR wRIJ eMH K[I VPHK KMNIJKIq 0RLKLH[ MRT[LKITK Ps K[I ^:..
TIJKQRa. *. /LJTI +227 QZ KP +23, d. dNIz[LJ eMH K[I VPHK PQKHKMJqLJg T[IHHZNMaIR. ,.
vPHK HT[PPNH LJ 0RLKMLJ [MxI MqPZKIq K[I TPRI TQRRLTQNQV. 7. OMJ aPQ NIJq VI M RPQ`NI{ b.
dNN Ps K[IV MRI HKMRLJg MK K[I MqxIRKLHIVIJK. . ePJqIR! e[a{ 2. w[IJ . VIJKLPJIq [LH JMVI
vMRa `QRLIq [IR sMTI LJ [IR [MJqH MJq ePQNq JIxIR MJHeIR Va fQIHKLPJ.
Reminder. Bou don6t 0ay 0o. Du0t Gon.y: fan)yE Indeed] bhyE I0 that 0o. Sear VIc bho6d
have thought it] I am 0ur(ri0ed" I am 0ho)/ed" It60 ama1ingE It60 in)redi&.ec Certain.yE Cf
)our0e" Natura..yE Be0 indeedE doo/0 .i/e that" be.., I thin/"
TEXT. THE BRITISH ISLES
u[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH TPJHLHK Ps KeP VMLJ LHNMJqH: URIMK 0RLKMLJ MJq .RINMJq. u[IHI MJq PxIR
sLxI [QJqRIq HVMNN LHNMJqH MRI zJPeJ TPNNITKLxINa MH K[I }JLKIq jLJgqPV Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ
MJq 1PRK[IRJ .RINMJq. u[ILR KPKMN MRIM LH HPVI 23! 2*) HfQMRI VLNIH. URIMK 0RLKMLJ ZRPZIR
TPVZRLHIH GJgNMJq! wMNIH MJq /TPKNMJq. u[I HPQK[IRJ ZMRK Ps K[I LHNI Ps .RINMJq LH K[I .RLH[
IZQ`NLT (PR GLRI).
0RLKMLJ LH TPVZMRMKLxINa HVMNN! `QK K[IRI LH [MRqNa M TPQJKRa LJ K[I ePRNq e[IRI HQT[ M
xMRLIKa Ps HTIJIRa TMJ `I sPQJq LJ HP HVMNN M TPVZMHH. u[IRI MRI eLNq qIHPNMKI VPQJKMLJH LJ
K[I JPRK[IRJ |Lg[NMJqH Ps /TPKNMJq K[I [PVI Ps K[I qIIR MJq K[I IMgNI K[MK MRI MH
NPJINa MH MJa LJ 1PReMa. u[IRI MRI sNMK KQNLZ sLINqH RPQJq K[I pIJH M `NMI Ps TPNPQR LJ
HZRLJg! K[MK ePQNq VMzI aPQ K[LJz aPQ eIRI LJ |PNNMJq. wLK[LJ M sIe VLNIH Ps vMJT[IHKIR
MJq /[IssLINq aPQ TMJ `I LJ gNPRLPQH [IMK[IRTPxIRIq VPPRH.
oJTI K[I. 0RLKLH[ .HNIH eIRI ZMRK Ps K[I VMLJNMJq Ps GQRPZI K[I JIMRIHK ZPLJK LH MTRPHH
K[I /KRMLK Ps nPxIR! e[IRI K[I T[MNz TNLssH Ps 0RLKMLJ MRI PJNa KeIJKaKeP VLNIH sRPV K[PHI Ps
pRMJTI.
u[I HIMH RPQJq K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH MRI H[MNNPe. u[I 1PRK[ /IM LH JPe[IRI VPRI K[MJ ,)) sIIK
qIIZ! HP K[MK Ls /K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN eIRI ZQK qPeJ LJ MJa ZMRK Ps LK HPVI Ps K[I TMK[IqRMN
ePQNq HKLNN `I M`PxI eMKIR. u[LH H[MNNPeJIHH LH LJ HPVI eMaH MJ MqxMJKMgI. /[MNNPe eMKIR LH
eMRVIR K[MJ qIIZ eMKIR MJq [INZH KP zIIZ K[I H[PRIH sRPV ISKRIVI TPNq. .K LH! KPP! K[I [PVI
Ps VLNNLPJH Ps sLH[! MJq VPRI K[MJ M VLNNLPJ KPJH MRI TMQg[K IxIRa aIMR.
yPQ [MxI JPKLTIq PJ K[I VMZ [Pe qIIZNa LJqIJKIq K[I TPMHK NLJI LH. u[LH LJqIJKMKLPJ gLxIH
M gPPq HQZZNa Ps HZNIJqLq [MR`PQRH sPR H[LZH; MJq aPQ eLNN JPKI! KPP! K[MK PeLJg KP K[I H[MZI
Ps K[I TPQJKRa K[IRI LH JP ZPLJK LJ LK K[MK LH VPRI K[MJ HIxIJKa VLNIH sRPV K[I HIM M sMTK
K[MK [MH gRIMKNa sMTLNLKMKIq K[I ISZPRK Ps VMJQsMTKQRIH MJq [MH VMqI K[I GJgNLH[ RMTI M HIM
NPxLJg PJI.
oJ K[I JPRK[eIHK K[I TPMHKH MRI `RPzIJ `a [Lg[ RPTza TNLssH. u[LH LH IHZITLMNNa JPKLTIM`NI
LJ JPRK[eIHK /TPKNMJq! e[IRI aPQ [MxI NPJg eLJqLJg LJNIKH (TMNNIq rNPT[Hr) MJq M gRIMK
VMJa LHNMJqH. wIHKIRJ /TPKNMJq LH sRLJgIq `a K[I NMRgI LHNMJq T[MLJ zJPeJ MH K[I |I`RLqIH!
MJq KP K[I JPRK[ IMHK Ps K[I /TPKKLH[ VMLJNMJq MRI K[I oRzJIa MJq /[IKNMJq .HNMJqH.
.J /TPKNMJq aPQ [MxI K[RII qLHKLJTK RIgLPJH. u[IRI LH! sLRHKNa! K[I |Lg[NMJqH! K[IJ K[IRI LH
K[I TIJKRMN ZNMLJ PR iPeNMJqH. pLJMNNa K[IRI MRI K[I HPQK[IRJ QZNMJqH! rK[I /TPKK TPQJKRa!r
eLK[ K[ILR gIJKNa RPQJqIq [LNNH e[IRI K[I H[IIZ eMJqIR. |IRI K[IRI MRI VPRI H[IIZ KP K[I
HfQMRI VLNI K[MJ MJae[IRI LJ K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH.
.J GJgNMJq MJq wMNIH MNN K[I [Lg[ NMJq LH LJ K[I eIHK MJq JPRK[eIHK. u[I HPQK[IMHKIRJ
ZNMLJ RIMT[IH K[I eIHK TPMHK PJNa MK PJI PR KeP ZNMTIH MK K[I 0RLHKPN O[MJJIN MJq `a K[I
VPQK[H Ps K[I RLxIRH nII MJq vIRHIa.
.J K[I JPRK[ aPQ sLJq K[I O[IxLPKH HIZMRMKLJg GJgNMJq sRPV /TPKNMJq! K[I \IJJLJIH gPLJg
qPeJ GJgNMJq NLzI M `MTz`PJI MJq K[I OQV`RLMJ VPQJKMLJH s K[ iMzI nLHKRLTK!

PJI Ps K[I
NPxINLIHK (MJq K[I eIKKIHK) ZMRKH Ps GJgNMJq. .J K[I eIHK MRI K[I OMV`RLMJ VPQJKMLJH e[LT[
PTTQZa K[I gRIMKIR ZMRK Ps wMNIH.
u[I HPQK[IMHKIRJ ZMRK Ps GJgNMJq LH M NPeNaLJg NMJq eLK[ gIJKNI [LNNH MJq M TPMHK e[LT[
LH RIgQNMR LJ PQKNLJI! HMJqa PR VQqqa! eLK[ PTTMHLPJMN T[MNz TNLssH! MJq LJNMJq M NPxINa ZMK
KIRJ Ps gRIIJ MJq gPNq sPR VPHK Ps GJgNMJqlH e[IMK LH gRPeJ [IRI MJq `RPeJ ZNPQg[
NMJq eLK[ ZNIMHMJK sMRVH MJq TPKKMgIH LJ K[ILR VLqHK. .KH RLT[ `RPeJ HPLN LH qIIZNa TQNKLxMKIq
VQT[ Ps LK LH QJqIR e[IMK; sRQLKgRPeLJg LH ISKIJHLxINa TMRRLIq PJ. d fQMRKIR Ps K[I HQgMR
QHIq LJ K[I TPQJKRa TPVIH sRPV HQgMR`IIK gRPeJ K[IRI! `QK K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK TRPZ LH
ZPKMKPIH.
u[I ZPHLKLPJ Ps K[I VPQJKMLJH JMKQRMNNa qIKIRVLJIq K[I qLRITKLPJ MJq NIJgK[ Ps K[I RLxIRH!
MJq K[I NPJgIHK RLxIRH! ISTIZK K[I /IxIRJ MJq ONaqI! sNPe LJKP K[I 1PRK[ /IM! MJq IxIJ K[I
/IxIRJ sNPeH IMHKeMRq PR HPQK[IMHK sPR K[I gRIMKIR ZMRK Ps LKH NIJgK[.
u[I RLxIRH Ps 0RLKMLJ MRI Ps JP gRIMK xMNQI MH eMKIReMaH K[I NPJgIHK! K[I u[MVIH! LH M
NLKKNI PxIR 2)) VLNIH MJq sIe Ps K[IV MRI JMxLgM`NI ISTIZK JIMR K[I VPQK[ sPR MJaK[LJg
`QK K[I HVMNNIR xIHHINH.
.J K[I IHKQMRLIH Ps K[I u[MVIH! vIRHIa! uaJI! ONaqI! uMa! pPRK[ MJq 0RLHKPN dxPJ MRI
HPVI Ps K[I gRIMKIHK ZPRKH.
(pRPV rGHHIJKLMN GJgNLH[ sPR pPRILgJ /KQqIJKHr &y O. G. GTzIRHNIa! 0PPz 4! iJq.! +227.
$da(ted:
Memory Work
u[I HIM LH TMNV KPJLg[K!
u[I KLqI LH sQNN! K[I VPPJ NLIH sMLR
}ZPJ K[I /KRMLKH; PJ K[I pRIJT[ TPMHK! K[I NLg[K
UNIMVH! MJq LH gPJI; K[I TNLssH Ps GJgNMJq HKMJq!
UNLVVIRLJg MJq xMHK! PQK LJ K[I KRMJfQLN `Ma.
OPVI KP K[I eLJqPe! HeIIK LH K[I JLg[K MLRc
oJNa! sRPV K[I NPJg KLJI Ps HZRMa
w[IRI K[I I`` VIIKH K[I VPPJ`NMJT[lq HMJq!
iLHKIJc aPQ [IMR K[I gRMKLJg RPMR
os ZI``NIH e[LT[ K[I eMxIH HQTz `MTz! MJq sNLJg!
dK K[ILR RIKQRJ! QZ K[I [Lg[ HKRMJq!
0IgLJ! MJq TIMHI! MJq K[IJ MgMLJ `IgLJ!
wLK[ KRIVQNPQH TMqIJTI HNPe! MJq `RLJg
u[I IKIRJMN JPKI Ps HMqJIHH LJ.
(From rnPxIR 0IMT[r &y vMKK[Ie dRJPNq (+b22+bbb)
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. vary ti +. $6(); $6(); 6! !"g" vMRzIK ZRLTIH PsKIJ xMRa. .
KRa KP xMRa Va qLIK.
/aJ. change
2. 6! 96! !"g" oQR PZLJLPJH xMRa.
#yn" differ
Note: vary LH KP T[MJgI PR qLssIR ZMRKLMNNa.
variant n ! !"g" u[LH ePRq [MH KeP HZINNLJg xMRLMJKH.
various ad% (M JPQJ LJ K[I HLJgQNMR LH JIxIR QHIq MsKIR LK)
+. 85! 85! !"g" u[IRI MRI xMRLPQH RIMHPJH sPR Va RIsQHMN.
e" 85! !"g" .lNN gLxI aPQ xMRLPQH ISIRTLHIH PJ K[MK RQNI.
#yn" different! !"g" u[Ia MRI fQLKI qLssIRIJK ZIPZNI.
varied ad% 85 (QHIq eLK[ JPQJH `PK[ HLJg! MJq ZL.)! !"g" xMRLIq TNLVMKI!
HTIJIRa! HQRsMTI! KIVZIRMKQRI! PZLJLPJH! HZPRKH! IKT.! !"g" u[I JPxIN qIHTRL`IH K[I xMRLIq TM
RIIR Ps MJ MqxIJKQRIR.
variety n +. ! !"g" yPQ VQHK [MxI VPRI xMRLIKa LJ aPQR sPPq.
2. 6; ! !"g" .lxI gPK HPVI RMRI xMRLIKLIH Ps HQT[ HKMVZH. u[IRI MRI HPVI
RMRI xMRLIKLIH Ps NIMs`IMRLJg KRIIH LJ K[I ZMRz.
variety-show 6! E85 %
2. scene n +. %! ( 6)! !"g" u[I qQIN HTIJI LJ r|MVNIKr LVZRIHHIq QH
gRIMKNa. |IR MTKLJg eMH ePJqIRsQN LJ K[I NMHK HTIJI.
2. $ 5 ( XI!N!, 5JK,!, VK+JK:, !"g" .J K[I sLRHK MTK K[I HTIJI LH NMLq LJ
pRMJTI. uRMsMNgMR eMH K[I HTIJI Ps M sMVPQH `MKKNI `IKeIIJ K[I 0RLKLH[ sNIIK MJq K[I
TPV`LJIq pRIJT[ MJq /ZMJLH[ sNIIKH.
4. 5>! ! =! !"g" . NLzI K[I eMa K[LH eRLKIR qIHTRL`IH RQRMN HTIJIH. yPQ
TPQNq HII MesQN HTIJIH MsKIR K[I IMRK[fQMzI.
scenery n (un)ounta&.e: +. %! !"g" u[I HTIJIRa eMH LVZRIHHLxI LJ K[I NMHK MTK.
u[Ia [MxI MNVPHK JP HTIJIRa LJ K[MK ZNMa.; 2. 5>! DC! !"g" . ZRIsIR ZNMLJH KP
VPQJKMLJ HTIJIRa. . NPPzIq PQK Ps K[I eLJqPe IJPaLJg K[I HTIJIRa.
3. shaIIow ad% +. $5! a0 H[MNNPe eMKIR! M H[MNNPe qLH[
$nt" deep
2. 985! 5; 685! a0 M H[MNNPe VLJq! MRgQVIJK; H[MNNPe
LJKIRIHKH; M H[MNNPe VMJ! ZIRHPJ
$nt" serious (M`PQK M ZIRHPJ! `PPz! MRgQVIJK)! qIIZ (NPxI! sIINLJgH)
Note: K[I QHHLMJ ePRq Y!H5K\ [MH qLssIRIJK VIMJLJgH e[LT[ MRI RIJqIRIq LJ GJgNLH[ `a VIMJH Ps
qLssIRIJK ePRqH: +) sLJI =5 $9 5! a0 fine 0and, &u)/wheat, 2) HVMNN 85
( $)! MH 0ma.. )hange (un)ounta&.e:6, 4) sNMK ;5! 5! MH a f.at
(an ((.ate:"
4. extreme ad% +. 55 (MK PR JIMR K[I IJq PR IqgI)! a0 K[I ISKRIVI IJq (IqgI!
`PRqIR! IKT.)! LJ K[I ISKRIVI 1PRK[
2. 8585; $85! a0 ISKRIVI ZMKLIJTI (NPxI! zLJqJIHH! LJKIRIHK)
extremely adv 85! a0 KP `I ISKRIVINa LJKIRIHKIq LJ HVK[.! KP `I ISKRIVINa HPRRa
sPR HV`.! HVK[.! IKT.
5. suppIy t >6! !"g" .J PQR [MNN K[I HKQqIJKH MRI HQZZNLIq eLK[ MNN K[I JITIHHMRa
sQRJLKQRI MJq `IqqLJg. w[P eLNN HQZZNa K[I ISZIqLKLPJ eLK[ MNN K[I JITIHHMRa IfQLZVIJK{
supply n (PsKIJ (.: (8)! !"g" u[LH H[PZ [MH M NMRgI HQZZNa Ps eLJKIR TPMKH.
to give a good supply of, !"g" u[IHI sPRIHKH gLxI M gPPq HQZZNa Ps KLV`IR.
6. shape n C$! ! !"g" . qPJlK NLzI K[I H[MZI Ps [LH JPHI. u[LH HTQNZKQRI
[MHJlK gPK VQT[ H[MZI! . H[PQNq HMa.
#yn" form, outline
in the shape Ps! !"g" . eMJK KP gIK M `RPPT[ LJ K[I H[MZI Ps M [PRHIH[PI.
shapeless ad% C$85! !"g" |I [Mq M RMggIq TPMK MJq M H[MZINIHH [MK PJ.
shapely ad% 5 C$8; 585! 9D >85! a0 M H[MZINa sLgQRI
7. channeI n ! M HKRIKT[ Ps eMKIR eLqIR K[MJ M HKRMLK! PLJLJg KeP HIMH PR HIZMRMKLJg
KeP `PqLIH Ps NMJq! MH K[I GJgNLH[ O[MJJIN! K[I 0RLHKPN O[MJJIN
#yn" +. ca'nal M T[MJJIN sPR eMKIR VMqI `a VMJ! JPK `a JMKQRI! QHIq sPR H[LZH PR
sPR TMRRaLJg eMKIR KP ZNMTIH K[MK JIIq LK! a0 K[I /QI OMJMN! K[I \MJMVM OMJMN! K[I :PNgM
nPJ OMJMN! K[I pIRgMJM OMJMN; 2. strait M JMRRPe T[MJJIN Ps eMKIR TPJJITKLJg
KeP NMRgI `PqLIH Ps eMKIR! a0 K[I vMgINNMJ /KRMLK! K[I /KRMLK Ps nPxIR
8. vaIue n %6! ! !"g" u[I NLKIRMRa xMNQI Ps K[MK `PPz LH JPK gRIMK. . qPJlK
`INLIxI aPQ RIMNLI K[I xMNQI Ps [LH MqxLTI.
to be of great (little, some, no) value to smb., !"g" .J HPVI aIMRH [LH ZLTKQRIH eLNN `I Ps
gRIMK xMNQI. u[LH `PPz eLNN `I Ps JP xMNQI LJ aPQR HKQqLIH.
value t +. %6! >6! !"g" . gRIMKNa xMNQI [LH sRLIJqH[LZ.
Syn. appreciate ()%6 8! ;$! !"g" wI MNN MZZRITLMKI M [PNLqMa MsKIR M
aIMR Ps [MRq ePRz. . gRIMKNa MZZRITLMKI aPQR zLJqJIHH.
2. %6! !"g" |I xMNQIq K[I [PQHI sPR VI MK b)).
valuable ad% %85! !"g" .KlH M xMNQM`NI ZLTKQRI.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
MqxMJKMgI n sNPe H[MZINa ad%
TMJMN n [MR`PQR n HPLN n
T[MJJIN n NPJINa ad% HKRMLK n
TNLss n VMJQsMTKQRI n HQZZNa
TPVZMRMKLxINa adv ZNMLJ n xMNQM`NI ad%
TRPZ n ZNPQg[ xMNQI , n
TQNKLxMKI RPTza ad% xMRLIq Mq
qIIR n HTIJI n xMRLIKa n
qLHKLJTK ad% HTIJIRa n xMRLPQH Mq
IMgNI n H[MNNPe ad% xMRa x
ISKRIVI ad% H[MZI n eMJqIR
ISKRIVINa adv H[MZINIHH ad% e[IMK n
Word Combinations
KP K[I eIHK (IMHK! JPRK[; HPQK[) Ps LJ K[I JPRK[ (HPQK[! IMHK! eIHK)
eLK[LJ M sIe VLNIH (VIKRIH! IKT.) Ps KP HIZMRMKI HVK[. sRPV HVK[.
KP zIIZ HVK[. sRPV (TPNq! RIgQNMR LJ PQKNLJI
[IMK! `Mq LJsNQIJTI! IKT.) QJqIR e[IMK (RaI, IKT.)
PJ K[I VMZ KP sNPe LJKP (K[I HIM! NMzI! RLxIR)
KP gLxI M gPPq HQZZNa Ps PeLJg KP K[I H[MZI (RMLJ! IKT.)
KP sNPe (sRPV! PQK Ps) KP `I Ps gRIMK (NLKKNI! HPVI! JP) xMNQI
EXERCISES
I. Read the text and do the foIIowing (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, C. Word-formation):
A. +. \LTz PQK MNN ZRPZIR JMVIH MJq MRRMJgI K[IV LJKP KeP gRPQZH JPQJH eLK[ K[I
qIsLJLKI MRKLTNI MJq eLK[PQK LK; ISZNMLJ K[I QHI Ps K[I MRKLTNI. 2. /IMRT[ K[I KISK sPR HIJKIJTIH
eLK[ LJxIRHLPJ. uRMJHsPRV K[IV LJKP RIgQNMR HIJKIJTIH MJq TPVZMRI K[IV eLK[ K[I PRLgLJMN
PJIH. /ZITLsa e[MK zLJq Ps LJxIRHLPJ LK LH. 4. w[MK KIJHI gRPQZ LH ZRIqPVLJMJK LJ K[I KISK MJq
e[a{
B. +. \LTz PQK MNN K[I MqITKLxIH K[MK gP KPgIK[IR eLK[ K[I sPNNPeLJg JPQJH: 0ea, .a/e,
river9 mountain0, hi..0, ).iff09 area, .and, fie.d, moor0, u(.and, .ow.and" 2. vMRz MNN K[I TMHIH
e[IJ JPQJH MRI qIsLJIq `a KeP MqITKLxIH; TPVVIJK PJ K[I ePRq PRqIR; LH LK ZPHHL`NI KP
T[MJgI LK{ 4. \LTz PQK MNN K[I JPQJH qIsLJIq `a K[I MqITKLxI 0ma..9 LH LK ZPHHL`NI KP QHI .itt.e
LJHKIMq{ 3. /IMRT[ K[I KISK sPR K[I TPV`LJMKLPJH Ps $dv ;$d% IJqLJg LJ =ed, KRMJHNMKI K[IV
LJKP QHHLMJ MJq QHI K[IV LJ HIJKIJTIH Ps aPQR PeJ.
C. +. \LTz PQK MNN K[I qIRLxMKLxIH MJq TNMHHLsa K[IV MTTPRqLJg KP K[I HQssLS. 2. /IMRT[ K[I
KISK sPR TPVZPQJqH MJq TPVVIJK PJ K[ILR HKRQTKQRI. 4. \LTz PQK sRPV K[I KISK MNN K[I ePRqH
K[MK [MxI [PVPJaVH. /ZINN! KRMJHTRL`I MJq TNMHHLsa K[IV.
II. Write EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing:
$ ! $8 75! ! ;5 ,)) C!
$6! Y$8 $;$ 6D 2)) $6! ! = =6
23 2*) . $6 233 ))) . $! *,
$ .
III. a) Make up a Iist of geographicaI names used in the text (mind the articIes) and transcribe
them.
b) Transcribe and transIate the foIIowing words:
MqxMJKMgI! TMJMN! T[MJJIN! TPVZMRMKLxINa! qIHPNMKI! qIKIRVLJI! IHKQMRa! ISKRIVINa!
gNPRLPQH! [IMK[IR! LJqIJKMKLPJ! VMJQsMTKQRI! VPPR! JMxLgM`NI! PTTMHLPJMNNa! ZNPQg[! HTIJIRa!
HKRMLK! KPKMN! xMgQI! xMNQI! xMRa! eMJqIR! e[IMK! eLJq.
c) TransIate the foIIowing verbs into EngIish. Give their four forms:
nxt, t, nnt, ut, t, nt, at, ut,
nmnt.
d) Give the pIuraI of the foIIowing nouns. TransIate them into Russian:
qIIR! H[IIZ! sLH[! VPQK[! sPPK
IV. SuppIy adjectives:
+. ... eMKIR LH eMRVIR K[MJ ... eMKIR. 2. OPRJeMNN LH sMVPQH sPR LKH ... TNLssH. 4. .KH ... HPLN LH
qIIZNa TQNKLxMKIq. 3. u[LH ZMRK Ps K[I TPQJKRa LH JPKIq sPR ... TPNq. *. u[I }. j. ... MRIM LH HPVI
23!2*) HfQMRI VLNIH. ,. u[IRI MRI ... sLINqH LJ K[I IMHK Ps GJgNMJq. 7. u[IRI MRI ... [MR`PQRH sPR
H[LZH. b. .J K[I JPRK[IRJ |Lg[NMJqH Ps /TPKNMJq aPQlNN IJPa K[I HLg[K Ps ... VPQJKMLJH. 2.
u[Ia eIRI VMzLJg K[ILR eMa K[RPQg[ ... [LNNH. +). u[IRI eIRI ... ZNMLJH HKRIKT[LJg sPR VLNIH
MJq VLNIH. ++. iPeNMJqH LH K[I ... ZNMLJ Ps /TPKNMJq.
V. Answer the foIIowing questions (use the map on p. 240):
+. w[MK qP eI TMNN K[I gRPQZ Ps LHNMJqH HLKQMKIq KP K[I JPRK[eIHK Ps GQRPZI{ 2! w[MK MRI
K[I JMVIH Ps K[I `LggIHK LHNMJqH{ 4. nP K[I }JLKIq jLJgqPV MJq URIMK 0RLKMLJ VIMJ K[I
HMVI{ 3. w[MK TPQJKRLIH MRI HLKQMKIq PJ K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH{ w[MK MRI K[ILR TMZLKMNH{ *. w[MK LH
URIMK 0RLKMLJ ZRPZIR{ ,. w[MK MRI K[I JMVIH Ps K[I eMKIRH eMH[LJg K[I TPMHKH Ps K[I 0RLKLH[
.HNIH{ 7. w[a qP K[I GJgNLH[ TMNN K[I HKRMLK `IKeIIJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ MJq K[I VMLJNMJq K[I
r/KRMLK Ps nPxIRr MJq K[I pRIJT[ TMNN LK r\MHqIOMNMLHr (LJKIRJMKLPJMN KIRV){ b. w[MK MRI K[I
VPHK LVZPRKMJK RLxIRH LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ{ 2. w[MK MRI K[I JMVIH Ps K[I T[LIs VPQJKMLJ RMJgIH
PJ K[I LHNMJq{ +). w[IRI MRI K[I OQV`RLMJ MJq K[I OMV`RLMJ VPQJKMLJH HLKQMKIq{
VI. TransIate the foIIowing sentences in writing. (ConsuIt EssentiaI VocabuIary (I).) Respond
to the questions and statements, using the conversationaI formuIas (see p. 164, Ex. XI 8):
+. 8 $> 6 >5D 8 { 2. h
6D5 %. 4. _ 8! ({ 3.
; 8$ >$ ; > 9D$ $ 5
8. *. F ;8 7 ;7 k{ ,. F
k 9 . F 87{ 7. ' "E $
6 68 ! . b. t $> 96
8 6; 9{ 2. (6 6D 6 95 $ 7;
; D%5. +). $ 5 8 9 6D
8 ;{ ++. 69 $9 & 9 ; F5 (ORPaqPJ)!
$ $ 6D5 E.
VII. Study the foIIowing derivatives and compounds:
HMJqa! JPKLTIM`NI! ZNPQg[NMJq! HIMNPxLJg! [IMK[IRTPxIRIq! VQqqa! JMxLgM`NI! HQgMR
`IIK! NPeNaLJg! eMKIReMaH! sRQLKgRPeLJg.
a) Write out the sentences in which they are used in the text.
b) Use them in sentences of your own.
c) Give EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing:
85! $85! >85! >85! 85! ;85! 8$85!
85! 9$85! 85! 985! 85! 685!
%85! 985! $85! $85! $85! 9=5.
d) Give Russian equivaIents of the foIIowing:
xMRLIKaH[Pe! e[IMKsLINq! TPMNHQZZNLIR! ZNPQg[VMJ! [IMK[IRVPPR! [PRHIH[PI! HIMH[PRI!
HIMHTMZI! IMRK[fQMzI;
qIIR[QJKLJg! e[IMKgRPeLJg! H[IIZ`RIIqLJg! TRPZgMK[IRLJg! NMJqZNPQg[LJg! HJPe
ZNPQg[LJg;
H[LZ`QLNqLJg (aMRqH)! NIMs`IMRLJg (KRIIH)! JMKQRINPxLJg (JMKLPJ)! sQR`IMRLJg (MJLVMNH)!
PTIMJgPLJg (HKIMVIRH)! sPPqZRPqQTLJg (LJqQHKRLIH);
HJPeTPxIRIq (sLINqH)! HVPzIsLNNIq (RPPV)! VMJVMqI (TMJMN)! gRMHHTPxIRIq (ZNMLJ)! HIM
`PQJq (H[LZ)! eIMK[IR`IMKIJ (sMTI)! VPPJNLK (ZMK[).
VIII. SuppIy articIes where necessary. Write answers to the questions:
+. iPPz MK... VMZ Ps ... 0RLKLH[ .HNIH. nP aPQ zJPe e[MK... KeP NMRgIHK LHNMJqH MRI TMNNIq{ 2.
... RLg[K[MJq HLqI Ps... VMZ LH ... GMHK. w[MK HIM LH IMHK Ps ... URIMK 0RLKMLJ{ 4. .J e[MK
qLRITKLPJ LH ... .RLH[ /IM sRPV ... URIMK 0RLKMLJ{ 3. \PLJK KP ... `Pqa Ps ... eMKIR e[LT[ LH eIHK
Ps ... .RINMJq. w[MK qP eI TMNN LK{ *. uPeMRqH ... `PKKPV Ps ... VMZ LH ... /PQK[. w[MK LH KP
eMRqH ... KPZ Ps ... VMZ{ ,. .J e[MK qLRITKLPJ LH ... URIMK 0RLKMLJ sRPV ... GJgNLH[ O[MJJIN{ 7.
w[MK TPQJKRa LH eIHK Ps ... GJgNMJq{ b. pLJq ... u[MVIH. ... RLxIRHl MNeMaH sNPe KPeMRqH ...
HIM. .J e[MK qLRITKLPJ qPIH ... u[MVIH sNPe{ 2. ... /IxIRJ sNPeH LJKP ... 0RLHKPN O[MJJIN!
qPIHJlK LK{ +). w[IRI qPIH ... /IxIRJ RLHI{ ++. w[MK qP eI TMNN... [Lg[IHK ZMRK Ps... /TPKNMJq{
+2. pLJq ... GqLJ`QRg[ MJq ... UNMHgPe. .J e[MK ZMRK Ps ... /TPKNMJq MRI K[Ia HLKQMKIq{ +4.
w[IRI MRI ... O[IxLPK |LNNH{ +3. .J e[MK qLRITKLPJ MRI ... 0RLKLH[ .HNIH sRPV ... VMLJNMJq{ +*.
w[MK eMKIR `Pqa HIZMRMKIH ... 0RLKLH[ .HNIH sRPV ... OPJKLJIJK{
IX. Study VocabuIary Notes and transIate the iIIustrative exampIes into Russian.
X. SuppIy suitabIe words (consuIt EssentiaI VocabuIary I):
+. u[I GJgNLH[ ...! LJ LKH JMRRPeIHK ZMRK (K[I ... Ps nPxIR) LH PJNa 42 zV eLqI. 2. u[I ... Ps
/TPKNMJq LH JPKIq sPR LKH eLNq MJq qIHPNMKI `IMQKa. 4. u[I RLxIRH Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ MRI Ps JP
gRIMK... MH eMKIReMaH! HPVI Ps K[IV MRI PLJIq `a VIMJH Ps ... . 3. u[I RINLIs Ps URIMK
0RLKMLJ ... KP M RIVMRzM`NI qIgRII. *. u[Ia KPPz ... Ps K[ILR HKMa in iPJqPJ KP `RQH[ QZ K[ILR
GJgNLH[. ,. u[I T[LIs gRMLJ.. MRI PMKH MJq `MRNIa. 7. LxIRH LJ GJgNMJq MRI HINqPV sRPIJ. ...
MRI LTIsRII. b. 1ISK KP TPMN MJq LRPJ! HKPJI MJq HNMKI MRI VPHK ... VLJIRMNH LJ GJgNMJq. 2. u[I
RLT[ ... Ps HPQK[IMHK GJgNMJq LH eINN TQNKLxMKIq. +). u[I wINH[ vPQJKMLJH MRI xIRa ... MJq
qLssLTQNK KP TNLV`. ++. u[I HIMH HQRRPQJqLJg K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH MRI xIRa ...! QHQMNNa NIHH K[MJ 4))
sIIK qIIZ. +2. 0RLKMLJlH TPVZNIS gIPNPga LH PJI Ps K[I VMLJ RIMHPJH sPR LKH RLT[ ... Ps HTIJIRa.
+4. .J eLJKIR IMHKIRJ 0RLKMLJ sMTIH K[I TPNqIR TPJKLJIJK e[IRIMH eIHKIRJ 0RLKMLJ sMTIH K[I ...
eMRV dKNMJKLT. +3. .J VPHK MRIMH K[I sMRVIR ... PJNa K[I xMNNIa NMJqH MJq K[I ... e[IRI HPLNH
MRI qIIZIR MJq RLT[IR. +*. u[IRI MRI ... KaZIH Ps eLNq xIgIKMKLPJ! LJTNQqLJg K[I JMKQRMN sNPRM Ps
ePPqH! sIJH MJq VMRT[IH. +,. u[I iMzI nLHKRLTK LH sMVPQH sPR LKH ....
XI. Express the same idea in your own words or expIain the foIIowing substituting
synonyms for the words in itaIics:
+. uPV MVHMa HZIJK KeP [MZZa aIMRH LJ K[I variou0 TMZLKMNH Ps GQRPZI. 2. 0NPqeaJ!
gMLJg MK K[I qMRz PQK/VI Ps VPQJKMLJH `IsPRI [IR! zJIe K[MK RMLJ ePQNq sMNN `IsPRI JLg[K
KLVI. 4. u[I eLJqPeH Ps HIVLTLRTQNMR 0ha(e eIRI PJ K[I NIxIN Ps K[I sNPPR. 3. |I wa0
wandering M`PQK eLK[ KeP ZIJTI LJ [LH ZPTzIK MJq JPe[IRI KP gP sPR K[I JLg[K. *. .K eMH K[I
HKRLJg Ps ZIMRNH vLHH P`LJHPJ eMH eIMRLJg MJq LK eMH va.ued MK *) K[PQHMJq ZPQJqH. ,.
iMRRa [Mq M ePJqIRsQNNa VINPqLPQH xPLTI eLK[ M HLJgQNMR variety Ps KPJI. 7. u[I T[LNqRIJ
a((re)iated K[I VIT[MJLTMN KPaH K[Ia [Mq JIxIR HIIJ `IsPRI. b. |LH [MJqH eIRI NPJg! `QK JPK
NMRgI sPR [LH HLI! `IMQKLsQNNa 0ha(ed MJq MK K[I HMVI KLVI HKRPJg. 2. /[I [MH KeIJKa aIMRH
advantage PxIR VI. +). 0PK[ [Mq the advantage Ps HZIMzLJg gPPq MJq sNQIJK pRIJT[. ++.
u[Ia [MxI QHK [Mq M KIRRLsLT 0)ene" +2. . QHIq RP wander M`PQK K[I HeIIKHVINNLJg VIMqPeH
LJ K[I IxIJLJg. +4. |I eMH JPK LJKIRIHKIq LJ aPQR xLIeH PJ K[I HPTLMN MJq VPRMN va.ue Ps K[ILR
RINMKLPJH[LZ. +3. u[PQg[ H[I [Mq NPHK K[I sRIH[ `NPPV Ps eQtreme aPQK[! K[IRI eMH JPK M NLJI
PJ [IR sPRI[IMq PR QJqIR [IR [MIN IaIH. +*. u[I TNLVMKI LH HQssLTLIJKNa varied sPR `PK[ HQ`
KRPZLTMN MJq HQ`MRTKLT ZNMJKH to &e )u.tivated within the eQtent Ps K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH. +,. u[I
0RLKLH[ sMRVIR )u.tivate0 M )om(arative.y HVMNN KRMTK Ps NMJq ZRPqQTLJg M variety Ps ZRPqQTKH.
+7. uPV RMJ MRPQJq MJq HKPZZIq within a foot or two Ps K[I sNPeIR. +b. Cwing to JQVIRPQH
RMZLqH K[I RLxIR LH JPK JMxLgM`NI. +2. mQNLM \IJqNIKPJ NLzIq KP HLK TRPHHNIggIq PJ K[I TPQT[
QHK KP H[Pe [IR 0ha(e.y NIgH LJ HLNz HKPTzLJgH.
XII. FiII in prepositions. Make a study of the text'
mQHK Pss K[I TPMHK... K[I VMLJNMJq ... JPRK[eIHKIRJ GQRPZI MJq PJNa JLJIKIIJ VLNIH
qLHKMJK ... LK ... K[I JIMRIHK ZPLJK NLIH K[I HVMNN gRPQZ ... LHNMJqH zJPeJ MH K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH.
u[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH LJTNQqI URIMK 0RLKMLJ! .RINMJq MJq M JQV`IR ... HVMNN LHNMJqH. URIMK
0RLKMLJ TPJHLHKH ... GJgNMJq! /TPKNMJq MJq wMNIH. u[I HPQK[IRJ KeP K[LRqH ... .RINMJq MRI
PTTQZLIq ... K[I .RLH[ IZQ`NLT e[LT[ `PRqIRH ... 1PRK[IRJ .RINMJq. URIMK 0RLKMLJ LH M RIgLPJ ...
xMRLIq NPeNMJqH! RPNNLJg [LNNH MJq sIe VPQJKMLJH. dNK[PQg[ K[I [Lg[IHK ZIMz! 0IJ 1IxLH ...
K[I URMVZLMJH ... /TPKNMJq! RLHIH ... 3!3)) sIIK! HQT[[ILg[KH HINqPV PTTQR. u[I \IJJLJI
MJgI ... JPRK[IRJ GJgNMJq RLHIH PJNa HNLg[KNa ;.. 4!))) sIIK! MH qP K[I OMV`RLMJ VPQJKMLJH ...
wMNIH.
... K[I ISKRIVI HPQK[ ... GJgNMJq MRI K[I sMVIq T[MNz [LNNH HPVI ... e[LT[ sPRV K[I nPxIR
ONLssH.
u[I RLxIRH ... K[I RIgLPJ MRI H[PRK MJq ... gIJIRMN sNPe ... K[I TIJKRMN MJq HPQK[IRJ
NPeNMJqH ... K[I HQRRPQJqLJg HIMH. vMJa ... K[IV MRI TPJJITKIq ... IMT[ PK[IR ... TMJMNH. u[I
TPMHKH ... K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH MRI eMH[Iq ... K[I dKNMJKLT oTIMJ! K[I 1PReIgLMJ! 1PRK[ MJq .RLH[
HIMH MJq KeP `Lg T[MJJINH (K[I GJgNLH[ O[MJJIN MJq K[I 1PRK[ O[MJJIN).
XIII. Write questions about the text, using new words and phrases in each question. When
asking and answering the questions use the map.
XIV. Give EngIish equivaIents of the Russian word 45678 in its different meanings. Use
them in sentences of your own.
XV. a) Read and transIate the foIIowing text:
u[I eMRV TQRRIJKH LJ K[I dKNMJKLT oTIMJ LJsNQIJTI K[I TNLVMKI Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ. u[I
eLJKIRH MRI JPK HIxIRINa TPNq! e[LNI HQVVIRH MRI RMRINa [PK.
MLJsMNN LH IxIJNa qLHKRL`QKIq K[RPQg[PQK K[I aIMR.
u[I ZIRTIJKMgI Ps K[I TNPQqLJIHH LH [Lg[! eINN PxIR [MNs K[I qMaH Ps K[I aIMR `ILJg
PxIRTMHK; sPgH MNPJg K[I TPMHK MH eINN MH PTTMHLPJMNNa LJ K[I LJKIRLPR sRIfQIJKNa [LqI K[I HQJ.
u[I sPgH Ps iPJqPJ! PsKIJ VMqI HIxIRI `a VLSKQRI eLK[ TLKa HVPzI (HVPg)! [MxI M ePRNq
eLqI RIZQKMKLPJ! `QK PJI JPK KP `I IJxLIq.
b) TaIk (or make up a diaIogue) on the cIimate "of the European part of Russia using the
terms from the text above.
XVI. TransIate these sentences iato EngIish:
+. ?8 7! 89 $8 >! 6 . 2.. ; 8
5 ~5. 4. ~ 8 5 D5 5 5!
; 8 8=6 6958 68. 3. A 6!
$> 6 6 88 $ $$ . *. ' 6D %!
6! 8$ $. ' 8 > 9 D9 ;. ,. h
5 $ $ C$ 77 D7. 7. ~ 8 $ 6
=6 E 768 >8! 8 (sMqI) . b. #85
DC ;8$ $ 7; D5 8. 2. '
! (K[I KQJqRM). +). 5 ;>6
; . ++. Y6 > 8 5 8 (`NMJz
HZMTIH).
XVII. FiII in:
a) to change, to vary or to differ.
+. u[I HPLN ... eLK[LJ M sIe VLNIH LJ VMJa qLHKRLTKH! ZRPqQTLJg H[MRZ TPJKRMHK Ps HTIJIRa
MJq sNPRM. 2. u[I TNLVMKI Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ ... gRIMKNa sRPV K[MK Ps K[I OPJKLJIJK. 4. u[I
eIMK[IR ... xIRa PsKIJ LJ GJgNMJq. 3. u[I sMTI Ps /TPKNMJq ... sRPV K[MK Ps /PQK[ GMHK
GJgNMJq. *. u[I IqQTMKLPJMN HaHKIV Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ ... sRPV K[MK Ps K[I }JLKIq /KMKIH. ,.
uMHKIH .... 7. |I NPPzIq ISMTKNa MH H[I RIVIV`IRIq [LV! MH aPQJg! MH sRMJz! `QK [LH
ISZRIHHLPJ eMH .... b. u[I MxIRMgI eLJKIR KIVZIRMKQRI ... `IKeIIJ 4O MJq 7O. 2.
w[MK TMJ [MxI [MZZIJIq KP ... [LV HP VQT[{ +). u[MK LH M ZPLJK PJ e[LT[ aPQ MJq H[I ePQNq
TIRKMLJNa....
b) different, varios or varied!
+. QHHLM [MH M ... TNLVMKI `ITMQHI Ps LKH xMHK KIRRLKPRa. 2.... `RMJT[IH Ps LJqQHKRa MRI sPQJq
LJ URIMKIR iPJqPJ. 4. u[LH gPPq e[IMK NMJq LH fQLKI ... sRPV K[PHI `ILJg TQNKLxMKIq LJ
JPRK[IRJ RIgLPJH. 3. 0RLKMLJ LH LVVIJHINa ... eLK[LJ M HVMNN MRIM. *. u[I LJHITK sMQJM LJ
0RLKMLJ LH NIHH... K[MJ K[MK Ps OPJKLJIJKMN GQRPZI. ,. |I [MH `IIJ KP ... ZNMTIH Ps K[I ISKRIVI
1PRK[. 7. d gNMJTI MK K[I VMZ LH IJPQg[ KP HII [Pe... K[I HQRsMTI Ps GJgNMJq LH. b. d [PVI LJ
K[I TPQJKRa LH xIRa... sRPV MJ MZMRKVIJK LJ K[I TLKa. 2. . [MxI TPVI MTRPHH [LV LJ RITIJK aIMRH
PJ ... PTTMHLPJH. +). u[I aPQJg VMJ MHzIq VI ... zLJqH Ps fQIHKLPJH. ++. u[I JIeHZMZIRH
TMRRLIq ... RIZPRKH Ps K[I HKPRV. +2. w[MK eI eIMR JPeMqMaH LH fQLKI ... sRPV e[MK PQR
MJTIHKPRH ePRI. +4. |I HKMRKIq KP KIMT[ VI UIRVMJ. |I ePQNq KINN VI K[I UIRVMJ sPR K[I ...
P`ITKH eI ZMHHIq! M TPe! M [PRHI! M VMJ MJq HP PJ! MJq K[IJ VMzI VI RIZIMK HLVZNI UIRVMJ
HIJKIJTIH. +3. u[RPQg[ VMJa aIMRH Ps... TPJqLKLPJH [I zIZK K[LJzLJg Ps [LH sMVLNa. +*.
|MxLJg KRLIq ... KPZLTH Ps TPJxIRHMKLPJ . sINK IS[MQHKIq.
c) to vale or to appreciate!
+. /[I KPNq OPQJK 0PRTINNL K[MK [IR JITzNMTI eMH... MK ILg[K K[PQHMJq ZPQJqH. 2. mQqgLJg
`a [LH ePRqH [I ... aPQR [INZ. 4. 0ILJg MHzIq e[MK [I K[PQg[K Ps M ZPHHL`NI T[MJgI LJ K[I
ZNMJ [I HMLq [I... LK 3. 0QK . ePQNq JPK NLzI [LV KP K[LJz K[MK . qP JPK... K[I [PJPQR K[MK [I [MH
qPJI VI. *. u[I ZLTKQRI LH ... MK M K[PQHMJq qPNNMRH. ,. . HQZZPHI PJNa M pRIJT[VMJ TMJ ... KP
K[I sQNN K[I gRMTI Ps MTLJI MJq K[I VQHLT Ps [LH xIRHI. 7. mMJI dQHKIJlH ePRz LH KP `I ...
ZRLVMRLNa MH HMKLRI. b. vR. OPPz ... [LH HITRIKMRa sPR [IR MTTQRMTa.
d) lonely or alone!
+. /[I HKMaIq ... LJ [IR RPPV RIsQHLJg KP TPVI qPeJHKMLRH. 2. u[ILRH eMH M ... [PQHI
LHPNMKIq `a K[I VPQJKMLJH. 4. |I sINK VLHIRM`NI MJq .... 3. ... LJ K[I [PQHI eMH vLHH /MRLI
:LNNLIR. *. GNNLPK LJ [LH eINNTQK qLJJIR MTzIK NPPzIq INIgMJK MH [I ... TPQNq NPPz. ,. rnP aPQ
zJPe K[MK VIIKLJg aPQ sPR K[I sLRHK KLVI LH KP VI NLzI M ... KRMxINNIR TPVLJg MTRPHH HPVI
`RLg[K sNPeIRNIK LJ K[I qIHIRKcr HMLq /LR pRMJTLH. 7. |I eMH ... e[IJ . eMH QH[IRIq LJ. b.
pRMQ 0ITzIR HIIVIq KP NPPz sPR PZZPRKQJLKLIH Ps `ILJg ... eLK[ iMRRa. 2. u[I 0RLKLH[
sMRV[PQHI LH PsKIJ HPVI qLHKMJTI sRPV M ZQ`NLT RPMq. u[I NLsI K[IRI LH [MRq MJq .... +). yPQJg
mPNaPJ ... MVPJg K[I pPRHaKIH eMH LgJPRMJK Ps 0PHLJJIalH JLTzJMVI.
XVIII. TransIate the sentences into EngIish:
+. t$ D 8 ! 8D >5. 2. 'D
-6; 9 ~5. 4. ;5
D9 ;89 89 $;5! 9 $ $ >. 3.
;6! $; 5 8 98
7 5 (TMHK MJT[PR). *. AF 7
$! (85 k7 X. ,! h 6 %
$ . 7. ~ 96 $ >6 >8$
$. b. 6D 6 95 $ E$ 5 D%5. 2. ->
$ ; $8 8 5! =9
;. +). & >6 F5; $ 6 ! 6 6
; ; $ $; 9.
XIX. The tabIe beIow (ApriI, 1981) shows some simiIarities and differences between the four
countries of Great Britain:
GJgNMJq /TPKNMJq wMNIH 1PR[IRJ .RINMJq
dRIM (Hf zV) +4)!322 7b!+44 2)!772 +4!*7,
\PZQNMKLPJ 32!4))!))) *!+))!))) 2!2))!))) +!7))!)))
|Lg[IHK
VPQJKMLJ
([ILg[K)
/TMsINN
\LzI
27b V
0IJ
1IxLH
+!432 V
/JPeqPJ +!)b* V /NLIxI nPJMRq
b*2 V
iMRgIHK TLKa (ZP
ZQNMKLPJ)
iPJqPJ (URIMKIR
iPJqPJ) 7!)73!4))
UNMHgPe ,++!,,) OMRqLss 4+b!))) 0INsMHK 227!2))
wI TMJ ZPLJK PQK K[I HLVLNMRLKLIH NLzI K[LH:
.J HZLKI Ps K[I P`xLPQH qLssIRIJTIH LJ HLI MJq ZPZQNMKLPJ! K[I TPQJKRLIH Ps K[I }j [MxI
quite a lot in common. wMNIH MJq 1PRK[IRJ .RINMJq MRI fairly similar LJ HLI! K[PQg[ K[I
MRIM Ps wMNIH LH slightly NMRgIR. u[IRI isn't much difference LJ ZPZQNMKLPJ `IKeIIJ OMRqLss
MJq 0INsMHK! K[PQg[ 0INsMHK LH just a little NMRgIR.
/TMsINN \LzI MJq /JPeqPJ MRI more or less the same [ILg[K! K[PQg[ /JPeqPJ LH just a
few VIKRIH [Lg[IR. Both /JPeqPJ and 0IJ 1IxLH MRI PxIR +!))) V [ILg[K! K[PQg[ neither
Ps K[IV LH all that [Lg[ TPVZMRIq eLK[ K[I dNZH! sPR ISMVZNI.
a) Practise using the words and word combinations in bold type to make other
comparisons between some two-four regions of Russia. Write your best sentences
down.
b) In small groups, compare your own country (republic) with another country
(republic) you know well. What are the similarities in Climate, Industry, People,
Traffic, Railways, Scenery, City life, Food, Agriculture, Education, Clothes?
XX. TaIk about your home town. Use the foIIowing diaIogue as a modeI:
d.: yPQlRI sRPV wMNIH! MRIJlK aPQ{
n.: yIH! K[MKlH RLg[K. . TPVI sRPV /eMJHIM MTKQMNNa.
d.: d[! /eMJHIMc .lxI JIxIR `IIJ K[IRI. .KlH M ZPRK! LHJlK LK{
n.: o[ aIH `Lg qPTzH! HKIIN ePRzH MJq M NPK Ps [IMxa LJqQHKRa RPQJq M`PQK. 0QK LKlH
sQJJa! QHK PQKHLqI K[I KPeJ K[IRIlH RIMNNa `IMQKLsQN TPQJKRa. .KlH ISKRIVINa `IMQKLsQN MNPJg K[I
TPMHK K[I UPeIR \IJLJHQNM. 1P LJqQHKRa PR JPK[LJg QHK NLzI LK eMH M [QJqRIq aIMRH
MgP.
d: /PQJqH gRIMK. dJq [Pe NMRgI LH /eMJHIM{
n.: o[! LKlH M `Lg TLKa. yPQ VQHKJlK K[LJz K[MK MNN K[I ZIPZNI LJ wMNIH NLxI LJ xLNNMgIH! wI
[MxI TLKLIH KPPc
d.: yIH! . HQZZPHI HP.
XXI. Try your hand at teaching.
1. Say what you would do in the teacher's position:
\MQN! M HIJLPR LJ [Lg[ HT[PPN! VQHK PQKHVMRK IxIRa MqQNK eLK[ e[PV [I TPVIH LJ TPJKMTK.
|LH JIIq KP sIIN HQZIRLPR LH HP HKRPJg K[MK [I HZIJqH [PQRH ZNPKKLJg [Pe [I TMJ MT[LIxI [LH
gPMN. |I gPIH KP K[I NL`RMRa KP NPPz QZ qIsLJLKLPJH MJq LJsPRVMKLPJ Ps LRRINIxMJK HQ`ITK
VMKKIR! MJq TPJsRPJKH K[I KIMT[IR eLK[ fQIHKLPJH NLzI rw[MK zLJq Ps qRIHH qLq mPHIZ[LJI eIMR
e[IJ H[I VMRRLIq 1MZPNIPJ{r /LJTI K[I KIMT[IR TMJJPK MJHeIR K[LH fQIHKLPJ! \MQN ZRPTIIqH
eLK[ [LH LJsPRVMKLPJ MJq ZRPxIH [LH HQZIRLPRLKa KP K[I e[PNI TNMHH.
2. a) Try and act as a teacher of geography and discuss one of the following topics.
Make use of Essential Vocabulary (1). Use the map when speaking. (Give a three-
minute talk.)
b) Comment on the students' knowledge of the topic, their skill of reading the map
and the choice of the vocabulary:
+. u[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH MJq K[I HIMH! HKRMLKH MJq T[MJJINH! eMH[LJg K[ILR TPMHK. 2. u[I RINLIs Ps
GJgNMJq! LKH [Lg[NMJqH! NPeNMJqH MJq VPQJKMLJH. 4. u[I RLxIRH Ps GJgNMJq. 3. u[I iMzI
nLHKRLTK. *. /KRMKsPRqPJdxPJ. ,. u[I RINLIs Ps /TPKNMJq. 7. u[I RINLIs Ps wMNIH. b. u[I
TNLVMKI Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ. 2. u[I RINLIs MJq TNLVMKI Ps .RINMJq. (/II rONMHHRPPV GJgNLH[r!
/ITKLPJ :...)
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "The British Isles", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat the text
following the model.
2. Paraphrase the sentences, using the suggested speech patterns. Check your
sentences with the key (oral work).
3. Complete the sentences with geographical terms. Write these terms down and
check them with the key (oral and written work).
4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into English; b) check
them with the key.
5. Do the suggested exercises and check them with the key (written work).
6. Listen to the text "Soil and Vegetation" or some other text on Geography: a) write
it as a dictation; b) retell it.
TOP!: GEOGRAPHY
TEXT A. INDUSTRIAL AND AGRICULTURAL DISTRICTS IN GREAT
BRITAIN
GJgNMJq LH M [Lg[Na qIxINPZIq LJqQHKRLMN TPQJKRa. u[I TLKa Ps iPJqPJ LH PJI Ps K[I
wPRNqlH K[RII NIMqLJg sLJMJTLMN TIJKRIH MNPJg eLK[ 1Ie yPRz MJq `a sMR K[I `LggIHK LJ
GQRPZI u[I 0MJz Ps GJgNMJq LH K[I TPVVIRTLMN ZQNHI Ps K[I TLKa Ps iPJqPJ e[LNI URIMKIR
iPJqPJ LH LVZPRKMJK sPR ZRPqQTKH Ps MNN zLJgH LJ TNQqLJg sPPq! LJHKRQVIJK IJgLJIIRLJg!
INITKRLTMN MJq INITKRPJLT IJgLJIIRLJg! TNPK[LJg! sQRJLKQRI MJq ZRLJKLJg. .K [MH HPVI [IMxa
IJgLJIIRLJg ZNMJKH MJq HIxIRMN NIMqLJg RIHIMRT[ IHKM`NLH[VIJKH. iPJqPJ LH M gRIMK ZPRK eLK[
VMJa qPTzH.
1PRK[eIHK Ps iPJqPJ! LJ K[I VLqNMJq TPQJKLIH (K[I vLqNMJqH) LH M xIRa LVZPRKMJK
LJqQHKRLMN qLHKRLTK e[LT[ LH zJPeJ MH K[I r0NMTz TPQJKRar. .J 0LRVLJg[MV! K[I TIJKRI Ps K[LH
MRIM! MJq LJ K[I VMJQsMTKQRLJg KPeJH JIMR`a! xMRLPQH gPPqH MRI ZRPqQTIq: VMT[LJI KPPNH!
KQ`IH! qPVIHKLT VIKMNeMRI! RQ``IR ZRPqQTKH! IKT. u[I NMRgIHK TPMN MJq LRPJ sLINqH LJ 0RLKMLJ
MRI NPTMKIq LJ K[I vLqNMJqH. pQRK[IR JPRK[ LH vMJT[IHKIR! PJI Ps K[I VMLJ TIJKRIH sPR
INITKRLTMN MJq [IMxa IJgLJIIRLJg MJq sPR VI ZRPqQTKLPJ Ps M eLqI RMJgI Ps gPPqH LJTNQqLJg
TPVZQKIRH! INITKRPJLT IfQLZVIJK! ZIKRPT[IVLTMNH! qaIHKQssH MJq Z[MRVMTIQKLTMNH. u[I
vMJT[IHKIR /[LZ OMJMN NLJzH vMJT[IHKIR eLK[ iLxIRZPPN! PJI Ps 0RLKMLJlH NIMqLJg HIMZPRKH.
GMHK Ps vMJT[IHKIR LH K[I TLKa Ps /[IssLINq! eINNzJPeJ sPR LKH VMJQsMTKQRI Ps [Lg[ fQMNLKa
HKIINH! KPPNH MJq TQKNIRa. d H[PRK RMLNeMa PQRJIa KP K[I JPRK[IMHK eLNN KMzI aPQ sRPV
vMJT[IHKIR KP 0RMqsPRq! K[I TPVVIRTLMN TIJKRI Ps K[I ePPN KRMqI.
pQRK[IR JPRK[ LH 1IeTMHKNI HLKQMKIq PJ K[I 1PRK[ /IM TPMHK! M TLKa sMVPQH sPR LKH
H[LZ`QLNqLJg aMRqH MJq LKH ISZPRK Ps TPMN.
w[MK LH RIVMRzM`NI M`PQK K[I HITPJq [MNs Ps K[I 2)K[ TIJKQRa LH K[I MTTINIRMKLJg ZMTI Ps
T[MJgI.
u[I /TPKKLH[ ITPJPVa [MH VPxIq MeMa sRPV K[I KRMqLKLPJMN LJqQHKRLIH Ps TPMN! HKIIN MJq
H[LZ`QLNqLJg. 1PRK[IMHK /TPKNMJq LH JPe K[I TIJKRI Ps PssH[PRI PLN MJq gMH LJqQHKRLIH. u[IRI
[MH `IIJ M HLgJLsLTMJK qIxINPZVIJK LJ [Lg[KIT[JPNPga LJqQHKRLIH! HQT[ MH T[IVLTMNH!
INITKRPJLT IJgLJIIRLJg MJq LJsPRVMKLPJ KIT[JPNPga. .J /TPKNMJq! K[I RLT[IHK ZMRK LH K[MK Ps K[I
iPeNMJqH. |IRI K[IRI MRI TPMN MJq LRPJ sLINqH. UNMHgPe LH K[I NMRgIHK TLKa! HIMZPRK MJq
KRMqLJg TIJKRI Ps /TPKNMJq.
ITIJK qITMqIH [MxI HIIJ sQJqMVIJKMN T[MJgIH LJ K[I wINH[ ITPJPVa. wMNIH LH MJ
LVZPRKMJK TIJKRI sPR TPJHQVIR INITKRPJLTH! LJsPRVMKLPJ KIT[JPNPga! T[IVLTMNH! MJq sPPq MJq
qRLJz.
dNK[PQg[ 0RLKMLJ LH M qIJHINa ZPZQNMKIq! LJqQHKRLMNLIq TPQJKRa! MgRLTQNKQRI LH HKLNN PJI Ps
LKH VPHK LVZPRKMJK LJqQHKRLIH. nMLRaLJg LH VPHK TPVVPJ LJ K[I eIHK Ps GJgNMJq! e[IRI K[I
eIKKIR TNLVMKI IJTPQRMgIH K[I gRPeK[ Ps gPPq gRMHH. /[IIZ MJq TMKKNI MRI RIMRIq LJ K[I [LNNa
MJq VPPRNMJq MRIMH Ps JPRK[IRJ MJq HPQK[eIHKIRJ GJgNMJq. .KH `IHK sMRVNMJq NLIH LJ K[I
HPQK[IMHKIRJ ZNMLJH.
u[I HPQK[ Ps GJgNMJq LH RQRMN! eLK[ VMJa sIRKLNI xMNNIaH! eINNTQNKLxMKIq sLINqH MJq
ZMHKQRIH.
u[I HPQK[IMHKIRJ TPMHK LH eINNzJPeJ sPR LKH ZLTKQRIHfQI HTIJIRa MJq VLNq TNLVMKI MJq M
JQV`IR Ps ZPZQNMR RIHPRKH. oJ K[I HPQK[IRJ TPMHK Ps GJgNMJq K[IRI MRI VMJa NMRgI ZPRKH!
MVPJg K[IV: /PQK[MVZKPJ! \PRKHVPQK[! \NaVPQK[.
TEXT B. THE ENGLISH LANDSCAPE
. zJPe K[MK K[IRI MRI VMJa KaZIH Ps JMKQRMN HTIJIRa LJ GJgNMJq. 0QK e[MK LH K[IRI LJ
K[I GJgNLH[ NMJqHTMZI K[MK HKRLzIH K[I IaI Ps K[I HKRMJgIR QHIq KP PK[IR TPQJKRLIH{
.KH rZMRzNLzIr MZZIMRMJTI! . `INLIxI. GJgNMJq LJ KRQK[ NPPzH NLzI PJI gRIMK eINNPRqIRIq
ZMRz eLK[ LKH PNq KRIIH! gRIIJ VIMqPeH MJq [IqgIH.
0QK MH sMR MH . zJPe K[I [IqgIH KMzI QZ M TPJHLqIRM`NI ZMRK Ps HPLN HQLKM`NI sPR
ZNPQg[LJg.
u[Ia qP. 0QK K[I GJgNLH[VMJ NPxIH K[I gRIIJ Ps GJgNMJq eLK[ LKH [IqgIH! KIJqIRgRIIJ
LJ HZRLJg! TPxIRIq eLK[ NIMs MJq sNPeIR LJ HQVVIR! M `NMI Ps gPNq MJq RIq LJ MQKQVJ. .J
eLJKIR KPP K[Ia MRI HKLNN `IMQKLsQN eLK[ M sIe HTMRNIK `IRRLIH MNVPHK `QRJLJg LJ K[I sRPHK.
dJq aIK! Ls GJgNMJq HeIZK MeMa [IR [IqgIH MJq ZQK LJ K[ILR ZNMTI sIJTIH K[I HMxLJg Ps
NMJq ePQNq `I IJPRVPQH.
0QK VQT[ Ps K[I ZMRzNLzI `IMQKa Ps K[I TPQJKRaHLqI ePQNq `I gPJI MJq eLK[ LK K[I
ZITQNLMR T[MRMTKIR Ps K[I GJgNLH[ NMJqHTMZI.
. [IMR K[IRI MRI M NPK Ps NPxINa gMRqIJH MNN MNPJg K[I GJgNLH[ TPQJKRaHLqI. dRI GJgNLH[
ZIPZNI sPJq Ps gMRqIJLJg{
u[Ia MRI. dNVPHK IxIRa PJI LJ GJgNMJq KRLIH KP TPVI LJ KPQT[ eLK[ M `LK Ps ZNMJK NLsI.
.J K[I GMHK Ps iPJqPJ aPQ VMa HII ePRzLJgVMJlH rsNMKHr eLK[ K[ILR eLJqPe gMRqIJH. .J K[I
wIHK GJq! NMJq e[LT[ LH ePRK[ VMJa K[PQHMJqH Ps ZPQJqH ZIR MTRI LH qIxPKIq KP gMRqIJ QHI.
.J K[I HVMNN HQ`QR`MJ xLNNMH M xIRa TPJHLqIRM`NI KMS Ps VPJIa MJq NM`PQR i0 ZMLq LJ K[I IssPRK
KP zIIZ LJ gPPq PRqIR M NLKKNI ZPTzIK [MJqzIRT[LIs Ps NMeJ MJq M sIe H[RQ`H.
wINN! . K[LJz K[MK K[LH ZRPxIH K[MK K[I GJgNLH[VMJ LH MK [IMRK M gRIMK NPxIR Ps JMKQRI!
K[PQg[ [I LH HQZZPHIq KP `I HQT[ M ZRPHMLT MJq ZRMTKLTMN ZIRHPJ.
TEXT C. LOOKING AT THE MAP OF RUSSIA
.lq NLzI aPQ KP KINN VI HPVIK[LJg M`PQK aPQR TPQJKRa.
. K[LJz K[I `IHK eMa KP gIK M gIJIRMN LqIM Ps M TPQJKRa LH KP HKQqa K[I VMZ. .KlH NQTza
.lxI gPK PJI eLK[ VI. |IRI LK LH.
\IR[MZH eI [Mq `IKKIR HKMRK eLK[ K[I Z[aHLTMN PQKNLJI Ps K[I TPQJKRa.
wINN! QHHLM TMJ `I qLxLqIq RPQg[Na LJKP KeP VMLJ RIgLPJH K[I [Lg[NMJqH LJ K[I IMHK
MJq K[I NPeNMJqH TPxIRLJg K[I gRIMKIR ZMRK Ps K[I TPQJKRa! eLK[ M NPJg VPQJKMLJ RMJgI TQKKLJg
LK LJKP KeP QJIfQMN ZMRKH.
yPQ VIMJ K[I }RMNH. u[Ia sPRV K[I JMKQRMN `PRqIR `IKeIIJ GQRPZI MJq dHLM. 0QK K[I
[Lg[IHK VPQJKMLJ T[MLJH! MH sMR MH . TMJ HII MRI HLKQMKIq LJ K[I HPQK[ MJq K[I HPQK[IMHK Ps K[I
TPQJKRa. w[MK qP aPQ TMNN K[IV{
u[I OMQTMHQH! `IKeIIJ K[I OMHZLMJ MJq K[I 0NMTz /IM MJq K[I dNKML LJ dHLM.
.lq NPxI KP gP K[IRI. va [P``a LH VPQJKMLJIIRLJg. 0QK PQR VPQJKMLJH MRI JPK HP [Lg[ MH
aPQRH! MH sMR MH . zJPe.
. `INLIxI K[Ia MRI JPK wI [MxI ZIMzH sPQR MJq M [MNs VLNIH [Lg[. 0QK eI MNHP [MxI
NPeNMJqH HIxIRMN [QJqRIq sIIK `INPe HIM NIxIN. wI [MxI HKIZZIH LJ K[I HPQK[! ZNMLJH MJq
sPRIHKH LJ K[I VLqNMJqH! KQJqRM MJq KMLgM LJ K[I JPRK[.
w[MK MRI K[I rHKIZZIHr{
u[Ia MRI KRIINIHH ZNMLJH TPxIRIq eLK[ gRMHH. u[I HPLN LH sIRKLNI K[IRI.
dJq LH K[I KQJqRM NLzI PQR [IMK[IR VPPRH{
1PK LJ K[I NIMHK. .KlH M zLJq Ps sRPIJ qIHIRK LJ K[I dRTKLT RIgLPJ.
dJq e[MK LH K[I lKMLgMl! . ePJqIR{
.KlH M K[LTz TPJLsIRPQH sPRIHK HKRIKT[LJg KP K[I HPQK[ Ps K[I KQJqRM. .KlH RLT[ LJ MJLVMNH!
xMNQIq sPR K[ILR sQR NLzI HM`NI! sPS! HfQLRRIN.
.lq NLzI KP gP [QJKLJg K[IRI! `QK .lV MsRMLq . ePQNq JIxIR `I M`NI KP HKMJq KPI TPNq.
oQR TNLVMKI LH MNHP xMRLIq. .J K[I HPQK[eIHK K[I eIMK[IR LH QHQMNNa VLNq MJq eIK;
JPRK[IRJ dHLM LH PJI Ps K[I TPNqIHK ZNMTIH PJ IMRK[! MJq LJ K[I HPQK[ K[I [IMK LH QJ`IMRM`NI.
0QK LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I TPQJKRa K[I TNLVMKI LH VPqIRMKI MJq TPJKLJIJKMN.
wINN! LK [MH `IIJ xIRa LJKIRIHKLJg sPR VI KP [IMR MNN K[PHI K[LJgH. u[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[
sPR aPQR LJsPRVMKLPJ.
Memory Work
GJgNMJqc eLK[ MNN K[a sMQNKH! . NPxI K[II HKLNN!
. HMLq MK OMNMLH! MJq [MxI JPK sPRgPK LK
. NLzI K[I KMSIH e[IJ K[IalRI JPK KPP VMJa;
. NLzI M HIMTPMN sLRI! e[IJ JPK KPP qIMR;
. NLzI M `IIsHKIMz! KPP! MH eINN MH MJa;
|MxI JP P`ITKLPJ KP M ZPK Ps `IIR;
. NLzI K[I eIMK[IR e[IJ LK LH JPK RMLJa!
u[MK LH! . NLzI KeP VPJK[H Ps IxIRa aIMR. feorge 'yron
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY ()
Words
`PRqIR n [IqgI n! RIHPRK n
TMKKNI n
NIxIN n RQRMN ad% T[IVLTMNH n
VMT[LJIRa n
HKIZZI n TPKKPJ n VPqIRMKI ad%
HKRIKT[ , n
qIHIRK n ZMHKQRI n KMLgM n
qPTz n
ZIMz n KPPN n sIJTI n
ZLTKQRIHfQI ad%
KQJqRM n sIRKLNI ad% RMJgI n xMHK
ad%
sLJMJTLMN ad% RMe ad%
Word Combinations
LJsPRVMKLPJ KIT[JPNPga qIJHINa (K[LJNa) ZPZQNMKIq TPJHQVIR
INITKRPJLTH
H[LZ`QLNqLJg aMRqH [Lg[Na qIxINPZIq KRMqLJg TIJKRI
TPMN (LRPJ) sLINqH RQRMN qLHKRLTK PssH[PRI PLN
LJqQHKRa
RLT[ LJ (HVK[.) [IMxa (NLg[K) IJgLJIIRLJg VPqIRMKI (VLNq)
TNLVMKI
Proper Names
K[I dxPJ nQ`NLJ K[I 1PRK[ /IM
0INsMHK GLRI K[I \IJJLJIH
0LRVLJg[MV UNMHgPe \PRKHVPQK[
K[I 0RLHKPN O[MJJIN K[I URMVZLMJH K[I /IxIRJ
K[I OMV`RLMJH K[I |I`RLqIH /[IssLINq
K[I O[IxLPK |LNNH K[I oRzJIa .HNMJqH /PQK[MVZKPJ
K[I ONaqI K[I /[IKNMJq .HNMJqH K[I /KRMLK Ps nPxIR
K[I OQV`RLMJH .RINMJq K[I uaJI
iIIqH K[I u[MVIH
vMJT[IHKIR
K[I vIRHIa
1IeTMHKNI
EXERCISES
I. Study Texts A and and a) transcribe the words beIow:
ZIKRPT[IVLTMNH! TPVVIRTI! sIRKLNI! IJgLJIIRLJg! LRPJ! LJqQHKRa! IfQLZVIJK! VPqIRMKI!
RIHPRK! Z[MRVMTIQKLTMNH! qMLRaLJg! RIMR! RQRMN! ZLTKQRIHfQI! VIMqPe! ZNPQg[LJg! MTRI.
b) Transcribe the geographicaI names used in Text A,
II, Pick out front Text A EngIish equivaIents of the foIIowing:
8 $8D ! =5 C85 %! >
$D! $;685 5! E !
68 C! 7=5 $ $!
89;$ ! 8 C 8$ $!
C$% 9;! 8 E! 85 67
! $! 9$ 8 C; 86!
69585 5! 8 8! 9D 8 !
>85 5>! $;5 $! $8 8.
III. Writte questions about Text A, using the words and phrases from Ex. II. Prepare to
discuss the text (Use he map.)
IV. Read Text and pick-out EngIish squivaIents of the foIIowing phrases:
6 = $n.! $6 .! 86
7 ;%! 6 $7! $ 7$ ($5 )!
6 $ ! > $! 5 $! $85.
V. ReteII Text in indirect speech. Try and give an additionaI piece of information on the
topic.
VI. FiII in Use weirds bolder, boundary or frontier. Choose the correct aIternative.
Note: u[I QHHLMJ ePRq ,*JKg* [MH HIxIRMN IfQLxMNIJKH LJ GJgNLH[: `PRqIR ;
8 $%5 ! !"g" u[I ZIPZNI NLxLJg PJ K[I `PRqIR Ps
KeP MqPLJLJg TPQJKRLIH QHQMNNa HZIMz K[I NMJgQMgIH Ps `PK[.; `PQJqMRa ;%
;6 ! ! !"g" u[LH HKRIMV sPRVH M `PQJqMRa `IKeIIJ K[I KeP sMRVH.;
sRPJKLIR ;% $% ! ; ;%! !" U, KP ZMHH K[I
sRPJKLIRH! ; 5 ( `PRqIR) 6
$%5 ! !"g" KP gQMRq K[I sRPJKLIRH! sRPJKLIR HKMKLPJ! sPRKRIHH! LJTLqIJK! qLHZQKI!
+. w[IJ eI eIJK TMVZLJg! eI ZQK QZ PQR KIJKH PJ K[I ... Ps K[I NMzI. 2. u[I ... LJTLqIJK
eMH RIZPRKIq `a K[I JIeHZMZIRH LJ qIKMLN. 4. d ... qLHZQKI LH M fQMRRIN M`PQK e[IRI M ... LH PR
PQg[K KP `I. 3. u[I RLxIR sPRVIq M ... `IKeIIJ K[IHI RQRMN qLHKRLTKH. *. u[I [MNsRQLJIq KPeIR
QHIq KP `I M ... sPRKRIHH. ,. u[I RIgLPJ MNPJg K[I `PQJqMRa `IKeIIJ GJgNMJq MJq /TPKNMJq LH
TMNNIq K[I ... . 7. d [IqgI LH M sIJTI PR M RPe Ps `QH[IH PR NPe KRIIH! e[LT[ MRI ZNMJKIq KP
sPRV M ... RPQJq M gMRqIJ PR sLINq. b. URIMK 0RLKMLJlH .... JPRK[IRJ! IMHKIRJ MJq HPQK[IRJ! MRI
sPRVIq `a HIMH MJq PTIMJH.
VII. Study Text and use it as a modeI for a taIk between an EngIishman and a Russian who
is on his first visit to EngIand.
VIII. FiII in the words north, west east, south, or their derivatives:
+. u[I ... [MNs Ps PQR TPQJKRa TPJHLHKH VMLJNa Ps NPe ZNMLJH! e[LNI K[I gRIMKIR ZMRK Ps K[I ...
[MNs Ps QHHLM LH TPxIRIq eLK[ VPQJKMLJ T[MLJH. 2. .J /L`IRLM K[I `LggIHK RLxIRH MRI K[I o`!
K[I yIJLHHIL MJq K[I iIJM. u[Ia sNPe ... K[RPQg[ M xMHK MRIM ZMRMNNIN KP PJI MJPK[IR. 4. u[I
TNLVMKI TPJKRMHKH MRI fQLKI HKRLzLJg LJ QHHLM. yPQ TMJ sLJq K[I ... `RMxLJg K[I sRPHKH K[MK
RIMT[ 7) qIgRIIH `INPe IRP OIJKLgRMqI MJq MK PJI MJq K[I HMVI KLVI K[I ... `MHzLJg .J K[I
HQJ PJ ... HIMH[PRIH NLJIq eLK[ gRIIJ ZMNVH. 3. u[I iIJLJgRMq RIgLPJ NLIH KP K[I ... Ps
vPHTPe. *. d ... LH M ZIRHPJ e[P NLxIH LJ K[I ... MJq M ... LH PJI e[P NLxIH LJ K[I ... . ,. nIxPJ
MJq OPRJeMNN MRI HLKQMKIq PJ K[I ... ZIJLJHQNM Ps GJgNMJq.
IX. SuppIy articIes where necessary:
u[IRI LH JP PK[IR TPQJKRa LJ ... ePRNq e[PHI JMKQRI LH VPRI xMRLIq K[MJ K[MK Ps ...
QHHLM. ... eIHKIRJ [MNs Ps ... TPQJKRa TPJHLHKH VMLJNa Ps... NPe ZNMLJH. u[I TPQJKRa LH qLxLqIq
LJKP KeP ZMRKH `a ... }RMN VPQJKMLJH.... gRIMKIR ZMRK Ps ... IMHKIRJ [MNs LH TPxIRIq eLK[ xMHK
ZNMKIMQH MJq VPQJKMLJ T[MLJH. |IRI! PJ ... jMVT[MKzM \IJLJHQNM ... `LggIHK MTKLxI xPNTMJPIH
Ps ... oNq wPRNq MRI NPTMKIq.
.J ... HPQK[ ... ZNMLJH Ps ... eIHKIRJ [MNs Ps ... TPQJKRa MRI `PQJqIq `a... [QgI VPQJKMLJ
RMJgIH. |IRI MRI ... TPQJKRalH [Lg[IHK ZIMzH.
vMJa Ps ... RLxIRH Ps... QHHLM MRI MVPJg ... ePRNqlH gRIMKIHK ... VPHK LVZPRKMJK RLxIRH Ps ...
eIHKIRJ ZNMLJ MRI ... :PNgM! ... wIHKIRJ nxLJM!... nPJ MJq ... 1PRK[IRJ nxLJM.
.J ... pMR GMHK... dVQR sNPeH LJKP ... \MTLsLT.
.J ... NMzIH! KPP! PQR TPQJKRa LH ISKRIVINa RLT[. dVPJg K[IV MRI ... ePRNqlH gRIMKIHK NMzI ...
OMHZLMJ /IM MJq ... qIIZIHK ... NMzI 0MLzMN.
X. Discuss the foIIowing topics (use the map):
+. GJgNLH[ HTIJIRa MJq TNLVMKI.
2. dgRLTQNKQRMN qLHKRLTKH Ps GJgNMJq.
4. u[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK LJqQHKRLMN RIgLPJH LJ GJgNMJq.
3. \[aHLTMN `MTzgRPQJq Ps QHHLM.
*. u[I HQRsMTI Ps QHHLM.
,. u[I TNLVMKI Ps QHHLM.
Note: Evaluate these talks according to their information content: amount and
quality of information.
XI. SuppIy prepositions where necessary:
oQR VPK[IRNMJq LH LVVIJHI. .KlH ... sMR K[I NMRgIHK MJq RLT[IHK TPQJKRa `PK[ ... dHLM MJq
GQRPZI. .KH sRPJKLIR NLJI LH K[I NPJgIHK... K[I ePRNq.
1MKQRMN TPJqLKLPJH ... QHHLM xMRa gRIMKNa. .s aPQ TRPHH QHHLM ... K[I ISKRIVI 1PRK[ ... K[I
/PQK[ aPQ eLNN gIK M gPPq LqIM ... K[I TNLVMKI TPJKRMHKH! KP HMa JPK[LJg ... K[I qLssIRIJTI ...
HTIJIRa MJq xIgIKMKLPJ! T[MRMTKIRLHKLT ... xMRLPQH gIPgRMZ[LTMN PJIH. /L`IRLM QJNLzI ... K[I
}RMNH! K[I sMTI ... uMKMRa qLssIRH ... K[MK... K[I OMQTMHQH. oJI RIgLPJ LH RLT[ ... PJI K[LJg!
MJPK[IR LH RLT[ ... MJPK[IR.
\IR[MZH JP TPQJKRalH gIPgRMZ[LT NPTMKLPJ [MH ZNMaIq HQT[ M[ LVZPRKMJK ZMRK... LKH [LHKPRa
MH QHHLMlH. |MNs... GQRPZI MJq [MNs... dHLM! LKH [LHKPRa [MH RIxPNxIq ... K[LH `MHLT sMTK.
XII. 1. Describe the scenery, cIimate and industries of your home town, region or repubIic. 2.
Choose four sIides or postcards and give a commentary on them. With the first picture,
concentrate on describing what there is in the picture. With the second one try to give the
position of things accurateIy. You can use the third one for taIking about how and when the
picture was taken. And the Iast one can be the starting point for a story or joke. (See
"CIassroom EngIish" Section V.)
XIII. Finish up the sentences according to the modeI. (ConsuIt a dictionary.):
GJgNLH[VIJ NLxI LJ GJgNMJq! K[Ia HZIMz GJgNLH[.
... LJ /TPKNMJq!.... ... LJ .RINMJq! .... ... LJ /eIqIJ! ....
... LJ 1PReMa! .... ... LJ nIJVMRz!.... ... LJ |PNNMJq! ...
... LJ /ZMLJ! ... ... LJ K[I }/d! .... ... LJ /eLKIRNMJq!....
XIV. Make up diaIogues between an EngIish and a Russian student on the topics:
+. vPHTPe MJq iPJqPJ TQNKQRMN MJq LJqQHKRLMN TIJKRIH.
2. u[I VMLJ LJqQHKRLMN TIJKRIH (KPeJH! ZPRKH! IKT.) Ps QHHLM MJq GJgNMJq.
4. QRMN MRIMH Ps `PK[ TPQJKRLIH.
XV. TransIate the foIIowing, putting it into your own words:
a) express your opinion;
b) say how far factors like climate, the geography of a country, its history,
religion(s), system of government, etc affect national character. Give examples.
) write some brief notes about your own national character as yon think foreigners
see yon. Then, in small groups, describe to each other this "foreign" view of your
nation and say why you agree or disagree with it.
B x
<%685 9 7 >. < $ E
6D5 ! $ ;$! 8 $! $7
>6 5 8. Y
;. (66 9 9. ' $6D ;9 >8
$ $! 9=$ $$. >! ! 6! 5
6 9 E 6$ 89 >
689 ! 89 6$ 8! ; > $8;
> =! 7= ; > $> 86 .
"5 $ E${ ; $
=7 7 $! E! . < ! 7
87 >6 5 ! $ $.
<$$8 $ $9%8! $ 8
8.
X9 766 $ $6 D$ ;! $ 7
; 8! 6 8 5 5. 9=6
C%5 95! ; $6 $. < 6
D85 >7 6 9 9.
5 = C$$! > $ 8 8!
9 E%.
E 8! 8$! >5! 6 = : 5 5
6 ;55 9 8 ;8$ $8$.
h!JK" FKH 3YY*UV! ((k)! ;$ $%. +273
876 >6! ; ; $6. A$8
9 ;. < E ! 6 $8 D! 7 ;6!
5. F D$ 9D$! 8 8 ;55 8 >$
7 $ =$ $$! 87 ; %685
9 =5 6 >.
> O" MKNHK (;)! ;! +274
XVI, Comment on the foIIowing proverbs and sayings. (ExpIain their meaning, give their
Russian equivaIents.):
GMHK PR wIHK! [PVI LH `IHK. u[IRI LH JP ZNMTI NLzI [PVI.
/P VMJa TPQJKRLIH! HP VMJa TQHKPVH. w[IJ MK PVI! qP MH K[I PVMJH qP.
PVI eMH JPK `QLNK LJ M qMa. uP TMRRa TPMNH KP 1IeTMHKNI.
XVII. Read the foIIowing passage and a) discuss it in detaiI; b) give a short summary of the
passage; c) comment on the foIIowing:
K[I `IMQKa Ps 0RLKMLJ MH K[I MQK[PR HIIH LK;
K[I xMRLIKa Ps gIPgRMZ[LTMN sIMKQRIH;
M [MZZa TPVZRPVLHI `IKeIIJ 1MKQRI MJq vMJ.
wI NLxI LJ PJI Ps K[I VPHK `IMQKLsQN LHNMJqH LJ K[I ePRNq. u[LH LH M sMTK eI MRI MNeMaH
sPRgIKKLJg. w[IJ `IMQKLsQN LHNMJqH MRI VIJKLPJIq eI K[LJz Ps uRLJLqMq MJq uM[LKL. u[IHI MRI
sLJI! RPVMJKLT ZNMTIH! `QK K[Ia MRI JPK RIMNNa MH ISfQLHLKINa `IMQKLsQN MH PQR PeJ 0RLKMLJ.
0IsPRI K[I VLJIH MJq sMTKPRLIH TMVI! MJq NPJg `IsPRI eI eIJK sRPV `Mq KP ePRHI eLK[ PQR
MRKIRLMN RPMqH MJq ZIKRPN HKMKLPJH MJq [PRRL`NI `RLTz `QJgMNPeH! K[LH TPQJKRa VQHK [MxI `IIJ
MJ IJT[MJKVIJK. GxIJ JPe! MsKIR eI [MxI `IIJ `QHa sPR HP NPJg sNLJgLJg VQq MK K[LH sMLR ZMNI
sMTI! K[I IJT[MJKVIJK HKLNN RIVMLJH. /PVIKLVIH . qPQ`K Ls eI qIHIRxI KP ZPHHIHH LK. u[IRI TMJ
`I sIe ZMRKH Ps K[I ePRNq LJ e[LT[ TPVVIRTLMN gRIIq MJq ZQ`NLT LJqLssIRIJTI [MxI TPV`LJIq
KP qP VPRI qMVMgI K[MJ K[Ia [MxI [IRI. u[I ZRPTIHH TPJKLJQIH. .K LH HKLNN KPP PsKIJ MHHQVIq
K[MK MJa IJKIRZRLHLJg sINNPe MsKIR fQLTz ZRPsLKH [MH M ZIRsITK RLg[K KP qIHKRPa M NPxINLJIHH K[MK
LH K[I [IRLKMgI Ps K[I e[PNI TPVVQJLKa.
u[I `IMQKa Ps PQR TPQJKRa LH MH [MRq KP qIsLJI MH LK LH IMHa KP IJPa. IVIV`IRLJg PK[IR
MJq NMRgIR TPQJKRLIH eI HII MK PJTI K[MK PJI Ps LKH T[MRVH LH K[MK LK LH LVVIJHINa xMRLIq
eLK[LJ M HVMNN TPVZMHH. wI [MxI [IRI JP xMHK VPQJKMLJ RMJgIH! JP LNNLVLKM`NI ZNMLJH. 0QK eI
[MxI HQZIR` xMRLIKa. d gRIMK qIMN Ps IxIRaK[LJg LH ZMTzIq LJKP NLKKNI HZMTI. . HQHZITK K[MK eI
MRI MNeMaH sMLJKNa TPJHTLPQH Ps K[I sMTK K[MK K[LH LH M HVMNNLH[ LHNMJq! eLK[ K[I HIM MNeMaH
RPQJq K[I TPRJIR! wI zJPe K[MK IxIRaK[LJg [MH KP `I JIMKNa ZMTzIq LJKP M HVMNN HZMTI.
1MKQRI! eI sIIN! [MH TMRIsQNNa MqQHKIq K[LJgH VPQJKMLJH! ZNMLJH! RLxIRH! NMzIH KP K[I HTMNI
Ps K[I LHNMJq LKHINs. d VPQJKMLJ +2!))) sIIK [Lg[ ePQNq `I M [PRRL`NI VPJHKIR [IRI! MH eRPJg
MH M ZNMLJ 3)) VLNIH NPJg! M RLxIR MH `RPMq MH K[I vLHHLHHLZZL; u[PQg[ K[I gIPgRMZ[LTMN
sIMKQRIH Ps K[LH LHNMJq MRI TPVZMRMKLxINa HVMNN! MJq K[IRI LH MHKPJLH[LJg xMRLIKa MNVPHK
IxIRae[IRI! K[MK qPIH JPK VIMJ K[MK PQR VPQJKMLJH MRI JPK VPQJKMLJH! PQR ZNMLJH JPK ZNMLJH.
oQR T[LNqRIJ MJq K[ILR T[LNqRIJ MsKIR K[IV VQHK NLxI LJ M `IMQKLsQN TPQJKRa. .K VQHK `I M
TPQJKRa [MZZLNa TPVZRPVLHLJg `IKeIIJ 1MKQRI MJq vMJ! `NIJqLJg e[MK eMH `IHK! ePRK[
RIKMLJLJg sRPV K[I ZMHK eLK[ e[MK `IHK RIZRIHIJKH K[I HZLRLK Ps PQR PeJ MgI! M TPQJKRa RLT[ LJ
JP`NI KPeJH MH LK LH LJ KRIIH! `LRqH! MJq eLNq sNPeIRH.
(From ru[I 0IMQKa Ps 0RLKMLJr &y m. . \RLIHKNIa)
XVIII. RoIe-pIaying:
vR. 1LTI! M NITKQRIR! LJ [LH IMRNa sPRKLIH. |LH KPZLT:
rnPJlK /ZPLN 1MKQRIr.
u[I MQqLIJTI: dNIS! M HTIZKLTMNNaVLJqIq aPQJg VMJ Ps 2+! M HKQqIJK Ps
UIPgRMZ[a; vLHH nPRPK[a \IMT[! MJ MRqIJK NPxIR Ps
JMKQRI! MgI 74;
vR. pRIqIRLTz |IMNIa! M PQRJMNLHK ePRz LJg PJ M ZPZQNMR
JIeHZMZIR! VLqqNIMgIq.
IHK Ps TNMHH: VMzI PssIRH MJq HQggIHKLPJH RINMKLJg KP K[I ZRP`NIV.
Don't Spoll Nature
0PK[ LJ qIJHINa MJq LJ K[LJNa ZPZQNMKIq TPQJKRLIH K[I MQK[PRLKLIH VMzI RIgQNMKLPJH MJq
gLxI [LJKH KP ePQNq`I KPQRLHKH KP ZRPKITK K[I TPQJKRaHLqI sRPV ZPNNQKLPJ.
|IRIlH e[MK K[I uPQRLHK ossLTI Ps pLJNMJq MqxLHIH ePQNq `I xLHLKPRH: w[LNI aPQ MRI
IJPaLJg K[I QJLfQIJIHH Ps K[I pLJJLH[ NMJqHTMZI! K[I sPRIHKH! K[I NMzIH! K[I RLxIRH! K[I HIMH!
K[I eLNq NLsI MJq xIgIKMKLPJ! aPQ H[PQNq P`Ia K[I QJeRLKKIJ NMeH Ps JMKQRI. /[IIR
TMRINIHHJIHH MJq K[PQg[KNIHHJIHH TMJ TMQHI gRIMK qMVMgI. dH aPQ KRMxIN M`PQK! ZNIMHI
RIVIV`IR aPQ MRI M gQIHK LJ K[I pLJJLH[ TPQJKRaHLqI.
.K LH sPR`LqqIJ KP `RIMz Pss `RMJT[IH Ps KRIIH MJq `QH[IH. \LTzLJg sNPeIRH (ISTIZK
ZRPKITKIq HZITLIH) LH MNNPeIq. w[IJ aPQ KRMxIN `a TMR ZNIMHI MxPLq K[RPeLJg NLKKIR MJq
RQ``LH[ M`PQK. \QK LK LJ ZNMHKLT `MgH MJq KMzI LK KP K[I JISK ZNMTI e[IRI eMHKI LH TPNNITKIq. .J
iMZNMJq! K[I `IMQKa Ps K[I NMJqHTMZI LH ISKRIVINa sRMgLNI MJq IMHLNa qMVMgIq. IVIV`IR
K[MK LK TMJ KMzI PxIR 2)) aIMRH sPR K[I KRMTzH NIsK `a aPQR TMR KP qLHMZZIMR.
dNK[PQg[ LK VMa `I KIVZKLJg KP qRLxI PxIR VPPRH Ps iMZNMJq aPQ VQHK MNeMaH zIIZ KP K[I
RPMqH. 0ITMQHI K[I TNLVMKI LJ iMZNMJq LH HP TPNq! VIKMN gNMHH MJq ZNMHKLT eMHKI RIVMLJ
QJT[MJgIq sPR TIJKQRLIH.
/QggIHKIq Z[RMHIH: Pight, )an we &egin, then, do you thin/] Can you a.. hear me at the
&a)/E food, that60 fine. I6m going to ta./ a&out: a0 you /now9 anyhow" I6d %u0t .i/e to run
through the main (oint0""" 2he fir0t thing of )our0e, i0""" $nd on to( of that... Now ha0
any&ody got any (oint0 he6d .i/e to rai0e] Now, that60 a good 8ue0tion" 2he thing here i0
IR we6ve thought a .ot a&out thi0 one" I thin/ that60 it then" 2han/0 very mu)h for your
attention"
XIX. FiIm "Mr. Brown's HoIiday". FiIm Segment 7 "How do I Get to...?" (SaIIsbury), a) Watch
and IisIen, b) Do the exercises from the fiIm.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH
VII
.J LKH `RPMqIHK HIJHI MJa VIMJLJgsQN ZLITI Ps eRLKKIJ ZRPHI VMRzIq sPR LKH QJLKa! TPJKIJK
MJq VIHHMgI VMa `I TMNNIq M TPVZPHLKLPJ! K[MK LH M QJLK Ps eRLKKIJ TPVVQJLTMKLPJ LJxPNxLJg
M eRLKIR! M VIHHMgI MJq M RIMqIR.
0IKeIIJ K[I HIJKIJTI MJq K[I e[PNI TPVZPHLKLPJ HKMJqH K[I ZMRMgRMZ[. .K LH M TPVZPHLKLPJ
LJ VLJLMKQRI `ITMQHI LK VIIKH K[I HMVI RIfQLRIVIJK Ps QJLKa! TPJKIJK MJq VIHHMgI (HII
r/KQqLIH Ps wRLKKIJ GJgNLH[r LJ }JLKH oJI! ueP! u[RII).
d gRPQZ Ps ZMRMgRMZ[H TPJHKLKQKIH VPRI TPVZNIS TPVZPHLKLPJH! HQT[ MH IHHMaH! H[PRK
HKPRLIH! MTTPQJKH! NIKKIRH! TNMHHTPVZPHLKLPJH MH M HZITLMN ISIRTLHI LJ eRLKKIJ TPVVQJLTMKLPJ!
IKT.
Essay LH M H[PRK ZRPHI TPVZPHLKLPJ (*2) ZMgIH) PJ M ZMRKLTQNMR HQ`ITK. }HQMNNa LK LH Ps
ISZNMJMKPRa MJq MRgQVIJKMKLxI JMKQRI (HII r/KQqLIHr LJ }JLK oJI). pPR LJHKMJTI! K[I ZMHHMgI
ruIMT[IR uRMLJLJg LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJr (HII }JLK pLxI) MH eINN MH r.JKRPqQTLJg iPJqPJr (HII
}JLK u[RII) LH TNPHI KP M sPRVMN IHHMa. rw[MKlH yPQR iLJIr (HII }JLK oJI) MJq K[I sLRHK NIKKIR
Ps mQqa qIHTRL`LJg [IR TPNNIgI ISZIRLIJTI (HII }JLK pLxI) VMa `I TNMHHIq eLK[ LJsPRVMN
IHHMaH PJ KIMT[LJg.
}JLKa Ps IHHMaH LH `QLNK QZ MRPQJq K[I TIJKRMN LqIM. dJa MqqLKLPJ Ps QJLVZPRKMJK qIKMLNH PR
MsKIRK[PQg[KH qIHKRPa K[I QJLKa.
OP[IRIJTI LH MT[LIxIq K[RPQg[ HzLNsQN MRRMJgIVIJK Ps qIKMLNH MTTPRqLJg KP K[I sPNNPeLJg
RQNIH: M) ZRIHIJK aPQR VMKIRLMN sRPV rK[I gIJIRMN KP K[I ZMRKLTQNMRr; `) KRa K[I PRqIR Ps
IJQVIRMKLPJ! K[MK LH! MRRMJgI HIxIRMN ZPLJKH Ps xLIe MTTPRqLJg KP K[ILR LVZPRKMJTI! PR
LJKIRIHK! PR PRqIR Ps [MZZIJLJg; T) QHI zIaePRqH MH TPJJITKLxIH MJq KRMJHLKLPJH.
u[I sPNNPeLJg LH M `RLIs NLHK Ps KRMJHLKLPJMN ePRqH MJq Z[RMHIH K[MK [INZ KP TPJJITK
ZMRMgRMZ[H Ps MJ IHHMa: on the one (other: hand, in the 0e)ond (.a)e, on the )ontrary, at the
0ame time, in (ari)u.ar, in 0(ite of thi0, in .i/e manner, in )ontra0t to thi0, in the meantime,
of )our0e, in )on).u0ion to 0um u(, in addition, more(ver, fina..y, after a.., and tru.y, in
other word0"
GVZ[MHLH LH MT[LIxIq eLK[ K[I [INZ s TPJTRIKI qIKMLNH. dxPLq gIJIRMNLKLIH MJq
M`HKRMTKLPJH. 0IsPRI eRLKLJg MJ IHHMa TPJHLqIR K[I sPNNPeLJg:
+. /KQqa K[I VMKIRLMNH M`PQK K[I KPZLT.
2. u[LJz Ps K[I VMLJ LqIM aPQ MRI gPLJg KP qIxINPZ LJ aPQR IHHMa.
4. wRLKI MJ LJsPRVMN IHHMa riPPzLJg MK K[I vMZ Ps QHHLM.r
3. vMzI M ZNMJ (KPZLT ZNMJ! HIJKIJTI ZNMJ! ZMRMgRMZ[ ZNMJ).
*. nIxINPZ K[I ZMRMgRMZ[ ZNMJ LJKP MJ IHHMa MTTPRqLJg KP K[I RQNIH Ps QJLKa! TP[IRIJTI MJq
IVZ[MHLH.
,. UP PxIR K[I IHHMa sPR rHINsIqLKLJgr ZQRZPHI MJq HII Ls LK VIIKH K[I VMLJ RIfQLRIVIJK Ps
gPPq eRLKLJg TNMRLKa Ps TPVVQJLTMKLPJ.
Assignments:
1. Mke an outline of the passage "The British Isles" and analyse it from the point of
view of its unity, coherence and emphasis.
2. Write a formal essay "Looking at the Map of the British Isles" according to your
own plan.
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
+. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISKH r.JqQHKRLMN MJq dgRLTQNKQRMN nLHKRLTKH LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJr! ru[I GJgNLH[
iMJqHTMZIr! riPPzLJg MK K[I vMZ Ps QHHLMr. vMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH. IZIMK K[I KISKH
sPNNPeLJg K[I VPqIN.
2. wLK[PQK NPPzLJg `MTz MK K[I KISKH! qITLqI e[IK[IR K[I sPNNPeLJg HKMKIVIJKH MRI KRQI PR
sMNHI.
4. GSKIJq K[I HIJKIJTIH MTTPRqLJg KP K[I VPqIN.
3. wRLKI M HZINNLJgKRMJHNMKLPJ KIHK; M) KRMJHNMKI K[I Z[RMHIH LJKP GJgNLH[; `) T[ITz K[IV
eLK[ K[I zIa.
*. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK ru[I iMzI nLHKRLTKr MJq eRLKI LK MH M qLTKMKLPJ. O[ITz LK eLK[ K[I zIa.
,. iLHKIJ KP K[I ZPIV rGJgNMJqr `a U. U. 0aRPJ. vMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH. iIMRJ LK `a
[IMRK .
7. iLHKIJ KP K[I KISK ru[I .HNI Ps vMJr PR HPVI PK[IR KISK qLHTRL`LJg M ZMRK Ps URIMK
0RLKMLJ. vMzI M HQVVMRa Ps K[I VMLJ ZPLJKH Ps K[I ZMHHMgI.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
I. Quiz "Across the Globe".
Answer the following questions. It is accuracy and amount of Information that count
when choosing the winner:
+. w[MK LH K[I NPJgIHK RLxIR LJ K[I ePRNq{
2. .J e[MK eMa qP K[I eIHKIRJ H[PRIH Ps K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH qLssIR sRPV K[I IMHKIJ H[PRIH{
4. w[MK MRI K[I HVMNNIHK TPQJKRLIH LJ K[I ePRNq{
3. w[MK NMJgQMgI LH HZPzIJ LJ |PNNMJq{
*. w[MK MRI K[I /IxIJ wPJqIRH Ps K[I ePRNq{
,. w[MK LH K[I TMZLKMN Ps dQHKRMNLM{
7. w[MK MRI K[I PTzLIH MJq e[IRI MRI K[Ia sPQJq{
b. w[MK LH K[I TPNqIHK MRIM LJ QHHLM{
2. w[MK LH K[I JMKLPJMN IV`NIV Ps OMJMqM{
+). w[IRI LH K[I TLKa Ps |PJPNQNQ HLKQMKIq{
II. Quiz "Across the British Isles".
Answer the following questions. In this case it is resourcefulness and sense of
humour that count when choosing the winner:
+. w[MK LH K[I VMLJ qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ K[I OQV`RLMJH MJq K[I OMV`RLMJH{
2. nP GJgNLH[VIJ `RLJg TPMN KP 1IeTMHKNI{
4. nP GJgNLH[VIJ gP QZ PR qPeJ KP gIK KP GqLJ`QRg[{
3. w[MK LH K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ iPT[ 1IHH MJq iPT[ iPVPJq{
*. w[MK TPNPQR LH ZRIqPVLJMJK PJ K[I VMZ Ps K[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIH{
(u[LJz KeLTI `IsPRI MJHeIRLJg. u[IRI LH URIIJeLT[ LJ K[I /PQK[! aPQ VMa HZPK URIIJPTz
LJ K[I 1PRK[! HIMRT[ K[I VMZ sLRHK.)
,. w[LT[ LH TNPHIR KP iPJqPJ! oSsPRq PR OMV`RLqgI{
7. w[MK LH K[I qLssIRIJTI `IKeIIJ \PRKHVPQK[ MJq \NaVPQK[{
b. w[MK LH iLxIRZPPN sMVPQH sPR{
UNIT EIGHT
1 SPEECH PATTERNS
+. wI VQHK (revent him from .eaving"
u[I TPNq eIK eIMK[IR ZRIxIJKIq K[I iPePPq gLRNH sRPV gPLJg sPR NPJg eMNzH.
|LH R[IQVMKLHV PsKIJ ZRIxIJKIq /MNxMKPRI sRPV qPLJg MJaK[LJg MK MNN.
yPQlq `IKKIR zIIZ aPQRHINs sRPV KMzLJg ISKRIVI VIMHQRIH.
:MRLPQH RIMHPJH zIZK 0LNN sRPV PLJLJg K[I ISZIqLKLPJ.
GNLM KRLIq KP zIIZ [IR NLKKNI T[LNq sRPV TRaLJg.
e" yPQ TMJlK MTK without fee.ing"
mPNaPJ HKMRKIq sPR K[I ONQ` eLK[PQK [MxLJg VMqI QZ [LH VLJq.
pRMJz JPe sINK! eLK[PQK zJPeLJg e[a! K[MK K[I PssIR eMH ZRP`M`Na gPPq.
PHI HMK K[IRI sPR M NPJg KLVI eLK[PQK QJsMHKIJLJg [IR TPMK.
yPQ TMJlK KIMT[ PJI [Pe KP QHI HZIIT[ ZMKKIRJH eLK[PQK gLxLJg M gPPq HQZZNa Ps xMRLPQH
ISMVZNIH.
u[Ia TMJlK [MxI gPPq TRPZH eLK[PQK TQNKLxMKLJg HPLN.
4. |LH TNPK[IH VMqI [LV hard to re)ogni1e"
iPKH Ps VLHKMzIH VMqI [LH HZIIT[ qLssLTQNK KP sPNNPe.
u[IRI eMH HPVIK[LJg LJ 0PHLJJIalH MZZIMRMJTI K[MK VMqI [LV IMHa KP RITPgJLI.
|IR H[MNNPeVLJqIqJIHH VMzIH [IR qQNN KP HZIMz KP.
u[Ia sPQJq LK LVZPHHL`NI KP HQZZNa K[I sMTKPRa eLK[ RMe TPKKPJ.
wI sPQJq LK [MRq KP VMzI QZ PQR VLJqH M`PQK T[PPHLJg M ZNMTI sPR RIHK.
3. u[IHI NIKKIRH MRI hard.y worth the (a(er K[Ia MRI eRLKKIJ PJ.
u[I ZRP`NIV LH [MRqNa ePRK[ K[I KRPQ`NI KMzIJ. u[I ZLTKQRI LH Ps NLKKNI xMNQI! LK LH [MRqNa
ePRK[ K[I VPJIa ZMLq.
u[I ISZIRLVIJK LH [MRqNa ePRK[ K[I KLVI aPQlxI HZIJK PJ LK. u[I LJTLqIJK LH [MRqNa ePRK[
MNN K[LH ISTLKIVIJK. u[I HPLN eMH [MRqNa ePRK[ K[I KPLN.
EXERCISES
I. Change the sentences, using the patterns:
\MKKIRJ +: +. u[I ISZNPRIRH TPQNq JPK RIMT[ K[I HPQK[IRJ `PQJqMRLIH Ps K[I qIHIRK `ITMQHI
Ps K[I HTPRT[LJg [IMK MJq NMTz Ps sRIH[ eMKIR. 2. u[I qMa eMH sPgga; K[I sLH[IRVIJ TPQNq JPK
HII K[I TPMHKNLJI. 4. .KlH eIK PQKqPPRH. \QK PJ Va RMLJTPMK! LKlNN HMxI aPQ sPR M e[LNI. 3. |I
TPQNqJlK KMzI ZMRK LJ K[I TPJsIRIJTI `ITMQHI [I eMH LNN. *. /[I TPQNq JPK VMzI M gPPq HZIIT[
`ITMQHI Ps [IR ZPPR zJPeNIqgI Ps GJgNLH[.
\MKKIRJ 2: +. dVa qLq JPK HMa M ePRq MJq NIsK K[I RPPV. 2. yPQ TMJ [MRqNa RIMNLI e[MK MJ
PTIMJgPLJg H[LZ LH Ls aPQ [MxIJlK `IIJ LJHLqI. 4. u[Ia eLNN JPK TPVI KP HII QH Ls K[Ia MRI JPK
LJxLKIq. 3. |I TPQNq NLHKIJ KP NPJg xIRHIH LJ iMKLJ! K[PQg[ [I qLq JPK QJqIRHKMJq M ePRq. *.
|I ePQNq VMRz R[aK[V eLK[ [LH RLg[K sPPK! K[PQg[ [I JIxIR RIMNLIq e[MK [I eMH qPLJg.
\MKKIRJ 4: +. oeLJg KP K[I HVMNNJIHH Ps PQR `PMK LK eMH IMHa KP JMxLgMKI LJ HQT[ H[MNNPe
eMKIRH. 2. .K eMH LVZPHHL`NI KP VPxI PJ `ITMQHI Ps K[I RMLJa HIMHPJ LJ K[I KRPZLTH. 4. wI
TPQNq [MRqNa RITPgJLI K[I ZNMTI MsKIR K[I [QRRLTMJI. 3. .K eMH IMHa KP T[MJgI PQR ZNMJH
PeLJg KP [LH fQLTz MRRLxMN. *. . TPQNq JPK RITPgJLI aPQR HLHKIR `ITMQHI Ps [IR JIe [MLRqP.
\MKKIRJ 3: +. . qPJlK K[LJz aPQ MRI RLg[K KMzLJg HP VQT[ KRPQ`NI PxIR K[I ZRP`NIV. 2. u[MK
HMTRLsLTI Ps [LH eMH MNVPHK QHINIHH. mQHK KP K[LJz Ps MNN K[I IssPRKH VMqIc 4. w[MKlH K[I sMRI{
.lV MsRMLq LK LH VPRI ISZIJHLxI K[MJ aPQR NQggMgI. 3. /[I [Mq VMqI M NPJg eMa KP TPVI
K[IRI! `QK K[I TPJsIRIJTI eMH Ps NLKKNI xMNQI KP [IR. *. u[I VMJQHTRLZK KQRJIq PQK KP `I M
xMRLMJK Ps K[I PRLgLJMN. . eMH HPRRa . eMHKIq HP VQT[ KLVI KRMJHNMKLJg LK.
II. CompIete the foIIowing sentences, using the patterns. Make nse of the words and phrases
in brackets:
\MKKIRJ +: +. :MRLPQH RIMHPJH ... (KP qP PZKLPJMN HQ`ITKH). 2. |IR LNNJIHH ... (KP fQMNLsa sPR
K[LH ZPHK). 4. va JILg[`PQRlH HLNNa RIVMRzH ... (KP IJPa K[I ZIRsPRVMJTI). 3. |LH MqxLTI ... (KP
gIK LJKP KRPQ`NI). *. u[I eLJqa eIMK[IR ... (KP KMzI QH sPR M qRLxI).
\MKKIRJ 2: +. yPQ TMJlK NIMxI URIMK 0RLKMLJ ... (KP HII K[I iMzI nLHKRLTK). 2. /[I eLNN JPK
KMzI MJa VIqLTLJI ... (KP TPJHQNK M qPTKPR). 4. yPQ H[PQNqJlK NIMxI ... (KP [MxI M HJMTz). 3. /[I
TMJlK HZIMz M`PQK K[I JIeH ... (KP gIK ISTLKIq). *. yPQ ePJlK `I M`NI KP ZMHH aPQR ISMV ... (KP
ePRz [MRq).
\MKKIRJ 4: +. |IR VMJJIRH ... (QJZNIMHMJK KP qIMN eLK[). 2. iMTz Ps RMLJsMNNH... (qLssLTQNK KP
ZNPQg[). 4. iLzIJIHH Ps K[ILR JMVIH ... (IMHa KP RIVIV`IR). 3. . qPJlK sLJq LK... (KP `PK[IR [LV).
*. wI sLJq LK... (KP VMzI QHI Ps KMZIRITPRqLJg).
\MKKIRJ 3:+. u[I ZLTKQRI LH Ps NLKKNI xMNQI! LK... (VPJIa). 2. u[I RIHQNKH Ps K[I ISZIqLKLPJ ...
(IssPRKH). 4. u[I KRLZ LH ... (KRPQ`NI). 3. u[I qITPRMKLPJH MRI ... (KLVI). *. u[I xLTKPRa eMH ...
(HMTRLsLTI). ,. u[I VIqLTLJI LH ... (VPJIa).
III. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish. Use the patterns:
\MKKIRJ +: +. A$ ! 9 8. 2. t
$D Y$ 6 ! $ = 5% >. 4. t
$D $ 66 E5 $>67{ 3. ' 8 $D8
! 8 $6 . *. E $! 6 88 5
; .
\MKKIRJ 2: +. " 9 ;! $ 9 9. 2. #
! $ &E 6 8! 6 $. 4. < ;
;! # : @">D6 B. 3. < ; ! &E 8D.
\MKKIRJ 4: +. "> %689 $ 7 ; 8$
$. 2. _8 ; % $8$. 4.
$C8 ; $8 ;$ $. 3. 9! $
; $6 . *. 9>! D$ D$ $ ;6.
\MKKIRJ 3: +. ~ E $ ;! 8 8 . 2.
9. 4. - >! $ . 3. ~ E
; $. *. >5$ 5 ! >5 9 9
;! 8 ;8 $.
IV. Respond to the foIIowing statements, using the patterns. (Make use of the conversationaI
formuIas given in the Reminder.):
A. +. dNISMJqIR \PZPx eMH QJM`NI KP ZIRsITK [LH LJxIJKLPJ `ITMQHI Ps K[I NMTz Ps VPJIa.
2. iLKKNI nMxLq eMH MsRMLq Ps K[I vQRqHKPJIH! [I TPQNq JPK RIMq [LH NIHHPJ eINN LJ K[ILR
ZRIHIJTI. 4. iMJJa RIMNLIq K[MK vM`IN VLg[K gIK LJKP KRPQ`NI. |I eMJKIq KP HMxI [LH HLHKIR.
3. yPQ TMJlK ZPHHL`Na HKMRK PJ M HIM xPaMgI Ls K[I eIMK[IR RIZPRK LH QJsMxPQRM`NI.
B. +. yPQ VQHK HII K[I iMzI nLHKRLTK eLK[ aPQR PeJ IaIH KP `I M`NI KP MZZRITLMKI LKH
`IMQKa. 2. va QJTNI qLHNLzIH vMRa K[PQg[ [I [MH JIxIR HIIJ [IR. 4. \MHHIJgIRH H[PQNq JPK `I
RIVLJqIq KP ZMa K[ILR sMRIH. 3. . [PZI! aPQ eLNN KRMJHNMKI MNN K[IHI HIJKIJTIH MJq JIxIR TPJHQNK
M qLTKLPJMRa.
C. +. u[IRI eMH HPVIK[LJg HKRMJgI M`PQK K[I UMqsNalH VMJJIR Ps HZIMzLJg. 2. iMKLJ
gRMVVMR LH NPgLTMN! K[MKlH e[a LK LH IMHa KP QJqIRHKMJq. 4. 0aRPJlH xIRHIH MRI eINNR[aVIq!
aPQ TMJ NIMRJ K[IV `a [IMRK fQLKI IMHLNa. 3. .s aPQ zJPe /eIqLH[ aPQlNN sLJq NLKKNI qLssLTQNKa
LJ QJqIRHKMJqLJg 1PReIgLMJ `ITMQHI K[IHI NMJgQMgIH MRI Ps TPVVPJ PRLgLJ.
IVLJqIR: Du0t 0o" iuite 0o" I 8uite agree here" Natura..y" Certain.y" #ure" I thin/ 0o"
doo/0 .i/e that" I di0agree with you" Bou are wrong" Bou are mi0ta/en" 2here60 0omething in
what you 0ay, &ut""" " Certain.y not" Im(o00i&.eE It60 unfair" It60 un%u0t"
V. Think of short situations in which you can use these patterns.
TEXT. SEEING PEOPLE OFF 9y Max Beerbohm
oJ M TPNq gRIa VPRJLJg Ps NMHK eIIz . qQNa KQRJIq QZ MK GQHKPJ KP HII Pss MJ PNq sRLIJq
e[P eMH HKMRKLJg sPR dVIRLTM.
oxIRJLg[K eI [Mq gLxIJ M sMRIeINN qLJJIR! LJ e[LT[ HMqJIHH eMH eINN VLJgNIq eLK[
sIHKLxLKa.
dJq JPe! [IRI eI eIRI! HKLss MJq HINsTPJHTLPQH PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV; MJq sRMVIq LJ K[I
eLJqPe Ps K[I RMLNeMaTMRRLMgI! eMH K[I sMTI Ps PQR sRLIJq; `QK LK eMH MH K[I sMTI Ps M HKRMJg
IR M HKRMJgIR MJSLPQH KP ZNIMHI! MJ MZZIMNLJg HKRMJgIR! MJ MezeMRq HKRMJgIR.
r|MxI aPQ gPK IxIRaK[LJg{r MHzIq PJI Ps QH! `RIMzLJg K[I HLNIJTI.
ryIH! IxIRaK[LJg!r HMLq PQR sRLIJq! eLK[ M ZNIMHMJK JPq.
u[IRI eMH M NPJg ZMQHI.
oJI Ps QH! eLK[ M JPq MJq M sPRTIq HVLNI MK K[I KRMxINNIR! HMLq:
rwINNr
u[I JPq! K[I HVLNI! MJq K[I QJVIMJLJg VPJPHaNNM`NI eIRI RIKQRJIq TPJHTLIJKLPQHNa.
dJPK[IR ZMQHI eMH `RPzIJ `a PJI Ps QH eLK[ M sLK Ps TPQg[LJg. .K eMH MJ P`xLPQHNa
MHHQVIq sLK! `QK LK HIRxIq KP ZMHH K[I KLVI. u[IRI eMH JP HLgJ Ps K[I KRMLJlH qIZMRKQRI.
d VLqqNIMgIq VMJ eMH KMNzLJg IMRJIHKNa KP M aPQJg NMqa MK K[I JISK eLJqPe `QK PJI KP
PQRH. |LH sLJI ZRPsLNI eMH xMgQINa sMVLNLMR KP VI. u[I aPQJg NMqa eMH IxLqIJKNa dVIRLTMJ!
MJq [I eMH IxLqIJKNa GJgNLH[; PK[IReLHI . H[PQNq [MxI gQIHHIq sRPV [LH LVZRIHHLxI MLR K[MK
[I eMH [IR sMK[IR.
.J M sNMH[ . RIVIV`IRIq. u[I VMJ eMH |Q`IRK iI PH. 0QK [Pe [I T[MJgIq HLJTI NMHK .
HMe [LVc u[MK eMH HIxIJ PR ILg[K aIMRH MgP! LJ K[I /KRMJq. |I eMH K[IJ (MH QHQMN) PQK Ps
IJgMgIVIJK! MJq `PRRPeIq [MNsMTRPeJ. .K HIIVIq M ZRLxLNIgI KP NIJq MJaK[LJg KP [LV. |I
eMH MNeMaH VMgJIKLT. dJq e[a [LH VMgJIKLHV [Mq JIxIR VMqI [LV HQTTIHHsQN PJ K[I
iPJqPJ HKMgI eMH MNeMaH M VaHKIRa KP VI. |I eMH MJ ISTINNIJK MTKPR.
.K eMH HKRMJgI KP HII [LV! MsKIR MNN K[IHI aIMRH [IRI PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV Ps GQHKPJ! NPPzLJg HP
ZRPHZIRPQH MJq HPNLq. .K eMH JPK PJNa K[I sNIH[ [I [Mq ZQK PJ! `QK MNHP K[I TNPK[IH! K[MK VMqI
[LV [MRq KP RITPgJLI. |I NPPzIq NLzI M `MJzIR. dJaPJI ePQNq [MxI `IIJ ZRPQq KP `I HIIJ
Pss `a [LV.
r/KMJq `MTz! ZNIMHIcr
u[I KRMLJ eMH M`PQK KP HKMRK MJq . eMxIq sMRIeINN KP Va sRLIJq. iI PH qLq JPK HKMJq `MTz.
|I HKPPq TNMHZLJg LJ `PK[ [MJqH K[I [MJqH Ps K[I aPQJg dVIRLTMJ.
r/KMJq `MTz! HLR. ZNIMHIcr
|I P`IaIq! `QK fQLTzNa qMRKIq sPReMRq MgMLJ KP e[LHZIR HPVI sLJMN ePRq. . K[LJz K[IRI
eIRI KIMRH LJ [IR IaIH. u[IRI TIRKMLJNa eIRI KIMRH LJ [LH e[IJ! MK NIJgK[! [MxLJg eMKT[Iq K[I
KRMLJ PQK Ps HLg[K! [I KQRJIq RPQJq.
|I HIIVIq! JIxIRK[INIHH! qINLg[KIq KP HII VI. |I MHzIq VI e[IRI . [Mq `IIJ [LqLJg MNN
K[IHI aIMRH: MJq HLVQNKMJIPQHNa RIZMLq VI K[I [MNsTRPeJ MH K[PQg[ LK [Mq `IIJ `PRRPeIq
aIHKIRqMa. |I NLJzIq [LH MRV LJ VLJI! MJq eMNzIq VI HNPeNa MNPJg K[I ZNMKsPRV! HMaLJg eLK[
e[MK ZNIMHQRI [I RIMq Va qRMVMKLT TRLKLTLHV IxIRa /MKQRqMa. . KPNq [LV! LJ RIKQRJ! [Pe VQT[
[I eMH VLHHIq PJ K[I HKMgI.
rd[! aIH!r [I HMLq! r. JIxIR MTK PJ K[I HKMgI JPeMqMaH.r
|I NMLq HPVI IVZ[MHLH PJ K[I ePRq rHKMgI!r MJq . MHzIq [LV e[IRI! K[IJ! [I qLq MTK.
roJ K[I ZNMKsPRV!r [I MJHeIRIq.
ryPQ VIMJ!r HMLq .! rK[MK aPQ RITLKI MK TPJTIRKH{r
|I HVLNIq.
ru[LH!r [I e[LHZIRIq! HKRLzLJg [LH HKLTz PJ K[I gRPQJq! rLH K[I ZNMKsPRV . VIMJ.r
r. HQZZPHI!r [I HMLq ZRIHIJKNa! gLxLJg VI M NLg[K sPR K[I TLgMR e[LT[ [I [Mq PssIRIq VI!
raPQ [MxI `IIJ HIILJg M sRLIJq Pss{r
|I MHzIq VI e[MK . HQZZPHIq [I [Mq `IIJ qPLJg. . HMLq K[MK . [Mq eMKT[Iq [LV qPLJg K[I
HMVI K[LJg.
r1P!r [I HMLq gRMxINa. ru[MK NMqa eMH JPK M sRLIJq Ps VLJI. . VIK [IR sPR K[I sLRHK KLVI K[LH
VPRJLJg! NIHH K[MJ [MNs MJ [PQR MgP! [IRI!r MJq MgMLJ [I HKRQTz K[I ZNMKsPRV eLK[ [LH HKLTz.
. TPJsIHHIq K[MK . eMH `IeLNqIRIq. |I HVLNIq.
ryPQ VMa!r [I HMLq! r[MxI [IMRq Ps K[I dJgNPdVIRLTMJ /PTLMN 0QRIMQ.r
. [Mq JPK. |I ISZNMLJIq KP VI K[MK Ps K[I K[PQHMJqH Ps dVIRLTMJH e[P ZMHH K[RPQg[
GJgNMJq K[IRI MRI VMJa [QJqRIqH e[P [MxI JP GJgNLH[ sRLIJqH. .J K[I PNq qMaH K[Ia QHIq KP
`RLJg NIKKIRH Ps LJKRPqQTKLPJ. 0QK K[I GJgNLH[ MRI HP LJ[PHZLKM`NI K[MK K[IHI NIKKIRH MRI [MRqNa
ePRK[ K[I ZMZIR K[Ia MRI eRLKKIJ PJ.
rdVIRLTMJH MRI M HPTLM`NI ZIPZNI! MJq VPHK Ps K[IV [MxI ZNIJKa Ps VPJIa KP HZIJq. u[I
dd./.0. HQZZNLIH K[IV eLK[ GJgNLH[ sRLIJqH. pLsKa ZIR TIJK Ps K[I sIIH LH ZMLq PxIR KP K[I
sRLIJq. u[I PK[IR sLsKa LH RIKMLJIq `a K[I dd./.0. . MV JPK! MNMH! M qLRITKPR. .s . eIRI! . H[PQNq
`I M xIRa RLT[ VMJ LJqIIq. . MV PJNa MJ IVZNPaII. 0QK IxIJ HP . qP xIRa eINN. . MV PJI Ps
K[I HIIRHPss.r
. MHzIq sPR IJNLg[KIJVIJK.
rvMJa dVIRLTMJH!r [I HMLq! rTMJJPK MssPRq KP zIIZ sRLIJqH LJ GJgNMJq. 0QK K[Ia TMJ MNN
MssPRq KP `I HIIJ Pss. u[I sII LH PJNa sLxI ZPQJqH (KeIJKasLxI qPNNMRH) sPR M HLJgNI KRMxINNIR;
MJq ILg[K ZPQJqH (sPRKa qPNNMRH) sPR M ZMRKa Ps KeP PR VPRI. u[Ia HIJq K[MK LJ KP K[I 0QRIMQ!
gLxLJg K[I qMKI Ps K[ILR qIZMRKQRI! MJq M qIHTRLZKLPJ `a e[LT[ K[I HIIRPss TMJ LqIJKLsa K[IV
PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV. dJq K[IJ eINN! K[IJ K[Ia MRI HIIJ Pss.r
r0QK LH LK ePRK[ LK{r . ISTNMLVIq!
ros TPQRHI LK LH ePRK[ LK!r HMLq iI PH. r.K ZRIxIJKH K[IV sRPV sIINLJg PQK Ps LK. .K IMRJH
K[IV K[I RIHZITK Ps K[I gQMRq. .K HMxIH K[IV sRPV `ILJg qIHZLHIq ` K[ILR sINNPeZMHHIJgIRH
K[I ZIPZNI e[P MRI gPLJg KP `I PJ K[I `PMK. 0IHLqIH! LK LH M gRIMK ZNIMHQRI LJ LKHINs. yPQ
HMe VI HIILJg K[MK aPQJg NMqa Pss. nLqJlK aPQ K[LJz . qLq LK `IMQKLsQNNa{r
r0IMQKLsQNNa!r + MqVLKKIq. r. IJxLIq aPQ. u[IRI eMH . r
ryIH! . TMJ LVMgLJI. u[IRI eIRI aPQ! H[QssNLJg sRPV sPPK KP sPPK! HKMRLJg `NMJzNa MK aPQR
sRLIJq! KRaLJg KP VMzI TPJxIRHMKLPJ! . zJPe. u[MKlH [Pe . QHIq KP `I VaHINs! `IsPRI . HKQqLIq!
MJq eIJK LJKP K[I K[LJg ZRPsIHHLPJMNNa! . qPJlK HMa . MV ZIRsITK aIK. d RMLNeMaHKMKLPJ LH K[I
VPHK qLssLTQNK Ps MNN ZNMTIH KP MTK LJ! MH aPQ qLHTPxIRIq sPR aPQRHINs.r
r0QK!r . HMLq! r. eMHJlK KRaLJg KP MTK. . RIMNNa sINK.r
r/P qLq .! Va `Pa!r HMLq iI PH. ryPQ TMJlK MTK eLK[PQK sIINLJg. nLqJlK aPQ HII K[PHI KIMRH
LJ Va IaIH e[IJ K[I KRMLJ HKMRKIq{ . [MqJlK sPRTIq K[IV. . KINN aPQ . eMH VPxIq. #o eIRI aPQ!
. qMRI HMa. 0QK aPQ TPQNqJlK [MxI ZQVZIq QZ M KIMR KP ZRPxI LK. yPQ TMJlK ISZRIHH aPQR
sIINLJg. .J PK[IR ePRqH! aPQ TMJlK MTK. dK MJa RMKI!r [I MqqIq zLJqNa! rJPK LJ M RMLNeMa
HKMKLPJ.r
ruIMT[ VIcr . TRLIq.
|I NPPzIq K[PQg[KsQNNa MK VI!
rwILN!r [I HMLq MK NIJgK[! rK[I HIILJgPss HIMHPJ LH ZRMTKLTMNNa PxIR. yIH! .lNN gLxI aPQ M
TPQRHI! . [MxI M gPPq VMJa ZQZLNH PJ [MJq MNRIMqa; `QK aIH!r [I HMLq! TPJHQNKLJg MJ PRJMKI
JPKI`PPz! r. TPQNq gLxI aPQ MJ [PQR PJ uQIHqMaH MJq pRLqMaH!r
|LH KIRVH! . TPJsIHH! MRI RMK[IR [Lg[. 0QK + qP JPK gRQqgI K[I LJxIHKVIJK.
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. serve ti +. >6! !"g" 1P VMJ TMJ HIRxI KeP VMHKIRH. |I HIRxIH MH gMRqIJIR (no
arti).eE:" |I HIRxIq K[RII aIMRH LJ K[I MRVa (JMxa). u[IHI H[PIH [MxI HIRxIq VI KeP aIMRH. d
ePPqIJ `PS HIRxIq MH M KM`NI!
2. 6 ! !"g" u[I eMLKIR HIRxIq K[I HPQZ! nLJJIR LH HIRxIq!
4. >6! !"g" u[IRI eMH JP PJI LJ K[I H[PZ KP HIRxI VI.
to serve smb. right, !"g" .K HIRxIH aPQ RLg[K sPR [MxLJg qLHP`IaIq VI.
service n 1. >! !"g" < eMH LJ MTKLxI HIRxLTI qQRLJg K[I eMR. |I [MH `IIJ LJ K[I
nLZNPVMKLT /IRxLTI sPR K[RII aIMRH.
2. >! !"g" u[I VIMNH MK K[LH RIHKMQRMJK MRI gPPq `QK K[I HIRxLTI LH ZPPR. u[I
KRMLJ HIRxLTI LH gPPq [IRI.
4. ;! >! !"g" /[I JP NPJgIR JIIqH K[I HIRxLTIH Ps M qPTKPR. va RPPV LH MK
aPQR HIRxLTI.
servant n ;! ;
2. famiIiar ad% +. $85! 885! a0 M sMVLNLMR xPLTI (sMTI! JMVI! HTIJI!
[MJqeRLKLJg! HPJg! VINPqa! KQJI! HTIJK! HVINN! IKT.)
to be familiar to smb., to be familiar with smth., !"g" yPQ H[PQNq `I sMVLNLMR eLK[ K[I
sMTKH `IsPRI aPQ HKMRK LJxIHKLgMKLPJ. |I LH sMVLNLMR eLK[ VMJa NMJgQMgIH. |IR sMTI HIIVH sM
VLNLMR KP VI.
2. 5! $85! !"g" dRI aPQ PJ sMVLNLMR KIRVH eLK[ [LV{ nPJlK `I KPP sMVLNLMR
eLK[ [LV! [IlH RMK[IR M qLH[PJIHK VMJ.
4. C$685! !"g" nPJlK aPQ K[LJz [I LH M `LK KPP sMVLNLMR eLK[ [IR{
familiarity n $! C$66
3. impress t 6 $! 6 ; to impress smb., !"g"
u[LH `PPz qLq JPK LVZRIHH VI MK MNN. . eMH gRIMKNa (qIIZNa) LVZRIHHIq `a [LH MTKLJg. w[MK
LVZRIHHIq aPQ VPHK LJ K[I ZNMa{
impression n ; KP make (produce) an impression PJ smb., to leave an
impression on smb., e, g" |LH HZIIT[ VMqI M HKRPJg LVZRIHHLPJ PJ K[I MQqLIJTI. \QJLH[
VIJK HIIVIq KP VMzI NLKKNI LVZRIHHLPJ PJ K[I T[LNq. uINN QH M`PQK aPQR LVZRIHHLPJH Ps
GJgNMJq. u[I gRPQZ NIsK M gPPq (ZPPR! sMxPQRM`NI) LVZRIHHLPJ PJ K[I ISMVLJIR.
impressive ad% =5 (;) ! a0 MJ LVZRIHHLxI TIRIVPJa
(HLg[K! HTIJI! ZIRHPJ! gIHKQRI! IKT.)! !"g" u[I HTIJI eMH fQLKI LVZRIHHLxI.
4. obey ti 6! 6! D6! !"g" /PNqLIRH VQHK P`Ia PRqIRH.
O[LNqRIJ VQHK P`Ia gRPeJQZH. 'ut D6 to follow one's advice
Ant. to disobey
P`IqLIJTI n D! ! 6! !"g" \MRIJKH qIVMJq P`IqLIJTI
sRPV K[ILR T[LNqRIJ.
$nt" disobedience
obedient ad% D85! 85! !"g" < LH MJ P`IqLIJK `Pa. u[I T[LNqRIJ [MxI `IIJ
P`IqLIJK KPqMa.
dJK. disobedient! naughty Gof a )hi.d:
5. Iight n ! =! a0 HQJNLg[K! qMaNLg[K! VPPJNLg[K! gMH NLg[K! INITKRLT NLg[K! !"g"
u[I HQJ gLxIH NLg[K KP K[I IMRK[. . gPK QZ `IsPRI NLg[K. u[I NLg[K `IgMJ KP sMLN. iLg[KH eIRI
`QRJLJg LJ IxIRa RPPV. 0RLJg M NLg[K fQLTzNac wI HMe K[I NLg[KH Ps K[I TLKa. iPPz MK K[I
VMKKIR LJ K[I RLg[K NLg[K.
$nt darkness
by the light of smth. ;.
to stand in smb.'s light ;>6 $. ; (fig: $D6 $.! 6
;. ;
to throw (shed) light on smth. 6 . !"g" u[IHI sMTKH H[Iq (M) JIe
NLg[K PJ K[I VMKKIR.
to put (switch, turn) on (off) the light >;6 (;6)
to give smb. a light 6 6! I. U" ULxI VI M NLg[K! ZNIMHI.
to come to light >6! 86! !"g" 1Ie IxLqIJTI [MH RITIJKNa TPVI KP
NLg[K.
Light at the end of the tunnel % ! !"g" dH K[I ISMVH MZZRPMT[Iq! H[I
sINK K[MK MK NMHK H[I TPQNq HII K[I NLg[K MK K[I IJq Ps K[I KQJJIN.
light ad% 85! a0 M NLg[K RPPV! M NLg[K qMa; NLg[K [MLR! M NLg[K TPVZNISLPJ; NLg[K `RPeJ
(`NQI! gRIIJ! gRIa! IKT.)
to get light 6! !"g" .K gIKH NLg[K xIRa IMRNa K[IHI HQVVIR VPRJLJgH.
light (NLK PR NLg[KIq) ti +. >;6()! a0 KP NLg[K M NMVZ (M TMJqNI! M sLRI)! !"g" |I NLK M
NMVZ. \NIMHI NLg[K K[I HKPxI.
to light a cigarette 6
$nt" turn off (K[I gMH)! blow out (M TMJqNI)! put out (M sLRI)
2. =6 (up)! !"g" u[I HKRIIKH eIRI `RLg[KNa NLK QZ. u[I RPPV eMH NLg[KIq `a HLS
eLJqPeH. oQR [PQHIH MRI NLg[KIq `a INITKRLTLKa. u[I `QRJLJg `QLNqLJg NLK QZ K[I e[PNI qLH
KRLTK. u[I RLHLJg HQJ NLK QZ K[I VPQJKMLJ KPZH.
sunlit, starlit (night, sky), moonlit ad%
6. prevent t =6! >6! $D6; to prevent smb. from (doing)
smth., to prevent smth., !"g" MLJ ZRIxIJKIq K[I gMVI. .lNN VIIK aPQ MK HLS Ls JPK[LJg
ZRIxIJKH. .NNJIHH ZRIxIJKIq [LV sRPV qPLJg K[I ePRz. |PeTMJ aPQ ZRIxIJK LK sRPV
[MZZIJLJg{ /PVIK[LJg ZRIxIJKIq [LV sRPV TPVLJg (ZRIxIJKIq [LH TPVLJg).
prevention n =; 7rover&: \RIxIJKLPJ LH `IKKIR K[MJ TQRI.
7. earn t +. 86! !"g" |I IMRJH M gPPq eMgI `ITMQHI [I ePRzH sPR M sMLR
IVZNPaIR.
to earn one's living 86 >6! !"g" /[I IMRJIq [IR NLxLJg `a HIeLJg.
2. >6! !"g" |LH sLRHK `PPz IMRJIq [LV K[I sMVI Ps M JPxINLHK. u[I KIMT[IR KPNq [IR
ZQZLNH K[MK K[Ia [Mq IMRJIq M [PNLqMa. |IR gPPq ePRz IMRJIq [IR K[I RIHZITK Ps [IR
TPNNIMgQIH.
earnings n (. ! !"g" |I [MH HZIJK MNN [LH IMRJLJgH.
8. do (did, done) ti +. 6! 86! $6 $n.! a0 KP qP PJIlH ePRz!
qQKa! H[PZZLJg! VPRJLJg ISIRTLHIH
!"g" yPQ qLq eINN (eRPJg) KP RIsQHI. |MxLJg JPK[LJg `IKKIR KP qP . eIJK sPR M eMNz. u[IRIlH
JPK[LJg KP `I qPJI JPe. 1P HPPJIR HMLq K[MJ qPJI. wINN `IgQJ LH [MNs qPJI.
to do a sum D6 C$7
to do one's best 6 $>! !"g" . VQHK qP Va `IHK KP [INZ [LV!
2. 6: to do good, to do harm! !"g" u[LH VIqLTLJI ePJlK qP aPQ MJa gPPq. |LH
[PNLqMa [MH qPJI [LV M ePRNq (M NPK! M gRIMK qIMN) Ps gPPq. .K eLNN qP aPQ VPRI [MRV K[MJ
gPPq.
4. 6 ! a0 KP qP PJIlH [MLR (RPPV! `Iq! IKT.)! !"g" . NLzI K[I eMa H[I qPIH
[IR [MLR. wLNN aPQ qP K[I `IqH e[LNI . qP K[I eLJqPe{
3. $6 $6! !"g" nLq aPQ qP K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV e[IJ aPQ
eIRI LJ iPJqPJ{ wI PsKIJ HII sPRILgJIRH LJ vPHTPe qPLJg K[I HLg[KH.
*. 96! ;6: that will (won't) do! !"g" .K ePJlK qP KP ZNMa MNN qMa. u[I RPPV
eLNN qP QH fQLKI eINN. .K ePJlK qP KP HLK QZ HP NMKI. u[LH HPRK Ps ePRz ePJlK qP sPR [LV. wLNN
K[LH H[IIK Ps ZMZIR qP{
,. %6! 6! !"g" iI PH qLq eINN LJ K[I 0QRIMQ. GxIRaK[LJg LJ K[I gMRqIJ
LH qPLJg HZNIJqLqNa. /[I LH qPLJg xIRa eINN MK HT[PPN.
to do away with smth., !"g" /VPzLJg H[PQNq `I qPJI MeMa eLK[.
to have to do with smb. (smth.), !"g" |I [MH KP qP eLK[ MNN HPRKH Ps ZIPZNI. wI [MxI KP qP
eLK[ sMTKH! JPK K[IPRLIH.
to have smth. (nothing, not much, little, etc.) to do with smb. (smth.), !"g" . MqxLHI aPQ
KP [MxI JPK[LJg KP qP eLK[ [LV. w[MK [MxI . KP qP eLK[ LK{
NOTES ON STYLE
+. u[IRI MRI KeP VMLJ T[MRMTKIRH LJ K[LH HKPRa: iI PH MJq K[I JMRRMKR! L. I. K[I ZIRHPJ
KINNLJg K[I HKPRa (MNHP TMNNIq rK[I . Ps K[I HKPRar). u[I JMRRMKPR LH MJ MHHQVIq ZIRHPJMNLKa MJq
H[PQNq `a JP VIMJH `I TPJsQHIq eLK[ K[I MQK[PR Ps K[I HKPRa. .K ePQNq `I MH JMLxI KP
MHHPTLMKI K[I JMRRMKPR Ps K[LH HKPRa eLK[ vMS 0IIR`P[V MH KP MHHPTLMKI K[I `Pa PJ e[PHI
`I[MNs r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar LH KPNq eLK[ /KIZ[IJ iIMTPTz. u[I T[MRMTKIR Ps K[I
JMRRMKPR LH sRIfQIJKNa LJKRPqQTIq LJ sLTKLPJ. .K LH M HKaNLHKLT qIxLTI! IHZITLMNNa sMxPQRIq `a
H[PRKHKPRa MQK[PRH (HII rd nMalH wMLKr `a |IVLJgeMa PR rd pRLIJq LJ 1IIqr `a w. /.
vMQg[MV)! e[LT[ [INZH K[I RIMqIR KP NPPz MK K[I qIHTRL`Iq IxIJKH MH Ls rsRPV eLK[LJr.
2. .JxIRHLPJ (T[MJgI Ps K[I QHQMN PRqIR Ps ePRqH) VMa `I QHIq sPR HKaNLHKLT ZQRZPHIH ILK[IR
KP sPTQH K[I RIMqIRlH MKKIJKLPJ PJ M TIRKMLJ ZMRK Ps K[I HIJKIJTI PR KP MT[LIxI MJ IVPKLPJMN
IssITK! !"g" """ MJq sRMVIq LJ K[I eLJqPe Ps K[I RMLNeMaTMRRLMgI! eMH K[I sMTI Ps PQR sRLIJq...
4. IZIKLKLPJ LH MJPK[IR HKaNLHKLT qIxLTI QHIq sPR K[I ZQRZPHIH Ps IVZ[MHLH. .K VMa TPJHLHK
LJ RIZIMKLJg PJNa PJI ePRq! HP K[MK eLK[ IMT[ RIZIKLKLPJ K[I IVPKLPJMN KIJHLPJ LJTRIMHIH!
e"g" """ `QK LK eMH MH K[I sMTI Ps M HKRMJgIR M HKRMJgIR MJSLPQH KP ZNIMHI! MJ MZZIMNLJg
HKRMJgIR! MJ MezeMRq HKRMJgIR.
u[I RIZIKLKLPJ Ps K[I HMVI HaJKMTKLTMN ZMKKIRJ KeLTI PR HIxIRMN KLVIH LH TMNNIq HaJKMTKLTMN
ZMRMNNINLHV! !"g" .K ZRIxIJKH K[IV sRPV sIINLJg PQK Ps LK. .K IMRJH K[IV K[I RIHZITK Ps K[I
gQMRq. .K HMxIH K[IV sRPV `ILJg qIHZLHIq `a K[ILR sINNPeZMHHIJgIRH.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
`MJzIR n sLJMN ad% P`IqLIJTI n
`QRIMQ n gQIHH P`IqLIJK ad%
qIZMRKQRI n LVZRIHH P`Ia
qLHP`IqLIJK ad% LVZRIHHLxI ad% ZNMKsPRV n
IMRJ NLg[K ZRIxIJK
IJxa VPxI HIRxI
sMVLNLMR ad% VaHKIRa n HIRxLTI n
sINNPeZMHHIJgIR n HPTLM`NI ad%
Word Combinations
KP HII HV`. Pss KP eMxI sMRIeINN KP HV`.
KP `RIMz K[I HLNIJTI KP H[QssNI sRPV sPPK KP sPPK
KP ZMHH K[I KLVI KP VMzI (NIMxI! ZRPqQTI)
KP `I sMVLNLMR eLK[ HVK[. (KP HV`.) MJ LVZRIHHLPJ PJ HV`.
LJ K[I PNq qMaH (LJ K[I PNqIJ qMaH) KP ZQK PQK K[I NLg[K
M NIKKIR Ps LJKRPqQTKLPJ KP HIRxI HV`. RLg[K sPR...
KP IMRJ PJIlH NLxLJg
EXERCISES
1. Bead the text and expIain the foIIowing points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, !. StyIe):
A. +. GSZNMLJ K[I QHI Ps KIJHIH LJ: M) K[I HITPJq HIJKIJTI Ps K[I KISK; `) K[I sPNNPeLJg
HIJKIJTI: rd VLqqNIMgIq VMJ eMH KMNzLJg IMRJIHKNa KP M aPQJg NMqa...r.
2. \PLJK PQK HIJKIJTIH LJ e[LT[ P`NLfQI VPPqH MRI QHIq MJq ISZNMLJ K[I VIMJLJg
TPJxIaIq `a K[I sPRV Ps K[I xIR` LJ IMT[ TMHI.
4. OPVVIJK PJ K[I QHI Ps K[I MQSLNLMRa did LJ r[I qLq MTKr.
3. w[a LH K[I LJqIsLJLKI MRKLTNI QHIq `IsPRI K[I ePRq qLRITKPR LJ r. MV JPK! MNMH! M
qLRITKPRr{
B. +. GSZNMLJ K[I VIMJLJg Ps rK[I JISK eLJqPe `QK PJIr. (vMzI QZ HIJKIJTIH Ps aPQR PeJ
eLK[ K[I ZMKKIRJ rK[I JISK ... `QK PJIr.)
2. pLJq M ZMLR Ps MJKPJaVH LJ K[I ZMHHMgI `IgLJJLJg eLK[ r.J M sNMH[r MJq ISZNMLJ K[ILR
VIMJLJgH. }HI K[IV LJ HIJKIJTIH Ps aPQR PeJ.
4. w[MK LH K[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I ePRq (.atform LJ K[I sPNNPeLJg sRMgVIJK: ... roJ K[I
ZNMKsPRV!r [I MJHeIRIq. ryPQ VIMJ!r HMLq .! rK[MK aPQ RITLKI MK TPJTIRKH{r
3. OPVVIJK PJ K[I VIMJLJg Ps /ee( LJ rvMJa dVIRLTMJH ... TMJJPK MssPRq KP zIIZ sRLIJqH
LJ GJgNMJqr ()f": to /ee( dog0, hor0e0, to /ee( a )at, a )anary, IKT.). w[MK LH K[I IssITK
MT[LIxIq `a K[I QJQHQMN ePRq TPV`LJMKLPJ to /ee( friend0 MJq `a K[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI
(rvMJa dVIRLTMJH TMJJPK MssPRq KP zIIZ sRLIJqH LJ GJgNMJqr! L. I. HPVI Ps K[IV TMJ MJq
ZRP`M`Na qP){
*. |Pe qP aPQ QJqIRHKMJq K[I ePRqH fee.ing out of it LJ r.K ZRIxIJKH K[IV sRPV sIINLJg PQK
Ps LKr{
C. +. M) w[MK LH K[I MQK[PRlH ZQRZPHI LJ QHLJg LJxIRHLPJ LJ: rsRMVIq LJ K[I eLJqPe ... eMH
K[I sMTI Ps PQR sRLIJqr{ `) w[a LH K[I ePRq 0tranger RIZIMKIq sPQR KLVIH LJ K[I HITPJq ZMRK
Ps K[I HMVI HIJKIJTI{ w[MK LH K[I IssITK MT[LIxIq `a K[I RIZIKLKLPJ{
2. w[MK LH K[I IssITK MT[LIxIq `a K[I HaJKMTKLTMN ZMRMNNINLHV LJ K[I ZMHHMgI `IgLJJLJg eLK[
ros TPQRHI LK LH ePRK[ LKr{ (r.K ZRIxIJKH K[IV...r! r.K IMRJH K[IV...r! r.K HMxIH K[IV...r)
4. \PLJK PQK ZMHHMgIH `IMRLJg KPQT[IH Ps [QVPQR. nPIH K[I MQK[PR ZRIHIJK K[I T[MRMTKIR Ps
iI PH HIRLPQHNa PR [QVPRPQHNa{ (LRPJLTMNNa{ HMKLRLTMNNa{ VPTzLJgNa{) .NNQHKRMKI aPQR MJHeIR
`a HIJKIJTIH sRPV K[I HKPRa.
II. a) Write the transcribed words in traditionaI speIIing. ExpIain the ruIes for reading. Think
of some other words speIIed in the same way:
1. zNRHZ! ZRH! NRHK; 2. lZRPHZqRqH! "zPJSIlIJSqH! "zPJSqH! lP`xLqH! l xNzSqH; 3. HMIK!
NMIK! qIlNMIK; 4. E:J! lE:JIN! lE:JIsKNLR; gIH! lxIIgI.
b) Mark the stresses and expIain the reading ruIes. TransIate the words into Russian:
[PHZLKM`NI [PHZLKMNLKa; ZRPHZIRPQH ZRPHZIRLKa; sIHKLxI sIHKLxLKa; sLJMN sLJMNLKa.
III. a) Write oat from the story the sentences with the foIIowing words:
HKLss MezeMRq; P`xLPQHNa IxLqIJKNa; IMRJIHKNa gRMxINa; KP RITPgJLI KP
LqIJKLsa; ZRPHZIRPQH RLT[; KP sPRTI KP ZQVZ QZ.
b) ExpIain the difference between the synonyms within each pair. (See Notes on p. 18.)
When in doubt, consuIt dictionaries.
IV. Answer the questions. Argue your answers:
+. w[IRI LH K[I HTIJI NMLq LJ K[I HKPRa{ 2. |Pe qLq K[I HIIRHPss sIIN MJq e[a{ w[MK eIRI
K[Ia qPLJg KP ZMHH K[I KLVI{ 4. w[MK VMqI K[I JMRRMKPR Ps K[I HKPRa K[LJz K[MK K[I VMJ e[P
eMH HIILJg Pss M aPQJg NMqa eMH JPK [IR sMK[IR{ 3. w[P eMH K[I VMJ{ }JqIR e[MK
TLRTQVHKMJTIH [Mq K[I JMRRMKPR VIK [LV `IsPRI{ w[MK VMqI [LV [MRq KP RITPgJLI{ *. w[MK
VMqI K[I JMRRMKPR MHz iI PH e[IRI [I MTKIq{ ,. w[a qLq K[I MJHeIR VMzI [LV K[LJz K[MK
iI PH RITLKIq MK TPJTIRKH{ 7. w[a eMH [I `IeLNqIRIq e[IJ iI PH HMLq [I [Mq sLRHK VIK K[I
aPQJg NMqa [I eMH HIILJg Pss NIHH K[MJ [MNs MJ [PQR `IsPRI{ b. w[MK TMJ aPQ HMa M`PQK K[I
MTKLxLKLIH Ps K[I dJgNPdVIRLTMJ /PTLMN 0QRIMQ{ 2. |Pe TMJ aPQ ISZNMLJ iI PHlH HQTTIHH
MH MJ IVZNPaII Ps K[I 0QRIMQ{ +). |Pe qLq! LJ iI PHlH PZLJLPJ! K[I HIILJgPss TIRIVPJa
[INZ dVIRLTMJH{ nP aPQ K[LJz LK eMH M gPPq LqIM{ ++. w[MK LH K[I LVZNLTMKLPJ Ps K[I ePRq
afford MZZNLIq KP sRLIJqH{ OMJ sRLIJqH RIMNNa `I afforded PR not afforded] +2. nLq iI PH
KMzI HIRLPQHNa [LH P` MJq [LVHINs LJ K[I RPNI Ps M ZRPsIHHLPJMN HIIRPss{ |Pe qPIH LK
T[MRMTKIRLI [LV{ +4. w[MK LH K[I MQK[PRlH (JPK K[I JMRRMKPRlHc) MKKLKQqI KP iI PH{ w[MK LH
K[I MQK[PRlH LRPJa qLRITKIq MgMLJHK{
V. Study VocabuIary Notes, transIate the iIIustrative exampIes and a) give synonyms of:
JMQg[Ka ad%, gPPq ad% (a&out a )hi.d:, ZQK MJ IJq KP;
b) give antonyms oft
sMVLNLMR ad%, P`Ia , qIZMRKQRI n! NLg[K n! NLg[K 9
c) give derivatives of:
ZRIHH! HIRxI! ZRIxIJK! IMRJ! P`Ia! sMVLNLMR.
VI. FiII in appropriate words (coasuIt EssentiaI VocabuIary (I) Iist):
+. |I MqxLHIq pRMJz! ryPQlNN qP `IKKIR Ls aPQ HKMa MK HT[PPN QJKLN HIxIJKIIJ. .K TMJlK qP aPQ
MJa... .r 2. dK K[I MgI Ps K[LRKIIJ pRMJz OPeZIRePPq eMH M`NI ... M NLKKNI VPJIa JPe MJq
K[IJ. 4. u[I MQTKLPJIIR JPKLTIq pRMJz MJq eMH... `a K[I HPNLqLKa Ps K[I `PalH ISZRIHHLPJ. 3.
dsKIR [LH NPJINa qLJJIR /PMVIH ... [LH TLgMR MJq eMNzIq PQK MgMLJ. *. mLV... K[I TMZKMLJlH PRqIR
KP RLqI sPR nPTKPR iLxIHIa MK PJTI. ,. 1P PJI TPQNq... OMZKMLJ pNLJKlH PRqIRH. 7. u[Ia TPQNq
JPK VMJa KLNN /MNxMKPRI [Mq qPJI [LH VLNLKMRa .... b. . zJIe K[MK [LH [IMRK eMH ... `a K[I `IMQKa
MJq K[I xMHVIHH MJq K[I HKLNNJIHH. 2. . H[MNN T[PPHI K[I P` . MV VPHK... eLK[. +). u[I VLNNIR
eMH TPQJKLJg PxIR `LH VPJIa `a K[I ... Ps M TMJqNI. ++. r.lV MK aPQR...r VIMJH r.lV RIMqa KP ...
aPQR TPVVMJqHr. +2. |I eMH ZIIRLJg LJKP K[I qMRzJIHH ... `a M HLJgNI TMJqNI. +4. rw[a qPJlK
aPQ gP .JKP K[I TPQJKRa{r RIZIMKIq mQJI. r.K ePQNq ... aPQ M NPK......cr +3. u[Ia eIRI MK K[ILR
NLKKNI KM`NI LJ K[I RPPV! e[IRI OMRRLI PTTMHLPJMNNa ... M VIMN. +*. w[IJ K[I `Pa eMH eLK[ QH
[I eMH sRLIJqNa MJq....
VII. Express in one word (see Text Eight aad VocabuIary Notes):
M ZMaVIJK VMqI LJ RIKQRJ sPR PJIlH ePRz! TPVLJg NMHK MK K[I IJq Ps HVK[.! KP qP e[MK PJI
LH KPNq! K[I IssITK ZRPqQTIq PJ K[I VLJq PR sIINLJgH! M HLqI xLIe Ps K[I [QVMJ sMTI! ZMNI LJ
TPNPQR! KP `RLJg sPPq MJq ZQK LK PJ K[I KM`NI! HPVIK[LJg HKRMJgI PR HITRIK! sPJq Ps HPTLIKa.
VIII. The foIIowing statements are not true to fact Correct them, using the conversationaI
formuIas given in the Reminder:
GSMVZNI: u[I MQK[PR KQRJIq QZ MK GQHKPJ KP VIIK M sRLIJq Ps [LH.
o[! JP! [I qLqJlK. |I KQRJIq QZ MK GQHKPJ KP HII [LH sRLIJq Pss.
+. u[I HIIRHPss sINK fQLKI MK IMHI PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV. 2. 1P PJI KRLIq KP `RIMz K[I HLNIJTI PJ
K[I ZNMKsPRV. 4. u[I sLK Ps TPQg[LJg [INZIq K[I HLKQMKLPJ. 3. u[IRI eMH IxIRa HLgJ Ps K[I
KRMLJlH LVVIqLMKI qIZMRKQRI e[IJ K[Ia TMVI KP K[I ZNMKsPRV. *. u[I sMTI Ps iI PH qLqJlK
HIIV sMVLNLMR KP K[I JMRRMKPR. ,. iI PH eMH xIRa HPRRa KP HII K[I JMRRMKPR. 7. iI PH HMLq [I
ePRzIq PJ K[I HKMgI. b. iI PH HMLq [I eMH M qLRITKPR Ps K[I dJgNPdVIRLTMJ /PTLMN 0QRIMQ.
2. u[I JMRRMKPR sQNNa QJqIRHKPPq e[a iI PH [Mq `IIJ QJHQTTIHHsQN PJ K[I HKMgI. +). iI PH
ISZNMLJIq K[MK MNN K[I sIIH eIRI ZMLq PxIR KP K[I IVZNPaIIH. ++. iI PH NPPzIq NLzI M `IggMR
e[IJ K[I JMRRMKPR HMe [LV PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV. +2. u[I JMRRMKPR qLqJlK IJxa iI PH. +4. iI PH
HMLq K[MK PJI TMJ MTK eLK[PQK sIINLJg. +3. u[IRI eIRI JP HLgJH Ps iI PH `ILJg VPxIq e[IJ
[I HMe K[I aPQJg dVIRLTMJ Pss. +*. u[I JMRRMKPR eMH JPK VPxIq e[IJ HIILJg [LH sRLIJq Pss.
+,. u[I JMRRMKPR eMJKIq iI PH KP KIMT[ [LV KP TPJTIMN [LH sIINLJgH.
I V L n q I R: I6m afraid I don6t agree" I thin/ you6re mi0ta/en (there:" I don6t thin/ you
are right" I 0ee what you mean, &ut"""" I6m not 0o 0ure" Cn the )ontraryE Bou )an6t &e 0eriou0.
I dou&t it" I di0agree with you" I 0hou.d6t 0ay 0o" I o&%e)t to it" Far from it" #ure.y not"
Noth6ing of the 0ortE Du0t the other way roundE
IX. Insert prepositions where necessary:
+. . HMe K[I VaHKIRLPQH HKRMJgIR ... K[I VPRJLJg. 2. . VIK [IR ... K[I sLRHK KLVI ... M eMRV
HQJJa VPRJLJg ... NMHK HZRLJg. 4. . RITPgJLIq [IR sMTI ... K[I eLJqPe. 3. . HMe JP HLgJ ...
IJxa ... [IR IaIH. *. nLq aPQ TPJsIHH ... MJaK[LJg ... RIKQRJ{ ,. wMLK... VI ... ZNMKsPRV 1P. 4 ...
K[I /K. \IKIRH`QRg RMLNeMaHKMsLPJ ... [MNs ZMHK KIJ. 7. w[MK [MxI aPQ gPK ... aPQR [MJq{ b. .
JIxIR MTKIq ... K[I HKMgI. 2. /[I HVLNIq ... [IR sINNPeZMHHIJgIRH. +). . [IMRq [LV RITLKI ... M
TPJTIRK ... NMHK eIIz. ++. uMNz ... [IR ... K[I sII. +2. |I HKRQTz K[I KM`NI ... [LH [MJq. +4. nLq
K[Ia HQZZNa aPQ ... IxIRaK[LJg{ +3. . RITPgJLIq [IR ... aPQR qIHTRLZKLPJ. +*. mQHK M VLJQKI. .
H[MNN TPJHQNK... K[I KLVIKM`NI. +,. w[MK ZRIxIJKIq aPQ ... TPJsIHHLJg ... IxIRaK[LJg{ +7. u[I
HLKQMKLPJ LH xIRa MezeMRq! `QK . K[LJz . TMJ [INZ ... LK. +b. ... PK[IR ePRqH aPQ [MxIJlK
P`IaIq ... Va LJHKRQTKLPJH. +2. u[Ia RMJ ... TMRRLMgI ... TMRRLMgI ... K[I ZNMKsPRV. 2). |I HMLq
LK... M sLK... MJgIR. 2+. /[I JPqqIq ... VI ... M gRMxI MLR. 22. .KlH M VaHKIRa ... VI. 24. . eMHJlK
HMKLHsLIq ... [IR xMgQI MJHeIR. 23. . TMJlK KINN aPQ [Pe eI MNN VLHH ... aPQ. 2*. . TMJlK qP ... K[LH
KISK`PPz. 2,. . TMJ [MRqNa HII MJaK[LJg ... K[LH NLg[K. 27. nP aPQ K[LJz . TMJ qP Va NIHHPJH
e[IJ aPQ MRI HKMJqLJg ... K[I NLg[K{ 2b. |MH [I VMJa ZQZLNH ... [MJq{
X. TransIate these sentences into Russian:
+. /LKKLJg MK [IR `QRIMQ H[I gMIq MK K[I sMVLNLMR P`ITKH MRPQJq [IR. 2. yPQlxI qPJI VI M
gRIMK HIRxLTI. |Pe H[MNN . IxIR `I M`NI KP RIZMa aPQ sPR aPQR zLJqJIHH{ 4. .K eLNN JIxIR qP KP
P`Ia aPQR IxIRa LVZQNHI. 3. .J K[LH KPeJ aPQlNN JIxIR sLJq M JQRHIRaVMLq sPR NPxI PR VPJIa.
\IPZNI [IRI [MxI NPHK KMHKI sPR qPVIHKLT HIRxLTI. *. .J [LH [MJqHPVIJIHH MJq MHHQRMJTI
O[MRNIH .xPRa eMH qRMVMKLTMNNa LVZRIHHLxI. ,. .K eMH PJNa KeP eIIzH NMKIR K[MK pRMJz KPPz
[LH qIZMRKQRI sRPV wMKIRVMJ MJq OPVZMJa. 7. 0a K[LH KLVI /LNxIR [Mq MqPZKIq fQLKI M
sRLIJqNa MJq sMVLNLMR KPJI. b. u[MK eMH [Pe [I MNeMaH RIVIV`IRIq [IR MsKIReMRqH: M HNIJqIR
gLRN eMxLJg sMRIeINN KP [LV sRPV K[I HQJNLK ZPRT[.
XI. Try your band at teaching.
Say what yon wouId do in the teacher's position:
vMRa eMH MJ ISTINNIJK ZQZLN sRPV K[I sLRHK qMa H[I IJKIRIq HT[PPN. /[I eMH zJPeJ KP MNN
K[I KIMT[IRH MH rK[I ISTIZKLPJMNNa `RLg[K gLRN.r /[I eMH K[I IJxa Ps VMJa T[LNqRIJ e[P
PZIJNa MqVLKKIq K[MK K[Ia ePQNq NLzI KP `I NLzI [IR. dK [PVI! H[I eMH ZNMTIq PJ M ZIqIHKMN!r
JPK[LJg eMH IxIR qIJLIq KP [IR. u[I T[LNqRIJ ISZITKIq MJq MTTIZKIq K[MK vMRalH ePRz eMH
MNeMaH ZIRsITK. oJI TMJ LVMgLJI K[I H[PTz IxIRaPJI ISZIRLIJTIq e[IJ PJI qMa vMRa sNIe
LJKP M RMgI e[IJ H[I VLHHIq K[RII ePRqH LJ M HZINNLJg KIHK! MJq [IR RIHQNKH eIRI ePRHI K[MJ
HPVI PK[IRHl. pLRHK vMRa KPRI QZ [IR ZMZIR! K[IJ H[I ZRPTIIqIq KP KIMR QZ [IR HZINNLJg `PPz.
/[I HTRIMVIq K[MK K[I PK[IRH T[IMKIq! K[MK H[I eMH MNeMaH K[I `IHK MJq MNeMaH eLNN `I.
XII. a) ReteII the text: 1) in the third person; 2) as if yon ware the narrator's friend who was
Ieaving for America; 3) as if you were the young American Iady; :' as if yon were Le Ros.
b) Give a summary of the story.
XIII. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. t $D $ 5 =685 >. 2. &% $;
6 $ $8$! ! > 86! ; ; 6D. 4. ~;
6 $8$ $ 6D7 6. 3. ?$6
6$ ; . *. ' $ 8
>6 +, . ,. $>! 8 $D6 ; ]. 7. <
5 ! E 6 ;. b. ( (LJsPRVMKLPJ) 7
9 $ 7. 2. ' 6 =685 . +). _ ! 8
D! 8 D6 ; $>; . X. < ;>5
! $; 6! 6 . +2. 88 $ $ %8
=6 ;$. +4. < 5 ; : 8 6 6
>! 6 ! 8 86 $6D. +3. "8 8
;8 ; =65 67.
XIV. Act out the scene:
rw[IRI MRI aPQ sPR{r K[I KRMLJ TPJqQTKPR MHzIq MJ PNq NMqa.
ryPQlRI xIRa LVZIRKLJIJK!r HJMZZIq K[I PNq NMqa. rw[MK `QHLJIHH LH LK Ps aPQRH e[IRI . MV
gPLJg{ 0QK Ls aPQ VQHK zJPe! . MV `PQJq sPR 0PHKPJ.r
u[I TPJqQTKPR P`NLgLJgNa ZLTzIq QZ [IR K[RII `MgH! sPQJq [IR M HIMK LJ K[I 0PHKPJ KRMLJ
MJq ZQK K[I `MgH PJ K[I RMTz. dH [I NIsK K[I TMRRLMgI! K[I PNq NMqa NIMJIq PQK Ps K[I eLJqPe
MJq TMTzNIq MK [LV. r. gQIHH . sPPNIq aPQ! aPQ LVZIRKLJIJK aPQJg VMJ. .lV RIMNNa gPLJg KP
0QssMNP.r
XV. Go over the text of Unit 8 again to discuss the foIIowing in cIass. Let someone agree or
disagree and express their own opinion (see the Prompts suggested):
+. w[MK zLJq Ps VMJ LH qIHTRL`Iq LJ K[I T[MRMTKIR Ps iI PH{ nP aPQ TPJHLqIR K[I
T[MRMTKIR KRQI KP NLsI PR LH LK ISMggIRMKIq{ w[LT[ VIK[Pq Ps T[MRMTKIRLMKLPJ qPIH K[I MQK[PR
QHI! qLRITK PR LJqLRITK{ (\RPxI aPQR ZPLJK.) 2. .H K[I HKPRa QHK MJ MVQHLJg MJITqPKI PR qPIH LK
TPJKMLJ INIVIJKH Ps HPTLMN HMKLRI{ (\RPxI aPQR ZPLJK) 4. w[LT[ NLJIH MJq ZMHHMgIH `IMR
KPQT[IH Ps [QVPQR{ w[MK KaZI Ps [QVPQR ZRIxMLNH LJ K[I HKPRa{ OPVZMRI K[I HKPRa eLK[
r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMa.r w[LT[ Ps K[I KeP qP aPQ TPJHLqIR VPRI MVQHLJg MJq e[a{
w[LT[ LH VPRI KRQI KP NLsI{ w[LT[ RMLHIH VPRI LVZPRKMJK ZRP`NIVH{ 3. w[MK TMJ aPQ HMa
M`PQK K[I NMJgQMgI Ps K[I HKPRa{ (uPQT[ PJ: M) HINITKLPJ Ps ePRqH! `) HaJKMS.)
\RPVZKH: true enough9 a&0o.ute.yeQa)t.y8uite9 I )ou.dn6t agree more9 ye0, &ut 0ure.y you
don6t thin/9 ye0, &ut on the other hand9 a0 I 0ee it, in my view (o(inion:9 (er0ona..y I &e.ieve
(I fee.:9 I6d %u0t .i/e to 0ay, the way I 0ee it9 if you a0/ VI: it60 .i/e thi09 oh, 0ure.y not, jd
rather not 0ay anything a&out"
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "Seeing People Off", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat it
following the model.
2. Respond to the given questions according to the model.
3. Extend the statements. Express your disbelief, surprise or doubt in response to the
given sentences. Follow the models.
4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into English; b) check
them with the key.
5. Listen to the text "Climbing" or some other text on the topic "Seeing People off"
and write it as a reproduction.
6. Listen to the poem "Adieu, adieul.." by G. G. Byron. Mark the stresses and tunes,
repeat it following the model and learn it by heart.
TOP!: TRAVELLING
TEXT A. DIFFERENT MEANS OF TRAVEL .
dNIS: \IRHPJMNNa + [MKI HIILJg ZIPZNI Pss. . ZRIsIR `ILJg HIIJ Pss VaHINs. .lV ISKRIVINa
sPJq Ps KRMxINNLJg MJq sIIN KIRRL`Na IJxLPQH Ps MJa sRLIJq e[P LH gPLJg MJae[IRI. . TMJlK [INZ
sIINLJg . H[PQNq HP VQT[ NLzI KP `I LJ [LH ZNMTI.
0IRK: 0QK e[MK VIK[Pq Ps KRMxINNLJg qP aPQ ZRIsIR{
d.: pPR VI K[IRI LH JPK[LJg NLzI KRMxIN `a MLR; LK LH VPRI TPVsPRKM`NI! VPRI TPJxIJLIJK MJq
Ps TPQRHI sMR fQLTzIR K[MJ MJa PK[IR VIK[Pq. u[IRI LH JPJI Ps K[I qQHK MJq qLRK Ps M RMLNeMa
PR TMR PQRJIa! JPJI Ps K[I KRPQ`NI Ps T[MJgLJg sRPV KRMLJ KP HKIMVIR MJq K[IJ KP MJPK[IR
KRMLJ. 0IHLqIH! sNaLJg LH M K[RLNNLJg K[LJg. nPJlK aPQ MgRII{
.: . K[LJz . H[PQNq NLzI KP HMa M ePRq PR KeP sPR KRMLJH. wLK[ M KRMLJ aPQ [MxI HZIIq!
TPVsPRK MJq ZNIMHQRI TPV`LJIq. pRPV K[I TPVsPRKM`NI TPRJIR HIMK Ps M RMLNeMa TMRRLMgI aPQ
[MxI M HZNIJqLq xLIe Ps K[I e[PNI TPQJKRaHLqI. .s aPQ MRI [QJgRa! aPQ TMJ [MxI M VIMN LJ K[I
qLJLJgTMR; MJq Ls K[I PQRJIa LH M NPJg PJI aPQ TMJ [MxI M ePJqIRsQN `Iq LJ M HNIIZIR.
0IHLqIH! qP aPQ zJPe MJa ZNMTI K[MKlH VPRI LJKIRIHKLJg K[MJ M `Lg RMLNeMaHKMKLPJ{ u[IRI LH
K[I VPxIVIJK! K[I ISTLKIVIJK! K[I gMLIKa Ps ZIPZNI gPLJg MeMa PR eMLKLJg KP VIIK sRLIJqH.
u[IRI MRI K[I H[PQKH Ps K[I ZPRKIRH MH K[Ia ZQNN NQggMgI MNPJg K[I ZNMKsPRVH KP K[I eMLKLJg
KRMLJH! K[I TRPeq MK K[I `PPzLJgPssLTI gIKKLJg KLTzIKH! K[I [QJgRa MJq K[LRHKa PJIH [QRRaLJg
KP K[I RIsRIH[VIJK RPPVH `IsPRI K[I KRMLJ HKMRKH. 1P! RIMNNac nP aPQ zJPe M VPRI ISTLKLJg
ZNMTI K[MJ M `Lg RMLNeMaHKMKLPJ{
(LN: . qP.
d.: dJq K[MK LH{
O: d `Lg HIM ZPRK! pPR VI K[IRI LH JP KRMxIN HP sLJI MH `a `PMK. . NPxI KP sIIN K[I qITz Ps K[I
`PMK QJqIR Va sIIK! KP HII K[I RLHI MJq sMNN Ps K[I eMxIH! KP sIIN K[I sRIH[ HIM eLJq `NPeLJg LJ
Va sMTI MJq [IMR K[I TRa Ps K[I HIMgQNNH. dJq e[MK ISTLKIVIJK! KPP! K[IRI LH LJ TPVLJg LJKP
K[I [MR`PQR MJq HIILJg RPQJq QH MNN K[I H[LZH! HKIMVIRH! TMRgPH[LZH! HMLNLJg H[LZH! RPeLJg
`PMKH.
d.: wINN! . HQZZPHI K[MKlH MNN RLg[K sPR K[PHI K[MK NLzI LK! `QK JPK sPR VI. .lV MNeMaH HIMHLTz!
IHZITLMNNa e[IJ K[I HIM LH M NLKKNI `LK RPQg[.
.: .lxI [IMRq K[MK M gPPq TQRI sPR HIMHLTzJIHH LH M HVMNN ZLITI Ps qRa `RIMq.
d.: vMa`I; `QK . K[LJz M `IKKIR TQRI LH M NMRgI ZLITI Ps qRa NMJq.
n M x L q : wINN! aPQ VMa HMa e[MK aPQ NLzI M`PQK MIRPZNMJI sNLg[KH! HIM xPaMgIH! RMLNeMa
PQRJIaH PR KPQRH `a TMR! `QK gLxI VI M eMNzLJg KPQR MJa KLVI. w[MK qPIH K[I VPKPRLHK HII Ps
K[I TPQJKRa{ 0QK K[I eMNzIR NIMxIH K[I qQNN `RPMq [Lg[eMa MJq gPIH MNPJg NLKKNI eLJqLJg
NMJIH e[IRI TMRH TMJlK gP. |I KMzIH VPQJKMLJ ZMK[H K[RPQg[ K[I [IMK[IR! [I eMJqIRH `a K[I
HLqI Ps fQLIK NMzIH MJq K[RPQg[ K[I H[MqI Ps ePPqH. |I HIIH K[I RIMN TPQJKRa! K[I eLNq
sNPeIRH! K[I aPQJg `LRqH LJ K[ILR JIHKH! K[I qIIR LJ K[I sPRIHK; [I sIINH K[I fQLIKJIHH MJq TMNV
Ps JMKQRI.
dJq `IHLqIH! aPQ MRI HMxLJg aPQR RMLNeMa sMRI KRMxINNLJg PJ sPPK 1P PJI TMJ qIJa K[MK
eMNzLJg LH K[I T[IMZIHK VIK[Pq Ps KRMxINNLJg!
/P . HMa: M eMNzLJg KPQR sPR VI.
(From rGHHIJKLMN GJgNLH[ sPR pPRILgJ /KQqIJKHr `a (. G. GTzIRHNIa! 0PPz 3! iJq.! +2**)
TEXT B. AT THE STATION
p.: wINN! [IRI eI MRI MK NMHKc w[IJ . gIK LJKP K[I `PMKKRMLJ! . sIIN K[MK [PNLqMaH [MxI
MNRIMqa `IgQJ. |MxI aPQ gPK K[I KLTzIKH! mMJ{
m.: yIH! [IRI K[Ia MRI. . `PPzIq HIMKH sPR aPQ MJq VI; KRMLJH MRI QHQMNNa TRPeqIq MK K[LH
KLVI. wI [MxI JQV`IRH d 2, MJq d 4); KeP TPRJIRHIMKH LJ M JPJHVPzIR! PJI HIMK sMTLJg
K[I IJgLJI! PJI `MTz KP K[I IJgLJI. .H K[MK MNN RLg[K{
p.: u[MKlH xIRa gPPq! mMJ. . qPJlK NLzI gPLJg M NPJg PQRJIa LJ M HVPzIR. vMa . HLK sMTLJg
K[I IJgLJI{
m.: os TPQRHIc yPQ TMJ KMzI e[LT[IxIR HIMK aPQ NLzI. dH M VMKKIR Ps sMTK! . RIMNNa ZRIsIR
HLKKLJg eLK[ Va `MTz KP K[I IJgLJI. |IRIlH PQR TMRRLMgI! d! MJq [IRIlH PQR TPVZMRKVIJK. yPQ
TMJ gIK LJKP K[I KRMLJ JPe.
p.: iQTa! ePJlK aPQ TPVI LJKP K[I TMRRLMgI eLK[ VI{ yPQ eLNN `I eMJJIR LJHLqI.
i: u[MJzH! . eLNN.
m.: .lNN gP MJq HII K[MK PQR NQggMgI [MH `IIJ ZQK LJKP K[I gQMRqlH xMJ! MJq .lNN `PPz KeP
HIMKH LJ K[I RIHKMQRMJK TMR sPR NQJT[. .lNN gIK HPVI JIeHZMZIRH MK K[I `PPzHKMNN MJq HPVI
T[PT[PNMKI PJ Va eMa `MTz. (We goe0 away":
i.: mMJ LH M gPPq sINNPe sPR gIKKLJg K[LJgH qPJI! LHJlK [I{
p.: |I LH. . qPJlK zJPe MJaPJI `IKKIR. .lV xIRa gNMq [I LH TPVLJg eLK[ VI. . zJPe K[MK .
H[MNN [MxI M xIRa TPVsPRKM`NI PQRJIa. mMJ eLNN HII KP IxIRaK[LJg sLJq K[I HIMKH PJ K[I
KRMLJ! HII K[MK Va NQggMgI LH MNN RLg[K! MJq gIK LK K[RPQg[ K[I TQHKPVH. . H[MJlK [MxI KP qP
MJaK[LJg MK MNN ISTIZK HLK `MTz MJq IJPa K[I PQRJIa.
(sRPV rGHHIJKLMN GJgNLH[ sPR pPRILgJ /KQqIJKHr &y (. ~. GTzIRHNIa! 0PPz 2. iJq.! +277)
TEXT C. A VOYAGE ROUND EUROPE
i.: |INNP! dJJI. dRI aPQ `MTz sRPV aPQR [PNLqMaH MNRIMqa{ oPP! aPQlRI NPxINa MJq
`RPeJc w[IRI [MxI aPQ `IIJ{
d.: o[! .lxI [Mq M sMJKMHKLT KLVIm .lxI QHK `IIJ PJ M TRQLHI RPQJq GQRPZI eLK[ Va nMq.
i.: o[! aPQ NQTza K[LJgc yPQ VQHK [MxI HIIJ HP VMJa LJKIRIHKLJg ZNMTIH. w[IRI qLq aPQ
HMLN sRPV{
d.: wINN! eI NIsK sRPV oqIHHM...
i.: nLq aPQ TMNN MK MJa GQRPZIMJ ZPRKH{
d.: yIH. QLKI M NPK. wI eIJK MH[PRI MK IMT[ PJI MJq eIJK PJ HPVI RIMNNa LJKIRIHKLJg KRLZH
HLg[KHIILJg.
i.: nLq aPQ gP `a KRMLJ PR qLq aPQ [LRI M TMR{
d.: 1P! eI eIJK `a TPMT[. 1Pe . TMJ HMa .lxI HIIJ PVI! iPJqPJ! \MRLH MJq dK[IJH.
i.: oPP! .lV HP IJxLPQH. wIRI aPQ IxIR HIMHLTz{
d.: oJNa M NLKKNI! . eMH sLJI! QJKLN KeP qMaH MsKIR UL`RMNKMR! u[I HIM HQqqIJNa `ITMVI xIRa
RPQg[! MJq . [Mq KP HKMa LJ Va TM`LJ.
i.: w[MK M H[MVI. 0QK eMH aPQR sMK[IR MNN RLg[K{
d.: yIH! [I eMH sLJI MNN K[I KLVI. |IlH JIxIR HIMHLTz!
i.: nLq aPQ gP MH[PRI e[IJ aPQ RIMT[Iq /ZMLJ{
d.: 1P! eI PJNa HMe K[I TPMHKNLJI sRPV K[I qITz. .K qLqJlK RIMNNa NPPz xIRa LJxLKLJg! M `LK
`MRI MJq VPJPKPJPQH! LJ sMTK.
i.: dJq qLq aPQ gP sPR M HeLV LJ K[I vIqLKIRRMJIMJ{
d.: yIH! MJq LJ K[I dKNMJKLT oTIMJ KPP. u[IRI MRI HPVI `IMQKLsQN `IMT[IH PJ K[I eIHK
TPMHK Ps pRMJTI! .KlH HP JLTI KP [MxI M HeLV K[IRI.
i: wINN! .lV gNMq aPQlxI [Mq HQT[ M NPxINa KLVIc
Memory Work
From a Railway Carriage
pMHKIR K[MJ sMLRLIH! sMHKIR K[MJ eLKT[IH!
0RLqgIH MJq [PQHIH! [IqgIH MJq qLKT[IH;
dJq T[MRgLJg MNPJg NLzI KRPPZH LJ M `MKKNI!
dNN K[RPQg[ K[I VIMqPeH! K[I [PRHIH MJq TMKKNI;
dNN Ps K[I HLg[KH Ps K[I [LNN MJq K[I ZNMLJ
pNa MH K[LTz MH qRLxLJg RMLJ;
dJq IxIR MgMLJ! LJ K[I eLJz Ps MJ IaI!
\MLJKIq HKMKLPJH e[LHKNI `a.
|IRI LH M T[LNq e[P TNMV`IRH MJq HTRMV`NIH!
dNN `a [LVHINs MJq gMK[IRLJg `RMV`NIH;
|IRI LH M KRMVZ e[P HKMJqH MJq gMIH;
dJq K[IRIlH K[I gRIIJ sPR HKRLJgLJg K[I qMLHLIHc
|IRI LH M TMRK RQJ MeMa LJ K[I RPMq!
iQVZLJg MNPJg eLK[ VMJ MJq NPMq;
dJq [IRI LH M VLNN MJq K[IRIlH M RLxIR;
GMT[ M gNLVZHI MJq gPJI sPR IxIRc Po&ert d"
#teven0on
NOTES ON SYNONYMS
u[I MTK Ps KRMxINNLJg TMJ `I qIHTRL`Iq `a M JQV`IR Ps HaJPJaVH e[LT[ qLssIR `a xMRLPQH
LVZNLTMKLPJH (HII 1PKIH PJ /aJPJaVH! Z. +b). u[Ia MNN qIHTRL`I K[I MTK Ps gPLJg sRPV PJI
ZNMTI KP MJPK[IR (K[MK LH e[a K[Ia MRI HaJPJaVH)! `QK qLssIR `a K[I NIJgK[ Ps KLVI KMzIJ `a
K[MK MTK! `a LKH ZQRZPHI! qIHKLJMKLPJ PR `a K[I VIK[Pq Ps KRMxINNLJg.
travel n: K[I MTK Ps KRMxINNLJg! IHZ. M NPJg PJI LJ qLHKMJK PR sPRILgJ ZNMTIH! ILK[IR sPR K[I
ZQRZPHI Ps qLHTPxIRLJg HPVIK[LJg JIe PR LJ HIMRT[ Ps ZNIMHQRI MJq MqxIJKQRI. (pRIf. in the
(.ura.":9 !"g" |I LH eRLKLJg M `PPz M`PQK [LH KRMxINH LJ dsRLTM.
journey n: K[I MTK Ps gPLJg sRPV PJI ZNMTI KP MJPK[IR! QHQMNNa KMzLJg M RMK[IR NPJg KLVI;
!"g" .KlH M K[RII qMaHl PQRJIa `a KRMLJ. yPQlNN [MxI KP VMzI K[I PQRJIa MNPJI. UPLJg PJ M
PQRJIa LH MNeMaH ISTLKLJg.
voyage n: M RMK[IR NPJg PQRJIa! IHZ. `a eMKIR PR MLR; !"g" .lq NPxI KP gP PJ M xPaMgI!
ePQNq aPQ{ u[I LqIM Ps MJ dKNMJKLT xPaMgI KIRRLsLIq [IR: H[I eMH HQRI KP `I HIMHLTz MNN K[I
KLVI.
trip n: M PQRJIa! MJ ISTQRHLPJ! sRIf. M `RLIs PJI! VMqI `a NMJq PR eMKIR; !"g" nLq aPQ
IJPa aPQR eIIzIJq KRLZ KP K[I HIMHLqI{
tour n: M PQRJIa LJ e[LT[ M H[PRK HKMa LH VMqI MK M JQV`IR Ps ZNMTIH (QHQ. eLK[ K[I xLIe
Ps HLg[KHIILJg)! K[I KRMxINNIR sLJMNNa RIKQRJLJg KP K[I ZNMTI sRPV e[LT[ [I [Mq HKMRKIq; !"g" oJ
PQR /PQK[IRJGJgNMJq KPQR eI xLHLKIq wLJqHPR! oSsPRq! OMV`RLqgI! /KRMKsPRqPJdxPJ MJq
K[IJ TMVI `MTz KP iPJqPJ.
cruise n WzJL:: M HIM xPaMgI sRPV ZPRK KP ZPRK! IHZ. M ZNIMHQRI KRLZ; !"g" u[I
vIqLKIRRMJIMJ TRQLHI ZRPVLHIq VMJa LJKIRIHKLJg LVZRIHHLPJH.
hitch-hiking n: KRMxINNLJg `a gIKKLJg sRII RLqIH LJ ZMHHLJg MQKPVP`LNIH MJq eMNzLJg
`IKeIIJ RLqIH; !"g" |LKT[[LzLJg LH M TPVZMRMKLxINa JIe eMa Ps KRMxINNLJg e[LT[ gLxIH PJI M
T[MJTI KP HII VQT[ eLK[PQK HZIJqLJg MJaK[LJg.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY ()
Words
`PPzLJgPssLTI n PQRJIa n HVPzIR
TM`LJ n [LKT[[LzLJg n (HVPzLJgTMR) n
TMRgPH[LZ n NQggMgI n HZIIq n
TRQLHI n NQggMgIxMJ n HKIMVIR n
qITz n ZPRKIR n KPQR n
qLJLJgTMR n RPQg[ ad% KRMxIN n
IJgLJI n HMLN KRLZ n
sMRI n HIMgQNN n xPaMgI n
sNLg[K n HIMHLTzJIHH n eMNzIR n
gQLqI n HNIIZIR (HNIIZLJgTMR) n eMxI n
Word Combinations
KP gP PJ M PQRJIa! KRLZ! KP KRMxIN HITPJq/HKMJqMRq
xPaMgI! M ZMTzMgI KPQR TNMHH
KP KRMxIN `a MLR (KRMLJ! KP TMNN MK M ZPRK
`PMK! TRQLHIR! NLJIR! IKT.) KP gP MH[PRI
KP T[MJgI sRPV KRMLJ KP `PMK! `Mq (gPPq) HMLNPR
(TRQLHIR! NLJIR) KP VMzI M KRLZ! PQRJIa
(0QK: KP T[MJgI sPR M `PMK. PJ qITz
$.0o: w[IRI qP . T[MJgI sPR PJ H[PRI
\MRLH{) KP NPPz LJxLKLJg
KP `I HIMHLTz! KP `I KRMxINHLTz KP `I qQI MK (M ZNMTI)
(LJ MJa zLJq Ps KRMJHZPRK) qLRITK/K[RPQg[ KRMLJ
HLJgNI KLTzIK aPQ TMJlK `IMK K[I KRMLJ
RIKQRJ KLTzIK (RIKQRJ `IRK[) M [PVI NPxIR/HKMaMK[PVI/
KP KRMxIN/gP sLRHK TNMHH M [PVIHKMa KaZI
EXERCISES
I. Answer the questions. Be carefuI to argue your case weII:
+. w[MK VIMJH Ps KRMxIN qP aPQ zJPe{ 2. w[a MRI VMJa ZIPZNI sPJq Ps KRMxINNLJg{ 4.
w[a qP HPVI ZIPZNI NLzI KRMxINNLJg `a KRMLJ{ 3. nP aPQ NLzI KRMxINNLJg `a KRMLJ{ w[MK VMzIH
aPQ NLzI/qLHNLzI LK{ *. w[MK MRI K[I MqxMJKMgIH Ps M HIMxPaMgI{ ,. w[MK MRI K[I MqxMJKMgIH
Ps [LKT[[LzLJg{ 7. w[MK zLJq Ps ZIPZNI QHQMNNa P`ITK KP KRMxINNLJg `a HIM{ b. w[MK MRI K[I
MqxMJKMgIH MJq qLHMqxMJKMgIH Ps KRMxINNLJg `a MLR{ |MxI aPQ IxIR KRMxINNIq `a MLR{ |Pe qP
aPQ NLzI LK{ 2. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz M`PQK eMNzLJg KPQRH{ +). w[MK LH! LJ aPQR PZLJLPJ! K[I
VPHK IJPaM`NI VIMJH Ps KRMxIN{ ++. w[MK eMa Ps KRMxINNLJg MssPRqH VPHK TPVsPRK sPR INqIRNa
ZIPZNI{ (ULxI aPQR RIMHPJH.) +2. nP aPQ K[LJz KRMxIN [INZH M ZIRHPJ KP `ITPVI eLHIR{
II. FiII in appropriate words (consuIt the Iist of synonyms on pp. 291- 292):.
.. .lq `I qINLg[KIq KP gP PJ M HIM .... `QK Va eLsI [MH JIxIR `IIJ M gPPq HMLNPR! HP eI TMJlK
PLJ aPQ. 2. iMHK eIIz eI VMqI M ePJqIRsQN ... KP K[I VPQJKMLJH. .K KPPz QH sPQR [PQRH
{{{ 223 4, =8{ 9 ;9{{{
1LJM: dJq e[IRI qLq aPQ gP ... MH[PRI{
dNIS: o[! ... HPVI HZPK aPQ MRI JPK NLzINa KP sLJq ... MJa VMZ. wINN! e[IJ eI sPQJq
PQRHINxIH ... K[I `MJz eI LVVIqLMKINa HKMRKIq ... K[I ZNMTI e[IRI PQR ISZIqLKPJ eMH ePRzLJg.
1LJM: nLq aPQ gP ... TMR{
dNIS: o[! JPc 1P TMR TPQNq [MxI qRLxIJ ... K[PHI ZMK[H. wI KRMxINNIq ZMRKNa... sPPK! MJq ...
HPVI ZNMTIH eIJK... HVMNN RLxIRH MJq HKRIMVH ... RPeLJg`PMKH. wI eIRI ... HZPKH e[IRI JP
VMJlH sPPK [Mq HKIZZIq ... QH.
1LJM: |Pe ISTLKLJgc /P aPQ IJPaIq ... K[I PQRJIa! qLqJlK aPQ{
dNIS: GxIRa VLJQKI ... LK! K[PQg[ LK eMH JPK MJ IMHa PJI.
1LJM: nLq aPQ RIKQRJ ... MLR{
dNIS: 1P!... KRMLJ. u[I sMTK LH! . [Mq [MRqNa IJPQg[ VPJIa ... K[I RMLNeMa sMRI! JPK KP HMa
MJaK[LJg ... K[I ZNMJI.
VII. RoIe-pIaying.
Work in groups of four or five:
yPQ MRI M sMVLNa qITLqLJg PJ K[I KaZI Ps [PNLqMa aPQ eLNN gP PJ JISK HQVVIR. u[IJ RIZPRK
KP K[I PK[IR sMVLNLIH PJ aPQR sLJMN qITLHLPJ! ISZNMLJLJg K[I RIMHPJH sPR aPQR T[PLTI. \PLJK PQK
MqxMJKMgIH MJq qLHMqxMJKMgIH! gLxLJg eMRJLJg `MHIq PJ ZIRHPJMN ISZIRLIJTI.
VIII. TransIate the foIIowing into EngIish:
+. 8 96 @AB{ _5 { 2. 6
77 $ D. 9 D $ ; 7 $5
67. 4. (; $ D 9 5 <6. Y$ $8 $
$ ?$. 3. ' $; 6 96 . A
8 D$ 8. $5 D$ 89 $D9.
*. D$ $% ; D9 D 7
;. ,. " 8 ! 6 5 >8 89 7.
<8 9 9! 7! $ 6. <
86 . 7. ( D D
; ;; ! D; ~. b. 8 ; D6
685 ;! $ 8 ; ; $. ;
8 $. < 6 8 6 8$. 2. - 6
$; ={ Y6 $; ! $; ;>.
IX. Make up diaIogues.
/QggIHKIq HLKQMKLPJH:
d. ueP sRLIJqH MRI qLHTQHHLJg qLssIRIJK eMaH Ps HZIJqLJg K[ILR [PNLqMaH. u[Ia `PK[ eMJK
KP KRMxIN! `QK PJI Ps K[IV LH MJ IJK[QHLMHK RIMqa sPR MJaK[LJg MJq K[I PK[IR LH M TMQKLPQH MJq M
HTIZKLTMN ZIRHPJ. (}HI K[I sPNNPeLJg: there i0 nothing .i/e trave. &y air&y 0ea, et)", it i0 more
)onvenient to """9 there i0 none of the """9 0(eed, )omfort and (.ea0ure )om&ined9 there i0 no
trave. 0o fine a0 &y"""9 the ri0e and fa.. of the wave09 )oming in to the har&our, that60 a.. right
for tho0e that .i/e it9 when the 0ea i0 rough9 hit)h=hi/ing9 it60 ri0/y, i0n6t itE I (refer to &e on
the 0afe 0ide9 I6d rather 0tay at home":
0. d ZIRHPJ e[P [MH QHK RIKQRJIq sRPV M sPRILgJ TRQLHI LH MJHeIRLJg K[I fQIHKLPJH Ps MJ
IMgIR NLHKIJIR. (}HI K[I sPNNPeLJg: a mo0t eQ)iting eQ(erien)e9 I rea..y envy you9 do te.. me
a.. a&out it, where did you 0ai. from] what were your (ort0 of )o..i go a0hore9 go
0ight0eeing9 what wa0 the (.a)e that im(re00ed you mo0tE I didn6t thin/ mu)h of...; the
%ourney wa0 tiring9 &ut you did en%oy it, didn6t youE:
O. dJ PNq NMqa LH KMNzLJg KP M ZPRKIR MK K[I RMLNeMa ZNMKsPRV. /[I zIIZH sPRgIKKLJg K[I
JMVI Ps K[I ZNMTI H[I LH gPLJg KP MJq qPIH JPK fQLKI zJPe [Pe VMJa ZLITIH Ps NQggMgI H[I
[MH. (}HI K[I sPNNPeLJg: wi.. you 0ee to my .uggage] where for, madam] it %u0t 0.i((ed my
memory, it60 a 0ort of re0ort (.a)e9 wou.d you .i/e me to have the0e trun/0 (ut in the
.uggage=van] where on earth i0 that 0uit)a0e] it wi.. never go on the .uggage=ra)/9 I mu0t
have a 0eat fa)ing the engine9 dear me, I6m 0ure to mi00 the train9 i0 it a through train] I
hate to )hange9 when are we due to arrive]:
;. a) TransIate the foIIowing fragment into Russian in written form:
w[IJ aPQR H[LZ NIMxIH |PJPNQNQ K[Ia [MJg lNILHl RPQJq aPQR JITz! gMRNMJqH Ps HeIIK
HVINNLJg sNPeIRH. u[I e[MRs LH TRPeqIq MJq K[I `MJq ZNMaH M VINKLJg |MeMLLMJ KQJI. u[I
ZIPZNI PJ `PMRq K[RPe TPNPQRIq HKRIMVIRH KP K[PHI HKMJqLJg `INPe! MJq K[I HLqI Ps K[I H[LZ LH
gMa eLK[ K[I K[LJ NLJIH Ps ZMZIR! RIq MJq gRIIJ MJq aINNPe MJq `NQI. w[IJ K[I H[LZ VPxIH
HNPeNa MeMa K[I HKRIMVIRH `RIMz HPsKNa! MJq LK LH NLzI K[I `RIMzLJg Ps [QVMJ KLIH. vIJ MJq
ePVIJ MRI PLJIq KPgIK[IR sPR M VPVIJK! `a M gMLNa TPNPQRIq HKRLZ Ps ZMZIR! RIq MJq `NQI MJq
gRIIJ MJq aINNPe! MJq K[IJ NLsI HIZMRMKIH K[IV MJq K[I ZMZIR LH HQJqIRIq! HP IMHLNa! eLK[ M
NLKKNI H[MRZ HJMZ. pPR MJ [PQR K[I sRMgVIJKH KRMLN qPeJ K[I [QNN MJq K[IJ K[Ia `NPe MeMa. u[I
sNPeIRH Ps aPQR gMRNMJqH sMqI MJq K[ILR HTIJK LH PZZRIHHLxI. yPQ K[RPe K[IV PxIR`PMRq.
(From ru[I uRIV`NLJg Ps M iIMsr &y w. /. vMQg[MV)
b) Compare the seeing-off ceremony described in the fragment with the one you
read about in the story "Seeing People Off".
c) Comment on the second part of the fragment beginning with the wordg "...it is
like the breaking of human ties". What does the description symbolize? Comment on
the stylistic aspect of the fragment.
XI. a) Read the text beIow and transIate it into Russian oraIIy:
A Sea Trip
r1Pr! HMLq |MRRLH! rLs aPQ eMJK RIHK MJq T[MJgI! aPQ TMJlK `IMK M HIM KRLZ.r
. P`ITKIq KP K[I HIM KRLZ HKRPJgNa. d HIM KRLZ qPIH aPQ gPPq e[IJ aPQ MRI gPLJg KP [MxI M
TPQZNI Ps VPJK[H Ps LK! `QK! sPR M eIIz! LK LH eLTzIq.
yPQ HKMRK PJ vPJqMa eLK[ K[I LqIM K[MK aPQ MRI gPLJg KP IJPa aPQRHINs. yPQ eMxI MJ MLRa
MqLIQ KP K[I `PaH PJ H[PRI! NLg[K aPQR `LggIHK ZLZI MJq HeMggIR M`PQK K[I qITz MH Ls aPQ eIRI
OMZKMLJ OPPz! /LR pRMJTLH nRMzI! MJq O[RLHKPZ[IR OPNQV`QH MNN RPNNIq LJKP PJI. oJ uQIHqMa
aPQ eLH[ aPQ [MqJlK TPVI. oJ wIqJIHqMa! u[QRHqMa MJq pRLqMa! aPQ eLH[ aPQ eIRI qIMq.
oJ /MKQRqMa aPQ MRI M`NI KP HeMNNPe M NLKKNI `IIs KIM! MJq KP HLK QZ PJ qITz! MJq MJHeIR eLK[
M eMJ! HeIIK HVLNI e[IJ zLJq[IMRKIq ZIPZNI MHz aPQ [Pe aPQ sIIN JPe. oJ /QJqMa! aPQ
`IgLJ KP eMNz M`PQK MgMLJ! MJq KMzI HPNLq sPPq. dJq PJ vPJqMa VPRJLJg! MH! eLK[ aPQR `Mg
MJq QV`RINNM LJ aPQR [MJq! aPQ HKMJq `a K[I gMJgeMa! eMLKLJg KP HKIZ MH[PRI! aPQ `IgLJ KP
K[PRPQg[Na NLzI LK.
. RIVIV`IR Va `RPK[IRLJNMe gPLJg sPR M H[PRK HIM KRLZ PJTI sPR K[I `IJIsLK Ps [LH [IMNK[.
|I KPPz M RIKQRJ `IRK[ sRPV iPJqPJ KP iLxIRZPPN; MJq e[IJ [I gPK KP iLxIRZPPN! K[I PJNa
K[LJg [I eMH MJSLPQH M`PQK eMH KP HINN K[MK RIKQRJ KLTzIK.
.K eMH PssIRIq RPQJq K[I KPeJ MK M KRIVIJqPQH RIqQTKLPJ; HP . MV KPNq; MJq eMH IxIJKQMNNa
HPNq sPR ILg[KIIJ ZIJTI KP M aPQK[ e[P [Mq QHK `IIJ MqxLHIq `a [LH VIqLTMN VMJ KP gP KP K[I
HIMHLqI! MJq KMzI ISIRTLHI.
r/IMHLqIcr HMLq Va `RPK[IRLJNMe! ZRIHHLJg K[I KLTzIK MssITKLPJMKINa LJKP [LH [MJq; re[a!
aPQlNN gIK IJPQg[ KP NMHK aPQ M NLsIKLVI; MJq MH sPR ISIRTLHIc e[a! aPQlNN gIK VPRI ISIRTLHI!
HLKKLJg qPeJ PJ K[MK H[LZ! K[MJ aPQ ePQNq KQRJLJg HPVIRHMQNKH PJ qRa NMJq.
|I [LVHINs Va `RPK[IRLJNMe TMVI `MTz `a KRMLJ. |I HMLq K[I 1PRK[wIHKIRJ
MLNeMa eMH [IMNK[a IJPQg[ sPR [LV. (From ru[RII vIJ LJ M
0PMKr &y mIRPVI j. mIRPVI. $da(ted:
b) Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[MK VMqI K[I JMRRMKPR P`ITK KP K[I HIM KRLZ{ 2. w[a qLq [LH `RPK[IRLJNMe HINN [LH
RIKQRJ KLTzIK{ 4. |Pe qLq [I qIHTRL`I K[I MqxMJKMgIH Ps M HIM KRLZ KP K[I aPQK[ e[P `PQg[K
[LH KLTzIK{
"' Point out the Hues and passages that you consider humorous. Is it humour of situation or
humour of words! (AnaIyse each case separateIy.)
XII. Speak individuaIIy or arrange a discussion on the foIIowing:
+. w[MK MKKRMTKH ZIPZNI LJ K[I LqIM Ps KRMxINNLJg{
2. .H K[I RPVMJKLT MHZITK Ps KRMxINNLJg HKLNN MNLxI LJ PQR KLVI{
4. u[I TINI`RMKIq KRMxINNIRH Ps K[I ZMHK.
3. w[IRI MJq [Pe ePQNq aPQ NLzI KP KRMxIN{
XIII. Try your hand at teaching.
1. Arrange and run a conversation on the foIIowing text:
u[I oJNa wMa KP uRMxIN .H PJ pPPK
w[IJ MJK[RPZPNPgLHKH KQRJ K[ILR MKKIJKLPJ KP K[I KeIJKLIK[ TIJKQRa! K[Ia eLNN HQRINa T[PPHI
K[I NM`IN riIgNIHH vMJr. |LHKPRLIH Ps K[I KLVI eLNN gP HPVIK[LJg NLzI K[LH: r.J K[I KeIJKLIK[
TIJKQRa ZIPZNI sPRgPK [Pe KP QHI K[ILR NIgH. vIJ MJq ePVIJ VPxIq M`PQK LJ TMRH! `QHIH MJq
KRMLJH sRPV M xIRa IMRNa MgI. u[I HQRZRLHLJg K[LJg LH K[MK K[Ia qLqJlK QHI K[ILR NIgH IxIJ e[IJ
K[Ia eIJK PJ [PNLqMa. u[Ia `QLNK TM`NI RMLNeMaH! HzLNLsKH MJq RPMqH KP K[I KPZ Ps IxIRa [QgI
VPQJKMLJ.r
u[I sQKQRI [LHKPRa `PPzH VLg[K MNHP RITPRq K[MK eI qLq JPK QHI PQR IaIH. .J PQR [QRRa KP
gIK sRPV PJI ZNMTI KP MJPK[IR! eI sMLNIq KP HII MJaK[LJg PJ K[I eMa. dLR KRMxIN )xIH aPQ M
`LRqlHIaI xLIe Ps K[I ePRNq. OMR qRLxIRH LJ ZMRKLTQNMR! JIxIR eMJK KP HKPZ. u[I KaZLTMN
KeIJKLIK[TIJKQRa KRMxINNIR LH K[I VMJ e[P MNeMaH HMaH l.lxI `IIJ K[IRIl VIMJLJg! r. qRPxI
K[RPQg[ LK MK +)) VLNIH MJ [PQR PJ K[I eMa KP HPVIe[IRI INHI.r
w[IJ aPQ KRMxIN MK [Lg[ HZIIqH K[I ZRIHIJK VIMJH JPK[LJg: aPQ NLxI VMLJNa LJ K[I sQKQRI!
`ITMQHI aPQ HZIJq VPHK Ps aPQR KLVI NPPzLJg sPReMRq KP MRRLxLJg MK HPVI PK[IR ZNMTI. 0QK
MTKQMN MRRLxMN e[IJ LK LH MT[LIxIq! LH VIMJLJgNIHH. yPQ eMJK KP VPxI PJ MgMLJ. u[I KRMxINNIR
PJ sPPK! PJ K[I PK[IR [MJq! NLxIH TPJHKMJKNa LJ K[I ZRIHIJK. |I ISZIRLIJTIH KP ZRIHIJK VPVIJK
eLK[ [LH IaIH! [LH IMRH MJq K[I e[PNI Ps [LH `Pqa. dK K[I IJq Ps [LH PQRJIa [I sIINH M
qINLTLPQH Z[aHLTMN eIMRLJIHH. |I zJPeH K[MK HPQJq HMKLHsaLJg HNIIZ eLNN `I [LH: K[I QHK
RIeMRq Ps MNN KRQI KRMxINNIRH.


Arguments:
pPR: dgMLJHK:
+. GxIJ PJ [PNLqMa: TM`NI RMLNeMaH! HzLNLsKH!
RPMqH KP KPZH Ps VPQJKMLJH.
+. pPPNLH[ KP TNLV` M VPQJKMLJ e[IJ K[IRIlH M RMLNeMa
PR RPMq QZ LK
2. w[IJ KRMxINNLJg MK [Lg[ HZIIqH ZRIHIJK
VIMJH JPK[LJg: NLsI LJ sQKQRI.
2. uRMxINNLJg MK [Lg[ HZIIqH LH M ZNIMHQRI LJ LKHINs.
4. uRMxINNIR PJ sPPK: NLxIH TPJHKMJKNa LJ ZRIHIJK 4. uRMxINNLJg PJ sPPK: IS[MQHKLJg: aPQ gIK JPe[IRI
sMHK
3. uaZLTMN KeIJKLIK[TIJKQRa KRMxINNIR: r.lxI
`IIJ K[IRI.r .KMNa! nIN[L! .RzQKHz; K[RPQg[ MK +))
VLNIH MJ [PQR.
3. .KlH JPe ZPHHL`NI KP HII VMJa TPQJKRLIH! VIIK
ZIPZNI Ps MNN JMKLPJMNLKLIH.
2. Think of some other arguments and counter-arguments to carry on the discussion.
(See "Classroom English", Section IX.)
XIV. A. Do yon know how to act sensibIy when out in the wiIds? If not, the text beIow might
heIp you:
.s aPQ MRI HIKKLJg Pss PJ M eMNzLJg KPQR! KMzI M TPVZMHH! M VMZ MJq sLRHKMLq IfQLZVIJK
eLK[ aPQ. GxIJ K[I VPHK ISZIRLIJTIq TMJ NPHI K[ILR eMa LJ K[I xMHK QJLJ[M`LKIq MRIMH. .s aPQ
gIK NPHK qPJlK NPHI aPQR [IMq. .JHKIMq `I HIJHL`NI! KRa KP gLxI HPVI LJqLTMKLPJ Ps e[IRI aPQ
MRI MJq zIIZ aPQRHINs eMRV. dJq RIVIV`IR: JIxIR gP Pss MNPJI! MJq LJsPRV HPVIPJI MK aPQR
ZPLJK Ps qIZMRKQRI e[IRI aPQ LJKIJq KP gP! MJq e[MK RPQKI aPQ LJKIJq KP KMzI.
B. Describe the pictures. Use the suggested phrases.
See if the traveIIers have acted sessibIy. Support your idea.
M) gLxI VI a wa./ing tour every time9 you )an6t &eat (hit)h=: hi/ing9 need you ta/e 0o
mu)h .uggage] `) KP get to wi.d, uninha&ited (.a)e09 to &e hard.y a&.e to go on9 to &e near.y
drowned in a 0wam(9 unimagina&.e hard0hi(09 to over)ome the o&0ta).e09 T) there wa0 a
turn in the weather, it wa0 (ouring9 f.a0he0 of .ightning, ro..0 of thunder, I wi0h I were in a
rai.way )arriage nowE9 q) to ).im& the 0tee(e0t ro)/09 to fa)e the danger of"""9 to get to
(.a)e0 where no man60 foot ha0 ever 0te((ed9 I) to rea)h the to( in 0afety, to &e hard.y a&.e
to &e.ieve one60 eye09 you )ou.d /no)/ me down with a feather"
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH
VIII
nLssIRIJK ZMKKIRJH Ps eRLKLJg (HII r/KQqLIHr LJ }JLK oJI) HINqPV PTTQR MNPJI! VPRI PsKIJ
K[Ia `NIJq LJKP PJI MJPK[IR! IHZITLMNNa LJ NIKKIR eRLKLJg.
Letter LH M HZITLsLT zLJq Ps eRLKKIJ TPVZPHLKLPJ LJxPNxLJg M TPJTRIKI eRLKIR! VIHHMgI MJq
M TPJTRIKI RIMqIR. .J VMJa eMaH LK LH M sRII TPVZPHLKLPJ. d NIKKIR LH LJ M HIJHI! M K[IVI! gPx
IRJIq `a K[I HMVI RQNIH Ps eRLKLJg K[MK gPxIRJ IxIRa PK[IR zLJq Ps TPVZPHLKLPJ. .K VQHK `I
TNIMR! eINN PRgMJLIq! TP[IRIJK. dJq LK H[PQNq `I LJKIRIHKLJg.
0QK M NIKKIR LH MNHP gPxIRJIq `a TIRKMLJ PK[IR NMeH! PR TPJxIJKLPJH Ps QHMgI! e[LT[ K[I
NIKKIR eRLKIR TMJJPK LgJPRI.
u[IHI MRI K[I ZMRKH Ps M NIKKIR: K[I [IMqLJg! K[I LJHLqI MqqRIHH! K[I gRIIKLJg! K[I `Pqa Ps K[I
NIKKIR! K[I TPVZNLVIJKMRa TNPHI! K[I HLgJMKQRI.
pPR IMT[ Ps K[IHI ZMRKH QHMgI [MH ZRIHTRL`Iq TIRKMLJ HIK sPRVH qIZIJqLJg PJ qLssIRIJK
KaZIH Ps NIKKIRH ZIRHPJMN PR `QHLJIHH NIKKIRH! LJsPRVMN PR sPRVMN HPTLMN JPKIH.
The heading. u[I ZMRKH Ps M [IMqLJg! eRLKKIJ LJ K[I sPNNPeLJg PRqIR! MRI K[I HKRIIK!
MqqRIHH! K[I JMVI Ps M TLKa PR KPeJ (K[I JMVI Ps K[I HKMKI LJ K[I }./.d.)! K[I qMKI! !"g"
:LJI OPKKMgI oSsPRq PMq d`LJgqPJPJu[MVIH +4 vMa +2...
N t e: In Great Britain very often the house is not numbered but has a "proper"
name, like "Vine Cottage",
The inside address. .J M `QHLJIHH NIKKIR K[I LJHLqI MqqRIHH LH K[I MqqRIHH Ps K[I ZIRHPJ
eRLKKIJ KP. .J ZIRHPJMN NIKKIR K[I LJHLqI MqqRIHH LH QHQMNNa PVLKKIq.
.J M `QHLJIHH NIKKIR LK LH MNeMaH TPRRITK KP QHI M ZIRHPJMN KLKNI eLK[ K[I JMVI Ps K[I ZIRHPJ
MqqRIHHIq. d `QHLJIHH KLKNI H[PQNq JPK ZRITIqI K[I JMVI. OPRRITK ZIRHPJMN KLKNIH MRI: vR.!
vRH.! vLHH! nR.! \RPsIHHPR! vIHHRH.! !"g"
nR. Y. ( |PeMRq
/QZIRLJKIJqIJK Ps /T[PPNH
The Greeting. u[I sPNNPeLJg sPRVH MRI TPRRITK sPR `QHLJIHH MJq ZRPsIHHLPJMN NIKKIRH:
UIJKNIVIJ: iMqLIH:
nIMR /LR: nIMR vMqMV:
va qIMR #ir" @y qIMR vMqMV:
nIMR vR. wMRRIJ: nIMR vLHH |PeMRq:
.J ZIRHPJMN NIKKIRH ILK[IR M TPNPJ PR M TPVVM VMa `I QHIq MsKIR K[I gRIIKLJg. d TPVVM LH
TPJHLqIRIq NIHH sPRVMN. .J ZIRHPJMN NIKKIRH K[I RMJgI Ps gRIIKLJgH LH QJNLVLKIq MJq LJsPRVMN!
NLzI r@y own dovey=Soveyr Ps mQqalH rnIMR nMqqa iPJgiIgHr.
The Body of the Letter. d gPPq NIKKIR H[PQNq `I TNIMR! qLRITK! TP[IRIJK! qLgJLsLIq MJq
TPQRKIPQH.
The CompIimentary CIose. OPRRITK sPRVH sPR `QHLJIHH NIKKIRH MRI:
yPQRH KRQNa! yPQRH xIRa KRQNa! :IRa KRQNa aPQRH!
IHZITKsQNNa aPQRH! pMLK[sQNNa aPQRH. /LJTIRINa aPQRH!
yPQRH HLJTIRINa! OPRqLMNNa aPQRH.
The Signature. /PVI Ps K[I TPJxIJKLPJH H[PQNq `I P`HIRxIq: M) JILK[IR ZRPsIHHLPJMN
KLKNIH! JPR MTMqIVLT qIgRIHH H[PQNq `I QHIq eLK[ M HLgJMKQRI; `) MJ QJVMRRLIq ePVMJ H[PQNq
HLgJ [IRHINs MH vLHH iMQRM 0NMJz! `QK H[I VMa ZNMTI vLHH LJ ZMRIJK[IHIH `IsPRI [IR JMVI Ls
H[I sIINH K[MK LK LH JITIHHMRa sPR ZRPZIR LqIJKLsLTMKLPJ; T) M VMRRLIq ePVMJ PR M eLqPe HLgJH
[IR PeJ JMVI! JPK [IR VMRRLIq JMVI. pPR ISMVZNI! nLMJM |PNLqMa 0RPeJ LH [IR PeJ JMVI;
vRH. UIPRgI 0RPeJ LH [IR VMRRLIq JMVI!
|IRI LH MJ ISMVZNI Ps M `QHLJIHH NIKKIR:
nIMR vLHH OMRJM`a!
dNNPe VI KP IJTNPHI M TPJKRL`QKLPJ KP aPQR xIRa qIHIRxLJg pQJq `IsPRI LK LH sLJMNNa ePQJq
QZ.
yPQRH xIRa KRQNa!
|IRTQNI \PLRPK.
Assignments:
1. Go over the letters (see Unit Five) and copy down the samples of the
complimentary close.
2. Write a reply to 1udy's letter as if you were the person she wrote her letter to.
3. Write a letter to a friend sharing the memories of your holiday trip and your
feelings at the station on the day of departure.
4. Write a letter to your dean in which you request permission to stay at your
parents' several days more. Give your reason clearly and convincingly.
XV. Film "Mr. Brown's Holiday". Film Segment 8 "Caught in the Rain" (On the
Way to Yeovil). a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the film.
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
1. Listen to the text "Different Means of Travel", mark the stresses and tunes.
Repeat it following the model.
2. Listen to the conversation "At the Station", mark the stresses and tunes; repeat
after the tape, learn the text by heart.
3. Listen to the dialogue "A Voyage Round Europe", mark the stresses and tunes.
Repeat the text following the model and record your variant. Compare your variant
with the model and correct your pronunctalion mistakes.
4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into English; b) check
them with the key.
5. Listen to some text on the topic "Trawelling", Retell it in class.
6. Listen to some anecdotes. Put down the word combinations you find useful. Act
them out in class (oral and written work).
7. Listen to the poem "From a Railway Carriage". Mark the stresses and tunes.
Repeat after the tape. Learn it by heart.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
What do you know about
1. Christopher Columbus and the history of his discovery? Why wasn't America
named in his houour? After whom was it named and why?
2. Captain Cook, Sir Francis Drake, Roald Amundsen, Mlckloukha-Macklay, the
Papanin expedition?
3. The Mystery of the Atlantis, the Mystery of the Bennudian Triangle, the Mystery
of the Easter Isle, the Loch Ness Monster?
UNIT NINE
I. SPEECH PATTERNS
+. u[Ia eIRI M`PQK vRH. 0QRNPelH MgI! 0o were the attendant0"
r. KINN aPQ . eMH VPxIq. /P eIRI aPQ! . qMRI HMa.r
r. eMHJlK KRaLJg KP MTK. + RIMNNa sINK.r r/P qLq .! Va `Pa!r HMLq iI PH.
va sRLIJq gQIHHIq e[MK VaHKIRa K[Ia eIRI KMNzLJg M`PQK. /P qLq ..
/[I eMH gRIMKNa LVZRIHHIq `a iMQRIJTI oNLxLIRlH MTKLJg. /P eIRI K[Ia.
2. PHI thought him fQLKI funny"
O[RLHKLJI K[PQg[K K[LH T[IfQI sPR KeIJKa gQLJIMH RMK[IR HKRMJgI.
u[Ia MNeMaH sPQJq iI PH VMgJIKLT.
u[I uRMHzIR gLRNH TPJHLqIRIq pM`IRVMT[IR xIRa RPVMJKLT.
pPR K[I sLRHK KLVI LJ M NPJg e[LNI GRLz K[PQg[K [LVHINs ePJqIRsQNNa sRII.
4. /[I 0aw hi0 fa)e (eering K[RPQg[ K[MK VMHz.
iMJJa HMe URIK :LNNLIR HLKKLJg MK K[I KM`NI VPKLPJNIHH MJq LVZIRHPJMN.
w[IJ ZMHHLJg M TPssII HKMNN iMJJa JPKLTIq KeP e[LKI VIJ HKMRLJg MK [LV.
mLV MJq [LH VPK[IR [IMRq K[I `NLJq VMJ MZZRPMT[LJg K[I qPPR.
.K eMH IMHa KP LVMgLJI .qM ZIRsPRVLJg MH K[I zIIZIR Ps M HITPJqRMKI TNQ`.
nMxI sRPeJIq MH [I HMe nMJ NIMxLJg.
3. PHI eMJKIq [LV to 0to( ).owning sPR K[IV.
w[IJ GRLz sLJLH[Iq RIMqLJg K[I NIKKIR! [I TPQNqJlK KMzI [LH IaIH Pss K[I ZMZIR.
\RIHIJKNa uPV ZLTzIq QZ M HKRMe MJq `IgMJ KRaLJg KP `MNMJTI LK PJ [LH JPHI.
u[I HMLNPR `IgMJ RPeLJg KPeMRqH K[I [MR`PQRlH VPQK[.
vIMJe[LNI H[I eIJK PJ KMNzLJg LJ [IR IMRJIHK! TPJxLJTLJg xPLTI.
EXERCISES
I. Change the sentences, using the patterns:
\MKKIRJ 2: +. u[I vQRqHKPJIH K[PQg[K K[MK nMxLq eMH qLHP`IqLIJK. 2. GxIRa`Pqa sPQJq
K[MK K[IRI eMH HPVIK[LJg VaHKIRLPQH M`PQK iMqa dNRPa. 4. wI K[PQg[K K[MK K[I NMHK HTIJI
eMH fQLKI LVZRIHHLxI. 3. . sPQJq K[MK K[I HKRMJgIRlH xPLTI eMH xMgQINa sMVLNLMR KP VI. *.
|QTz pLJJ TPQNqJlK `IMR [LH JIe NLsI MK K[I eLqPelH! LJ [LH PZLJLPJ LK eMH ISKRIVINa qQNN.
\MKKIRJ 4: +. /M`LJM TMVI LJKP K[I [MNN! H[I HMe K[MK [I eMH HLKKLJg MK K[I KINIZ[PJI. 2. wI
eMKT[Iq [Pe K[I HIIRHPss eIRI H[QssNLJg sRPV sPPK KP sPPK. 4. oQKHLqI [I sPQJq K[MK mPI eMH
HKMJqLJg PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV. 3. /[I eMKT[Iq [Pe [I eMH eMxLJg sMRIeINN KP [LH sRLIJqH. *. . HMe
K[MK 0P` eMH ZNMaLJg TIJKRI sPReMRq.
\MKKIRJ 3: +. GRLz HKMRKIq KP RIMq K[I NIKKIR MgMLJ. 2. /PPJ K[I ZPRKIRH `IgMJ KP ZQNN NQggMgI
MNPJg K[I ZNMKsPRV. 4. dK NMHK mMTz sLJLH[Iq KP eRLKI JQVIRPQH NIKKIRH Ps LJKRPqQTKLPJ. 3. iIx
yMH[LJ `IgMJ KP ZNMa sPPK`MNN e[IJ [I eMH M KIIJMgIR. *. 0QRKPJlH JMVIHMzI HKMRKIq KP ZNMa
ZPzIR MJq eIJK `RPzI. ,. u[I UMqsNa ZQNNIq M T[RaHMJK[IVQV sRPV K[I xMHI MJq `IgMJ KP
ZNQTz Pss PJI e[LKI ZIKMN MsKIR MJPK[IR.
II. Think of a situation. Suggest a beginning matching up the end. Use the proper pattern:
\MKKIRJ +: +. ...; HP eIRI MLN K[I ZMHHIJgIRH. 2. ...; HP qLq eI. 4....; HP MV +. 3. ...; HP TMJ eI.
*. ...; HP [MxI .. ,. ..;HP [MxI aPQ. 7. ...; HP eMH PQR TPMT[. b. ...; HP qLq K[I gPMNzIIZIR. 2. ...;
HP qLq K[I PZZPJIJK. +). ...; HP eIRI PQR JILg[`PQRH. ++. ...; HP eMH PQR NQggMgI. +2....; HP LH
H[I.
\MKKIRJ 2: +. ... xMgQINa sMVLNLMR. 2. ... fQLKI HPTLM`NI. 4. ... RMK[IR LVZRIHHLxI. 3. ...
P`IqLIJK. *. ... fQLKI qLssIRIJK. ,.... xMNQM`NI.
\MKKIRJ4: +.... HIRxLJg MJPK[IR VIMN. 2. ... VMzLJg M ZMQHI LJ [LH HKPRa. 4.... RQ``LJg [LH
[MJqH eLK[ qINLg[K 3.... H[RQggLJg [IR H[PQNqIRH. *. ... ZMHHLJg K[I `RIMqZNMKI KP K[I VMJ JISK
KP [LV. ,. ...TQRNLJg [IR NLZ MJq H[PeLJg [IR qLHgQHK sPR K[I HTIJI.
\MKKIRJ 3: +. ... HKPZZIq `RIMK[LJg. 2. ... HKMRKIq sLNNLJg LJ K[I MZZNLTMKLPJ sPRV. 4. ... HKPZZIq
H[LxIRLJg eLK[ TPNq. 3. ... `IgMJ KRIV`NLJg eLK[ sIMR. *. ... HKPZZIq VMzLJg JPKIH. ,.... sLJLH[Iq
RIMqLJg MNPQq.
III. TransIate the foIIowing into EngIish. Use the patterns:
\MKKIRJ +: +. ' 6 9 %7. "8
>. 2. 6 $8 ;9. "8 >. 4. 77 CD
$; >8$. "5 >. 3. X$ $ ; .
<$ >. *. &6 6 > >. ,. ~ 8 D85. X
$5 >. 7. h $ 6 D; 76! D >! b. <D
6 =68$ $8$ 76$. <D >.
\MKKIRJ 2: +. ? ' 6D ; 6 8$ (Pqq).
2. > D >5 $;9 9. 4. F;
> 8 # (UeIJqPNIJ)! D D
65. 3. # (|QRHKePPq) ! FE
%8! $! $ 86 $ $ >6
$ (HIJHL`NI). *. ?$E 5 ;8$ 6 $8$
(qMRLJg). ,. ? ! $%8 =68! ; 9
;$8$. 7. ' X $! ; 6 .
\MKKIRJ 4: +. ( ;; % h7 7! t6 5.
2. Y$ ! $6 = $% (KP gNLVVIR)
. 4. ! ! 7! %. 3. $;
6! $ $. *. "8 ! 8 6 $
. ,. ; 8 D ! ; 8D! ; $
.
\MKKIRJ 3: +. >$$ ; $6! $
. 2. 7 96 ;$. 4. ' $; 6
6 ; 6. 3. F ;
6 . *. A6 =6 $ $6$ D8$
$6$.
IV. Respond to the foIIowing statements and questions, using the patterns:
\MKKIRJ +: +. iI PH eMH qINLg[KIq KP HII [LH PNq MTfQMLJKMJTI. 2. /PVI ZIPZNI sIIN RMK[IR
HKLss PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV. w[MK M`PQK aPQ{ 4. va sRLIJqH NLzIq K[I sLNV rQLIK pNPeH K[I nPJ.r
w[MK M`PQK aPQRH{ 3. OINLM NPxIq iMJJa. w[MK M`PQK /MRLI{ *. /KIZ[IJ iIMTPTz LH M sMVPQH
[QVPRPQH eRLKIR. w[MK M`PQK vMRz ueMLJ{ ,. /PVI ZIPZNI NLzI K[LJgH VMqI KP PRqIR. w[MK
M`PQK aPQR sRLIJq{ 7. .lq RMK[IR RIMq HPVIK[LJg `a O[Iz[Px! ePQNq aPQ{ b. /K. \MQNlH
OMK[IqRMN LH M sLJI HZITLVIJ Ps MRT[LKITKQRI. }JsPRKQJMKINa . qLqJlK HII wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia.
2. vMRKLJ GqIJ NLxIq QJqIR xIRa [MRq TPJqLKLPJH e[IJ [I eMH aPQJg. w[MK M`PQK mMTz
iPJqPJ [LVHINs{ +). . sLJq K[LH ISIRTLHI ISKRIVINa IMHa.
\MKKIRJ 2:+. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz M`PQK /[MzIHZIMRIlH ZNMaH{ 2. |Pe qP aPQ sLJq K[I HTRIIJ
xIRHLPJ Ps rwMR MJq \IMTIr{ 4. .J Va PZLJLPJ O[. nLTzIJHl NMJgQMgI LH RMK[IR qLssLTQNK. 3.
w[MK ePQNq aPQ HMa KP M qMa PR KeP LJ K[I VPQJKMLJH{ *. w[MK LH aPQR LVZRIHHLPJ Ps K[I
uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ{ ,. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps [LKT[[LzLJg MH M VIMJH Ps KRMxIN{ 7. |Pe qLq
aPQ sLJq K[I NMHK sLNV aPQ HMe{ b. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps iI PHlH PTTQZMKLPJ{ 2. /PVI
ZIPZNI NLzI KRMxINNLJg `a MLR. +). w[MK LH aPQR PZLJLPJ M`PQK K[I GJgNLH[ NMJgQMgI{
\MKKIRJ 4: +. |MxI aPQ IxIR eMKT[Iq K[I HQJRLHI{ 2. nLq aPQ [MxI M T[MJTI KP [IMR [Pe
aPQR sRLIJq eMH RITLKLJg MK TPJTIRKH{ 4. OMJ aPQ LVMgLJI K[MK aPQ MRI KIMT[LJg M TNMHH Ps
HVMNN T[LNqRIJ{ 3. nP aPQ [IMR MJa JPLHI{ .KlH TPVLJg sRPV M`PxI! LHJlK LK{ *. w[MK zLJq Ps
ZIPZNI TMJ aPQ HII PJ K[I ZNMKsPRV MJq e[MK MRI K[Ia qPLJg K[IRI{
\MKKIRJ 3:+. w[IJ qLq aPQ HKMRK KP NIMRJ GJgNLH[{ 2. w[LT[ Ps aPQR sRLIJqH [MxI HKMRKIq KP
NIMRJ M HITPJq sPRILgJ NMJgQMgI{ 4. w[IJ qP K[Ia sLJLH[ KP HIRxI VIMNH LJ aPQR TMJKIIJ{ 3.
wI H[MNN `IgLJ KP eRLKI K[I KIHK e[IJ IxIRa`Pqa TPVIH.
V. Write 12 questions suggesting answers with these patterns. (The questions in Ex. IV may
serve as a modeI.)
TEXT. ROSE AT THE MUSIC-HALL $rom "They WaIk in the City" by J. B.
PriestIey
\RLIHKNIa! mP[J 0PLJKPJ (+b23+2b3) LH K[I MQK[PR Ps JQVIRPQH JPxINH! ZNMaH MJq NLKIRMRa IHHMaH
eINNzJPeJ MNN PxIR K[I ePRNq. os [LH ZRIeMR JPxINH K[I VPHK sMVPQH MRI ru[I UPPq OPVZMJLPJHr!
rdJgIN \MxIVIJKr! ru[Ia wMNz LJ K[I OLKar! MJq rwPJqIR |IRPr. |LH eMR JPxINH r0NMTzPQK LJ
URIMKNIar! rnMaNLg[K PJ /MKQRqMar MJq ru[RII vIJ LJ 1Ie /QLKHr! eIRI xIRa ZPZQNMR eLK[ K[I
RIMqIRH qQRLJg MJq MsKIR K[I /ITPJq wPRNq wMR. u[I qMRLJg MJq QJQHQMN TPVZPHLKLPJ Ps HPVI Ps [LH
ZNMaH (HQT[ MH rnMJgIRPQH OPRJIRr! ruLVI MJq K[I OPJeMaHr) LH M qIxLTI sPR RIxIMNLJg ZIPZNIlH RIMN
HINxIH [LqqIJ QJqIR TPJxIJKLPJMN VMHzH.
\RLIHKNIa NPxIH ZIPZNI. |LH sMxPQRLKI T[MRMTKIR LH M NLKKNI VMJ! MJ QJLVZPRKMJK H[a ZIRHPJ! NPHK LJ
K[I QJgNI Ps K[I `Lg TLKa! [INZNIHH LJ K[I sMTI Ps sPRTIH e[LT[ [I TMJJPK TPV`MK. .J K[I qIHTRLZKLPJ Ps
MJ INqIRNa TPVLT MTKPR LJ K[I gLxIJ ISKRMTK aPQ eLNN sLJq HPVIK[LJg Ps K[I HMq KIJqIRJIHH MJq TPV
ZMHHLPJ T[MRMTKIRLHKLT Ps \RLIHKNIalH MKKLKQqI KPeMRqH rNLKKNI VIJr.
w[IJ K[Ia MRRLxIq MK K[I VQHLT[MNN! K[I qPPRH sPR K[I HITPJq [PQHI eIRI QHK PZIJLJg!
MJq K[Ia eMNzIq HKRMLg[K LJKP K[I HKMNNH! e[LT[ eIRI xIRa T[IMZ. u[I MQqLIJTI VMqI M gRIMK
qIMN Ps JPLHI! IHZITLMNNa LJ K[I `MNTPJa. vRH. 0QRNPe NIq K[I eMa KP K[I sRPJK MJq sPQJq KeP
xIRa gPPq HIMKH sPR K[IV. PHI `PQg[K M ZRPgRMVVI sPR KePZIJTI! gMxI LK KP vRH. 0QRNPe!
K[IJ NPPzIq M`PQK [IR `RLg[KNa.
.K eMH M JLTI sRLIJqNa NLKKNI ZNMTI! K[LH VQHLT[MNN! eMRVIR MJq TPHLIR MJq MNKPgIK[IR VPRI
[QVMJ K[MJ K[I ZLTKQRI K[IMKRIH H[I QHQMNNa MKKIJqIq. oJI K[LJg H[I JPKLTIq. u[IRI eIRI xIRa
sIe aPQJg ZIPZNI K[IRI. u[Ia eIRI JIMRNa MNN M`PQK vRH. 0QRNPelH MgI. /P eIRI K[I
MKKIJqMJKH. /P eIRI K[I VIV`IRH Ps K[I PRT[IHKRM! e[P HPPJ TRIZK LJKP K[ILR ZLK! eLZLJg K[ILR
VPQK[H. :IRa sIe Ps K[I KQRJH eIRI aPQJg; K[Ia K[IVHINxIH! K[ILR TRIMHIq MJq sMqLJg
HTIJIRa! K[ILR ePRJ ZRPZIRKLIH! K[ILR PzIH MJq VMJa Ps K[ILR HPJgH eIRI gIKKLJg PJ LJ aIMRH.
dJq K[I NPQqIHK MZZNMQHI MNeMaH TMVI e[IJ M ZIRsPRVIR HMLq [I ePQNq LVLKMKI rPQR qIMR PNq
sMxPQRLKIr /PMJqHP! MJq JMVIq M VQHLT[MNN HKMR K[MK PHI [Mq JIxIR [IMRq Ps! PR e[IJ M
HLJgIR ePQNq KINN K[IV K[MK K[I JIe HPJgH eIRI MNN xIRa eINN LJ K[ILR eMa `QK K[MK K[I PNq
HPJgH eIRI `IHK MJq [I PR H[I ePQNq rIJqIMxPQR KP RIJqIRr PJI Ps K[ILR PNq sMxPQRLKI qLKKLIH.
u[I RIHQNK Ps K[LH eMH K[MK K[PQg[ K[I e[PNI ZNMTI eMH HP TPHa MJq sRLIJqNa! LK eMH MNHP
RMK[IR HMq. yPQK[ [Mq sNIq sRPV LK. u[IRI eMH JP `NPPV PJ MJaK[LJg [IRI. mPLJKH eIRI HKLss!
IaIH MJSLPQH `I[LJq K[I VMHz Ps ZMLJK.
oJI KQRJ eMH MJ ITTIJKRLT sINNPe eLK[ M gRPKIHfQI VMzIQZ! M qIMqe[LKI sMTI MJq M xIRa
RIq JPHI! MJq [LH TPHKQVI eMH K[MK Ps M RMggIq KRMVZ. |I VMqI NLKKNI PzIH! sINN PxIR [LVHINs!
MJq K[IJ TNLV`Iq PJ KP K[I `MTz Ps M T[MLR! VMqI VPRI NLKKNI PzIH MJq ZNMaIq K[I MTTPRqLPJ!
PHI K[PQg[K [LV fQLKI sQJJa MK sLRHK! `QK xIRa HPPJ T[MJgIq [IR VLJq M`PQK [LV. /[I eMH
HLKKLJg JIMR IJPQg[ KP HII [LH RIMN sMTI! ZIIRLJg MJSLPQHNa K[RPQg[ K[MK VMHz. .K eMH PNq!
eIMRa! qIHPNMKI. dJq sRPV e[IRI H[I HMK! H[I TPQNq HII LJKP K[I eLJgH MJq HKMJqLJg K[IRI!
JIxIR KMzLJg [IR IaIH Pss K[I ZIRsPRVIR! eMH MJ INqIRNa ePVMJ! [PNqLJg M qRIHHLJg gPeJ LJ
PJI [MJq MJq M HVMNN VIqLTLJI gNMHH LJ K[I PK[IR. dJq K[IJ PHI eMJKIq [LV KP HKPZ
TNPeJLJg sPR K[IV! eMJKIq K[I TQRKMLJ KP TPVI qPeJ! HP K[MK [I TPQNq ZQK PJ K[MK qRIHHLJg
gPeJ! qRLJz [LH VIqLTLJI PR e[MKIxIR LK LH! MJq gP MeMa eLK[ K[I INqIRNa ePVMJ! MJq RIHK
MJq JPK ePRRa MJa VPRI.
0QK H[I HMLq JPK[LJg KP vRH. 0QRNPe! e[P eMH IJPaLJg [IRHINs! MJq NMQg[LJg MJq
TNMZZLJg MH [MRq MH MJaPJI K[IRI! ZIR[MZH `ITMQHI H[I KPP eMH JP NPJgIR aPQJg MJq eMH `I
LJg IJKIRKMLJIq `a ZIPZNI Ps [IR PeJ MgI.
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. way n +. 6! ;! !"g" u[I eMa eI KPPz NMa K[RPQg[ K[I sPRIHK. #yn" road, path,
track.
2. ! !"g" OMJ aPQ H[Pe VI K[I eMa KP uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI{ (F 5...{)
N o t e : way LH `QK HINqPV QHIq KP qIJPKI M HZITLMNNa `QLNK VIMJH Ps TPVVQJLTMKLPJ `IKeIIJ
KeP ZNMTIH! K[I QHQMN ePRq sPR e[LT[ LH road; way LH VPRI PsKIJ QHIq KP qIJPKI qLRITKLPJ! !"g" + TMJ
H[Pe aPQ K[I eMa KP K[I JIMRIHK xLNNMgI (L. I. . TMJ KINN aPQ e[MK qLRITKLPJ aPQ H[PQNq KMzI LJ PRqIR KP
gIK KP K[I xLNNMgI). 0QK; . TMJ H[Pe aPQ M xIRa gPPq RPMq KP K[I xLNNMgI.; path qIJPKIH M KRMTz VMqI
`a K[I sIIK Ps ZIPZNI e[P ZMHH MNPJg (! ) MH M ZMK[ K[RPQg[ K[I ePPqH. os K[I K[RII
HaJPJaVH M`HKRMTK QHMgIH MRI VPHK KaZLTMN Ps way, !"g" eMa KP zJPeNIqgI! eMa KP [MZZLJIHH! IKT.!
path LH MNHP HPVIKLVIH QHIq LJ HQT[ TPV`LJMKLPJH! MH ru[I \MK[ Ps u[QJqIRr! qMJgIRPQH ZMK[! IKT.
to make one's way ! 96! !"g" u[Ia VMqI K[ILR eMa K[RPQg[ K[I HLNIJK
HKRIIKH Ps K[I HNIIZLJg TLKa.
to lead the way 5! ;! !"g" u[I gQLqI NIq K[I eMa K[RPQg[ K[I
sPRIHK KLNN eI RIMT[Iq M JMRRPe ZMK[. u[LH eMa! ZNIMHI. A>5! 5 7.
on the way ;! !"g" iIKlH qLHTQHH LK PJ K[I eMa [PVI.
to lose one's way 6! !"g" u[I T[LNqRIJ NPHK K[ILR eMa LJ K[I sPRIHK.
by the way ! $> $! !"g" 0a K[I eMa! e[MK eMH LK H[I KPNq aPQ{
to be (stand) in smb.'s way $D6! 6 ;! !"g" iIK VI ZMHH! qPJlK
HKMJq LJ Va eMa. u[Ia TPQNqJlK IxIJ KMNz LJ ZRLxMKI: K[IRI eMH MNeMaH HPVIPJI LJ K[I eMa.
w[MK eMH LK K[MK HKPPq LJ K[I eMa Ps [IR [MZZLJIHH{
to be (get) out of smb.'s way $D6! 6! 5 ;! !"g" UIK
PQK Ps Va eMac . H[MNN gIK [IR PQK Ps K[I eMa sPR KIJ VLJQKIH! HP K[MK aPQ TMJ [MxI MJ
PZZPRKQJLKa KP HIKKNI K[I VMKKIR.
in one's (own) way $ ! !"g" u[I VQHLT eMH QJQHQMN `QK fQLKI `IMQKLsQN LJ LKH
PeJ eMa.
to have (get) one's own way 6 $! 6 ;! !"g" /[I NLzIH KP [MxI
[IR PeJ eMa LJ IxIRaK[LJg. |MxI LK aPQR PeJ eMa.
way out 89 >! !"g" u[MK HIIVH KP VI M xIRa gPPq eMa PQK. 7rover&:
w[IRI K[IRIlH M eLNN K[IRIlH M eMa.
2. attend ti +. =6! 6! !"g" dNN T[LNqRIJ PxIR HIxIJ MKKIJq HT[PPN
LJ PQR TPQJKRa.
2. >6! >6! !"g" /[I eMH KLRIq Ps MKKIJqLJg PJ (QZPJ) RLT[ PNq NMqLIH
e[P JIxIR zJIe ISMTKNa e[MK K[Ia eMJKIq.
attendant n >6 ( !*! ! 6)! !"g" u[I MKKIJqMJK eLNN
H[Pe aPQ KP aPQR HIMKH.
attendance n +. ! =$6! !"g" dKKIJqMJTI MK HT[PPNH LH TPVZQNHPRa.
u[I MKKIJqMJTI [MH sMNNIJ Pss. yPQR MKKIJqMJTI LH RIfQIHKIq.; 2. >; 9;
;! !"g" 1Pe K[MK K[I ZMKLIJK LH PQK Ps qMJgIR K[I qPTKPR LH JP NPJgIR LJ MKKIJqMJTI.
3. wear (wore, worn) ti +. 6 (U!VU[:, 86 8$ .! !"g" dK K[I
ZMRKa H[I ePRI [IR eIqqLJg qRIHH MJq [I HMLq H[I NPPzIq NLzI M NLNaPsK[IxMNNIa. yPQ
H[PQNq MNeMaH eIMR `NQI: LK VMKT[IH aPQR IaIH.
#yn" to have smth. on
to wear make-up (paint, rouge) 6 $! 6
to wear scent D6
2. D6! 6! !"g" . [MxI ePRJ Va H[PIH LJKP [PNIH. u[I TMRZIK eHH ePRJ `a
K[I VMJa sIIK K[MK [Mq KRPqqIJ PJ LK.
4. 6 ( XH*I!, _[K ..)! !"g" u[LH TNPK[ eIMRH eINN (`MqNa).
wear n! !"g" u[LH HKaNI Ps qRIHH LH LJ gIJIRMN eIMR JPe. (5 6 E;
C. ONPK[IH sPR IxIRaqMa eIMR. '> >85 6. /[PIH sPR HKRIIK eIMR. YC
%8.
footwear 6
underwear 6
4. anxious ad% +. 85! >85! 585! !"g" . MV MJSLPQH M`PQK [LH
[IMNK[. |IR sMTI eMH TMNV! `QK K[I MJSLPQH IaIH `IKRMaIq HPVIK[LJg Ps e[MK H[I sINK.
#yn" worried! troubled! !"g" /[I MNeMaH gIKH ePRRLIq M`PQK NLKKNI K[LJgH.
2. 6 >7=5 ;.! !"g" < ePRzH [MRq `ITMQHI [I LH MJSLPQH KP HQTTIIq. u[I
MTKPR eMH MJSLPQH KP ZNIMHI K[I MQqLIJTI.
#yn" eager! !"g" .HJlK [I IMgIR KP NIMRJ{
anxiety n +. 5! ;! ! ! !"g" wI eMLKIq eLK[ MJSLIKa sPR
K[I qPTKPR KP TPVI. dNN K[IHI MJSLIKLIH VMqI [LV NPPz ZMNI MJq KLRIq.
#yn" worry
2. $ $.! !"g" u[MK MJSLIKa sPR KRQK[ VMqI \[LNLZ RMK[IR
QJZPZQNMR eLK[ HPVI Ps [LH HT[PPNVMKIH.
anxiously ado 5$! $! !"g" wI MJSLPQHNa eMLKIq sPR [LH MRRLxMN.
Note: Os. K[I HaJPJaVH to be anxious, to worry, to trouble, to bother. u[I RMJgI Ps VIMJLJg Ps ePRRa LH
eLqI: LK TMJ qIJPKI IVPKLPJMN HKMKIH Ps qLssIRIJK LJKIJHLKa e[IRIMH LKH HaJPJaVH MRI JMRRPeIR LJ VIMJLJg. .J
K[I HIJKIJTI r|LH NPJg M`HIJTI ePRRLIq [LH VPK[IR xIRa VQT[r worry ISZRIHHIH M HKRPJg sIINLJg Ps MJSLIKa. .K
LH MNHP ZPHHL`NI KP HMa: r.K VMqI [IR xIRa MJSLPQH.r u[I LJKIJHLKa Ps sIINLJg LH HNLg[KNa eIMzIR [IRI; KRPQ`NI
qIJPKIH M HKLNN eIMzIR IVPKLPJ; `PK[IR qIHTRL`IH RMK[IR M HKMKI Ps LRRLKMKLPJ MJq qLHHMKLHsMTKLPJ K[MJ Ps MJSLIKa.
/PVIKLVIH ILK[IR Ps K[I HaJPJaVH TMJ `I QHIq LJ PJI MJq K[I HMVI HIJKIJTI. u[I qLssIRIJTI NLIH LJ K[I
LJKIJHLKa Ps K[I IVPKLPJ ISZRIHHIq `a IMT[ xIR`! !"g" nPJlK NIK K[MK `PK[IR aPQ ( qPJlK K[LJz M`PQK LK: LK LH
QJLVZPRKMJK). nPJlK NIK K[MK KRPQ`NI aPQ (JIMRNa K[I HMVI! `QK MNHP: nPJlK gIK JIRxPQH M`PQK LK). nPJlK `I
MJSLPQH M`PQK LK. (u[I sIINLJg Ps sIMR MJq MJSLIKa LH HKRPJgIR [IRI K[MJ LJ K[I ZRIxLPQH ISMVZNI.) nPJlK NIK K[MK
ePRRa aPQ ( qPJlK NIK K[MK HZPLN aPQR VPPq; qPJlK sIMR K[MK HVK[. `Mq eLNN [MZZIJ).
5. make (made, made) ti +. 6! 6; ;6! !"g" w[MK LH K[I `PS
VMqI Ps{
2. 6! 86! !"g" .lV HQRI H[IlNN VMzI MJ ISTINNIJK KIMT[IR.
4. 6! !"g" wIlNN [MxI KP VMzI [LV KMzI K[I VIqLTLJI.
N t e: .J K[LH VIMJLJg VMzI LH sPNNPeIq `a M TPVZNIS P`ITK. (o`HIRxI K[I M`HIJTI Ps KP eLK[ K[I
LJsLJLKLxIc)
to make a mistake 6 D! D6
to make a report 6
to make (a) noise D$6
to make a (the) bed 6 6
to make friends with smb. >6 $n.! !"g" /PPJ H[I VMqI sRLIJqH eLK[ [IR
sINNPeZMHHIJgIRH. /[I IMHLNa VMzIH sRLIJqH.
to make oneself at home 6 $! !"g" OPVI LJ MJq VMzI aPQRHINs MK
[PVI.
to make a joke (jokes) D6! 6! !"g" w[a qP aPQ MNeMaH VMzI PzIH{ OMJlK aPQ
`I HIRLPQH{
N o t e : Make LH MNHP QHIq eLK[ JQVIRPQH MqITKLxIH gLxLJg IVPKLPJMN T[MRMTKIRLHKLTH! MH KP VMzI HV`.
[MZZa (MJgRa! HMq! IKT.).
to make up +. 6 (%! NXKN5 ..)! !"g" 0IsPRI ZMTzLJg VMzI QZ M NLHK Ps
K[LJgH aPQ MRI gPLJg KP KMzI.; 2. 8$86! !"g" yPQ MRI M sPPN KP NLHKIJ KP [LH HKPRa. |I
[MH VMqI LK MNN QZ. vMzI QZ aPQR PeJ HIJKIJTIH QHLJg K[I JIe ePRqH.; 4. ;$6()!
6! !"g" |Pe NPJg eLNN LK KMzI K[I MTKPRH KP VMzI QZ{ /[I eMH HP VQT[ VMqI QZ K[MK
. qLqJlK RITPgJLI [IR MK sLRHK; 3. $6! a0 . MV HPRRa sPR e[MK . HMLq. iIKlH VMzI LK QZ.
yPQlq `IKKIR VMzI LK QZ eLK[ dJJ.; *. $=6! $6! !"g" wI VQHK VMzI QZ
sPR NPHK KLVI. wPJlK aPQ NIK VI KRa KP VMzI QZ sPR MNN .lxI sMLNIq KP qP LJ K[I ZMHK{
to make up one's mind KP qITLqI
make-up n ;$! $! !"g" w[a H[PQNq aPQ HZPLN aPQR ZRIKKa sMTI eLK[ MNN K[LH
VMzIQZ{ u[I ePVMJ QHIH KPP VQT[ VMzIQZ (...D$ 6 ).
6. hoId (heId, heId) ti +! >6! !"g" /[I eMH [PNqLJg M RIq RPHI LJ [IR [MJq.
to hold on to smth. >6 .! !"g" |PNqLJg PJ KP M `RMJT[! [I TNLV`Iq M NLKKNI
[Lg[IR. |PNq PJ KP K[I RMLNLJg! LKlH HNLZZIRa [IRI.
to hold a meeting 6 ! !"g" d HKQqIJKHl VIIKLJg eMH [INq LJ PQR
qIZMRKVIJK aIHKIRqMa.
2. $=6! >6 ! !"g" |Pe VMJa ZIPZNI eLNN K[LH NITKQRI[MNN [PNq{
4. >6 ( X,U!:, !"g" wLNN K[LH eIMK[IR [PNq{
hold n
to catch (get) hold of smth. 96 .! 96 .! 6 $n.!
!"g" < JIMRNa sINN qPeJ! `QK VMJMgIq KP TMKT[ [PNq Ps [LH TPVZMJLPJlH MRV. u[I T[LNq gPK
[PNq Ps M `RLg[K sNPeIR.
to keep hold of smth. >6! 86! !"g" wLK[ IxIRa VLJQKI LK `ITMVI
[MRqIR MJq [MRqIR KP zIIZ [PNq Ps K[I HNLZZIRa RPZIH.
to lose hold of smth. 86 (+ [5:, !"g" .K eMHJlK [IR JMKQRI KP NPHI [PNq Ps
MJaK[LJg H[I [Mq gPK [PNq Ps.
7. entertain ti +. $6 ;5 (RMK[IR sPRVMN)! !"g" wI MRI IJKIRKMLJLJg M NPK.; 2.
6! $6! !"g" wI eIRI MNN IJKIRKMLJIq `a [LH KRLTzH.
entertaining ad% 685! $685! !"g" u[I TPJxIRHMKLPJ eMH sMR sRPV
IJKIRKMLJLJg. .J sMTK! LK eMH [PRRL`Na qQNN.
/aJ. amusing
entertainment n ! =! ! !"g" u[IRI MRI VMJa ZNMTIH Ps
IJKIRKMLJVIJK LJ MJa `Lg TLKa.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
Words
MJSLIKa n MKKIJqMJK n LVLKMKI MJSLPQH
ad%
MQqLIJTI n VMzI MJSLPQHNa adv IJKIRKMLJ
VMzIQZ n MKKIJq IJKIRKMLJVIJK n eIMR
MKKIJqMJTI n [PNq , n eLJgH n, (. eLZI
Word Combinations
KP VMzI (M) JPLHI M NPJg eMa sRPV
KP NIMq K[I eMa (KP) KP NPHI PJIlH (K[I) eMa
KP NPPz M`PQK PJIHINs KP `I (gIK) PQK Ps K[I eMa
M`PQK (Ps) HV`.lH MgI KP [MxI PJIlH (PeJ) eMa
VIV`IRH Ps K[I PRT[IHKRM KP TMKT[ [PNq Ps HVK[.
MJSLPQH (ePRRLIq) M`PQK HVK[. KP zIIZ [PNq Ps HVK[.
KP VMzI PzIH KP NPHI [PNq Ps HVK[.
KP VMzI PJIHINs MK [PVI KP [PNq M VIIKLJg
KP VMzI QZ HVK[. KP [PNq PJ KP HVK[.
KP VMzI PJIlH eMa
EXERCISES
1. Bead the text and expIain the foIIowing points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, . StyIe):
A. +. GSZNMLJ K[I QHI Ps KIJHIH LJ: M) r...M ZIRsPRVIR HMLq [I ePQNq LVLKMKI lPQR qIMR PNq
sMxPQRLKIl /PMJqHP! MJq JMVIq M VQHLT[MNN HKMR K[MK PHI [Mq JIxIR [IMRq Psr; `) ryPQK[
[Mq sNIq sRPV LKr; T) r/[I eMH HLKKLJg JIMR IJPQg[...r
2. GSZNMLJ K[I QHI Ps MNN K[I MRKLTNIH LJ K[I sRMgVIJK `IgLJJLJg eLK[ roJI KQRJ eMH MJ
ITTIJKRLT sINNPer! MJq IJqLJg eLK[ rZNMaIq K[I MTTPRqLPJ.r
B. +. |Pe qP aPQ QJqIRHKMJq K[I ePRq human in r...MNKPgIK[IR VPRI [QVMJ K[MJ K[I
ZLTKQRI K[IMKRIH...r{
2. M) GSZNMLJ K[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I LKMNLTLIq ePRqH LJ K[I sPNNPeLJg: r:IRa sIe Ps K[I KQRJH
eIRI aPQJg; K[Ia K[IVHINxIH! K[ILR )rea0ed MJq fading HTIJIRa! K[ILR ePRJ ZRPZIRKa eIRI
getting on in year0k9 `) w[MK zLJq Ps MKVPHZ[IRI LH TRIMKIq `a K[LH qIHTRLZKLPJ{ w[LT[
T[MRMTKIRLHKLT sIMKQRI Ps K[I ZNMTI LH HZITLMNNa IVZ[MHLIq{
4. w[MK LH K[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I ePRq &.oom LJ ru[IRI eMH JP `NPPV PJ MJaK[LJg [IRIr{
w[MK zLJq Ps LVMgI LH TRIMKIq `a K[I HIJKIJTI{
3. GSZNMLJ K[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I ePRqH anQiou0 LJ rIaIH MJSLPQH `I[LJq K[I VMHz Ps ZMLJr
MJq anQiou0.y LJ r[LH RIMN sMTI ZIIRLJg MJSLPQHNa K[RPQg[ K[MK VMHz.r ($nQiou0 LVZNLIH sIMR.
w[a LH K[I IVPKLPJ Ps sIMR IVZ[MHLIq LJ K[IHI KeP HIJKIJTIH{)
C. +. GSZNMLJ K[I IssITK MT[LIxIq `a LJxIRHLPJ LJ: M) roJI K[LJg H[I JPKLTIqr; `)
r.../KMJqLJg K[IRI! JIxIR KMzLJg [IR IaIH Pss K[I ZIRsPRVIR! eMH MJ INqIRNa ePVMJ...r (/II
1PKIH PJ /KaNI! Z. 277).
2. M) w[MK LH K[I IssITK MT[LIxIq `a K[I HaJKMTKLTMN ZMRMNNINLHV LJ: r.../P eIRI K[I
MKKIJqMJKH. /P eIRI K[I VIV`IRH Ps K[I PRT[IHKRMr{ `) pLJq MJPK[IR TMHI Ps HaJKMTKLTMN
ZMRMNNINLHV LJ K[I NMHK ZMHHMgI `QK PJI MJq TPVVIJK PJ LK.
II. Transcribe the foIIowing words and transIate them into Russian:
MJSLIKa! MRRLxMN! MKKIJqMJTI! LVLKMKI! MNKPgIK[IR! KePZIJTI! ZRPZIRKLIH! TRIMHIq! eIMRLJg!
eIMRa! MQqLIJTI! HKRMLg[K! qIHPNMKI! PLJK! MJSLPQH! gRPKIHfQI! RMggIq! ZIR[MZH! IJqIMxPQR.
III. a) Find in the text sentences with:
M gRIMK qIMN Ps! xIRa sIe! xIRa sIe Ps! VMJa Ps
and write your own sentences with the same word-combinations,
b) Find in the text sentences with:
MNKPgIK[IR! JIMRNa! QHQMNNa! K[IJ! MK sLRHK! HPPJ! e[MKIxIR LK LH! MJa VPRI! JP NPJgIR
and write your own sentences with the same words and phrases.
IV. Answer the questions:
+. w[IJ qLq PHI MJq vRH. 0QRNPe MRRLxI MK K[I VQHLT[MNN{ 2. w[IRI eIRI K[ILR HIMKH{ 4.
wIRI K[I HKMNNH ISZIJHLxI{ 3. .J e[MK eMa qLq K[I MQqLIJTI `I[MxI{ *. w[MK zLJq Ps ZNMTI
eMH K[I VQHLT[MNN{ w[MK eMH LKH VPHK T[MRMTKIRLHKLT sIMKQRI{ ,. wIRI K[I MKKIJqMJKH MJq K[I
VIV`IRH Ps K[I PRT[IHKRM aPQJg PR INqIRNa ZIPZNI{ 7. w[MK qLq K[I HTIJIRa MJq K[I
ZRPZIRKLIH NPPz NLzI{ b. w[IJ qLq K[I NPQqIHK MZZNMQHI TPVI{ w[a{ 2. w[a qPIH K[I MQK[PR
HMa K[MK K[I VQHLT[MNN eMH RMK[IR HMq K[PQg[ LK eMH TPHa MJq sRLIJqNa{ +). w[a eIRI K[I
MTKPRlH IaIH MJSLPQH `I[LJq K[I VMHz Ps ZMLJK{ ++. w[MK qLq K[I VMJ LJ K[I TPHKQVI Ps M
KRMVZ qP PJ K[I HKMgI{ +2. nLq PHI NLzI [LH MTKLJg{ +4. w[MK qLq H[I HII LJ K[I eLJgH{ +3.
w[a qLq H[I HMa JPK[LJg KP vRH. 0QRNPe{ +*. |Pe qPIH K[LH IZLHPqI T[MRMTKIRLI PHI{ +,.
w[MK qPIH K[I MQK[PR eMJK KP KINN QH `a K[LH IZLHPqI{
V. Search the text for adjectives and cIassify them into two groups according to "positive"
and "negative" quaIities as suggested by the context (e.g. 1) great, good, nice... and 2)
cheap, creased...). When the Iist is ready, describe some pIace and its atmosphere using the
adjectives of each group.
VI. TeII the story of Rose as your own experience in the past.
VII. Study VocabuIary Notes and a) transIate the exampIes; b) give synonyms of:
RPMq n! IMgIR a, MVQHLJg a, eIMR 9
c) give antonyms of:
KP sLJq PJIlH eMa! KP NPHI [PNq Ps;
d) give derivatives of:
MKKIJq! IJKIRKMLJ! eIMR.
VIII. FiII in with:
a) be anxious, worry, troubIe, bother.
+. /[I MNeMaH ... e[IJ H[I qPIHJlK gIK Va NIKKIRH sPR M NPJg KLVI. 2. u[I NIKKIR K[MK
LJsPRVIq QH Ps [IR QJISZITKIq qIZMRKQRI gRIMKNa ... VI. 4. . zJIe K[MK [I ePQNq eLNNLJgNa
[INZ VI! `QK . qLqJlK NLzI KP ... [LV. 3. nPJlK...c nLJJIR eLNN `I RIMqa PJ KLVI. *. u[I T[LNq LH
xIRa eIMz! MJq . TMJ xIRa eINN QJqIRHKMJq K[MK LK... aPQ. ,. nPJlK ... M`PQK K[I KMSL. .lNN gIK aPQ
[PVI LJ Va TMR. 7. . sINK K[MK [I qLqJlK ZMa MJa MKKIJKLPJ KP e[MK . eMH HMaLJg. . qITLqIq K[MK
[I ... M`PQK HPVIK[LJg. b. . H[PQNqJlK NLzI KP ... aPQ eLK[ Va KLRIHPVI MssMLRH. 2. u[I TNLVMKI
LH xIRa `Mq K[IRI! MJq . ... M`PQK [IR [IMNK[. +). .lV HPRRa KP ...aPQ! `QK . JIIq [LH MqqRIHH
`MqNa.
b) anxious and its derivatives:
+. w[MK MRI aPQ HP ... M`PQK{ 2. |IR ... sMTI eMH ZMNI. 4! wI eIRI sQNN Ps ... MJq ePRRa. 3.
vLT[MIN eMH ... KP sLJq M P`. *. . eMH ... eMLKLJg sPR [LH MJHeIR. ,. |LH ... sPR HQTTIHH VMqI
[LV VMJa IJIVLIH. 7.... VMzIH ZIPZNI PNqIR.
c) attend and its derivatives:
1. From the MgI Ps HIxIJ KLNN HIxIJKIIJ .... HT[PPN. 2. u[I ... at NITKQRIH [MH sMNNIJ Pss. 4.
.J this hotel you will be eINN... on. 4. Your... LH RIfQIHKIq.
d) entertain and its derivatives:
1. Who(m) are you ... at dinner tonight? 2. |LH PzIH didn't ... us much. 3. The ZNMa
was not very ... 4. Do you know any places of... LJ K[LH town? *. nP K[Ia PsKIJ ...{
IX. TransIate these sentences into Russian:
1. w[MK VMzIH aPQ K[LJz [I zJPeH K[I KRQK[{ GxIRaK[LJg. |LH NPPz. u[I eMa [I KMNzIq
MK qLJJIR. 2. /[I HVLNIq LJ K[MK T[MRVLJg eMa Ps [IRH. 4. |I HZPzI PJ PJI JPKI. .K gMxI jLKKa
K[I LVZRIHHLPJ K[MK [I eMH HZIMzLJg sRPV M NPJg eMa Pss. 3. |I [Mq ZMRKLTQNMRNa
TPJgRMKQNMKIq QH PJ K[I eMa eI [Mq qPJI K[I qLssLTQNK P`. *. . qLqJlK zJPe e[LT[ eMa KP
NPPz. ,. . RIMNNa TMJlK gIK QHIq KP K[I JIe eMaH. 7. .H K[MK K[I eMa aPQ sIIN KPeMRqH QH{ b. /[I
K[RIe Va HNLZZIRH LJKP Va sMTI. /[I `I[MxIq LJ K[I VPHK PQKRMgIPQH eMa. 2. .HM`IN qLqJlK
eMJK KP HKMJq LJ iMRRalH eMa. +). /PZ[LI ZQH[Iq [IR eMa K[RPQg[ K[I qMJTIRH MJq eI NPHK
HLg[K Ps [IR LJ K[I TRPeq. ++. . VMqI eMa sPR [LV KP gP QZ K[I HKMLRH. +2. /QMJJIlH VPK[IR
TPQNq [MRqNa NLxI PJ [IR ZIJHLPJ eLK[ ZRLTIH K[I eMa K[Ia eIRI. +4. u[Ia [Mq `IIJ KP
O[MRKRIH MJq eIRI PJ K[ILR eMa `MTz KP \MRLH. +3. . HMe K[I eMLKIR K[RIMqLJg [LH eMa K[RPQg[
K[I KM`NIH. +*. u[I RPPV [Mq M JMRRPe LRPJ `Iq MJq `a eMa Ps sQRJLKQRI PJNa K[I `MRIHK
JITIHHLKLIH.
X. TransIate these sentences into EngIish, using the word way.
+. $ D 96 $ . < >8 $
D ! $ . A ; $5 6
6. F 67! ; ; (sPRIHKIR)! 85 $; $
6 $5. 2. ' E$ ! 5 85 65
$. 4. < ! . 3. 7 E9 $! $;
8 8 { *. F5 > 89 > 8 ;{ ,. 76!
6 $ $D6.
XI. Make up diaIogues:
a) between Rose and Mrs. Burlow (after the performance);
b) between the old clown and his wife (before he went on to the stage);
c) between two readers (about the episode described in the passage and the author of the
story).
XII. Insert prepositions or adverbs where necessary:
+. nPJlK ePRRa aPQR ZRIKKa NLKKNI [IMq ... K[I VaHKIRLPQH xLHLKPR. 2. 0a MRRMJgLJg gPPq
VMRRLMgIH sPR [IR qMQg[KIRH H[I ISZITKIq KP VMzI......MNN K[I qLHMZZPLJKVIJKH Ps [IR PeJ
TMRIIR. 4. |I HMK fQLKI HKLNN MJq HKMRIq eLK[ K[PHI eLqI LVVP`LNI IaIH Ps [LH ... K[I ZLTKQRI. 3.
|I [MH M `MK[ ... TPNq eMKIR IxIRa VPRJLJg. o[c |I LH VMqI ... LRPJ! K[MK VMJ. *. dRI eI ...
K[I eMa{ 1P! aPQ TPQNqJlK [MxI TPVI VPRI sPRKQJMKINa. ,. . HQZZPHI LK eMH JMKQRMN... aPQ
KP `I MJSLPQH ... K[I gMRqIJ ZMRKa. 0QK K[MKlH MNN... JPe. u[IRIlH JPK[LJg VPRI KP ePRRa ... . 7.
|I MRRLxIq ... K[I iPVPJq |PKIN! x; [PK MJq HeIMKa MJq IS[MQHKIq MJq [Mq MJ P`HTQRI
sIINLJg K[MK K[Ia ePQNq KMzI PJI NPPz ... [LV MJq K[IJ MHz [LV KP gP ... .
XIII. Make up a story, using the words and phrases from EssentiaI VocabuIary I.
XIV. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into EngIish:
+. 5 9! $ ; 6 . 2. ' 96
$7 ! 8 6. 4. "8 6 ! >6 6. 3.
85 $6; 8 ;D. *. 65 8 6 !
8 D! 6 ;. ,. 5
$ D85 D$! $; 6 6$.
F! $; 6 9 5 ! $ 96 86 >!
$D7 $. 7. (6 85! 89 ;
>! $; 5 $ D7. b. "$ 6 $
6. X >. 2. ' 8 6 D! ! ; $6!
= $. +). @ ; 6 ;6. <
$! $> $! ; 8 $5 >6 6; 9B. A>5
> ; = $;! $ > 9! 67 9 9D9
;. ++. " 8 ! 8 $6 5
$65 . +2. <6! 8 ; 8 $. ~ 8 D6
! 8 6 >D6 ;.
XV. Test on synonymy. ConsuIt Notes on pp. 18 and 201.
1. Prove that the following words are (or are not) synonyms:
eMa RPMq ZMK[ KRMTz [Lg[eMa HKRIIK;
KP `I MJSLPQH KP `I HPRRa KP ePRRa KP KRPQ`NI KP `PK[IR KP `I QZHIK;
KP eMJK KP `I IMgIR KP `I MJSLPQH.
2. Point out the synonymic dominant of each group.
3. Explain how synonyms of each group differ one from another according to differentiations
suggested in Notes on Synonyms.
4. Synonyms within the following pairs differ by style. Point out which of them are bookish,
colloquial or neutral.
(Consult the context in which they are used in the text.)
ZLTKQRI [PQHI TLJIVM KP gIK PJ LJ aIMRH KP MgI KP
IJqIMxPQR KP KRa
KP HLJg (ZIRsPRV) KP RIJqIR qIHPNMKI HMq KP TNMZ
KP MZZNMQq
XVI. Go over the text again and try to discuss the foIIowing:
+. |Pe qPIH K[I MQK[PR qIHTRL`I K[I VQHLT[MNN{ \PLJK PQK K[I TPJKRMHKLJg T[MRMTKIRLHKLTH.
w[MK zLJq Ps MKVPHZ[IRI LH TRIMKIq `a K[I MQK[PR LJ K[I sRMgVIJK{ 0a e[MK qIxLTIH LH K[I
IssITK MT[LIxIq{
2. |Pe qPIH K[I MQK[PR VMzI K[I RIMqIR QJqIRHKMJq K[MK PHM LH M zLJq[IMRKIq gLRN!
TMZM`NI Ps QJqIRHKMJqLJg MJq TPVZMHHLPJ{ w[LT[ VIK[Pq Ps T[MRMTKIRLMKLPJ qPIH K[I MQ
K[PR QHI{
4. OPVVIJK PJ K[I HINITKLPJ Ps ePRqH LJ K[I sRMgVIJK.
3. OPVVIJK PJ K[I HaJKMS Ps K[I sRMgVIJK MJq LKH HKaNLHKLT xMNQI.
XVII. a) TransIate the text into Russian:
.K eMH KLVI KP gP. pRMJTLH wP`QRJ ZQK PJ [LH IJPRVPQH [MK! HKMRKIq KMNzLJg M`PQK [LVHINs
MgMLJ! MJq K[Ia eMNzIq qPeJ KP K[I OPNLHIQV. |I eMH VQT[ KMNNIR K[MJ H[I [Mq HQZZPHIq
[LV KP `I K[PQg[ ZIR[MZH LK eMH K[I M`HQRq [MK MJq H[I sINK M NLKKNI qQVZa K[LJg!
K[PQg[ M JLTI HIJHL`NI NLKKNI qQVZa K[LJg! MH H[I KRPKKIq MNPJg `a [LH HLqI! ZRIKIJqLJg KP
NLHKIJ! `QK `QHa MNN K[I KLVI KINNLJg [IRHINs K[MK [IRI H[I eMH! PHI /MNKIR! gPLJg KP K[I
QHHLMJ 0MNNIK MK K[I OPNLHIQV! eLK[ M KMNN! HQZIRsLJI! xIRa iPJqPJLH[ aPQJg VMJ. .K eMH MNN
xIRa HKRMJgI LJqIIq.
u[Ia TNLV`Iq KP PJI Ps K[I `MNTPJLIH Ps K[I gLgMJKLT K[IMKRI! e[LT[ HIIVIq KP PHI K[I
VPHK HZNIJqLq MJq ISTLKLJg ZNMTI H[I [Mq IxIR HIIJ. nPIJH Ps ZNMaIRH qPeJ `INPe eIRI
KQJLJg QZ. dNN RPQJq K[IV! HQZIRsLJI ZIRHPJH! JPK QJNLzI pRMJTLH wP`QRJ! eIRI HKQqaLJg
K[ILR ZRPgRMVVIH. u[IJ K[I NLg[KH qLIq MeMa! ISTIZK K[PHI K[MK LNNQVLJMKIq K[I TQRKMLJ HP
`IMQKLsQNNa. u[I VQHLT `IgMJ! MJq pRMJTLH wP`QRJ HKPZZIq KMNzLJg. PHI LJHKMJKNa sPRgPK [LH
xIRa ISLHKIJTI. u[I VQHLT eMH xIRa HKRMJgI! JPK NLzI MJa H[I [Mq [IMRq `IsPRI! MJq JPK MK MNN
TPVsPRKM`NI MJq sRLIJqNa MJq HeIIK. PHI qLq JPK zJPe e[IK[IR H[I NLzIq LK PR JPK; H[I TPQNq
JPK zIIZ LK MK M qLHKMJTI KP qITLqI M`PQK LK; H[I eMH HLVZNa TMRRLIq MeMa MJq [MNs qRPeJIq `a
K[I TPNPHHMN eMxIH Ps HPQJq; H[I eMH PxIRe[INVIq `a LKH LJHLHKIJK `IMK MJq TNMJg. u[I
TQRKMLJ eMH VMgLTMNNa HeIZK MeMa! MJq K[I HKMgI `NMIq MK [IR. /[I eMH HKMRLJg MK M JIe
TPQJKRa! M JIe ePRNq. .K eMH MH Ls K[I NMHK gRIMK eMxI Ps VQHLT [Mq KMzIJ [IR MJq sNQJg [IR
PxIR K[I `PQJqMRLIH Ps K[LH ePRNq. u[I NLKKNI ZIPZNI LJ K[IHI JIe TPQJKRLIH NLxIq K[ILR NLxIH
PJNa LJ VPxIVIJK. /PVIKLVIH K[Ia eIRI qQNN. /PVIKLVIH K[Ia eIRI HLNNa. 0QK MK PK[IR KLVIH
K[Ia eIRI HP `IMQKLsQN LJ K[ILR IJIRga MJq gRMTI! HP P`xLPQHNa K[I TRIMKQRIH Ps MJPK[IR MJq
`IKKIR ePRNq K[MJ K[LH! M ePRNq MNN Ps VQHLT MJq TPNPQR! K[MK PHI T[PzIq MJq MT[Iq MK K[I
HLg[K Ps K[IV.
\IPZNI TNMZZIq. pRMJTLH wP`QRJ TNMZZIq. 0QK PHI qLq JPK TNMZ. mQHK ZQKKLJg [IR [MJqH
KPgIK[IR! VMzLJg M HLNNa JPLHI! eMH JPK gPPq IJPQg[ sPR K[IV. /[I gMxI K[IV [IR [IMRK.
(pRPV ru[Ia wMNz LJ K[I OLKar `a m. 0.\RLIHKNIa)
b) Comment on the foIIowing aspects of the fragment:
+. |Pe qPIH K[I MQK[PR qIHTRL`I K[I VQHLT{ w[MK qPIH [I VIMJ `a HMaLJg K[MK K[I VQHLT
eMH rJPK MK MNN TPVsPRKM`NI MJq sRLIJqNa MJq HeIIKr { |Pe qP aPQ QJqIRHKMJq K[I ePRqH
r/[I TPQNq JPK zIIZ LK MK M qLHKMJTI KP qITLqI M`PQK LKr{ nPIH VQHLT IxIR MssITK aPQ LJ K[I
HMVI eMa{ w[MK zLJq Ps VQHLT qPIH{ 2. GSZNMLJ K[I ePRqH: ru[I HKMgI `NMIq MK [IR.r ru[I
NLKKNI ZIPZNI LJ K[IHI JIe TPQJKRLIH NLxIq K[ILR NLxIH PJNa LJ VPxIVIJK.r r...K[I TRIMKQRIH Ps
MJPK[IR MJq `IKKIR ePRNq K[MJ K[LH! M ePRNq MNN Ps VQHLT MJq TPNPQR.r
c) Comment on the Iiterary merit and styIe of the fragment. Do you think that the author has
managed to create a vivid and emotionaIIy charged picture of a baIIet performaAcet (Give
reasons for whatever you say.) Which Iines do you consider especiaIIy expressive? Why?
What styIistic devices can you point out in the extract?
XVIII. Write an essay describing a person's first visit to a baIIet (opera, drama) performance
or to a symphony concert. Try to imitate the styIe and manner of the fragment above (you
may borrow some phrases from it).
LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "Rose at the Music-Hall", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat the text
following the model.
2. Re-word the given sentences, making all the necessary changes.
3. Extend the following sentences according to the model.
4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) translate the phrases into English; b) check them with
the key.
5. Listen to the text "Chaplin" or the story of another famous actor. Pick out the main points
from each paragraph, write a summary of the text In not more than 10 sentences. Discuss the
text in class.
TOP!: THEATRE
TEXT A. DRAMA, MUSIC AND BALLET .1 BRITAIN
u[I TIJKRI Ps K[IMKRLTMN MTKLxLKa LJ 0RLKMLJ LH iPJqPJ. u[IRI MRI M`PQK *) ZRLJTLZMN K[IMKRIH
LJ ZRPsIHHLPJMN QHI LJ PR JIMR K[I wIHK GJq MJq HPVI 2) LJ K[I HQ`QR`H.
vPHK Ps K[IHI MRI NIK KP ZRPqQTLJg VMJMgIVIJKH PJ M TPVVIRTLMN `MHLH `QK HPVI Ps K[IV
MRI ZIRVMJIJKNa PTTQZLIq `a HQ`HLqLHIq TPVZMJLIH! HQT[ MH K[I 1MKLPJMN u[IMKRI e[LT[
HKMgIH TNMHHLTMN MJq VPqIRJ ZNMaH LJ LKH TPVZNIS Ps K[RII K[IMKRIH PJ K[I /PQK[ 0MJz Ps K[I
LxIR u[MVIH. u[I sPRVIR oNq :LT OPVZMJa! e[LT[ eMH 0RLKMLJlH VMPR K[IMKRLTMN KPQRLJg
TPVZMJa! [MH JPe KMzIJ QZ RIHLqIJTI LJ K[I 1MKLPJMN u[IMKRI! T[MJgLJg LKH JMVI KP K[I
1MKLPJMN u[IMKRI OPVZMJa. .J MqqLKLPJ K[I PaMN /[MzIHZIMRI OPVZMJa ZRIHIJKH
/[MzIHZIMRIMJ ZNMaH MK /KRMqsPRqQZPJdxPJ MJq M VLSIq RIZIRKPLRI LJ iPJqPJ.
oQKHLqI iPJqPJ K[IRI MRI VMJa JPJRIZIRKPRa K[IMKRIH e[LT[ ZRIHIJK MNN zLJqH Ps qRMVM
MJq MNHP ZQK PJ xMRLIKa H[PeH MJq PK[IR IJKIRKMLJVIJKH. ITIJKNa K[IRI [MH `IIJ M gRPeK[ LJ
K[I MTKLxLKa Ps RIZIRKPRa TPVZMJLIH e[LT[ RITILxI sLJMJTLMN HQZZPRK sRPV K[I dRKH OPQJTLN
MJq K[I NPTMN MQK[PRLKLIH. u[IHI TPVZMJLIH IVZNPa NIMqLJg ZRPqQTIRH! qIHLgJIRH MJq MTKPRH!
MJq K[I HKMJqMRq Ps ZRPqQTKLPJH LH gIJIRMNNa [Lg[. /PVI TPVZMJLIH [MxI K[ILR PeJ K[IMKRIH!
e[LNI PK[IRH RIJK sRPV K[I NPTMN MQK[PRLKLIH.
vQHLT Ps MNN zLJqH rZPZr VQHLT! sPNz VQHLT! M! NLg[K VQHLT MJq `RMHH `MJqH LH MJ
LVZPRKMJK ZMRK Ps 0RLKLH[ TQNKQRMN NLsI. u[I NMRgI MQqLIJTIH MK PRT[IHKRMN TPJTIRKH MJq MK
ZIRsPRVMJTIH Ps PZIRM! `MNNIK MJq T[MV`IR VQHLT RIsNITK K[I eLqIHZRIMq LJKIRIHK LJ TNMHHLTMN
VQHLT.
u[I PaMN oZIRM |PQHI! OPxIJK UMRqIJ! iPJqPJ! e[LT[ RITILxIH sLJMJTLMN MHHLHKMJTI
sRPV K[I dRKH OPQJTLN! gLxIH RIgQNMR HIMHPJH Ps PZIRM MJq `MNNIK. .K [MH LKH PeJ PRT[IHKRM
e[LT[ ZNMaH sPR K[I PaMN oZIRM MJq K[I PaMN 0MNNIK. 0PK[ TPVZMJLIH [MxI M [Lg[
LJKIRJMKLPJMN RIZQKMKLPJ. u[I GJgNLH[ 1MKLPJMN oZIRM e[LT[ ZIRsPRVH LJ K[I iPJqPJ
OPNLHIQV gLxIH HIMHPJH Ps PZIRM MJq PZIRIKKM LJ GJgNLH[. .K MNHP KPQRH K[I ZRPxLJTIH.
.J +22b K[I UPxIRJVIJK MJJPQJTIq K[I sPRVMKLPJ Ps K[I yPQJg vQHLT uRQHK KP qIxINPZ
K[I VQHLTMN HzLNNH Ps K[I aPQJg eLK[ HPVI VPJIa sRPV K[I 1MKLPJMN iPKKIRa! MJq qPJMKLPJH
sRPV VQHLT T[MRLKLIH MJq TPVZMJLIH LJxPNxIq LJ VQHLT `QHLJIHH. u[I JMKLPJMN aPQK[
PRT[IHKRMH Ps URIMK 0RLKMLJ [MxI IHKM`NLH[Iq [Lg[ HKMJqMRqH.
u[IRI MRI HIxIRMN K[PQHMJq MVMKIQR qRMVMKLT HPTLIKLIH LJ 0RLKMLJ. vPHK QJLxIRHLKLIH [MxI
K[RLxLJg MVMKIQR qRMVM TNQ`H MJq HPTLIKLIH. GxIRa aIMR MJ .JKIRJMKLPJMN pIHKLxMN Ps }JLxIR
HLKa u[IMKRI LH [INq.
TEXT B. AT THE BOX-OFFICE
. eMJK sPQR HIMKH sPR /QJqMa! ZNIMHI.
vMKLJII PR IxIJLJg ZIRsPRVMJTI{
GxIJLJg! ZNIMHI.
wINN! aPQ TMJ [MxI xIRa gPPq HIMKH LJ K[I HKMNNH. Pe p.
o[! JPc .KlH JIMR K[I PRT[IHKRMZLK. va eLsI TMJlK HKMJq NPQq VQHLT.
u[IJ . TPQNq sLJq aPQ HPVI HIMKH LJ K[I ZLK.
.lV MsRMLq K[MK ePJlK qP ILK[IR. va sMK[IRLJNMe LH KIRRL`Na H[PRKHLg[KIq. |I ePQNqJlK
HII VQT[ sRPV K[I ZLK! ePQNq [I{
|V... \IR[MZH! aPQlq TMRI KP KMzI M `PS{
OIRKMLJNa JPKc .KlH KPP ISZIJHLxI. . TMJlK MssPRq LK. nRIHHTLRTNI K[IJ{
. qPJlK NLzI KP HLK LJ K[I qRIHHTLRTNI.
.lV MsRMLq K[I PJNa K[LJg K[MK RIVMLJH LH K[I gMNNIRa.
|Pe TMJ aPQ HQggIHK HQT[ M K[LJgc va VPK[IRLJNMe LH M HKPQK ePVMJ eLK[ M eIMz
[IMRK. wI TPQNqJlK qRIMV Ps NIKKLJg [IR eMNz QZ sPQR sNLg[KH Ps HKMLRH! TPQNq eI{
. sLJq! HLR! K[MK K[IRI LHJlK M HLJgNI HIMK LJ K[I [PQHI

K[MK ePQNq HQLK aPQ.
u[IRI LHJlK! LH K[IRI{ wINN! . K[LJz eIlq VQT[ `IKKIR gP KP K[I VPxLIH. dH sPR VI! . qPJlK
TMRI VQT[ sPR K[LH K[IMKRIgPLJg `QHLJIHH. UPPq qMac
TEXT C. PANTOMIMES
/MNNa: uPJa! K[IRIlH MJ MqxIRKLHIVIJK LJ K[I NPTMN ZMZIR HMaLJg K[MK K[I K[IMKRI LJ K[I |Lg[
/KRIIK LH ZQKKLJg PJ rOLJqIRINNMr. . [MxIJlK HIIJ M ZMJKPVLVI sPR aIMRH MJq aIMRH. nP aPQ
sMJTa gPLJg{
uPJa: yI[! K[MK HPQJqH gPPq. . qPJlK K[LJz .lxI HIIJ PJI HLJTI . eMH M`PQK sPQRKIIJ
ISTIZK sPR PJI PJ LTI e[IJ . eMH TRMa M`PQK HzMKLJg! MJq K[MKlH JPK fQLKI K[I HMVI K[LJg! LH
LK{
/MNNa: 1P. .TI H[PeH qPJlK [MxI MNN K[I ePJqIRsQN KRMqLKLPJMN HTIJIRa MJq K[MK gPRgIPQH
K[IMKRI MKVPHZ[IRI.
uPJa: \MJKPVLVIH MRI MesQNNa PNq! Ls aPQ K[LJz M`PQK LK! MRIJlK K[Ia{ . VIMJ eLK[ M gLRN
ZNMaLJg K[I ZMRK Ps K[I ZRLJTLZMN `Pa! MNN qRIHHIq QZ LJ KLg[KH MJq KQJLT ...
/MNNa: vV! MJq K[I qMVI ZMRKH KMzIJ `a VIJ. .lxI JIxIR HIIJ rOLJqIRINNMr. . HQZZPHI K[I
HKIZVPK[IR MJq K[I QgNa HLHKIRH MRI K[I VIJlH ZMRKH LJ K[MK.
uPJa: dNMqqLJ QHIq KP `I Va sMxPQRLKI! e[IJ M TPVIqLMJ ZNMaIq K[I wLqPe ueMJzIa.
dJq e[IJ dNMqqLJ RQ``Iq K[I VMgLT NMVZ MJ IJPRVPQH gIJLI MZZIMRIq ...
/MNNa: dJq K[I MQqLIJTI `PPLJg K[I eLTzIq QJTNI! MJq PLJLJg LJ K[I HLJgLJg Ps K[I
ZPZQNMR HPJgH K[Ia MNeMaH VMJMgI KP gIK LJKP K[I ZNMa HPVI[Pe.
uPJa: yIHc . ePJqIR [Pe PJ IMRK[ K[Ia VMJMgI KP sLK KPqMalH ZPZ HPJgH LJKP ZMJKPVLVI
HKPRLIH{
/MNNa: wINN! e[a qPJlK eI gIK KLTzIKH MJq sLJq PQK{
uPJa: yIH! oj. OPVI PJ! K[IJ.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)
Words
MTK gMNNIRa n ZRPZIRKLIH
MTKLJg n
LJKIRxMN n (ZRPZH) n `MNTPJa n
NLg[KLJg n
RIZIRKPLRI n `PS n VMKLJII n
RPe n
TMHK n PRT[IHKRMZLK n HKMgIVMJMgIR n
TPVZMJa n
ZLK n HKMNNH n TPHKQVIH n
ZRPqQTI
(K[IMKRI) [PQHI n qLRITKPR n ZRPqQTIR n
KRIMKVIJK n
qRIHHTLRTNI n ZRPqQTKLPJ n
Word Combinations
ZRPsIHHLPJMN K[IMKRI K[I HIKKLJg Ps M HTIJI RIZIRKPRa TPVZMJa
NLg[K MJq HPQJq IssITKH MVMKIQR K[IMKRI KP ZRPqQTI M ZNMa
qRMVMKLT HPTLIKa
EXERCISES
I. Answer the foIIowing questions:
A. +. w[MK LH K[I TIJKRI Ps K[IMKRLTMN MTKLxLKa LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ{ 2. w[LT[ K[IMKRLTMN
TPVZMJLIH RITILxI sLJMJTLMN HQZZPRK sRPV dRKH OPQJTLN{ 4. w[MK LH VIMJK `a M RIZIRKPRa
K[IMKRI{ 3. w[MK qP aPQ zJPe M`PQK K[I PaMN /[MzIHZIMRI OPVZMJa{ *. w[MK zLJq Ps
ZIRsPRVMJTIH MRI HKMgIq LJ K[I PaMN oZIRM |PQHI{ ,. dRI K[IRI VMJa K[IMKRIH LJ PR JIMR K[I
wIHK (GMHK) GJq Ps iPJqPJ{ 7. w[MK zLJq Ps VQHLT LH ZPZQNMR LJ GJgNMJq{ b. dRI K[IRI MJa
MVMKIQR K[IMKRIH LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ{ 2. w[MK NIMqLJg MTKPRH Ps K[I 0RLKLH[ K[IMKRI qP aPQ zJPe{
+). |Pe MRI K[I 0RLKLH[ dRKH OPQJTLNH gPLJg KP TINI`RMKI MZZRPMT[ Ps K[I VLNNIJJLQV{
B. +. |Pe LH K[I QHHLMJ K[IMKRI PRgMJLIq{ 2. w[MK QHHLMJ K[IMKRIH MRI `IHK zJPeJ LJ
QHHLM MJq M`RPMq{ 4. .H MKKIJqMJTI MK PQR K[IMKRIH [Lg[{ 3. |Pe VMJa KLVIH M VPJK[ (M
aIMR) qP aPQ gP KP K[I K[IMKRI{ *. dRI K[IRI MJa MVMKIQR K[IMKRIH LJ QHHLM{
II. Try your band at teaching:
A. \RIZMRMKLPJ! M) pLJq ZLTKQRI RIZRIHIJKLJg M K[IMKRI[PQHI! `) /KQqa K[I sPPKJPKIH PJ Z.
427 qIHTRL`LJg M K[IMKRI[PQHI MJq LKH ZMRKH! T) wRLKI fQIHKLPJH KP ZRPxPzI MJHeIRH
TPJKMLJLJg MNN K[I JIe ePRqH.
B. wPRz LJ TNMHH. dHz aPQR fQIHKLPJH! NLHKIJ KP K[I MJ HeIRH MJq TPRRITK K[I HKQqIJKlH
VLHKMzIH.
III. Learn Text by heart. Act out this diaIogue.
IV. ReteII Text in your own words.
Speak on your favourite genre (opera, drama, ballet, comedy, musical, etc). Why do
you like it?
V. TransIate the foIIowing into EngIish:
F; $8 D! 8 > . t 6 $ !
;8 $6 %. % 8 6 8! 8>8
89! 89 89 9. < E$ C 7$8 57=9 %
8; 6 ECC.
( 5 8 95! ; ! D; ;7 6!
8 . F; 8 %! $ ; 6;
8 $ ; ;. $ $5 %8 6;
$ D. _ 8 8. "; . F $ >!
E % 8 =. ?> 6 =! 8
6 ;8 .
F; 765 %8 ! ; !
$ 6 = $.
VI. Read the foIIowing and either agree or disagree with the statements. (See the Reminder.):
+. u[I [PQHI LH K[I ZMRK Ps K[I K[IMKRI e[IRI K[I VIV`IRH Ps K[I PRT[IHKRM QHQMNNa HLK. 2.
dJ MQqLKPRLQV LH M `QLNqLJg PR M ZMRK Ps M `QLNqLJg LJ e[LT[ K[I MQqLIJTI HLK. 4. u[I MQqLIJTI
LJTNQqI `PK[ HZITKMKPRH MJq MTKPRH. 3. w[IJ K[I MQqLIJTI LH ZNIMHIq LK zIIZH HLNIJK. *. wI HMa
rK[I [PQHI LH sQNNr e[IJ JPK MNN K[I HIMKH LJ K[I MQqLKPRLQV MRI PTTQZLIq. ,. u[I ZLK LH JIMRIR
KP K[I HKMgI K[MJ K[I HKMNNH. 7. yPQ ZRIsIR HIMKH LJ K[I gMNNIRa! qPJlK aPQ{ b. wLJgH MRI K[I
HLqIH Ps M HKMgI eLK[ K[I HTIJIRa. 2. yPQ ePQNqJlK NLzI KP gP `I[LJq K[I HKMgI! . `INLIxI. +).
u[I T[IMZIHK HIMKH MRI LJ K[I `PSIH. ++. u[I VPHK ISZIJHLxI HIMKH MRI LJ K[I PRT[IHKRM HKMNNH.
+2. /KQqIJKH MNeMaH `Qa HIMKH LJ K[I PRT[IHKRM HKMNNH. +4. 0a K[I TMHK Ps K[I ZNMa eI VIMJ MNN
K[I MTKPRH `INPJgLJg KP K[I K[IMKRLTMN TPVZMJa. +3! u[I RPNI Ps K[I ZRPqQTIR LH JPK xIRa
LVZPRKMJK. +*. yPQ qPJlK zJPe e[P /KMJLHNMxHza eMH! . `INLIxI. +,. .K qPIHJlK KMzI VMJa
ZIPZNI KP ZRPqQTI M ZNMa. +7. . `INLIxI aPQ TNMZ KP H[Pe aPQR MZZRITLMKLPJ Ps K[I MTKLJg PR
K[I ZNMa MH M e[PNI.
IVLJqIR. 'eyond a.. dou&t" I 0hou.d thin/ 0o" I won6t deny it @o0t .i/e.y" I di0agree with
you" Cn the )ontrary" Bou are wrong" Du0t the other way round" Not VIc 'y no mean0"
VII. a) Describe your impressions of a pIay (opera, baIIet) you have seen. FoIIow the pIan
beIow:
+. UPLJg KP K[I K[IMKRI. (|Pe qLq aPQ gIK K[I KLTzIKH{ w[IRI eIRI aPQR HIMKH{ wMH K[I
[PQHI sQNN{)
2. u[I ZNMa. (wMH LK LJKIRIHKLJg{ w[MK eMH LJKIRIHKLJg{ w[MK qLqJlK aPQ NLzI M`PQK LK{)
4. u[I MTKLJg. (wMH K[I TMHK gPPq{ w[PHI MTKLJg LVZRIHHIq K[I MQqLIJTI{ .J e[MK
HTIJIH{)
3. u[I ZRPqQTKLPJ. (nLq K[I ZRPqQTKLPJ [INZ K[I MQqLIJTI KP TMKT[ K[I VMLJ LqIM Ps K[I
ZNMa{ .J e[MK ZPLJKH Ps K[I ZRPqQTKLPJ qLq aPQ sIIN K[I ePRz Ps K[I ZRPqQTIR{ nLq K[I gIJIR
MN HZLRLK Ps K[I ZRPqQTKLPJ HMKLHsa K[I qIVMJq Ps K[I ZNMa{)
*. nIHLgJLJg. (nLq aPQ NLzI K[I HTIJIRa{ |Pe eIRI K[I NLg[K MJq HPQJq IssITKH QHIq{)
,. u[I MQqLIJTI. (w[MK zLJq Ps ZIPZNI qLq LK TPJHLHK Ps{ |Pe qLq K[Ia RITILxI K[I
ZIRsPRVMJTI{)
I V L n q I R: Ls i0 0ur(ri0ing to meet a (.ay a&out ordinary (eo(.e )aught u( in
ordinary event0, the author 0how0 a remar/a&.e ta.ent for writing dia.ogue whi)h i0
entertaining and witty, the )hara)ter0 are (.ea0ant (humorou0, ordinary:9 one &rief 0)ene
form0 the ).imaQ of the (.ay, the )hara)ter0 a)t out a fanta0y, the audien)e i0 made to thin/:
unti. a.mo0t the fina. )urtain9 0(.endid dire)tion9 it wa0 one of the fine0t rendering0 of thi0
(art I6ve ever heard9 I hear the 0)enery wa0 (.anned and de0igned &y...; hi0 mu0i)a. ta.ent i0
8uite eQ)e(tiona., hi0 (.aying 0ometime0 remind0 me of"""9 the high.ight of the evening wa0 ...
b) Make up diaIogues discussing the points above.
VIII. a) SuppIy articIes where necessary:
O[Iz[PxlH ZNMa r... /IMgQNNr eMH sLRHK HKMgIq LJ ... dNISMJqRLJHza u[IMKRI LJ...
\IKIRH`QRg. .K eMH ... TPVZNIKI sMLNQRI.... ZNMa eMH RQLJIq `a ... qQNN MJq ... TNQVHa ZRPqQTKLPJ.
.K eMH HKMgIq LJ ... rgPPq PNq KRMqLKLPJHr e[IRIMH ... O[Iz[PxlH ZNMaH eIRI fQLKI QJNLzI MJa
PK[IR ZNMaH eRLKKIJ `IsPRI MJq qIVMJqIq ... JIe sPRVH MJq qIxLTIH.... \IKIRH`QRg MQqLIJTI
qLq JPK QJqIRHKMJq r... /IMgQNN.r u[IRI eMH ... NMQg[KIR LJ VPHK ZPIKLTMN HTIJIH MJq VMJa
Ps... MQqLIJTI NIsK NPJg `IsPRI ... IJq Ps ... ZNMa. .K eMH ... TRQIN `NPe KP O[Iz[Px. |PeIxIR!
LJ... vPHTPe dRK u[IMKRI! e[LT[ eMH JPK ... aIMR PNq K[IJ (LK eMH LJ +b2b)! ... HMVI ZNMa
qLRITKIq `a j. /. /KMJLHNMxHza eMH ... KRIVIJqPQH HQTTIHH.... /KMJLHNMxHzalH ZRPqQTKLPJ Ps r...
/IMgQNNr PZIJIq ... JIe IZPT[ LJ ... [LHKPRa Ps ... K[IMKRI MJq HaV`PNLIq... KRLQVZ[ Ps... JIe
MJq ... ZRPgRIHHLxI sPRVH PxIR ... PNq PJIH.
.J ... VIVPRa Ps K[MK IxIJK... e[LKI HIMgQNN HZRIMqH LKH eLJgH PJ ... TQRKMLJ Ps ... vPHTPe
dRK u[IMKRI.
b) Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[IJ MJq e[IRI eMH O[Iz[PxlH r/IMgQNNr sLRHK HKMgIq{ 2. w[a qLq LK sMLN{ 4. w[a eMH
LK K[MK K[I HMVI ZNMa eMH M KRIVIJqPQH HQTTIHH LJ K[I dRK u[IMKRI{ 3. w[a qLq K[I dRK
u[IMKRI T[PPHI K[I HIMgQNN sPR LKH IV`NIV{
IX. a) Give a free transIation of the foIIowing passage. Make use of the EngIish phrases
given at the end:
'6! 89 6 @t5B! 8 >8 >8.
$! A t9 6 . - ; D >
; %. A E$ D ; 8 !
8 ; @t5B! ; $! 5 D
5 A;. <9 $; 6 ;68$
$; . ' E$ > ; "
A! $D $ . "> $! 8 $
9$! $68 D 9
6 . A7 7 6 $ !
8$ $8! 8! 89 ;6 6 $6! D5
85 . ( %! $8 D6 $ ;! 85
D $: @X;5 9D! ! 56 9! $C. 8
; 66! 5! ;$$8 7$85 $ 6
$! 85 D$ $. 8 ; $B.
F $8 ; $7. A85 ;$ $
6; . ' $! $ > ;9
. < ;! ;5 8! ! ! D8
$8. _ D ... ... 6 ! $8 !
8. A$ ... ... "8 >!
>! $ 6. <%! $8 9 !
$ 8! $6 ; ;. ". . &5!
; "D $ 768$ $ %9 5!
$8 %7. -9 >8$ $ $C$. t9 8
;$$.
(F*JKNH*N5K\ 3" (. " >6 )
Use the following:
K[I TLRTQVHKMJTIH ... eIRI TPVZNLTMKIq MJq ZMLJsQN! [LH qIIZ qIZRIHHLPJ! [I VLg[K [MxI
JPK HQRxLxIq MJPK[IR sMLNQRI! LVZNPRIq QH KP TMJTIN K[I ZIRsPRVMJTI! eI `MqNa JIIqIq LK! KP
RMLHI K[I `PS PssLTI RIKQRJH! K[I LJJIR xPLTI! VQRqIRIq `a aPQR PeJ [MJqH! K[I sLRHK MTK
TPJTNQqIq MVLq qIMK[NLzI HLNIJTI! KP sMLJK! . eMH PJ Va NMHK NIgH! K[IRI eMH MJ QZRPMR! M
TRMH[! M HKPRV Ps MZZNMQHI! K[I TQRKMLJ eIJK QZ ... K[IJ qPeJ MgMLJ! eI eIRI HKMJqLJg
HKQJJIq! eI eIRI HQZZPHIq KP KMzI K[I TQRKMLJTMNNH! VINKIq K[I LTI! KP T[IIR! IMT[ MTK [ILg[K
IJIq K[I HQTTIHH.
b) What can you say about the significance of the event described above for the history of
Russian and worId theatre?
X. a) Read Sir Laurence OIivier's answers given by him in a newspaper interview:
QIHKLPJ: |Pe [MH KINIxLHLPJ MssITKIq K[I K[IMKRI{
dJHeIR: wINN! LKH ZPZQNMRLKa VIMJH K[MK VLNNLPJH Ps ZIPZNI KMzI qRMVM sPR gRMJKIq. wLK[
[PQRH MJq [PQRH IxIRa eIIz! K[I xLIeIR TMJ [MxI M `INNasQN Ps qRMVM. .s aPQlRI gPLJg KP
MKKRMTK M VMJ MJq [LH eLsI MeMa sRPV K[ILR u: HIK PJ M eLJKIRlH JLg[K! MJq [PNq K[IV KP M
ZNMa LJ M K[IMKRI! aPQlxI gPK KP gRLZ K[IV MJq zIIZ K[IV gRLZZIq.
1Pe! aPQ qP [MxI TIRKMLJ MqxMJKMgIH LJ K[I K[IMKRI. u[I KINNa LH ZIRsITK sPR K[I K[LJgH K[MK
[MxI `IIJ HZITLMNNa `QLNK sPR LK. 0QK K[I u: HTRIIJ TMJJPK gLxI aPQ K[I ZITQNLMR TPJqLKLPJ Ps
K[I K[IMKRI! e[IRI eI MRI MNNPeIq KP gIK `MTz KP NLsIHLI ZIPZNI LJ RINMKLPJ.
.: .H K[IRI MJa ZMRKLTQNMR [P``a[PRHI K[MK aPQ RLqI LJ aPQR ePRz MH MTKPR MJq qLRITKPR{
d.: . RINa gRIMKNa PJ R[aK[V. . K[LJz K[MK LH PJI K[LJg . QJqIRHKMJq K[I ISZNPLKMKLPJ Ps
R[aK[V! T[MJgI Ps HZIIq Ps HZIIT[! T[MJgI Ps KLVI! T[MJgI Ps ISZRIHHLPJ! T[MJgI Ps ZMTI LJ
TRPHHLJg K[I HKMgI. jIIZ K[I MQqLIJTI HQRZRLHIq! H[PQK e[IJ K[IalRI JPK ISZITKLJg LK! zIIZ
K[IV PJ K[ILR KPIH T[MJgI sRPV VLJQKI KP VLJQKI.
w[MK LH K[I VMLJ ZRP`NIV Ps K[I MTKPR{ .K LH KP zIIZ K[I MQqLIJTI MeMzI.
o.: |Pe KRQI LH LK K[MK MJ MTKPR H[PQNq LqIJKLsa eLK[ M RPNI{
d.: . qPJlK zJPe. . TMJ PJNa HZIMz sPR VaHINs. dJq LJ Va TMHI LKlH JPK lH[PQNql! LKlH lVQHKl. .
QHK qP. . TMJlK [INZ LK. .J Va TMHI . sIIN . MV e[P . MV ZNMaLJg. dJq . K[LJz! K[PQg[ . HZIMz
PJNa sRPV Va PeJ ISZIRLIJTI! K[MK K[I MTKPR VQHK LqIJKLsa KP HPVI ISKIJK eLK[ [LH ZMRK.
.J roK[INNPr K[I ZMHHMgI sRPV K[I [MJqzIRT[LIs HTIJI K[RPQg[ KP sNLJgLJg K[I VPJIa LJ
GVLNLMlH sMTI LH! ZPQJq `a ZPQJq! K[I [IMxLIHK `QRqIJ . zJPe K[MK [MH `IIJ NMLq QZPJ VI aIK
`a M qRMVMKLHK.
dJq vMT`IK[. nP aPQ zJPe e[MK LH K[I sLRHK K[LJg KP NIMRJ M`PQK ZNMaLJg vMT`IK[{ uP
gIK K[RPQg[ K[I ZIRsPRVMJTI eLK[PQK NPHLJg aPQR xPLTI. (From
vPHTPe 1IeH! +2,2! 1P +)! Fragment0:
b) Try your hand at teaching:
d. \RIZMRMKLPJ. u[LJz Ps LJKIRIHKLJg fQIHKLPJH PJ /LR iMQRIJTI oNLxLIRlH LJKIRxLIe.
0. wPRz LJ TNMHH. vMzI aPQR sRLIJqH MJHeIR aPQR fQIHKLPJH.
XI. SoIe-pIaying.
dK M u[IMKRI pIHKLxMN
/K. d: M sMVPQH ZRPqQTIR
/K. .: M TINI`RMKIq MTKPR
/K. O: M KMNIJKIq aPQJg MTKRIHH! e[P VMqI MJ LVVIqLMKI [LK eLK[ [IR HIJHLKLxI MJq VPxLJg
ZIRsPRVMJTI
IHK Ps TNMHH: M PQRJMNLHK! M TRLKLT! M ZNMaeRLg[K MJq K[IMKRIgPIRH
dNN MRI LJxLKIq KP K[I HKQqLP.
XXI. a) TransIate the foIIowing fragments into Russian (in writing)!
A. u[IRI MRI VMJa ZIPZNI e[PV K[I K[IMKRI sLNNH eLK[ MJ ISTLKIVIJK e[LT[ JP sMVLNLMRLKa
TMJ HKMNI. .K LH KP K[IV M ePRNq Ps VaHKIRa MJq qINLg[K; LK gLxIH K[IV IJKRa LJKP M RIMNV Ps K[I
LVMgLJMKLPJ e[LT[ LJTRIMHIH K[ILR Pa LJ NLsI! MJq LKH LNNQHLPJ TPNPQRH K[I PRqLJMRLJIHH Ps K[ILR
qMLNa RPQJq eLK[ K[I gPNqIJ H[LVVIR Ps RPVMJTI. b" #" @augham
B. .J K[I u[IMKRI eI MRI ZRPQq KP HIRxI! LqIMH VIRINa ZNMa NLzI HQVVIR NLg[KJLJg PxIR! M
qIIZ NMzI Ps sIINLJg; K[I LJKINNITK VMa `I fQLTzIJIq K[IRI! `QK e[MK LH VPRI LVZPRKMJK LH K[MK
K[I LVMgLJMKLPJ Ps K[I HZITKMKPR `IgLJH KP `I [MQJKIq! HP K[MK NPJg MsKIR [I [MH NIsK K[I ZNMa
[PQHI K[I MTKPRH MRI HKLNN eLK[ [LV! HKLNN KINNLJg [LV Ps K[ILR qIHZMLR MJq K[ILR [PZI.
D" '" 7rie0t.ey
b) Comment on the fragments above.
XIII. Speak individuaIIy or arrange a discussion on the foIIowing:
+. w[a LH LK K[MK ZIPZNI gP KP K[I K[IMKRI{ w[MK qP K[Ia NPPz sPR K[IRI{
2. w[MK LH aPQR sMxPQRLKI K[IMKRI MJq e[a{
4. u[I sRMgVIJK M`PxI (GS. ^.. 0) qIHTRL`IH K[I TMHI e[IJ rK[I LVMgLJMKLPJ Ps K[I
HZITKMKPR `IgLJH KP `I [MQJKIq HP K[MK NPJg MsKIR [I [MH NIsK K[I ZNMa[PQHI K[I MTKPRH MRI HKLNN
eLK[ [LV...r .H K[I ISZIRLIJTI sMVLNLMR KP aPQ{ dsKIR e[MK ZNMa qLq aPQ [MxI LK NMHK KLVI{
3. w[MK LH K[I RPVMJKLT HLqI Ps K[I K[IMKRI{
*. w[MK LH K[I IqQTMKLPJMN RPNI Ps K[I K[IMKRI{ nP aPQ MgRII eLK[ \RLIHKNIa (HII K[I
sRMgVIJK LJ GS. ^.. 0) K[MK K[I K[IMKRLTMN MRK MZZIMNH RMK[IR KP K[I HZITKMKPRlH LVMgLJMKLPJ MJq
sIINLJgH K[MJ KP [LH LJKINNITK{ ULxI aPQR RIMHPJH.
XIV. Try your hand at teaching. 1. Say what you wouId do in the teacher's position:
vLT[MIN! M `RLg[K! aPQJg! HPPJKP`I sLsK[sPRVIR! TPJsIHHIq KP [LH KIMT[IR K[MK LJ [LH xLIe
HT[PPN eMH JP sQJ! K[I KIMT[IRH eIRI JP gPPq! HQVVIR H[PQNq NMHK sPRIxIR MJq qPgH eIRI
NQTza `ITMQHI K[Ia qLqJlK [MxI KP gP KP HT[PPN. u[I KIMT[IR ZRPKIHKIq K[MK HT[PPN eMH
LVZPRKMJK. 0QK vLT[MIN! e[P qLqJlK H[MRI K[I KIMT[IRlH PZLJLPJ! MJHeIRIq eLK[ M PJIePRq
fQIHKLPJ rw[a{r.
2. Respond to the foIIowing modestIy. Here are a few possibIe ways of beginning answers:
o[! LK eMH JPK[LJg. u[I RIMN TRIqLK H[PQNq gP KP .... . [Mq xIRa NLKKNI KP qP eLK[ LK. .K eMHJlK
qLssLTQNK MK MNN! RIMNNa. u[MJz aPQ! `QK LKlH JPK RIMNNa MNN K[MK gPPq. o[! aPQlRI ISMggIRMKLJg! .
ZNMaIq PJNa M HVMNN ZMRK LJ K[I e[PNI K[LJg. .K eMH xIRa VQT[ M KIMV IssPRK. yPQlRI xIRa
zLJq! `QK RIMNNa MJaPJI INHI TPQNq qP LK.
/ T I J M R L P
d.: .lxI JIxIR HIIJ HQT[ MJ MKKRMTKLxI MJq KMNIJKIq TNMHH Ps T[LNqRIJ. . K[LJz aPQ! MH K[ILR
KIMT[IR! qIHIRxI K[I [Lg[IHK ZRMLHI.
yPQ: ...
d.: .lV HQRI K[Ia MRI HZNIJqLq! `QK . qPJlK MgRII K[MK aPQ qPJlK qIHIRxI MJa TRIqLK. . zJPe
aPQ ZNMJJIq K[I NPxINa qITPRMKLPJH LJ K[ILR TNMHHRPPV! sPR M HKMRK.
yPQ: ...
d.: .lV HPRRa! . QHK TMJlK `INLIxI LK [Mq JPK[LJg KP qP eLK[ aPQ. dJq IxIJ Ls K[Ia [Mq K[I
PRLgLJMN LqIM! .lV HQRI aPQ gQLqIq K[IV LJ K[ILR ePRz.
yPQ:...
d!: o[! TPVI PJ! LK TMJlK [MxI `IIJ IMHa MJq . qPJlK MgRII K[MK MJaPJI TPQNq [MxI qPJI it
(From vMzLJg \PNLKI 1PLHIH &y |MRgRIMxIH MJq v. pNIKT[IR. iMqr +272)
3. CIassroom EngIish. (Revision);
a) .KlH K[I NMHK ZIRLPq PJ /MKQRqMa. u[I NIHHPJ LH TPVLJg KP MJ IJq. yPQ MRI ZNIMHIq eLK[
K[I ePRz aPQ MJq K[I ZQZLNH [MxI qPJI. yPQ sLJq K[MK aPQ QHK [MxI M`PQK 4 3 VLJQKIH KP
[MxI K[I ISIRTLHI `PPzH TPNNITKIq MJq K[I `PMRq TNIMJIq. yPQ LJsPRV K[I TNMHH K[MK K[Ia eLNN
[MxI KP sLJLH[ K[I ISIRTLHI Pss MK [PVI! KINN K[IV aPQ MRI ZNIMHIq eLK[ K[ILR ZRPgRIHH! HIK K[I
[PVIePRz MJq HKMKI `RLIsNa e[MK aPQ MRI ZNMJJLJg sPR K[I JISK NIHHPJ. dsKIR K[MK aPQ MHz
aPQR ZQZLNH KP KLqa QZ K[I RPPV MJq KP `I fQLIK e[IJ K[Ia gP PQKHLqI. yPQ eLH[ K[IV M JLTI
eIIzIJq MJq HMa gPPq`aI.
b) .KlH M RPQKLJI GJgNLH[ NIHHPJ LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I KIRV. u[I NIHHPJ LHJlK gPLJg KPP eINN
yPQ MRI KRaLJg KP zIIZ aPQR ZQZLNH LJKIRIHKIq LJ K[I ISIRTLHIH aPQ MRI T[ITzLJg. yPQ gIK
K[IV KP RIMq K[I HIJKIJTIH LJ KQRJ MJq TPRRITK K[ILR VLHKMzIH! `QK K[I ZQZLNH MRI KLRIq MJq sLJq
LK qLssLTQNK KP TPJTIJKRMKI PJ K[I ePRz. /PVI Ps K[IV HKMRK T[MKKLJg MJq sLqgIKLJg. yPQ KRa JPK
KP H[Pe aPQR MJJPaMJTI MJq ZRPTIIq T[ITzLJg K[I ISIRTLHI.
T) yPQlxI gPK M NPK Ps ePRz KP gIK K[RPQg[ LJ K[LH NIHHPJ. yPQ MHz K[I ZQZLNH KP qP MJ
ISIRTLHI sRPV K[I KISK`PPz HLNIJKNa. yPQ T[ITz K[MK K[Ia MNN [MxI K[I RLg[K ZNMTI. w[IJ aPQR
ZQZLNH [MxI NPPzIq K[RPQg[ K[I ISIRTLHI aPQ eMJK IxIRa`Pqa KP RIMq K[RII HIJKIJTIH IMT[.
yPQ TPVVIJK PJ K[ILR ePRz. .J K[I RIVMLJLJg sLxI VLJQKIH! aPQ [MxI M fQLTz xPTM`QNMRa
KIHK PJ K[I `NMTz`PMRq. yPQ VMzI HQRI K[MK K[I `PMRq LH ZRPZIRNa ZRIZMRIq! MJq MHz 2 PR 4
ZQZLNH KP eRLKI K[I KIHK. yPQ zIIZ K[I RIHK Ps K[I TNMHH LJxPNxIq MJq TPVVIJK PJ K[I ePRz.
q) .KlH M RIxLHLPJ NIHHPJ. yPQlxI `RPQg[K KP K[I TNMHHRPPV M VMZ Ps 0RLKMLJ! HPVI HNLqIH
MJq/PR ZLTKQRIH Ps iPJqPJ MJq M HNLqI ZRPITKPR. yPQ MHz PJI Ps K[I ZQZLNH KP [INZ aPQ sLS K[I
VMZ MJq ZLTKQRIH PJ K[I `PMRq MJq gIK K[I HNLqI ZRPITKPR RIMqa. u[I ZQZLNH ZPLJK PQK PJ K[I
VMZ K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK KPeJH! RLxIRH! VPQJKMLJ T[MLJH PR MJaK[LJg aPQ sLJq JITIHHMRa KP
VIJKLPJ. dsKIR K[MK K[Ia HZIMz `RLIsNa M`PQK iPJqPJ HLg[KH VMzLJg QHI Ps K[I ZLTKQRIH MJq
HNLqIH. yPQ zIIZ VMzLJg JPKIH e[LNI K[Ia HZIMz MJq TPVVIJK PJ K[ILR ePRz MK K[I IJq Ps K[I
RIxLHLPJ NIHHPJ.
I) dK K[I IJq Ps K[I KIRV aPQ sLJq LK JITIHHMRa KP [MxI M `RLIs RIxLHLPJ Ps K[I `PPz aPQR
ZQZLNH MRI RIMqLJg. yPQR LqIM LH KP MHz K[I ZQZLNH M JQV`IR Ps fQIHKLPJH KP IJTPQRMgI M
qLHTQHHLPJ. yPQ K[LJz K[I fQIHKLPJH PxIR xIRa K[PRPQg[Na `IsPRI[MJq MJq MHz aPQR TNMHH KP
MJHeIR K[IV. yPQ MRI LJKIRIHKIq LJ IxIRaPJIlH ZPLJK Ps xLIe MJq RIMTK KP TPVVIJKH MZ
ZRPZRLMKINa! KRaLJg KP zIIZ K[I TPJxIRHMKLPJ gPLJg.
XV. Describe these pictures: Use the foIIowing:
M) KP TPVI [PVI gRIMKNa ISTLKIq! KP eMxI HPVI HNLZH Ps ZMZIR LJ K[I MLR! KP `I qINLg[KIq! KP
[MxI gRIMK sQJ ZNMaLJg eLK[ PJIlH KPaH; `) KP qRMg HV`. MNPJg K[I HKRIIK! KP [PeN MK K[I KPZ Ps
PJIlH xPLTI; T) KP [MxI ISTINNIJK HIMKH! rwLN[INV uINNr eMH PJ! K[I VQHLT eMH HP NPQq aPQ
TPQNqJlK [IMR M ePRq! KP `I `PRIq; q) K[MK eMH VQT[ `IKKIR! KP TMKT[ HV`.lH LJKIRIHK! M `Pe
W`x MJq MRRPeH! KP H[PPK Pss M[ MZZNI sRPV...; I) LJ xIRa [Lg[ HZLRLKH! KP T[MKKIR M`PQK PJIlH
LVZRIHHLPJH! KP `I ZNIMHIq; s) KP `I H[PTzIq! K[I T[LNqlH LVMgLJMKLPJ eMH TIRKMLJNa [MQJKIq `a
K[I PZIRM PR! RMK[IR! `a PJI ZMRKLTQNMR HTIJI! K[I ZPPR KIqqa`IMR! KP NPPz ISKRIVINa QJ
TPVsPRKM`NI.
XVI. FiIm "Mr. Brown's HoIiday". FiIm segments 9 "One More Substitute" (YeoviI) and 10
"Back at Home" (London), a) Watch and Iisten, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the
fiIm.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH
IX
oJI Ps K[I VPHK IssITKLxI ISIRTLHIH LJ gPPq eRLKLJg LH M sRII TPVZPHLKLPJ.
pRII TPVZPHLKLPJ LH M ZLITI Ps LJqIZIJqIJK eRLKLJg (4* ZMgIH LJ NIJgK[). yPQ MRI sRII KP
HINITK K[I HQ`ITK! KP qITLqI PJ K[I ZMKKIRJ Ps eRLKLJg (JMRRMKLxI! qIHTRLZKLxI! MRgQVIJKMKLxI!
ISZPHLKPRa)! MJq KP T[PPHI eRLKLJg KIT[JLfQI (zIaePRqH! KPZLT HIJKIJTIH! TPJJITKLxIH MJq
KRMJHLKLPJH).
.J K[I ZRPTIHH Ps sRII TPVZPHLKLPJ K[IRI MRI K[RII VMLJ ZPLJKH KP TPJHLqIR: e[MK KP HMa
HINITKLPJ Ps M HQ`ITK MJq K[I K[IVI! [Pe KP MRRMJgI K[I VMKIRLMN LJ K[I `IHK PRqIR! MJq [Pe
KP ISZRIHH aPQR K[PQg[KH LJ K[I `IHK ZPHHL`NI NMJgQMgI.
u[I K[IVI MJq HQ`ITK H[PQNq `I HINITKIq eLK[ TMRI HP K[MK aPQ zJPe ISMTKNa e[MK aPQ
VIMJ KP eRLKI M`PQK MJq e[MK LH K[I ZQRZPHI Ps eRLKLJg LH LK qIHTRL`LJg! IJKIRKMLJLJg!
ZIRHQMqLJg PR LJHKRQTKLJg{
ru[I 0RLKLH[ .HNIHr LH! sPR LJHKMJTI! Ps qIHTRLZKLxI JMKQRI! r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar LH
`PK[ IJKIRKMLJLJg MJq LJHKRQTKLJg! mQqalH NIKKIRH MRI HLJTIRINa ZIRHQMqLJg.
OPVZPHLKLPJ VQHK `I QJLsLIq MJq TPVZNIKI. .K VQHK [MxI M `IgLJJLJg! VLqqNI! MJq IJq. .K
VQHK `I TP[IRIJK; K[MK LH! HaHKIVMKLT LJ LKH ZRIHIJKMKLPJ! eLK[ RIsIRIJTI KP KLVI! KP ZPLJK Ps
xLIe! MJq KP HLKQMKLPJ. .K VQHK RIxIMN aPQR MKKLKQqI PR QqgIVIJK KPeMRqH VMKIRLMN MJq
T[MRMTKIRH PR KPeMRqH aPQR RIMqIR! PR `PK[.
The beginning, or introduction ISZRIHHIH K[I PTTMHLPJ! K[I ZRP`NIV! MJq K[I
ZQRZPHI. d gPPq `IgLJJLJg MKKRMTKH K[I RIMqIRlH MKKIJKLPJ! [LH LJKIRIHK MJq HPVIKLVIH [LH
IVPKLPJH (HII K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar PR Ps rd pRLIJq LJ 1IIqr).
u[I VLqqNI PR `Pqa Ps K[I TPVZPHLKLPJ LJ LKH KQRJ VMzIH K[I ZRP`NIV TNIMR K[RPQg[
JMRRMKLPJ! qIHTRLZKLPJ! MRgQVIJK PR ISZPHLKLPJ (TPVZMRI qLssIRIJK ZMHHMgIH sRPV K[LH
KISK`PPz). }HQMNNa K[I VLqqNI LJTNQqIH K[I qIKMLNH. .K VMa [MxI K[I KQRJLJg ZPLJK PR TNLVMS
qIHTRL`LJg K[I VPVIJK Ps gRIMKIHK IVPKLPJH.
The end or concIusion LH K[I RIHQNK Ps K[MK TNMRLsLTMKLPJ. u[I MQK[PR ZRPxLqIH MJ
MJHeIR KP K[I VMLJ fQIHKLPJ. .K LH QHQMNNa VMRzIq `a M HQVVMRa HKMKIVIJK IVZ[MHLLJg K[I
VIHHMgI (TPVZMRI K[I sLJMN HIJKIJTIH LJ rd nMalH wMLKr! r|Pe wI jIZK vPK[IRlH nMar!
rPHI MK K[I vQHLT[MNNr).
Assignments:
1. Write a composition explaining the message of the passage "Rose at the Music-ball.
2. Write a composition following the events described in the pictures on pp. 338-339.
3. Write a composition describing your visit to a theatre and your impressions of the
prevailing atmosphere,
4. If you have become proficient at writing compositions as an exercise you may turn to
teaming how to write compositions as art. Try your hand at writing a composition about the
best way to comfort your mother (father, child, sister or brother, friend).
Evaluate your composition according to the main principles of good writing: unity,
coherence, and emphasis.
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
1. Listen to the text "Drama, Music and Ballet in Britain", mark the stresses and tunes.
Repeat the text following the model.
2. Record the dialogue "At the Box-Office" in pairs. Listen to the records and discuss them
in class.
3. Listen to the dialogue "Pantomimes", mark the stresses and tones. Repeat it following
the model.
4. Write a spelling-translation test:
a) translate the phrases into English;
b) check them with the key.
5. Respond to the following questions or statements and correct them if necessary.
6. Listen to the story. Write ten questions about the text. Suggest a title for the text and give
reasons for your choice. Find evidence in the text to support the following statements.
CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS
1. What do you know about K. S. Stanislavsky, his role in the history of the Moscow Art
Theatre and bis influence on world theatre?
2. Where do the following quotations come from? Who says the lines? Under what
circumstances?
a) The time is out of 1oint Oh, cursed plight. That ever I was bom to set it right '
b) Beware, my lord, of the jealousy;
It is the green-eyed monster, that doth mock The meat it feeds on.
c) How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is To have a thankless child.
3. What do you know about the problem of Shakespeare's authorship?
4. What do you know about the Sovremennik Theatre? about the Lenkom Theatre? about
the Tovstonogov Theatre in St Petersburg?
5. Listen to a text connectid with the topic "Theatre".
SUPPLEMENT
A. CLASSROOM ENGLISH
I. PupiI Language
u[LH HITKLPJ TPJKMLJH M NLHK Ps Z[RMHIH K[MK ZQZLNH VLg[K `I ISZITKIq KP QHI qQRLJg MJ
GJgNLH[ NIHHPJ.
1. FoIIowing the Lesson
.lV HPRRa! . qLqJlK QJqIRHKMJq. yPQlRI HZIMzLJg KPP fQLTzNa.
. qLqJlK gIK K[MK qPeJ. OPQNq aPQ HMa LK MgMLJ{ OPQNq aPQ RIZIMK K[I NMHK `LK{
. VLHHIq K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps e[MK aPQ HMLq. OPQNq aPQ ISZNMLJ MgMLJ! ZNIMHI{
/[MNN eI qP K[I ISIRTLHI LJ PQR ePRz `PPzH{ dRI eI HQZZPHIq KP sLJLH[ K[LH Pss MK
[PVI{
w[MK qP eI [MxI KP qP JISK{ OPQNq aPQ eRLKI LK QZ PJ K[I `PMRq!
ZNIMHI{
.H LK Va KQRJ{ (dV . JISK{ /[MNN . HKMRK{)
2. Correctness of Answers
w[a TMJlK aPQ HMa ...{ .H K[LH M VLHKMzI{ w[MKlH eRPJg eLK[ (HMaLJg)...{
w[a qLq aPQ VMRz K[LH eRPJg{ w[a qLq aPQ ZQK M NLJI QJqIR K[LH
ePRq{
.HJlK K[IRI M VLHKMzI LJ HIJKIJTI 4{ /[PQNqJlK K[IRI `I MJ MRKLTNI{
. K[LJz aPQlxI VMqI M VLHKMzI PJ K[I `PMRq.
3. Language Questions
|Pe qP aPQ HZINN...{ dRI K[IRI KeP NH PR PJNa PJI{
|Pe qP aPQ ZRPJPQJTI K[I JISK ePRq{ .lV JPK HQRI [Pe KP HMa K[I JISK ePRq.
OPQNq aPQ QHI K[I sQKQRI (ZMHHLxI) [IRI{ OMJ eI NIMxI K[LH PQK (VLHH K[LH PQK) {
.H K[IRI M H[PRKIR (`IKKIR) eMa Ps HMaLJg K[LH{
4. PoIiteness
.lV HPRRa .lV NMKI; .lxI `IIJ KP ... .lV MsRMLq .lxI NIsK Va `PPz MK [PVI.
OPQNq . NIMxI KIJ VLJQKIH IMRNLIR (MK KeIJKa KP ...){
OPQNq . [MxI MJPK[IR TPZa{ |MxI aPQ gPK MJ ISKRM H[IIK{
/[MNN . KQRJ K[I NLg[KH PQK{
II. Beginning of Lesson
iIK VI LJKRPqQTI VaHINs! .lNN `I KIMT[LJg aPQ GJgNLH[ K[LH aIMR.
.KlH KLVI KP HKMRK JPe! / wI TMJ gIK qPeJ KP (HPVI) ePRz.
.lNN QHK VMRz K[I RIgLHKIR. w[P LH VLHHLJg (MeMa! JPK [IRI KPqMa) {
uRa JPK KP `I NMKI JISK KLVI.
.lV eMLKLJg KP HKMRK.
III. End of Lesson
u[IRIlH K[I `QIR (`INN). / wIlNN [MxI KP HKPZ [IRI.
Lg[K. yPQ TMJ ZQK aPQR K[LJgH MeMa MJq gP.
|Pe MRI eI qPLJg sPR KLVI{
u[IRI MRI HKLNN K[RII VLJQKIH KP gP.
wI HKLNN [MxI M TPQZNI Ps VLJQKIH NIsK.
|MJg PJ M VPVIJK/QHK [PNq PJ M VLJQKI.
oJI VPRI K[LJg `IsPRI aPQ gP.
IxLHI e[MK aPQ qLq KPqMa MJq K[IJ KRa ISIRTLHI *.
nP K[I RIHK Ps K[I ISIRTLHI MH aPQR [PVIePRz sPR KPVPRRPe.
u[IRI eLNN `I M KIHK PJ K[LH JISK uQIHqMa (LJ K[I JIMR sQKQRI).
IV. BIackboard Activity
OPVI PQK KP K[I `PMRq! ZNIMHI (e[IJ K[I KIMT[IR LH MK K[I sRPJK Ps K[I TNMHH).
UP KP K[I `PMRq (e[IJ K[I KIMT[IR LH HKMJqLJg MK K[I `MTz Ps K[I TNMHH).
vPxI PQK Ps K[I eMa (HKIZ MHLqI) HP K[MK IxIRaPJI TMJ HII.
.H K[IRI MJaK[LJg KP TPRRITK (K[MK JIIqH TPRRITKLJg){
w[MK NIKKIR LH VLHHLJg{ u[IRIlH M zl VLHHLJg (zl LH VLHHLJg).
ORPHH K[I 6t60 MJq qPK K[I Ll0"
wRLKI LK eLK[ M TMZLKMN l (LK `IgLJH eLK[ M ll).
wRLKI LK MH PJI ePRq (KeP ePRqH).
u[IHI KeP NIKKIRH MRI K[I eRPJg eMa RPQJq.
\QK M TPVVM (fQIHKLPJ VMRz! ISTNMVMKLPJ VMRz! TPNPJ! HIVLTPNPJ! sQNN HKPZ) MsKIR K[I
ePRq (HIJKIJTI)! ZNIMHI.
GJTNPHI K[I ePRqH LJ fQPKMKLPJ VMRzH (LJxIRKIq TPVVMH)! ZNIMHI.
iIKlH MNN RIMq K[I HIJKIJTIH sRPV K[I `PMRq.
}HI K[I qQHKIR (HZPJgI).
\QK (KMzI! gIK! eRLKI! TPZa) K[MK qPeJ LJ aPQR JPKI`PPzH.
vMzI JPKIH PJ e[MK . HMa LJ aPQR ISIRTLHI `PPzH.
wRLKI LK LJ `NPTz (`Lg) NIKKIRH (LJ `NPTz TMZLKMNH).
wRLKI (RIeRLKI) LK JIMKNa.
nP K[I ISIRTLHI LJ eRLKLJg.
wLNN aPQ! ZNIMHI! gP KP aPQR HIMK. (nPJlK HMa l/LK qPeJl Ls M ZQZLN LH JPK HKMJqLJg MK [LH
HIMK.)
|MJq LJ aPQR ZMZIRH MH aPQ NIMxI (gP PQK) MJq VMzI HQRI aPQR JMVIH MRI PJ K[IV.
V. SIides, Pictures, FiIms
.lNN sLJLH[ K[I TNMHH `a H[PeLJg aPQ M sLNV (HPVI HNLqIH).
\QK K[I HTRIIJ QZ (ZQNN qPeJ K[I HTRIIJ).
nRMe K[I TQRKMLJH (TNPHI K[I `NLJqH).
iLg[KH PQK! ZNIMHI. /eLKT[ PJ K[I ZRPITKPR.
w[P ePQNq NLzI KP ePRz (PZIRMKI) K[I ZRPITKPR KPqMa {
uQRJ K[I NLg[KH PJ MgMLJ (ZQK K[I NLg[KH `MTz PJ).
1ISK ZLTKQRI! ZNIMHI/T[MJgI K[I ZLTKQRI.
.KlH M `LK PQK Ps sPTQH.
.lV MsRMLq K[LH PJI LH QZHLqI qPeJ.
w[MK LH [MZZIJLJg LJ K[LH ZLTKQRI{
w[MK TMJ aPQ HII LJ K[I sPRIgRPQJq (`MTzgRPQJq! TIJKRI! RLg[K[MJq TPRJIR! K[I KPZ NIsK
[MJq TPRJIR! MK K[I `PKKPV) Ps K[I ZLTKQRI{
.lNN NIK K[LH Z[PKPgRMZ[ gP RPQJq. |MxI M NPPz MJq K[IJ ZMHH LK PJ.
\MHH K[LH ZLTKQRI RPQJq.
OPVI PQK MJq ZPLJK KP iPJqPJ PJ K[I VMZ.
VI. Textbook Activity
OPNNITK LJ K[I ZMZIRH (H[IIKH! KISKH! ePRq NLHKH! [MJqPQKH! KIHKH)! ZNIMHI.
pIKT[ K[I qLTKLPJMRLIH sRPV K[I KIMT[IRlH RPPV (HKMssRPPV).
yPQ eLNN [MxI KP H[MRI (aPQR `PPz) eLK[ 1LTz.
uMzI PQK aPQR `PPzH MJq PZIJ K[IV MK ZMgI 27 (}JLK 2).
yPQlNN sLJq K[I ISIRTLHI PJ ZMgI 4b.
iIKlH VPxI PJ KP K[I JISK ZMgI.
IsIR `MTz KP K[I gRMVVMR JPKIH PJ ZMgI 2*.
dNN `PPzH TNPHIq! ZNIMHI (H[QK aPQR `PPzH).
u[I ZLTKQRI MK K[I KPZ (`PKKPV) Ps K[I ZMgI (MK K[I xIRa KPZ).
(u[I) KIJK[ NLJI sRPV K[I KPZ (`PKKPV) (qPeJ/QZ).
(u[I) NMHK `QK PJI NLJI (ePRq) LJ ZMRMgRMZ[ KeP.
.s K[IRI MRI MJa ePRqH aPQ qPJlK zJPe! ZNIMHI MHz.
IMq PJI HIJKIJTI IMT[.
dJJ! aPQ RIMq K[I ZMRK Ps vRH. w[LKI K[LH KLVI.
1Pe NIKlH MTK PQK K[LH qLMNPgQI.
uRa MJq MTK NLzI M KIMT[IR (M qIJKLHK! IKT.).
u[I RIHK Ps aPQ MRI K[I MQqLIJTI.
ULxI M HaJPJaV sPR lRQH[Iql. (w[MK LH M HaJPJaV sPR l[QgIl{)
uRa KP ZQK LK LJ PK[IR ePRqH.
(u[MK eMH MNVPHK RLg[K) QHK PJI NLKKNI HNLZ. u[IRI eMH M HVMNN (HNLg[K) VLHKMzI (IRRPR) LJ
e[MK aPQ HMLq.
VII. CIass ControI
OPQNq . [MxI aPQR MKKIJKLPJ! ZNIMHI{
iPPz K[LH eMa. / iPPz QZ sPR M VPVIJK.
0I fQLIKc GxIRaPJI NLHKIJ.
nPJlK MNN H[PQK. / nPJlK KMNz MK PJTI.
UIK PJ eLK[ aPQR ePRz fQLIKNa.
/KPZ sLqgIKLJg. / nPJlK zIIZ KQRJLJg RPQJq.
/LK QZ (HKRMLg[K).
wPRz LJ KePH (ZMLRH).
. eMJK aPQ KP sPRV gRPQZH. u[RII ZQZLNH LJ IMT[ gRPQZ.
. eMJK aPQ KP qP HPVI ZNMa RIMqLJg LJ gRPQZH.
wPRz PJ aPQR PeJ. / wPRz `a aPQRHINxIH.
iPPzc .lxI QHK M`PQK [Mq IJPQg[ sRPV aPQ.
nPJlK aPQ KMNz! aPQ KeP gLRNH.
nPJlK HLK K[IRI qMaqRIMVLJg! vMRLM.
VIII. Right /Wrong
UPPq. Lg[K. pLJI. Lg[K aPQ MRI. QLKI RLg[K.
u[MKlH K[I eMa. u[MKlH RLg[K. u[MKlH LK. u[MKlH TPRRITK.
yIH! aPQlxI gPK LK yPQlxI gPK K[I LqIM.
w[MK aPQ HMLq eMH ZIRsITKNa MNN RLg[K.
yPQ qLqJlK VMzI M HLJgNI VLHKMzI.
u[MKlH ISMTKNa K[I ZPLJK.
u[MKlH QHK e[MK . eMH NPPzLJg sPR.
1P! K[MKlH eRPJg. 1PK RIMNNa. }JsPRKQJMKINa JPK.
yPQ TMJlK QHI K[MK ePRq [IRI.
yPQ VLHHIq K[I xIR` PQK.
yPQ sPRgPK K[I ZRIZPHLKLPJ. vLJq K[I ZRIZPHLKLPJ.
yPQ QHIq K[I eRPJg KIJHI.
yPQ VLHQJqIRHKPPq K[I LJHKRQTKLPJH.
oJTI MgMLJ! `QK RIVIV`IR K[I ePRq PRqIR.
uRa JPK KP VLS K[IHI KeP ePRqH QZ.
u[IalRI HZINK K[I HMVI! `QK ZRPJPQJTIq qLssIRIJKNa.
\IR[MZH aPQ [Mq `IKKIR HMa ...
.K eMHJlK ZRPJPQJTIq TPRRITKNa. u[I ePRq LH MTTIJKIq PJ K[I HITPJq HaNNM`NI.
0I TMRIsQN eLK[ K[I lH[lHPQJq.
1PKLTI [Pe Va KPJgQI KPQT[IH Va KIIK[. /II [Pe Va VPQK[ [MRqNa VPxIH.
dgMLJ ZNIMHI! `QK eMKT[ aPQR ZRPJQJTLMKLPJ.
iLHKIJ KP K[I eMa Va xPLTI gPIH QZ.
yPQ VQHK NIK aPQR xPLTI sMNN MK K[I IJq Ps K[I HIJKIJTI.
iIKlH HII Ls aPQlxI HZINK LK RLg[K / TPRRITKNa.
yPQ JIIq MJ ISKRM NIKKIR [IRI.
Q` PQK K[I eRPJg ePRq. wLZI PQK / Pss K[I NMHK NIKKIR.
dNeMaH T[ITz K[I ZQJTKQMKLPJ.
nPJlK KRMJHNMKI ePRq sPR ePRq.
u[LJz M`PQK K[I VIMJLJg Ps K[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI.
yPQ sLJq LK qLssLTQNK KP RIMq MNPQq.
yPQlNN [MxI KP HZIJq VPRI KLVI ZRMTKLHLJg K[LH.
/ZIMz VPRI TNIMRNa. 1PK HP fQLTzNa! . TMJlK sPNNPe.
u[IRI eMH M VLHKMzI LJ K[MK HIJKIJTI. UP `MTz MJq HII Ls aPQ TMJ sLJq/HZPK LK.
nPJlK e[LHZIR K[I MJHeIR. nPJlK [INZ [LV. nPJlK zIIZ ZRPVZKLJg.
.lV HQRI H[I TMJ VMJMgI PJ [IR PeJ.
IX. Assessment
:IRa gPPq. wINN qPJI. u[MKlH JLTI. yPQ VMqI M xIRa gPPq P` Ps K[MK.
u[MKlH VQT[ (M NPK) `IKKIR. yPQlxI LVZRPxIq M NLKKNI.
yPQ TMJlK HMa K[MK! .lV MsRMLq.
yPQ HKLNN [MxI HPVI KRPQ`NI eLK[ aPQR HZINNLJg (HPQJqH! IKT.).
yPQ JIIq HPVI VPRI ZRMTKLTI eLK[ ...
. eMHJlK xIRa HMKLHsLIq eLK[ K[MK. yPQ TMJ qP `IKKIR K[MJ K[MK.
u[MK eMH RMK[IR qLHMZZPLJKLJg.
uRa [MRqIR. d `LK VPRI IssPRK. . [PZI aPQ qP `IKKIR JISK KLVI.
2he fo..owing )omment0 are often u0ed on written wor/:
GSTINNIJK ePRz. :IRa eINN qPJI. UPPq HKQss. jIIZ LK QZ. dqIfQMKI.
vQT[ `IKKIR. /[PeH HPVI LVZRPxIVIJK. URIMK LVZRPxIVIJK.
/MKLHsMTKPRa. OPQNq qP `IKKIR. uPP VMJa TMRINIHH HNLZH. OMRINIHH.
1IIqH KP H[Pe VPRI IssPRK. 1PK QZ KP aPQR QHQMN HKMJqMRq.
nLHMZZPLJKLJg. /II VI M`PQK K[LH.
X. Conversation
2he0e (hra0e0 he.( to /ee( the )onver0ation moving:
w[a{ (.J e[MK eMa{ w[a qP aPQ K[LJz HP{)
nPJlK aPQ K[LJz! K[PQg[! K[MK ...
.lV JPK HQRI e[MK aPQ VIMJ.
|MxI aPQ gPK MJaK[LJg KP Mqq (KP e[MK 1LTz HMLq){
nPIH MJa`Pqa H[MRI 1LTzlH PZLJLPJ (xLIeH){
OPQNq HPVIPJI HQV QZ e[MK [MH `IIJ HMLq{
iIKlH QHK RQJ K[RPQg[ K[I MRgQVIJKH sPR MJq MgMLJHK.
B. CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES
1. HandIing a DiaIogue
. HMa... |PJIHKNa... .s aPQ MHz VI ... yPQ zJPe e[MK .
K[LJz ...
u[I ZPLJK LH ... nPJlK aPQ MgRII K[MK...{ uINN aPQ e[MK...
|MxI aPQ [IMRq M`PQK...{ nP aPQ [MZZIJ KP zJPe K[MK...{
|MxI aPQ gPK MJa LqIM ...{ /PVIPJI [MH KPNq VI K[MK...
. [IMR K[MK... u[MKlH e[MK . [IMRq. .lV MsRMLq . qPJlK zJPe VQT[
M`PQK...
1PK K[MK . zJPe Ps ... . ePJqIR Ls aPQ RIVIV`IR ... |MxI . gPK LK
RLg[K{
dV . RLg[K KP `INLIxI ...{ 0QK e[a H[PQNq (H[PQNqJlK) .{ wINN . qPJlK (qLqJlK)
K[LJz ...
0QK [Pe TPQNq .{ .s . eIRI aPQ ... . eLH[ . TPQNq `QK ... . RIMNNa TPQNqJlK LVMgLJI ...
w[MK M HLNNa eMa KP KMNzc . eLH[ aPQ ePQNq ... .lV RIMNNa HPRRa `QK...
. RIMNNa sIIN `Mq M`PQK LK. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz . H[PQNq [MxI qPJI{
2. Reacting to News
o[! RIMNNac1IxIR K[PQg[K M`PQK LK. yPQ qPJlK HMa HPc mQHK (PJNa) sMJTac
.JqIIq{ w[ac .H K[MK HP{ nIMR VIc w[Plq [MxI K[PQg[K Ps LKc nPIH LK HKRLzI aPQ
MH QJQHQMN{
.lV HQRZRLHIq. .lV H[PTzIq. .KlH MVMLJgc .KlH LJTRIqL`NIc iPPzH NLzI K[MK.
. [MxI JP LqIM. UPPqJIHH zJPeH.
3. Discussion. Opinions
. ePQNq NLzI KP `IgLJ K[I qLHTQHHLPJ PJ K[I HQ`ITK `a ... pRPV K[I ZPLJK Ps xLIe Ps ...
dqqLKLPJMNNa ... .K [MH `IIJ ZPLJKIq PQK K[MK... .lq QHK NLzI KP HMa ...
. K[LJz! (HQZZPHI! gQIHH! `INLIxI! qMRI HMa) ...\IRHPJMNNa . `INLIxI (. sIIN) ...
.J Va PZLJLPJ (xLIe) ... dH . HII LK ... u[I eMa . HII LK ...
wINN! Va PZLJLPJ LH K[MK... va xLIe LH K[MK... u[LH LH Va eMa Ps
NPPzLJg MK LK.
. qPJlK K[LJz LK ePQNq ... u[IRIlH PJI VPRI K[LJg KP `I JPKIq.
vPRIPxIR ...
w[MKlH VPRI ... . VLg[K MH eINN Mqq K[MK... .J MqqLKLPJ ... oJ KPZ Ps K[MK ...
/PVIK[LJg INHI .lq NLzI KP HMa LH ... uMNzLJg Ps... yPQ VMa `I RLg[K! `QK MNN K[I HMVI ...
.s aPQ MHz VI ... . ePQNqJlK HMa K[MK... yIH! `QK PJ K[I PK[IR [MJq ...
u[IRIlH JPK[LJg NLzI ... . qPJlK fQLKI HII e[MK ZIPZNI sLJq LJ ...
. qPJlK zJPe MJaK[LJg VPRI ISTLKLJg K[MJ ... d`HPNQKINa VMRxINNPQH. . NLzI LK LVVIJHINa.
dNN K[LJgH TPJHLqIRIq . VQHK HMa K[MK... .lq RMK[IR JPK HMa MJaK[LJg M`PQK LK.
UIJIRMNNa HZIMzLJg ... .K qIZIJqH.
4. Agreeing. Disagreeing
mQHK HP. QLKI HP. . fQLKI MgRII [IRI. 1MKQRMNNa. OIRKMLJNa.
/QRI. GSMTKNa. nIsLJLKINa. QLKI. vPHK NLzINa. d`HPNQKINa. uRQI IJPQg[. .
TPQNqJlK MgRII VPRI.
. H[PQNq K[LJz HP. 0IaPJq MNN qPQ`K. . ePJlK qIJa LK. iPPzH NLzI K[MK. |MZZa KP
[IMR LK.
.lV JPK HQRI . fQLKI MgRII. w[a qP aPQ K[LJz K[MK...{ .lV MsRMLq . qPJlK MgRII.
. K[LJz aPQlRI VLHKMzIJ (K[IRI). . qPJlK K[LJz aPQ MRI RLg[K. . TMJlK MgRII eLK[ aPQ K[IRI.
. HII e[MK aPQ VIMJ! `QK... .lV JPK HP HQRI. . HII JPK[LJg ISTLKLJg
LJ ...
. qPQ`K LK. . (aPQ) H[PQNqJlK HMa HP. u[IRIlH HPVIK[LJg LJ e[MK aPQ HMa!
`QK
. qLHMgRII eLK[ aPQ. yPQlRI eRPJg. yPQlRI VLHKMzIJ. 1PK VIc
|Pe TMJ aPQ HMa HQT[ M K[LJgc oJ K[I TPJKRMRac yPQ TMJlK `I HIRLPQH.
. P`ITK KP LK. /QRINa JPK. 1PK[LJg Ps K[I zLJq (HPRK).
mQHK K[I PK[IR eMa RPQJq. OIRKMLJNa JPK. .VZPHHL`NI.
.KlH QJsMLR. .KlH QJQHK.
5. Giving Advice
vLg[K LK `I MJ LqIM KP ...{ |MxI aPQ IxIR K[PQg[K Ps yPQ TPQNq MNeMaH ... .s . eIRI aPQ!
.lq ... w[a qPJlK aPQ ...{ yPQlq `IKKIR ...
EXERCISES IN INTONATION
SECTION ONE. Review of FundamentaI Intonation Patterns and Their Use
\duuG1 +: (iow \G|Gdn ) iow pdii
(YA.)
vPqINH: !yIH.
.lV M !qPTKPR.
\duuG1 A: (iow \G|Gdn ) nG/OG1n.1U
|Gdn iow pdii ( ud.i)
vPqIN: .K LHJlK lfQLKI le[MK
. !eMJK.
\duuG1 ...: (iow \G|Gdn ) iow ./G (ud.i)
vPqINH: "yIH. ".H LK{ UP
"PJ.
\duuG1 .:: (iow \G|Gdn ) nG/OG1n.1U
|Gdn iow ./G ( ud.i)
vPqIN: |MxIJlK leI lVIK lHPVIe[IRI
"`IsPRI{
\duuG1 :: (iow \G|Gdnl) (|.U| |Gdn ) v.niG:Gi
vPqIN: /PVIKLVIH .

[MKI LK.
\duuG1 :.: (iow \G|Gdn ) pdii./G (ud.i
\duuG1 :..: (iow \G|Gdn) pdii.1U |Gdn pdii./G (YA.)
\duuG1 :...: (iow \G|Gdn) iow |Gdn iow ./G (ud.i)
EXERCISES
The exercises below are meant to revise the intonation patterns you already know.
I. Read the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Define the communicative type of the
repIies. Say what attitudes are conveyed in them. Give your own repIies to the same
conversationaI contexts;
w[MK LH aPQR sMxPQRLKI HQ`ITK{ GJgNLH[.
|I LH MK K[I LJHKLKQKI. w[IRI! qP aPQ K[LJz{
.lNN qP LK VaHINs. nPJlK.
|IRIlH M JPKI sPR aPQ. u[MJzH.
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps K[I ZLTKQRI{ .KlH M KRQI VMHKIRZLITI.
vMa . [MxI aPQR `PPz{ w[MK qP aPQ eMJK LK sPR{
. H[MJlK HZIMz KP [LV MJa VPRI. nPJlK `I HLNNa.
OPVI MJq NPPz PQK [IRI. w[MK M ePJqIRsQN xLIec
|MxI aPQ HIIJ [LV{ . [MxI.
pV KeIJKaKeP. |Pe PNq MRI aPQ{
(2ea)her to ).a00: UP PJ.
/P aPQ K[LJz [IlH JPK TPVLJg. GSMTKNa.
.lV eMLKLJg sPR vMRa. w[IJ LH H[I TPVLJg{
wI MRI [MxLJg M ZMRKa KPJLg[K. nPJlK HKMa KPP NPJg K[IRI.
/II aPQ KPVPRRPe. UPPq`aI sPR K[I ZRIHIJK.
|IlH TPVLJg PJ /MKQRqMa. oJ vPJqMa! . K[LJz.
vMa . NIMxI aPQ sPR M VPVIJK{ 0I fQLTz! K[IJ.
.lNN NIMxI PJ pRLqMa. 1P! PJ /MKQRqMa. wINN! VMzI QZ aPQR VLJq.
w[MKlH K[MK qRIHH VMqI Ps{ .KlH ZQRI ePPN.
w[LT[ `QH H[MNN eI KMzI{ w[LT[ PJI qP aPQ ZRIsIR{
. TMJlK qP LK HP fQLTzNa. uINN VI [Pe . TMJ [INZ aPQ.
yPQlxI qPJI M NPK sPR [LV. 1PK LJ K[I NIMHK.
.lV HP HPRRa sPR [IR. /[I yPQlxI JP RIMHPJ KP ePRRa.
HIIVH KP `I KIRRL`Na LNN. /[IlNN `I eINN xIRa HPPJ.
. qPJlK K[LJz VQT[ Ps K[LH `PPz. .lV JPK KMzLJg LK. w[LT[ qP aPQ ZRIsIR! K[IJ{
u[MJzH MesQNNa. nPJlK VIJKLPJ LK.
.lV MsRMLq . TMJlK [INZ aPQ. :IRa eINN.
2. Read the foIIowing diaIogues. Express the suggested attitudes:
w[MK KRPQ`NIH aPQ{ G0ym(atheti)a..y intere0ted:
.lV fQLKI QJeINN. . sIIN gLqqa MJq . TMJ [MRqNa HKMJq PJ V NIgH. (0eriou0:
dJa ZMLJ{ (0ym(atheti)a..y intere0ted:
yIH! .lxI M HPRI K[RPMK. ()onveying (er0ona. )on)ern:
=============
/[MNN . [MxI KP HKMa LJ `Iq NPJg{ (genuine.y intere0ted:
1P! JPK VPRI K[MJ M eIIz! . [PZI. (QJTIRKMLJ)
dJq H[MNN . KMzI MJa VIqLTLJI{ (genuine.y intere0ted:
yIH! TIRKMLJNa. |IRI LH M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ sPR aPQ. (weighty, )att gori):
=============
w[MK LH aPQR KIVZIRMKQRI{ (0ym(atheti)a..y intere0ted:
.KlH K[LRKaILg[K ZPLJK HIxIJ.
\NIMHI HKRLZ KP K[I eMLHK. . H[MNN ISMVLJI aPQ. |Pe NPJg [MxI aPQ sINK K[LH eMa{
(0ym(atheti)a..y intere0ted:
/IxIRMN qMaH MNRIMqa. .lxI `IIJ KMzLJg ZLNNH! `QK . qPJlK sIIN MJa `IKKIR.
=============
d.: |INNP! \IKI! e[MKlH [MZZIJIq KP aPQ{ w[a i0 aPQR MRV LJ M HNLJg{ (0ym(atheti)a..y
intere0ted:
\.: . [Mq M `Mq sMNN MJq `RPzI Va MRV.
d.: |Pe MesQNc |MxI aPQ MJa ZMLJ JPe{ (LJKIRIHKIq)
\.: .K HKLNN [QRKH! `QK JPK HP VQT[ MH `IsPRI. (re0erving %udgement:
=============
n.: w[MKlH KRPQ`NLJg aPQ{ (LJKIRIHKIq)
d.: oJI Ps Va sRPJK KIIK[ LH ePRzLJg NPPHI.
n.: yPQ [MxI KP [MxI K[LH PJI PQK. .KlH M ZLKa aPQ qLqJlK [MxI LK NPPzIq MK `IsPRI.
(grum&.ing:
d: . eLH[ . [Mq. ()onveying (er0ona. )on)ern:
=============
. [MxI MJ M`HTIHH PJ Va sLJgIR! LK [QRKH VI MesQNNa. (0eriou0:
nLq aPQ RQJ M HZNLJKIR LJKP aPQR sLJgIR{ (intere0ted:
1P! . [MZZIJIq KP ZLTz LK eLK[ M eLRI.
w[MK qLq aPQ qP sPR LK{ (0ear)hing:
. qLq JPK[LJg! . K[PQg[K LK ePQNq [IMN `a LKHINs.
u[MK eMH JPK xIRa TNIxIR Ps aPQ. (re(rimand:
=============
yPQR xPLTI LH [PMRHI MJq aPQR sMTI LH sNQH[Iq. yPQ VQHK [MxI M TPNq. .lV HQRI. w[IRI
qLq aPQ VMJMgI KP gIK LK{ (0ym(athy:
l . qPJlK zJPe VaHINs. . VQHK [MxI TMQg[K TPNq NMHK JLg[K! e[IJ . KPPz Va TPMK Pss.
|Pe K[PQg[KNIHH Ps aPQ! K[I IxIJLJg eMH TPNq MJq eLJqa. (re(roa)hfu.: 1Pe aPQlNN
[MxI KP HKMa LJ.
3. a) Listen to the diaIogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. Find sense-groups and sentences
pronounced with intonation Patterns I, II; III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII. Say what kind of sentences
they are used in. Define the attitudes expressed in them:
iIKlH [MxI KIM LJ K[I gMRqIJ! H[MNN eI{
u[MKlH M gPPq LqIM. /[MNN . KMzI K[I KM`NI PQK{
yIH! ZNIMHI. dJq K[I T[MLRH KPP.
Lg[K. w[IRI H[MNN . ZQK K[IV{
o[! MJae[IRI. .lNN `RLJg K[I KIM.
UPPq. wIlNN [MxI K[I KM`NI [IRI MJq K[I T[MLRH [IRI.
w[a [MxI aPQ ZQK K[I KM`NI K[IRI{
wINN! aPQ HMLq MJae[IRI.
yIH! `QK aPQ VQHK `I HIJHL`NI. .KlNN `I KPP [PK K[IRI.
w[IRI H[MNN . ZQK LK K[IJ{
0RLJg LK QJqIR K[I KRII [IRI. u[MKlH `IKKIR.
1Pe ZIR[MZH eI TMJ [MxI HPVI KIM.
o[! qIMR. .lV HPRRa .lxI sPRgPKKIJ K[I HQgMR. wPQNq aPQ VLJq gIKKLJg LK sPR VI{
1PK MK MNN.
1Pe e[IRI qLq . ZQK K[I VLNz{ d[! [IRI LK LH.
|IRIlH K[I HQgMR.
u[MJz aPQ. u[MKlH aPQR TQZ.
u[MJz aPQ. u[LH LH xIRa ZNIMHMJK.
.K LH! LHJlK LK{ 0QK .lV M `LK TPNq [IRI. nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ TPQNq VPxI K[I KM`NI MgMLJ{ .lV
HPRRa KP `I M JQLHMJTI.
dNN RLg[K. .lNN ZQK LK `MTz e[IRI LK eMH. .H K[MK `IKKIR{
vQT[. w[IRI MRI aPQ gPLJg{
.lV gPLJg LJqPPRH. pPR M `LK Ps ZIMTI MJq fQLIK.
b) Record your reading of the diaIogue. PIay the recording back for the teacher and your
feIIow-students to detect the possibIe errors. Practise the diaIogue for test reading.
Memorize and dramatize it.
c) Make up conversationaI situations, using the foIIowing phrases:
iIKlH .... H[MNN eI{ .KlNN `I KPP ... .
u[MKlH M gPPq LqIM. u[MKlH `IKKIR.
yIH! ZNIMHI. 1Pe! ZIR[MZH! ... .
Lg[K. o[! qIMR! .lV HP HPRRa.
o[! ... . 1PK MK MNN.
wINN! aPQ HMLq ... . nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ TPQNq ... {
d) Use the same phrases in a conversation.
4. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear and reproduce intonation in
different speech situations.
a) listen to the story "Helen's eyes were not very good..." carefully, sentence by sentence.
Mark the stresses and tunes. (The teacher will help you to correct your variant.) Practise
reading your corrected variant
b) Listen carefully to the narration of the story. Observe the peculiarities in intonation-
group division, pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use of temporizers. Reproduce the model
narration of the story.
5. This exercise is meant to test your abiIity to read and reproduce a story with correct
intonation.
Read the jokes silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Find the sentence
expressing the essence of the joke. Split up each sentence into intonation-groups if necessary.
Mark the stresses and tunes. Underline the communicative centre and the nuclear word of
each intonation-group. It is not expected that each student will intone the text in the same way.
The teacher will help you to correct your variant
Practise reading the joke several times.
Reproduce the model narration of the joke:
yPQJg \IKIR TMVI LJ PJI qMa `QRHKLJg eLK[ ISTLKIVIJK. wMNzLJg qPeJ K[I VMLJ HKRIIK [I
[Mq HQqqIJNa qLHTPxIRIq [I eMH HLqI`aHLqI eLK[ VPxLI MTKPR ONMRz UM`NI.
nLq aPQ KMNz KP [LV{ eI MHzIq.
wINN! LK eMH NLzI K[LH! [I HMLq HNPeNa. . zJIe e[P [I eMH MJq [I zJIe e[P [I eMH
MJq LK QHK qLqJlK VMzI HIJHI QH qLHTQHHLJg LK.
=============
/PVI ZIPZNI eIRI gMK[IRIq PJ K[I xIRMJqM[ MsKIR qLJJIR.
d aPQJg NMqa MHzIq: rOMJ aPQ JMVI sLxI qMaH Ps K[I eIIz eLK[PQK VIJKLPJLJg vPJqMa!
uQIHqMa! wIqJIHqMa! u[QRHqMa! pRLqMa! /MKQRqMa PR /QJqMa{r 1P`Pqa TPQNq gQIHH. dK NMHK
K[I aPQJg NMqa HMLq: r.K LH xIRa IMHa. |IRI MRI K[I sLxI qMaH: KPqMa! aIHKIRqMa! K[I qMa `IsPRI
aIHKIRqMa! KPVPRRPe! MJq K[I qMa MsKIR KPVPRRPer.
SECTION TWO. Intonation Pattern IX. <igh fall
(LOW PRE-HEAD + ) HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)
vPqIN: w[a qLqJlK aPQ `Qa K[I ZLTKQRI{
vQT[ KPP IS!ZIJHLxI.
/KRIHHMJqKPJI VMRzH LJ K[I KISK: |Lg[ pMNN.
u[I |Lg[ pMNN LJ K[I JQTNIQH HKMRKH xIRa [Lg[ MJq QHQMNNa RIMT[IH K[I NPeIHK ZLKT[. u[I
HaNNM`NIH Ps K[I KMLN MRI ZRPJPQJTIq PJ K[I NPe NIxIN.
u[I |Lg[ pMNN ZRPxLqIH M gRIMKIR qIgRII Ps ZRPVLJIJTI sPR K[I ePRq! VMzLJg LK VPRI
IVZ[MKLT. u[I qIgRII Ps ZRPVLJIJTI qIZIJqH PJ K[I [ILg[K Ps K[I sMNN.
u[LH LJKPJMKLPJ ZMKKIRJ LH QHIq:
+. .J HKMKIVIJKH! TPJxIaLJg ZIRHPJMN TPJTIRJ PR LJxPNxIVIJK! HPQJqLJg NLxINa! LJKIRIHKIq!
MLRa; xIRa TPVVPJ LJ TPJxIRHMKLPJ.
!"g" nP aPQ zJPe K[I VMJ{ 1P. (. qPJlK.) yIH. (. qP.) w[IRIlH Va TPZa{
\IKIR !KPPz LK !sPR aPQ.
2. .J fQIHKLPJH:
M) .J HZITLMN fQIHKLPJH! HPQJqLJg NLxINa! LJKIRIHKIq! !"g" . H[MNN `I NMKI! .lV MsRMLq. |Pe
!NMKI{
`) .J gIJIRMN fQIHKLPJH! TPJxIaLJg VLNqNa HQRZRLHIq MTTIZKMJTI Ps K[I NLHKIJIRlH ZRIVLHIH.
!"g" . NLzI LK [IRI. nP aPQ{ (. K[PQg[K aPQlq [MKI LK.)
4. .J LVZIRMKLxIH! HPQJqLJg eMRV.
!"g" w[MKlH K[I VMKKIR{ iPPz. (.KlH RMLJLJg.)
3. .J ISTNMVMKLPJH! xIRa IVPKLPJMN. !"g" .KlH ILg[K PlTNPTz. |IMxIJHc (.lV NMKI.)
EXERCISES
1. Iisten carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on
the intonation of the repIies:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
Statements
(conveying personal concern or involvement,
sounding interested, lively, airy)
1Pe e[MK [MxI aPQ qPJI KP vMRa{ 1PK[LJg.
w[PlH `IIJ IMKLJg Va gRMZIH{ 1P PJI. 1P PJI [MH. 1P PJIlH `IIJ IMKLJg aPQR eRIKT[Iq
gRMZIH.
w[LT[ eLNN aPQ KMzI! |IJRa{ u[LH PJI. u[MK PJI.
|Pe VMJa Ps [LH `PPzH [MxI aPQ RIMq{ dNN Ps K[IV. 1PJI Ps K[IV.
w[IJ qLq aPQ HII [LV{ oJ u[QRHqMa. (. K[PQg[K aPQ zJIe.)
wPQNq aPQ NLzI KP PLJ QH{ .lq NPxI KP.
OPVI PJ. iIKlH gIK gPLJg. wI TMJlK. .KlH RMLJLJg.
.K eMH MNN aPQR sMQNK. 0QK LK eMHJlK. dJq . TMJ ZRPxI LK.
Specia !"esti#ns (lively, interested)
. H[MNN [MxI KP gLxI LK KP [LV. w[a{
.lV gPLJg KP /eLKIRNMJq. w[IJ{
yPQlNN JIxIR gQIHH e[PlH [IRI. w[P{
yPQ TMJ eLJ IMHLNa. |Pe{ |Pe HP{
|IlH TPVLJg KP HKMa eLK[ QH. w[IJ! VMa . MHz{
. VQHKJlK KMzI K[IV. w[a VQHKJlK aPQ KMzI K[IV{
/PRRa KP `I HP NMKI. w[MKlH [MZZIJIq{
. PQg[K KP eRLKI KP [LV. w[a `PK[IR{
(|QNNP! nIJJLH.) |Pe MRI aPQ{
. HMLq JP HQT[ K[LJg. w[MK qLq aPQ HMa! K[IJ{
uPqMalH PQK Ps K[I fQIHKLPJ! KPP. w[IJ TMJ aPQ TPVI! VMa . MHz{
Genera !"esti#ns (conveying mildly surprised
acceptance of the listener's premises)
. NLzI LK [IRI. nP aPQ{
/[I LH K[LRKasLxI. .H H[I{
u[Ia ePJlK [INZ QH. wPJlK K[Ia{
. TMJlK `IMR TMKH. OMJlK aPQ{
. VQHK `I [PVI `a HLS. vQHK aPQ{
. PQg[K KP gP KP K[I NITKQRI. 0QK eLNN aPQ gP! qP aPQ K[LJz{
$mperati%es (expressing warmth)
nP aPQ K[LJz K[LH [MK eLNN sLK VI{ uRa LK.
|IlNN `I KIRRL`Na MJgRa. iIK [LV.
d NIKKIR ePJlK RIMT[ dJJ LJ KLVI. \[PJI [IR! K[IJ.
|I qPIHJlK eMJK KP ZNMa. u[IJ VMzI [LV.
.lV MesQNNa HPRRa. pPRgIK LK.
|I TMJlK MssPRq KP ZMa. wINN! gLxI LK KP [LV! K[IJ.
&'camati#ns (very emotional)
|IlH PxIR HIxIJKa. wINNc
dNLTI LH TPVLJg MH eINN. IMNNac /ZNIJqLqc
wLNN aPQ [MxI M qRLJz{ u[MJz aPQc
(u[MK aPQ vR. dRT[MR{) UPPq VPRJLJgc UPPq VPRJLJg KP aPQ.
.lNN gLxI LK KP aPQ. |Pe NPxINac
.lV VPHK gRMKIsQN KP aPQ. nPJlK VIJKLPJ LK! Va qIMR T[MZ.
/[I HMaH aPQlRI KP `NMVI. w[MK JPJHIJHIc
.HJlK LK M NPxINa xLIec GJT[MJKLJgc
2. Listen to the repIies and repeat them in the intervaIs. Start the faII high enough.
3. Listen to the VerbaI Context and repIy to it in the intervaIs.
4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern IX in your mind, ear and speech habits, pronounce each
repIy severaI times untiI it sounds perfectIy naturaI to you.
5. Listen to a feIIow-student reading the repIies and point out his (her) errors in
pronunciation.
6. Listen to the VerbaI Contest said by a feIIow-student. Make your repIies sound IoveIy,
warm, airy. Use the proper intonation patterns. Continue the exercise untiI everyone has
participated:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
.HJlK LK KPP sMR MeMa sRPV [IRI{ desQNNa sMR.
w[IRI LH Va `PPz{ vMRa KPPz LK sPR aPQ.
|MxI aPQ `IIJ K[IRI `IsPRI{ os TPQRHI! . [MxI.
vMa . NIMxI aPQ sPR M VPVIJK{ w[a! aIH.
yPQ PQg[K KP NIK [LV zJPe. . [MxI.
w[MK LH H[I qPLJg [IRI{ /[IlH eMLKLJg sPR HPVI`Pqa.
.lq NPxI KP HKMa QZ sPR K[I ZNMa. yPQ TMJlK. .KlH KPP NMKI.
/[IlH KeIJKa. GLg[KIIJ! . K[LJz! H[I HMLq.
.KlNN KMzI VQT[ KLVI. |Pe VQT[{
ULxI K[IV PJI Ps K[IHI `PPzH. w[LT[ PJI! qP aPQ K[LJz{
. VQHK gP K[IRI. 0QK e[IJ{
.lNN sLJq [LV. 0QK [Pe TMJ aPQ sLJq [LV{
yPQ TMJlK gP K[IRI. 0QK e[a JPK{
/[I ePQNqJlK NLHKIJ KP VI. wPQNqJlK H[I{
GxIRa`Pqa MgRIIH eLK[ aPQ. o[! qP K[Ia{
1P`Pqa TMJ qP LK OMJ . [MxI M KRa{
iPTz K[I qPPR. wMLK M VLJQKI.
.lNN Z[PJI [IR. nPJlK.
vMa . [INZ aPQ{ yIH! qP.
w[MK [MH H[I qPJI{ iPPz.
u[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[. u[MJz aPQ.
wPQNq aPQ NLzI KP HKMa QZ sPR K[I KINIxLHLPJ{ .JqIIq . ePQNq.
.lxI `IIJ [INZLJg uPV! vQVVa. u[MKlH M gPPq gLRN.
|Pe MRI aPQ gIKKLJg PJ{ wPJqIRsQNNa.
|INNP! vMRac o[! K[IRI aPQ MRI! uPV.
nP aPQ ZNMa T[IHH{ /QRINa! . qPc
7. Give your own repIies to the VerbaI Context above. Use Intonation Pattern IX in them.
8. Use Intonation Pattern I in the DriIIs. Observe the difference in attitudes.
9. This exercise is meant to revise the intonation patterns you aIready know. Work in pairs.
The teacher or one of the students will suggest a Verbal Context You in turn reply to it
using:
a) statements, sounding lively, interested, airy; conveying personal concern or involvement;
b) special questions, sounding lively, interested;
c) general questions, conveying mildly surprised acceptance of the listener's premises;
d) imperatives, sounding warm;
e) exclamations, very emotional.
10. Practise the foIIowing diaIogues. Use the High FaII in them. Observe the attitudes you
convey:
o[! qIMRc o[c
.lV HP HPRRac . qP [PZI . [MxIJlK [QRK aPQc
o[! JP. . eMH QHK M NLKKNI HKMRKNIq! K[MKlH MNN. .KlH fQLKI MNN RLg[K.

nP aPQ NLzI K[LH sNMK{


o[! aIH! + qP! qIsLJLKINa.
.lV MsRMLq . TPQNqJlK ZPHHL`Na qP K[MK.
w[a JPK{

yPQlNN [MxI KP TNIMJ K[I eLJqPe.


1PK VIc
w[a JPK{
. qLq LK NMHK KLVI.
w[PHI KQRJ LH LK K[IJ{
|INIJlH! . K[LJz.
11. Listen to the VerbaI Context suggested by the teacher. RepIy by using one of the driII
sentences beIow. Pronounce it with Intonation Pattern IX. Say what attitude you mean to
render;
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
.lNN RLJg aPQ QZ PJ /QJqMa! Lg[Kc UPPqc pLJIc OIRKMLJNac 1MKQRMNNac /QRINac o[! [Pc u[MK
ePJlK qPc
.K MNN qIZIJqH PJ K[I eIMK[IR. Lg[K aPQ MRIc GSMTKNa HPc 1MKQRMNNac }JqPQ`KIqNac /QRI
IJPQg[c 0a JP VIMJHc yPQ MRI eRPJgc pMR sRPV LKc OIRKMLJNa
JPKc
. H[MNN KMzI aPQ KP K[I oZIRM |PQHI. pLJIc UPPqc OIRKMLJKa JPK K[LH eIIzc dgRIIqc /IKKNIqc o[! JPc
wLNN aPQ `I RIMqa `a HLS{ OIRKMLJNac nITLqIqNac . K[LJz HPc }JqPQ`KIqNac /QRINa JPKc
. `INLIxI [IlH sLJLH[Iq `LH P`. |MRqNa IxIRc . K[LJz HPc /QRI IJPQg[c
12. Make up a diaIogue of your own, using some of the phrases from Ex. 10.
13. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear and reproduce intonation in
conversation.
a) Listen to the dialogue "A Visit to the Doctor" carefully, sentence by sentence. Write it
down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Your teacher will help you to correct your variant.
Practise reading each sentence of your corrected variant after the cassette-recorder.
b) Record your reading of the dialogue. Play the recording back immediately for the
teacher and your fellow-students to detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for test reading.
c) Make up conversational situations with the following phrases:
wINN! e[MKlH K[I VMKKIR eLK[ ...{
yPQlq `IKKIR MHz VI e[MK LH JPK K[I VMKKIR eLK[ VI! ...
uP VMzI K[LJgH HKLNN ePRHI ...
.J sMTK...
d) Make up a talk about illnesses and their treatment, using phrases from the dialogue
above. Work in pairs.
e) Imagine you are consulting a doctor - tell him what troubles you. Imagine you are a
doctor. You diagnose the case as quinsy. Tell your
patient what he should do to get well.
14. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear and reproduce intonation in
reading.
a) Listen to the text carefully, sentence by sentence. Write down the text. Mark the stresses
and tunes. The teacher will help you to correct your variant Practise reading each sentence of
your corrected variant after the cassette-recorder.
b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for the teacher and your
fellow-students to detect your errors.
Practise the text for test reading.
15. Mark stresses and tunes in the foIIowing text, Iisten to the modeI. Mark the stresses and
tunes. Compare your intonation with that of the modeI. Practise the text according to the
modeI:
Doctor, Dentist and Chemist
.s aPQ [MxI KPPK[MT[I! aPQ H[PQNq gP KP aPQR qIJKLHK. |IlNN ISMVLJI aPQR KIIK[! MJq Ls K[I
MT[LJg KPPK[ LH JPK KPP sMR gPJI! [IlNN HKPZ LK. .s LK LH KPP `Mq! [IlNN KMzI LK PQK.
.s aPQ qPJlK sIIN eINN! aPQ H[PQNq TPJHQNK M qPTKPR. .s aPQ sIIN KPP LNN KP gP KP K[I qPTKPRlH!
aPQlNN [MxI KP HIJq sPR [LV. |IlNN MHz aPQ KP qIHTRL`I KP [LV K[I HaVZKPVH Ps aPQR LNNJIHH.
u[IJ [IlNN sIIN aPQR ZQNHI! NPPz MK aPQR KPJgQI MJq ISMVLJI aPQ K[PRPQg[Na. pLJMNNa [IlNN
ZRIHTRL`I K[I KRIMKVIJK MJq eRLKI PQK M ZRIHTRLZKLPJ.
nPTKPRHl ZRIHTRLZKLPJH MRI VMqI QZ `a M T[IVLHK. dK T[IVLHKHl H[PZH LJ K[I }/d aPQ TMJ
MNHP gIK ZMKIJK VIqLTLJIH Ps MNN zLJqH! NPKLPJH! KPJLTH! TPQg[VLSKQRIH! `M`asPPqH! MHZLRLJ!
ZLNNH! PLJKVIJK! `MJqMgIH! Mq[IHLxI ZNMHKIR MJq HP PJ. yPQ TMJ `Qa RMPRH MJq RMPR`NMqIH!
xMTQQVsNMHzH! [PK eMKIR `PKKNIH! HZPJgIH! KPPK[`RQH[IH MJq KPPK[ZMHKIH! ZPeqIRZQssH!
NLZHKLTzH! H[MxLJgHPMZ MJq H[MxLJg`RQH[IH MJq M [QJqRIq MJq PJI PK[IR K[LJgH.
.s aPQ MRI LJKIRIHKIq LJ Z[PKPgRMZ[a! aPQ TMJ MNHP gIK TMVIRMH MJq sLNVH MK VPHK
T[IVLHKHl. u[IalNN qIxINPZ MJq ZRLJK aPQR sLNVH sPR aPQ! KPP. /PVI T[IVLHKH MRI MNHP fQMNLsLIq
PZKLTLMJH! MJq Ls aPQR IaIHLg[KlH sMQNKa K[IalNN KIHK aPQR IaIH MJq ZRIHTRL`I gNMHHIH sPR aPQ.
16. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear intonation and reproduce it in
different speech situations.
M) iLHKIJ KP K[I PzI roJI qMa vRH. mPJIH eIJK H[PZZLJg...r! HIJKIJTI `a HIJKIJTI. wRLKI
LK qPeJ. vMRz K[I HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH. \RMTKLHI K[I PzI sPR KIHK RIMqLJg.
`) iLHKIJ KP K[I JMRRMKLPJ Ps K[I PzI. o`HIRxI K[I ZITQNLMRLKLIH LJ LJKPJMKLPJgRPQZ
qLxLHLPJ! ZLKT[! HKRIHH MJq KIVZP. 1PKI K[I QHI Ps KIVZPRLIRH. IZRPqQTI K[I VPqIN
JMRRMKLPJ aPJ [MxI NLHKIJIq KP.
17. This exercise is meant to test your abiIity to anaIyse and reproduce materiaI for reading
and reteIIing.
a) Read the jokes silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Find the sentence
expressing the essence of the joke. Split up each phrase into intonation-groups if necessary.
Locate the communicative centre of each sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise
reading the jokes.
b) Tell the jokes in your own words:
The Doctor's Advice
oJTI MJ PNq gIJKNIVMJ eIJK KP HII M qPTKPR. u[I qPTKPR ISMVLJIq [LV MJq HMLq:
rvIqLTLJI ePJlK [INZ aPQ. yPQ VQHK [MxI M TPVZNIKI RIHK. UP KP M fQLIK TPQJKRa ZNMTI sPR M
VPJK[! gP KP `Iq IMRNa! qRLJz VLNz! eMNz M NPK! MJq HVPzI QHK PJI TLgMR M qMa.r
ru[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[!r HMLq K[I gIJKNIVMJ! r. H[MNN qP IxIRaK[LJg aPQ HMa.r
ro[! qPTKPR!r HMLq K[I gIJKNIVMJ M VPJK[ NMKIR! r. sIIN fQLKI eINN JPe. . [Mq M gPPq RIHK. .
eIJK KP `Iq IMRNa! . qRMJz M NPK Ps VLNz! . eMNzIq M NPK. yPQR MqxLTI TIRKMLJNa [INZIq VI. 0QK
aPQ KPNq VI KP HVPzI PJI TLgMR M qMa! MJq K[MK PJI TLgMR M qMa MNVPHK zLNNIq VI MK sLRHK. .KlH
JP PzI KP HKMRK HVPzLJg MK Va MgI.r
Doctor's Orders
/IRxMJK: /LR! eMzI QZ! eMzI QZc
vMHKIR: w[MK LH K[I VMKKIR{
/IRxMJK: .KlH KLVI KP KMzI aPQR HNIIZLJg KM`NIKH.
vRH. 0RPeJ: nPJlK aPQ K[LJz! qPTKPR! aPQlxI RMK[IR PxIRT[MRgIq sPR MKKIJqLJg mLVVa
e[IJ [I [Mq K[I VIMHNIH{
nPTKPR: yPQ VQHK RIVIV`IR! vRH. 0RPeJ! K[MK LJTNQqIH KeIJKaKeP xLHLKH.
vRH. 0RPeJ: yIH! `QK aPQ sPRgIK [I LJsITKIq K[I e[PNI HT[PPNc
SECTION THREE. Intonation Pattern X
(LOW PRE-HEAD+) RISING HEAD + HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)
vPqIN: . ePJqIR e[IJ dNLTIlH KRMLJ LH qQI.
iPPz LK lQZ LJ K[I KLVI!KM`NI.
u[I HaNNM`NIH Ps K[I LHLJg |IMq ZRITIqLJg K[I |Lg[ pMNN gRMqQMNNa TMRRa K[I ZLKT[ QZ.
/KRIHHMJqKPJI VMRz LJ K[I KISK:
u[I sLRHK HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI:
u[LH LJKPJMKLPJ ZMKKIRJ LH QHIq:
+. .J HKMKIVIJKH! TPJxIaLJg ZIRHPJMN TPJTIRJ! LJxPNxIVIJK! qLHgRQJKNIq ZRPKIHK.
!"g" |MxIJlK aPQ `RPQg[K K[I TMRZ{ yPQ

qLqJlK MHz VI !KP.


2. .J fQIHKLPJH:
M) .J HZITLMN fQIHKLPJH HPQJqLJg QJZNIMHMJKNa HQRZRLHIq PR qLHZNIMHIq! ZRPKIHKLJg.
!"g" /IJq K[IV MK PJTI.

w[IRI KP{
`) .J gIJIRMN fQIHKLPJH! ZRPKIHKLJg! HPVIKLVIH LVZMKLIJK.
!"g" u[QRHqMalH M [PZINIHH qMa sPR VI.

OMJlK eI lVMzI LK M pRLqMa! !K[IJ{


4. .J LVZIRMKLxIH! NLxINa! eLK[ M JPKI Ps TRLKLTMN HQRZRLHI.
!"g" w[MK H[MNN . qP{

uRa LK MgMLJ.
3. .J ISTNMVMKLPJH! TPJxIaLJg MssRPJKIq HQRZRLHI! ZRPKIHKLJg.
!"g" mP[JlH TPVLJg. w[MK MJ IS

KRMPRqLJMRa K[LJg.
EXERCISES
1. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your
attention on the intonation of the replies:
Verbal Context Drill
Statements
(conveying personal concern or involvement,
disgruntled protest)
. VQHK HII vR. P`IRKH. .lV MsRMLq aPQ TMJlK. |IlH QHK gPJI PQK.
w[MK qLq aPQ K[LJz Ps K[I [PQHI{ . eMH RMK[IR KMzIJ eLK[ LK. .K HIIVH fQLKI JLTI.
|I HMaH [I zJPeH JPK[LJg M`PQK LK. . QHK TMJlK QJqIRHKMJq LK. . qLHKLJTKNa RIVIV`IR KINNLJg [LV.
|MxIJlK aPQ sLJLH[Iq K[MK `PPz aIK{ .lxI PJNa QHK `IgQJ LK.
.lV MsRMLq . sMLNIq Va ISMV. .lV JPK MK MNN HQRZRLHIq. yPQ VQHK KRa ePRzLJg M `LK [MRqIR.
yPQ PQg[K KP [MxI LJsPRVIq VI MK PJTI. . qLqJlK RIMNLI! LK eMH HP LVZPRKMJK.
Specia !"esti#ns
(s#"ndin( displeased, unpleasantly surprised,
protesting)
w[MKlH K[MK aPQ HMa{ w[a qPJlK aPQ NLHKIJ{
. TMJlK sLJq K[I sLNI MJae[IRI. w[MK [MxI aPQ qPJI eLK[ LK{
yPQ TMJlK IMHLNa VIJq LK. w[MK qP aPQ VIMJ! IMHLNa{
. gMxI LK KP [IR ZIRHPJMNNa. 0QK e[IJ qLq aPQ HII [IR{
w[LT[ PJI H[MNN . [MxI{ w[LT[ ePQNq aPQ ZRIsIR{
. H[MNN eRLKI KP [LV MgMLJ. w[MKIxIR qP aPQ [PZI KP gMLJ `a K[MK{
. eMH KPP NMKI. u[Ialq HPNq PQK. w[aIxIR qLqJlK aPQ `Qa LK e[IJ aPQ [Mq K[I T[MJTI{
Genera !"esti#ns (protesting, impatient)
.lV KIRRL`Na [MRq QZc dRIJlK eI MNN{
.KlH MNeMaH ZPHHL`NI. 0QK qP aPQ K[LJz LKlH NLzINa{
.lV fQLKI `PPzIq QZ JISK eIIz. wLNN K[I eIIz MsKIR HQLK aPQ `IKKIR{
.J Va xLIe [IlH M TQNZRLK. OPQNq aPQ `I VLHKMzIJ{
. TMJlK VIIK aPQ K[LH uQIHqMa! /[MNN eI NIMxI LK KLNN JISK eIIz{
+ TMJlK HMa . qP NLzI K[LH TPMK. wPQNq aPQ [MxI ZRIsIRRIq K[I ZNQV TPNPQRIq PJI{
$mperati%es (lively, with a note of critical surprise)
w[MK PJ IMRK[ H[MNN . qP{ uRa LK MgMLJ. yPQlxI JP MNKIRJMKLxI.
w[MK H[PQNq . KINN [LV{ uINN [LV ISMTKNa e[MK aPQ K[LJz.
|Pe VMJa HMJqeLT[IH H[MNN . VMzI{ vMzI MH VMJa MH aPQ K[LJz eIlNN IMK.
. qPJlK eMJK KP gP MNPJI. OPVI MNPJg eLK[ QH! K[IJ.
.lxI NPHK Va LJxLKMKLPJ. wINN eRLKI MJq MHz K[IV KP HIJq aPQ MJPK[IR PJI.
&'camati#ns (conveying affronted surprise,
protesting)
. KPNq [LV e[MK . K[PQg[K Ps [LV. UPPq sPR aPQc
/[I HMaH H[IlH KeIJKaJLJI. d`HPNQKI JPJHIJHIc
0QK . TMJlK KMzI aPQ PQK KPJLg[K. .lV
ePRzLJg NMKI.
w[MK M ZLKa aPQ qLqJlK HMa HP HPPJIR.
iPPz. .K ePRzH. /P LK qPIH. |Pe xIRa Pqqc
yPQlRI M `LK gRQVZa KPqMa. 1PK LJ K[I NIMHKc
2. Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Pronounce the first stressed syllable
as low as possible; the following stressed syllables of the head gradually rise to the high level.
Start the fall on the nucleus high enough.
3, Listen to the Verbal Context and reply in the intervals.
4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern X in your mind, ear and speech habits, pronounce each
reply several times until it sounds perfectly natural to you.
5. listen to your fellow-student reading the replies, tell him (her) what his (her) errors in
intonation are.
6. Listen to the Verbal Context suggested by the teacher. Reply by using one of the
sentences below. Pronounce it with Intonation Pattern X. Say what attitude you mean to
render:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
w[a qPJlK aPQ HKMa NPJgIR{ .lxI JP KLVI. .lV HP `QHa JPe.
w[IJ qP eI gP K[IRI{ .lxI QHK KPNq aPQ. dK HIxIJ.
nP aPQ RIMNNa eMJK KP HII [IR{ . [MxIJlK HIIJ [IR sPR MgIH.
w[MK VMqI aPQ gP K[IRI{ . eIJK K[IRI `ITMQHI . eMJKIq KP.
w[a qLqJlK aPQ TPVI K[IRI LJ KLVI{ yPQ zJPe [Pe sMR LK LH.
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps K[LH ZLTKQRI{ .KlH JPK[LJg NIHH K[MJ M VMHKIRZLITI.
.lxI JP KLVI JPe. .lV NIMxLJg. w[IRI KP{
yPQ VQHK NPPz K[RPQg[ LK MgMLJ. w[MKlH eRPJg M`PQK LK{
|IlNN `I [IRI `a HLS. w[MK VMzIH aPQ HP HQRI{
yPQ VQHK Z[PJI [IR MK PJTI. w[a JPK aPQ{
. VLHHIq HPVI ePRqH. w[a qPJlK aPQ NLHKIJ{
yPQlq `IKKIR KMzI M KMSL. w[MK sPR{
vPJqMa LH M xIRa `QHa qMa sPR VI. OMJlK eI VIIK PJ pRLqMa K[IJ{
yPQ MRI JPK M gPPq HeLVVIR! MRI aPQ{ |MxI . IxIR ZRIKIJqIq KT `I{
vMRalH JPK [IRI aIK. UP MNPJI! K[IJ.
.KlH KPP NMKI KP eMNz. uMzI M `QH! K[IJ.
. qPQ`K Ls . TMJ qP LK `IKKIR. uRa MgMLJ.
|IlH gLxIJ QZ K[LH LqIM. /IJHL`NI T[MZc
|IlH ePJ. wPQNq aPQ `INLIxI LKc
7. Give your own repIies to the VerbaI Context of Ex. 1 and 6. Use Intonation Pattern X.
8. The teacher or one of the students suggests a VerbaI Context The students repIy to it in
turn using:
a) statements conveying personal concern, involvement or protest;
b) special questions sounding unpleasantly surprised, displeased or protesting;
c) general questions sounding impatient, protesting;
d) imperatives sounding lively, with a note of critical surprise;
e) exclamations conveying affronted surprise, protesting. Continue the exercise until
everyone has participated. Work in pairs.
9. Read the foIIowing extracts. Observe the position of the IogicaI stress:
ruINN [IR K[MK aPQ LJKIJq KP VMRRa [IR! `QK MsKIR aPQ RIKQRJ sRPV K[LH PQKLJg! JPK `IsPRI.r
(#. Srei0er" rdJ dVIRLTMJ uRMgIqar)
ryPQ qPJlK NLxI [IRI{r r1P!r . HMLq! r. qPJlK. yPQ ePQNqJlK Ls . qLq.r GD" ^" Derome"
ru[RII vIJ LJ M 0PMKr)
r/[I eMH HP ZRIKKa MJq TQKI. yIK H[I eMH M ePRzLJg gLRN! MH [I RIVIV`IRIq JPe! KPP M
sMTKPRa gLRN! MH ULN`IRK ePQNq HMa! MJq [I eMH [IR HQZIRLPR. 0QK H[I eMH HP ZRIKKa MJq TQKI.r
(u[. Srei0er" rdJ dVIRLTMJ uRMgIqar)
r.J K[I KMSL! RIKQRJLJg MK NMHK KP O[IH`PRPQg[ uIRRMTI [I ZRPTNMLVIq [MZZLNa: rpLRHK RMKI
T[MZH K[IHI! O[RLHc |MH `IIJ M ePJqIRsQN IxIJLJg! [MHJlK LK{r /[I MJHeIRIq LJ M K[LJ HKIMqa
xPLTI: r.KlH `IIJ M [MKIsQN IxIJLJgcr (Cronin" ru[I OLKMqINr)
10. Look for simiIar situations in the books you are reading at the moment
11. This exercise is meant to practise the intonation patterns you aIready know.
a) Listen to the dialogue "Guessing Game", sentence by sentence. Write it down. Define the
intonation pattern of each sentence and the attitude expressed by it
b) Record your reading. Play the recording back for your teacher aad fellow-students to
detect the possible errors:
d.: dJq K[I JISK P`ITK LH xIgIKM`NI.
.: nPIH PJI IMK LK{
d: yIH.
.: nP aPQ IMK LK{
d: yIH.
.: nP aPQ IMK LK MK `RIMzsMHK{
d: 1P.
.: nP aPQ IMK LK MK qLJJIR KLVI{
d: 1P.
.: wINN K[IJ MK KIM KLVI.
d: yIH.
.: .H LK M RMe xIgIKM`NI{
d: yIH.
.: .H LK JLTI{
d: :IRa JLTI.
.: nLq eI [MxI HPVI sPR KIM KPqMa{
d: yIH.
Practise the dialogue for test reading. Memorize and dramatize it.
12. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to bear and reproduce intonation in
different speech situations.
a) listen to the dialogue "Sightseeing" carefully, sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark
the stresses and tunes. The teacher will help you to correct your variant Practise reading each
sentence of your corrected variant after the cassette-recorder.
b) Record your reading of the text Play the recording back immediately for the teacher and
your fellow-students to detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for test reading. Memorize
and play it
c) Make up conversational situations with the following phrases:
.H LK ZPHHL`NI ...{ u[MKlH JPK M `Mq LqIM.
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz ...{ . HQZZPHI LK LH.
MK[IR. w[MK M`PQK...{
wINN! aPQ VLg[K... . iIK VI HII ... .
.H LK VQT[ Ps M eMNz{ nP aPQ K[LJz . H[MNN [MxI KLVI sPR...{
d) Make up a talk about your recent trip. Use the phrases from the dialogue above. Work in
pairs.
e) Imagine you are telling the class about your recent trip to London.
13. This exercise is meant to revise Intonation Pattern IX. Read the foIIowing diaIogue. Use
the High FaII to express personaI concern, invoIvement:
w[MK MRI aPQ gPLJg KP qP K[LH eIIz{
wINN! eI qPJlK RIMNNa zJPe.
w[a JPK xLHLK jIe UMRqIJH{
wINN! eIlxI `IIJ K[IRI.
yPQlxI HIIJ VQT[! [MxIJlK aPQ{
yIH! eIlxI HIIJ MNN K[I QHQMN K[LJgH. u[I uPeIR Ps iPJqPJ! MJq K[I PP! MJq K[I
|PQHIH Ps \MRNLMVIJK.
|MxI aPQ xLHLKIq wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia{
yIH! eI eIJK K[IRI M sPRKJLg[K MgP. 0QK . [MxIJlK HIIJ /K. \MQNlH OMK[IqRMN HLJTI . eMH
[IRI LJ +22+.
. [MxIc .lxI `IIJ K[IRI KeP PR K[RII KLVIH.
0QK . RIMNNa PQg[K KP K[LJz M`PQK K[I `QHLJIHH HLqI Ps Va xLHLK.
yIH. yPQ VQHK xLHLK M VPKPRTMR sMTKPRa. dsKIR MNN! K[MK LH aPQR VMLJ LJKIRIHK.
u[MKlH KRQI. . [MxIJlK `IIJ KP PJI aIK. . ISZITK K[LJgH [MxI T[MJgIq HLJTI +22+.
.lV HQRI K[Ia [MxI. yIH! K[IRI [MxI `IIJ HPVI xIRa `Lg qIxINPZVIJKH HLJTI aPQ eIRI
[IRI NMHK.
14. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear intonation and reproduce it in
different speech situations.
a) Listen to the 1oke "A pretty well-dressed young lady..." sentence by sentence. Write it
down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the joke for test reading.
b) Listen to the narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarities in intonation-group division,
pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use of temporizers. Reproduce the model narration you have
listened to. Tell the joke in your own words.
15. This exercise is meant to test your abiIity to anaIyze materiaI for reading.
a) Read the joke silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Find the sentence
expressing the essence of the joke. Split up each phrase into intonation-groups if necessary.
Locate the communicative centre of each sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes, concentrating
your attention on the attitude expressed. It is not expected that each student will mark the
story in exactly the same way. Discuss your variants in class. Your teacher will help you to
choose the best variant. Practise your corrected variant for test reading.
b) Tell the joke in your own words.
Wrong Pronunciation
d pRIJT[VMJ e[P [Mq NIMRJIq GJgNLH[ MK HT[PPN! `QK [Mq [MNs sPRgPKKIJ LK! eMH HKMaLJg LJ
iPJqPJ PJ `QHLJIHH. .K eMH LJ K[I VPJK[ Ps 1PxIV`IR! MJq K[I eIMK[IR eMH VPHK QJ
ZNIMHMJK! qLHMgRIIM`NI! qMVZ MJq sPgga.
u[I \MRLHLMJ! JPK `ILJg MTTQHKPVIq KP K[I GJgNLH[ TNLVMKI! [Mq TMQg[K M HIxIRI TPNq! MJq
eMH TPQg[LJg qMa MJq JLg[K. dK NMHK [I qITLqIq PJ gIKKLJg M RIVIqa sPR [LH TPQg[ `QK MH [I
qLq JPK RIVIV`IR K[LH GJgNLH[ ePRq! [I NPPzIq LK QZ LJ [LH pRIJT[GJgNLH[ qLTKLPJMRa. u[IRI
[I sPQJq K[MK K[I GJgNLH[ sPR LK eMH )ough" }JsPRKQJMKINa [LH qLTKLPJMRa qLq JPK KINN [LV [Pe
KP ZRPJPQJTI LK. IVIV`IRLJg! [PeIxIR! K[I ZRPJQJTLMKLPJ Ps K[I ePRq (.ough, [I JMKQRMNNa
TPJTNQqIq K[MK )ough VQHK `I ZRPJPQJTIq WzMx.
/P [I IJKIRIq M T[IVLHKlH H[PZ MJq HMLq: rwLNN aPQ! ZNIMHI! gLxI VI HPVIK[LJg sPR Va
TPecr u[I T[IVLHK! K[LJzLJg [I [Mq VLHQJqIRHKPPq [LV MHzIq ZPNLKINa: r. `Ig aPQR ZMRqPJ!
HLR{r
u[I pRIJT[VMJ RIZIMKIq [LH RIfQIHK sPR HPVI RIVIqa sPR [LH )ow"
rpPR aPQR TPe! HLR{r RIZNLIq K[I T[IVLHK. rdRI aPQ M sMRVIR K[IJ{r
rd sMRVIR{r MJHeIRIq K[I pRIJT[VMJ RMK[IR LJqLgJMJKNa. rw[MK LJ K[I ePRNq VMzIH aPQ
K[LJz HP{ o[! JP! . TMVI sRPV \MRLH! sRPV `IMQKLsQN \MRLH!r [I MqqIq ZRPQqNa.
u[I T[IVLHK JPe MNVPHK `IgMJ KP K[LJz K[MK [I eMH qIMNLJg eLK[ M VMqVMJ. .J gRIMK
`IeLNqIRVIJK [I MHzIq MgMLJ: r0QK aPQR TPe! HLR{ w[IRI LH aPQR TPe{r
r|IRIcr TRLIq K[I pRIJT[VMJ! TPQg[LJg xIRa NPQq MJq ZPLJKLJg KP [LH T[IHK. r|IRI LK LHc .
[MxI M xIRa `Lg TPe LJ Va T[IHKcr
iQTzLNa! K[I T[IVLHK QJqIRHKPPq [LV MJq gMxI [LV K[I RIVIqa [I eMJKIq.
SECTION FOUR. Intonation Pattern XI
(LOW PRE-HEAD + ) FALLING HEAD+ HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)
vPqIN: |Pe MRI aPQ sLJqLJg aPQR JIe P`{
iLzLJg K[I ePRz LVVIJHINa.
u[I |Lg[ pMNN HKMRKH sRPV M [Lg[IR ZLKT[ K[MJ K[I ZRITIqLJg HaNNM`NI Ps K[I pMNNLJg |IMq.
.s K[I [IMq TPJKMLJH PJNa PJI HKRIHHIq ePRq K[I |Lg[ pMNN HKMRKH sRPV K[I NIxIN Ps K[I
HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI.
!"g" |Pe JLTIc
u[LH LJKPJMKLPJ ZMKKIRJ LH QHIq:
+. .J HKMKIVIJKH! TPJxIaLJg ZIRHPJMN TPJTIRJ! HPQJqLJg NLg[K! MLRa! eMRV `QK eLK[PQK K[I
qLHgRQJKNIq IssITK Ps \MKKIRJ ^.
!"g" w[a qPJlK K[Ia ePRz LJ K[I IxIJLJgH{ /PVI Ps K[IV qP! . `INLIxI.
2. .J fQIHKLPJH:
M) .J HZITLMN fQIHKLPJH! HPQJqLJg LJKIRIHKIq! `RLHz! `QHLJIHHNLzI.
!"g" .lxI QHK HIIJ K[MK JIe VQHLTMN. w[MK LH LK TMNNIq{
`) .J gIJIRMN fQIHKLPJH! TPJxIaLJg VLNqNa HQRZRLHIq MTTIZKMJTI Ps K[I NLHKIJIRlH ZRIVLHIH;
HPVIKLVIH HPQJqLJg HTIZKLTMN! `QK eLK[PQK K[I LVZMKLIJTI Ps \MKKIRJ ^. (u[I fQIHKLPJ LH ZQK
sPReMRq MH M HQ`ITK sPR qLHTQHHLPJ.)
!"g" /[MNN eI KRa MgMLJ{ wINN lePQNq LK `I MJa QHI{
4. .J LVZIRMKLxIH! HPQJqLJg NLxINa; HQggIHKLJg M TPQRHI Ps MTKLPJ KP K[I NLHKIJIR.
!"g" u[I KIMlH KPP [PK. \QK HPVI VPRI VLNz LJ LK.
3. .J ISTNMVMKLPJH! TPJxIaLJg VLNq HQRZRLHI `QK eLK[PQK K[I MssRPJK Ps \MKKIRJ ^.
!"g" iPPz! LKlH HJPeLJg. o[! ye0E
EXERCISES
1. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on
the intonation of the repIies:
Verbal Context Drill
Statements (conveying personal concern; sounding
light, airy, warm)
w[IJlH K[I TPJTIRK{ 1ISK /QJqMa. 1ISK wIqJIHqMa.
.KlH gPLJg KP `I M sLJI ZNMTI. /P LK HIIVH. /P .lxI [IMRq.
w[MK eMH K[I H[Pe NLzI{ pLRHK RMKI. /LVZNa HZNIJqLq.
.KlH JPK xIRa xMNQM`NI! LH LK{ .K TPHK PxIR K[RII [QJqRIq ZPQJqH.
wIlNN JIxIR gIK K[IRI. .KlH JPK MH sMR MH aPQ LVMgLJI.
w[LT[ ePQNq aPQ NLzI! KIM PR TPssII{ .lq ZRIsIR KIM.
. VMa `I M `LK NMKI. u[MK ePQNqJlK VMKKIR LJ K[I NIMHK.
Specia !"esti#ns (sounding interested, bris,
business!lie)
.lxI QHK HIIJ K[MK JIe VQHLTMN. w[MKlH LK TMNNIq{
r}JqIRJIMK[ K[I dRT[IH!r w[MK qLq aPQ K[LJz Ps LK{
QLKI gPPq! RIMNNa. w[P TPVZPHIq K[I VQHLT{
mP[J dqMVH! . K[LJz [LH JMVI LH. w[LT[ K[IMKRI LH LK ZNMaLJg MK{
ru[I \RLJTI Ps wMNIH.r w[LT[ ISMTKNa LH ru[I \RLJTI Ps wMNIHr{
u[I PJI JIMR \LTTMqLNNa OLRTQH. |Pe qLq aPQ gIK K[IRI{
0a M sPQRKIIJ `QH. w[a qLqJlK aPQ gP `a KQ`I{
. TMJlK `IMR K[I }JqIRgRPQJq.
Genera !"esti#ns
(conveying mildly surprised acceptance of the
listener's premises; sometimes sceptical)
nlaPQ K[LJz . H[PQNq RLJg [LV{ vLg[KJlK LK `I `IKKIR KP eMLK{
. [MKI K[I K[PQg[K Ps HZRLJg TNIMJLJg. oQg[K eI KP qINMa LK MJa NPJgIR! K[PQg[{
. qPJlK RIMNNa eMJK KP VIIK K[IV. wLNN aPQ `I M`NI KP gIK PQK Ps LK{
.lV HPRRa! `QK . [MKI TPTPM. wPQNq aPQ NLzI M TQZ Ps KIM! K[IJ{
u[MJz aPQ sPR MNN aPQlxI qPJI. .H K[IRI MJaK[LJg INHI . TMJ qP KP [INZ{
|IlH ZRPVLHIq KP HKPZ HVPzLJg. nPIH [I RIMNNa VIMJ e[MK [I HMaH{
$mperati%es
(sounding lively; suggesting a course of action to
the listener)
. [MKI fQMRRINNLJg eLK[ ONMRM. u[IJ VMzI LK QZ eLK[ [IR.
. H[MJlK `I M`NI KP Z[PJI aPQ. nRPZ VI M NLJI! K[IJ.
/PRRa . sPRgPK KP T[MJgI Va H[PIH. mQHK NPPz MK K[I VQq aPQlxI `RPQg[K LJ [IRI.
. TMJlK K[LJz e[MK KP HMa. nPJlK HMa MJaK[LJg MK MNN. iIMxI LK IJKLRINa KP VI.
w[MK H[MNN . qP eLK[ K[LH{ \QK LK LJ K[I eMHKI ZMZIR `MHzIK.
&'camati#ns (conveying mild surprise)
|I ePJlK gLxI QH ZIRVLHHLPJ. /P K[MKlH K[MK.
. gMxI [LV M ZLITI Ps Va VLJq. wINN qPJIc UPPq sPR aPQc
uPV [MH ZMHHIq [LH ISMV. wINN sMJTa K[MKc
.lxI QHK `ITPVI M sMK[IR. OPJgRMKQNMKLPJH! Va qIMR T[MZc
. sPRgPK IxIRa ePRq M`PQK LK. w[MK M sLJI VIHH aPQlxI VMqI Ps K[LJgHc
wIlNN gP K[IRI PJ pRLqMa. u[I HPPJIR K[I `IKKIRc
.lV HPRRa KP [MxI KP xPKI MgMLJHK aPQ. d sLJI sRLIJq aPQ KQRJIq PQK KP `Ic
2. Listen to the replies and repeat them is the intervals. Make your voice follow the
intonation line exactly.
3. Listen to the Verbal Context above and reply in the intervals concentrating your
attention on the intonation line.
4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern XI in your mind, ear and speech habits pronounce each
reply several times until it sounds perfectly natural to you.
5. listen to your fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him (her! what his (her) errors in
pronunciatioa and intonation are,
6. a) Listen to a fellow-student reading the Verbal Context below. Pronounce each of the
following replies in two ways: first with Intonation Pattern X, then with Intonation Patters XI.
Observe the intonation line. State the difference in attitude. Ask a fellow-student to comment
oa the attitudes you are trying to render:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
|MH H[I TMQg[K QZ eLK[ K[I gRPQZ{ 0IKKIR K[MJ K[MK. /[I LH K[I `IHK LJ K[I gRPQZ JPe.
.lV gNMq aPQlxI VMqI HPVI ZRPgRIHH. /P LH Va KIMT[IR.
w[a qPIHJlK H[I PLJ PQR KRLZH{ /PVIKLVIH H[I qPIH.
w[MKlH [LH VMRz LJ Z[aHLTH{ . qPJlK RIVIV`IR.
.lV MJ MVMKIQR. . H[PQNq JIxIR `INLIxI LK. yPQlRI gPPq MK KIJJLH LJqIIq.
w[IRI LH Va ZIJ{ .KlH gPJI MgMLJ. yPQ JIxIR RIVIV`IR e[IRI aPQ ZQK aPQR K[LJgH.
u[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[ sPR aPQR [INZ. 1PK MK MNN. mQHK [MZZa KP [INZ aPQ MJa KLVI.
iIKlH gP KP K[I ZLTKQRIH LJ K[I IxIJLJg. . RIMNNa TMJlK. .lxI gPK M NPK Ps ePRz KP qP.
wIlRI NIMxLJg KPJLg[K: .KlH M ZLKa. yPQ ZRPVLHIq KP HKMa eLK[ QH M `LK NPJgIR.
.lV gPLJg KP TPJHQNK M qPTKPR. .KlH [Lg[ KLVI aPQ K[PQg[K M`PQK aPQR [IMNK[.
.KlH JPK Va HLI. wINN! e[MK HLI qP aPQ KMzI! K[IJ{
. HMe vLzI K[I qMa `IsPRI aIHKIRqMa. |Pe LH [I gIKKLJg PJ{
/[I eIJK KP K[I TLRTQH PJ /QJqMa. w[a qLqJlK H[I KMzI K[I T[LNqRIJ eLK[ [IR{
vMRa LH eMLKLJg sPR aPQ. w[a [MH H[I TPVI{
. gPK `MTz aIHKIRqMa. dJq e[IRI qLq aPQ gP! . ePJqIR{
. qPJlK zJPe \IKIRlH MqqRIHH. w[a qLqJlK aPQ MHz [LV M`PQK LK `IsPRI{
/[I ZRPVLHIq KP `RLJg K[I `PPz. nPIH H[I MNeMaH zIIZ [IR ZRPVLHIH{
u[Ia HMa K[IalNN [INZ QH. nP K[Ia RIMNNa VIMJ K[MK{
/[MNN eI MHz [IR KP HZIMz KP [LV{ wLNN LK `I Ps MJa QHI{
/[MNN eI gP sPR M eMNz KP K[I sPRIHK{ .HJlK LK HKLNN ZPQRLJg{
. qLqJlK QJqIRHKMJq K[I RQNI. wPQNqJlK LK `I `IKKIR sPR aPQ KP MHz K[I KIMT[IR KP ISZNMLJ LK MgMLJ{
u[Ia ePJlK TPVI KP K[I ZMRKa. nP K[Ia HKLNN sIIN PssIJqIq{
. TMJlK eMLK sPR [LV MJa NPJgIR. OPQNqJlK eI RLJg [LV QZ! K[IJ{
.lV xIRa VQT[ P`NLgIq KP [LV. uINN [LV M`PQK LK! K[IJ.
|I MHzIq [IR M`PQK [IR MgI. |Pe HLNNa Ps [LVc
/[I VMqI VI TPVI sPR K[I HITPJq KLVI. w[MK M H[MVIc
/[IlH NMLq QZ eLK[ fQLJHa MgMLJ. \PPR K[LJgc
u[MJz aPQ sPR aPQR xIRa gPPq JIeH. nPJlK VIJKLPJ LK.
|I ZRPVLHIq KP HZIMz KP [IR. u[I HPPJIR K[I `IKKIR.
b) listen to a fellow-student reading the first sentence of the Verbal Context above. Reply in
your own way, using Intonation Pattern XI. The drill will continue until every student has
participated. Keep the exercise moving rapidly. Be careful about the intonation line and try to
convey the proper attitude.
7. Read the foIIowing diaIogue with a feIIow-student using Intonation Pattern XI. SpeciaI
questions shouId sound interested, IiveIy, brisk. The repIies sound IiveIy, friendIy and warm:
d: w[MK eMH K[MK aPQ HMLq{
0: w[IRI qLq aPQ gP sPR aPQR HQVVIR [PNLqMa{
d: pLRHK KP iPJqPJ MJq K[IJ KP OPRJeMNN.
0: |Pe NPJg qLq aPQ NLxI LJ iPJqPJ{
d: mQHK M eIIz.
0: w[LT[ ZMRK Ps aPQR [PNLqMa qLq aPQ ZRIsIR{
d: o[! PQR sPRKJLg[K LJ OPRJeMNN.
0: w[IRI qLq aPQ HKMa e[LNI aPQ eIRI qPeJ K[IRI{
d: .J M NLKKNI xLNNMgI JIMR \IJMJTI.
0: w[MK HPRK Ps eIMK[IR qLq aPQ [MxI LJ iPJqPJ{
d: u[I `IHK eI TPQNq ZPHHL`Na [MxI [PZIq sPR.
0: w[MK qLq aPQ qP K[IRI{
d /Lg[KHIILJg VPHKNa.
8. A student wiII read the VerbaI Context beIow. Other students wiII read the repIies in turn,
using the High FaII and the IogicaI stress on the same word to make the utterance emphatic.
Define the attitude you are trying to express:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
|IlH RQLJIq Va H[PIH. vMzI [LV `Qa aPQ M JIe ZMLR.
1PJI Ps QH eMJKH KP gP. /PVIPJI eLNN [MxI KP gP! ePJlK K[Ia{
dRIJlK aPQ NQTza{ u[MKlH e[MK IxIRa`Pqa HMaH.
|Pe qPIH aPQR eLsI sLJq LK{ /[I NLzIH LK MH VQT[ MH . qP.
w[MKlH :IRJPJlH PZLJLPJ{ |I TMJlK VMzI QZ [LH VLJq e[LT[ [I ZRIsIRH.
w[MK MJ MVMLJg KRLTzc . OMJlK LVMgLJI [Pe LKlH qPJI.
. TMJlK VMzI [IMq PR KMLN Ps LK. iIK mP[JHPJ [MxI M NPPz MK LK.
nPJlK `PK[IR KP sIKT[ VI. .KlH JPK LJ K[I NIMHK KRPQ`NI. . qP K[I HMVI sPR MNN Va gQIHKH.
9. Listen to your teacher read the context sentences beIow. Pronounce each of the foIIowing
repIies in two ways: first with Intonation Pattern II, then with Intonation Pattern XI. Observe
the intonation Iine. Convey the suggested attitudes:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
w[IJlH K[I TPJTIRK{ 1ISK /QJqMa.
M) )ategori), di0(a00ionate
`) warm, airy, .ive.y
. sIIN HP HNIIZa. /P qP ..
M) )ategori), di0(a00ionate
`) .ive.y
w[MK eMH LK NLzI LJ 1LgIRLM{ o[! K[I [IMK eMH KIRRL`NI.
M) )ategori), di0(a00ionate
`) .ive.y
. H[MJlK `I HIILJg aPQ! w[aIxIR JPK{
.lV MsRMLq. M) 0eriou0
`) intere0ted, &ri0/
. TMJlK QJqP K[I qPPR. uRa K[I PK[IR zIa.
M) (re00ing, weighty
`) 0ugge0ting a )our0e of a)tion
. [PZI .lV JPK qLHKQR`LJg OPVI LJ. /LK qPeJ.
aPQ. M) (re00ing, weighty
`) 0ugge0ting a )our0e of a)tion
|QNNP! pRIqc wINN Ls LK LHJlK Va PNq sRLIJq uPVc
M) weighty
`) mi.d.y 0ur(ri0ed
|IlH HIJqLJg aPQ M TPZa. |Pe xIRa JLTI Ps [LVc
M) weighty
`) mi.d.y 0ur(ri0ed
10. Listen to a feIIow-student say the context sentences beIow. Pronounce each of the
foIIowing repIies, trying to convey the suggested attitudes. Be carefuI with the intonation
Iine. Define the Intonation Pattern of your repIy:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
OMJ aPQ TPVI KPVPRRPe{ yIH.
M) (h.egmati), re0erved
`) .ive.y, intere0ted
w[P PJ IMRK[ ePQNq KMzI . ePQNq.
HQT[ M RLHz{ M) )a.m, re0erved
`) .ive.y, )on)erned
yPQ VQHKJlK HZIMz KP [LV. w[a JPK{
M) (h.egmati), re0erved
`) un(.ea0ant.y 0ur(i0ed
w[MKlH K[MK aPQ HMa{ w[a qPJlK aPQ NLHKIJ{
M) un0ym(atheti)
`) un(.ea0ant.y 0ur(ri0ed
.lV MsRMLq .lxI NPHK aPQR ZIJ. w[MK MRI aPQ gPLJg KP qP M`PQK LK{
M) ho0ti.e
`) intere0ted
+ TMJlK VIIK aPQ K[LH uQIHqMa. /[MNN eI NIMxI LK KLNN JISK eIIz{
M) (h.egmati), re0erved"
`) wi..ing to di0)u00 the 8ue0tion, im(atient
u[QRHqMalH M [PZINIHH qMa sPR VI. OMJlK eI VMzI LK M pRLqMa! K[IJ{
M) (h.egmati), re0erved
`) wi..ing to di0)u00 the 8ue0tion
0LNNlH RIsQHIq Va RIfQIHK. wINN! MHz HPVIPJI INHI.
M) )a.m, )o.d
`) warm, with a note of )riti)a. 0ur(ri0e
. [MxIJlK gPK M HZPPJ. UP MJq gIK PJI! K[IJ.
M) )a.m, unemotiona.
&: 0ugge0ting a )our0e of a)tion
|IlH MTKQMNNa IJgMgIq. wPQNq aPQ `INLIxI LKc
M) )a.m, un0ur(ri0ed, re0erved
`) mi.d.y 0ur(ri0ed
uPVlH TPVLJg PJ vPJqMa. 1Pe sMJTa K[MK.
M) )a.m! re0erved
`) affronted 0ur(ri0e
11. listen to the Verbal Context and reply expressing critical surprise or suggesting a
course of action to the listener. Use the proper intonation pattern:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
.lNN H[Pe aPQ [Pe KP qP LK. nPJlKc nPc nPJlK aPQ ePRRac uRac
wIlRI VPxLJg PJ uQIHqMa. nPJlK `I HLNNac .KlH QZ KP aPQc nPJlK VMzI HP VQT[ sQHH M`PQK LK.
. TMJlK QJqP K[I qPPRc uINN VI e[MK + TMJ qP! K[IJc nPJlK aPQ ePRRac
.KlH Va KQRJ KP ZMac nPc |MxI M gPc nPJlK `I RLqLTQNPQHc nPJlK `I HLNNac nPJlK aPQ
ePRRac .KlH QZ KP KP aPQc
. TMJlK sLJq Va ZQRHI MJae[IRI. nPJlK aPQ ePRRac nPJlK VMzI HP VQT[ sQHH M`PQK LK.
12. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear and reproduce intonation in
conversation.
a) Listen to the dialogue "Dinner-table Talk" carefully, sentence by sentence. Write it
down. Mark the stresses and tunes. The teacher will help you to correct your variant. Practise
reading each sentence of your corrected variant
b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for your teacher and fellow-
students to detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for test reading. Memorize and play it
with a fellow-student.
c) Pick out of the dialogue sentences pronounced with Intonation Patterns IX, X, XI. Define
the attitudes conveyed in them. Make up conversational situations with these phrases.
d) Make up conversational situations, using the following phrases:
UPPq IxIJLJg!... . . eMH MHzLJg ... .
.lV HP gNMq .... o[! . K[LJz LKlH M ... .
o[! PJNa.... dJq [Pe qP aPQ NLzI ... {
.... KP `I ISMTK. .H K[LH aPQR sLRHK... {
iIKlH gP LJKP ... . . sIIN fQLKI MK [PVI ....
wLNN aPQ HLK... { wINN! LKlH RMK[IR ....
|Pe NPJg ... { oJ K[I e[PNI! ....
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps ... { .KlH JPK HP `Mq! PJTI ....
. `Ig aPQR ZMRqPJ! . qLqJlK fQLKI TMKT[ e[MK aPQ HMLq. wLNN aPQ [MxI HPVI VPRI ... {
w[MK M`PQK... {
13. TransIate into EngIish. Use the corresponding phrases from item(d) above. Do not Iet
your Russian pronunciation habits interfere:
+. ! 8 $; $ 6. 2. ' ! $; ;
;6. 4. ! 8 $; 6 E $. 3. t5 ;. ->
;. (6 ;. *. (6 $ 8 96 "{ ,. 8
> 6{ 7. h { b. h D { 2. h
{ +). 7 7; $. ++. 7
A89 $. +2. 7 A; $. +4. A!
>5! 6 $ { +3. 8D! 8 . +*.
D! ; 8 6. +,. D! 5 ;% @"B.
+7. '! F 9 $. +b. '! $7! A; 985!
;. +2. '! $7! E 985 . 2). F $ D { 2+.
F $ D 9{ 22. F $ E { 24. '! E 6
! { 23. '! 6 ! { 2*. =
> 9! 5 86. 2,. < 9 = 88{ 27. < 9
= =5{ 2b. ( 9. ' 8 . Y . 22.
! $ . 4). ! E 6. 4+. 8 D6 6
{
14. Head the foIIowing diaIogue:
Ordering a Meal
.H K[LH KM`NI sRII! eMLKIR{
.lV HPRRa! HLR! K[PHI KeP KM`NIH [MxI QHK `IIJ RIHIRxIq `a KINIZ[PJI! `QK K[MK PJI PxIR
K[IRIlH sRII.
w[MK M ZLKac wI eMJKIq KP `I JIMR K[I qMJTI sNPPR. /KLNN! LK qPIHJlK VMKKIR! eIlNN KMzI
LK... u[I VIJQ! ZNIMHI.
|IRI aPQ MRI! HLR. wLNN aPQ qLJI a .a )arte PR KMzI K[I ta&.e d6hote]
wINN! NIKlH HII. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz! qMRNLJg{
o[! . qPJlK eMJK VQT[ KP IMK. .lV JPK xIRa [QJgRa. . K[LJz .lNN [MxI IR HPVI PSKMLN
HPQZ MJq sRLIq ZNMLTI eLK[ T[LZH.
|V. .lV RMK[IR [QJgRa. .lNN HKMRK eLK[ HPVI hor0 d6xuvre"
l dJq KP sPNNPe{
d gRLNNIq HKIMz eLK[ `MzIq ZPKMKPIH MJq ZIMH!
wLNN aPQ [MxI MJaK[LJg KP qRLJz! HLR{
wINN! .lV RMK[IR K[LRHKa. 0RLJg VI [MNs M ZLJK Ps `LKKIR. w[MK M`PQK aPQ! qMRNLJg{
wINN! . qPJlK TMRI sPR `IIR! `QK . eLNN [MxI M gNMHH Ps T[IRRa.
:IRa gPPq... w[MK HeIIK ePQNq aPQ NLzI{
.lNN [MxI sRQLK HMNMq.
/P eLNN .. dJq eIlNN [MxI KeP TPssIIH! ZNIMHI.
0NMTz PR e[LKI{
w[LKI! ZNIMHI. o[! MJq KeP NLfQIQR `RMJqLIH.
w[MK M NPxINa eMNK K[Ia MRI ZNMaLJg. /[MNN eI qMJTI{
yIH! .lq NPxI KP...
wMLKIRc u[I `LNN! ZNIMHI.
:IRa gPPq! HLR.
|IRI aPQ MRI.
u[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[! HLR.
15. Make up a diaIogue of your own, using some of the phrases of the diaIogue above.
16. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to read and reteII a story with correct
intonation.
a) Listen to the story "Insufficient Local Knowledge" carefully, sentence by sentence. Mark
the stresses and tunes. The teacher will help you to correct your variant. Practise reading your
corrected variant.
b) listen carefully to the narration of the story. Observe the peculiarities in intonation-
group division, pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use of temporizers. Reproduce the model
narration you have listened to.
17. This exercise is meant to test your abiIity to anaIyze and reproduce materiaI for reading
and reteIIing.
a) Read the joke silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Underline the
sentence expressing the essence of the joke. Split up each phrase into intonation groups if
necessary. Locate the communicative centre of each sentence. Mark the stresses ana tunes,
concentrate your attention on the attitude expressed. It is not expected that each student will
mark the story in exactly the same way. Discuss your variants in class. The teacher will help
you to choose the best variant. Practise your corrected variant for test reading,
b) Retell the joke in your own words:
u[I sMK[IR Ps M sMVLNa! e[P eMH MJgRa eLK[ [LH T[LNqRIJ `ITMQHI K[Ia eIRI qLHZNIMHIq
eLK[ K[ILR sPPq! ISTNMLVIq MJgRLNa PJI qMa MK qLJJIR: ryPQ T[LNqRIJ MRI LJKPNIRM`NI; aPQ KQRJ
QZ aPQR JPHIH Ps IxIRaK[LJg. w[IJ . eMH M `Pa! . eMH PsKIJ gNMq KP gIK qRa `RIMq IJPQg[ KP
IMK.r r\PPR ZMZM!r HMLq PHI! r.lV HP gNMq aPQ MRI [MxLJg HQT[ M JLTI KLVI JPe NLxLJg eLK[
VMVM MJq QH.r
SECTION FIVE )#mp#"nd *"nes FALL + RISE
dNN K[I KQJIH TPJKMLJLJg VPRI K[MJ PJI JQTNIMR KPJI MRI TMNNIq TPVZPQJq.
u[I pMNN LHI LH M TPV`LJMKLPJ Ps K[I |Lg[ pMNN MJq K[I iPe LHI.
u[I sMNN MJq K[I RLHI MNeMaH PTTQR PJ HIZMRMKI HaNNM`NIH. u[I sMNN HKMRKH sRPV M xIRa [Lg[
NIxIN MJq IJqH xIRa NPe. dJa HaNNM`NIH PTTQRRLJg `IKeIIJ K[I |Lg[ pMNN MJq K[I iPe LHI
MRI HMLq PJ M xIRa NPe ZLKT[. 1PKLPJMN ePRqH MRI HKRIHHIq. u[I sMNNLJg ZMRK VMRzH K[I LqIM
e[LT[ K[I HZIMzIR eMJKH KP IVZ[MHLI MJq K[I RLHLJg ZMRK VMRzH MJ MqqLKLPJ KP K[LH VMLJ
LqIM.
u[I TPV`LJMKLPJ Ps K[I |Lg[ pMNN eLK[ K[I iPe LHI LH QHIq LJ HIJKIJTIH ISZRIHHLJg
[Lg[Na IVPKLPJMN RIMTKLPJ KP K[I HLKQMKLPJ. .K LH PsKIJ [IMRq:
+. .J HKMKIVIJKH! HPQJqLJg MZPNPgIKLT! MZZRITLMKLxI! gRMKIsQN! RIgRIKsQN! HaVZMK[IKLT!
ZIRHQMHLxINa RIMHHQRLJg! ZNIMqLJg! ZNMLJKLxI.
!"g" w[PHI KQRJ LH LK K[IJ{ .KlH VLJI !MTKQMNNa.
|Pe qLq K[LH gIK `RPzIJ{ .lV VPHK KIRRL`Na !HPRRa.
2. .J fQIHKLPJH:
M) .J HZITLMN fQIHKLPJH! HPQJqLJg ZNMLJKLxI! ZNIMqLJg! eIMRa! qIHZMLRLJg; HPVIKLVIH eMRV!
HaVZMK[IKLT.
!"g" /PRRa .lV NMKI. o[ e[a TMJlK aPQ TPVI PJ
/
KLVI sPR PJTI{
`) .J gIJIRMN fQIHKLPJH! TPJxIaLJg M ZNMLJKLxI! ZNIMqLJg! HPVIKLVIH LVZMKLIJK KPJI.
!"g" |I ZNMaIq xIRa `MqNa KPqMa. wLNN [I IxIR `I MJa !`IKKIR qlaPQ K[LJz{
4. .J LVZIRMKLxIH! HPQJqLJg ZNMLJKLxI! ZNIMqLJg! RIZRPMT[sQN.
!"g" .KlH MNN HP qIZRIHHLJg. O[IIR !QZ. (.K TMJlK NMHK sPR !IxIR.)
.lxI JPK[LJg KP qP eLK[ LK. 1Pe qP `I !RIMHPJM`NI! O[MRNIH.
3. .J ISTNMVMKLPJH! eMRV! HaVZMK[IKLT! IJTPQRMgLJg! HPVIKLVIH ZNMLJKLxI! ZQNIq!
HQRZRLHIq.
URIIKLJgH MJq NIMxIKMzLJgH HPQJq ZNIMHMJK MJq sRLIJqNa `ILJg ZRPJPQJTIq K[LH eMa.
!"g" UPPq JLg[K! \Igga. UPPq JLg[K! vRH. !/VLK[. /II aPQ PJ pRLqMa. Lg[K aPQ
!MRIc
EXERCISES
1. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your
attention on the intonation of the replies:
Verbal Context Drill
Statements
(s#"ndin( apologetic, appreciative, grateful, regretful,
sympathetic, persuasively reassuring, pleading, plaintive)
nPJlK aPQ NLzI LK{ . qPJlK! sRMJzNa.
dJa JIeH Ps uLV{ |IlH TPVLJg [PVI HPPJ.
|MxIJlK aPQ sLJLH[Iq LK aIK{ .lxI PJNa QHK `IgQJ LK! MH M VMKKIR Ps sMTK.
.K NPPzH NLzI RMLJ! .lV MsRMLq. \IR[MZH LK ePQNq `I `IKKIR KP HKMa MK [PVI LJ K[MK TMHI.
.lxI [Mq LK HLS aIMRH JPe. yPQlNN `I `QaLJg M JIe PJI HPPJ! . LVMgLJI.
w[aIxIR `RLJg M VMT{ .K eMH RMLJLJg e[IJ . NIsK K[LH VPRJLJg.
. K[PQg[K Ps gPLJg sPR M HKRPNN. .lNN TPVI KPP! Ls . VMa.
.K eMH fQLKI MJ MTTLqIJK 0QK . KPNq aPQ JPK KP KPQT[ LK.
/P LK eMH aPQ e[P `PRRPeIq Va HZMqI. . qP [PZI aPQ qLqJlK VLJq.
|IlH MTTIZKIq aPQR PssIR. . qLqJlK qRIMV [Ilq KMzI VI HIRLPQHNa.
.KlH M ePJqIRsQN Z[PKP. . zJIe aPQlq NLzI LK.
|INZ{ OIRKMLJNa. . eMH HQRI . TPQNq TPQJK PJ aPQ.
0QK e[a qLqJlK aPQ KINN VI{ /P HPRRa.
. K[PQg[K aPQ PQg[K KP zJPe. u[MJz aPQ sPR KINNLJg VI! . qP MZZRITLMKI LK.
. RIMNNa VQHK gP JPe. . qP [PZI aPQ [MxI M TPVsPRKM`NI PQRJIa.
.KlH MNN HP qLHTPQRMgLJg. . zJPe ISMTKNa [Pe aPQ sIIN.
/PRRa . [MxIJlK RIKQRJIq LK aIK. u[MKlH fQLKI MNN RLg[K. .lV LJ JP ZMRKLTQNMR [QRRa sPR LK.
.lxI MNRIMqa `IIJ eMLKLJg M aIMR. u[IJ HQRINa M sIe VPRI qMaH ePJlK VMzI VQT[ qLssIRIJTI.
.KlH MJ M`HPNQKI HTMJqMN. u[IRIlH JP JIIq KP gIK HP ePRzIq QZ M`PQK LK.
. qP eLH[ [Ilq VLJq [LH PeJ `QHLJIHH. 0QK [I eMH PJNa KRaLJg KP `I [INZsQN.
w[MKlH [MZZIJIq KP mMTz{ .KlH MNeMaH K[I HMVI. |IlH [MRqNa IxIR PJ KLVI.
.lV MsRMLq [I sMLNIq [LH ISMV. .lV JPK MK MNN HQRZRLHIq. |I qLq M`HPNQKINa JP ePRz sPR LK.
Specia !"esti#ns
(sounding plaintive, pleading, weary, despairing,
arm,sympathetic)
.K eMH Va KRIMK. |Pe VQT[ eMH LK{
|Pe `Lg qLq aPQ HMa LK eMH{ o[! e[a qPJlK aPQ NLHKIJ! O[MRNIa{
u[RII K[PQHMJq [I ZMLq sPR LK. w[IJ eLNN K[I ZPPR sPPN NIMRJ eLK{
nLq aPQ TMNN! pRMJz{ yIH! e[MKlH K[I KLVI ZNIMHI{
. [MxI KP gP PQK JPe. w[IJ eLNN aPQ `I `MTz! qlaPQ K[LJz{
Genera !"esti#ns
(s#"ndin( plaintive, pleading, sometimes impatient)
\IR[MZH . TPQNq [INZ. nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ QNq{
OPVI MJq [MxI M gMVI! \[LN. wLNN aPQ HKPZ `PK[IRLJg VI{ OMJlK aPQ HII .lV `QHa{
vMa . [MxI MJPK[IR `QJ{ nlaPQ RIMNNa K[LJz aPQ TMJ IMK LK{
$mperati%es
(s#"ndin( plaintive, pleading, reproachful)
.lV MsRMLq .lxI NPHK LK. 1IxIR VLJq.
QLTzNa. wMLK M VLJQKI.
w[MKlH MNN K[I zJPTzLJg lM`PQK{ o[! qPJlK QHK HLK K[IRI. oZIJ K[I qPPR.
w[MKlH QZHIKKLJg aPQ{ nP H[QK K[I qPPR. u[IRIlH HQT[ M qRMQg[K.
. RIMNNa VQHK gP. \NIMHI HKMa M NLKKNI NPJgIR.
.lq eLNNLJgNa sIKT[ HPVI VPRI. \NIMHI qPJlK `PK[IR PJ Va MTTPQJK.
w[MKIxIR H[MNN . qP{ OMRRa PJ MH QHQMN! Ls aPQ TMJ.
w[IJ H[MNN . HKMRK{ /KMRK RLg[K MeMa! Ls K[MKlH TPJxIJLIJK sPR aPQ.
&'camati#ns
(warm, sympathetic, encouraging, plaintive, pu""led,
surprised)
.lxI LJxLKIq [LV sPR KIM. mPNNa gPPqc UPPq H[Pec
u[MKlH K[I HITPJq KLVI [IlH sMLNIq. \PPR PNq \IKIRc
. K[PQg[K . MHzIq aPQ KP VMzI QZ K[I sLRI. dNN RLg[Kc
dJq eIlNN [MxI M JIe TMRZIK. mQHK M HITPJqc (w[IRIlH K[I VPJIa TPVLJg sRPV{)
|IRI . MV MK NMHK. |QNNP! /KIZ[IJc (.K LH gPPq KP HII aPQ.)
2. listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Start the fall high enough.
3. Listen to the Verbal Context and reply to it in the intervals.
4. In order to fix the intonation pattern in your mind, ear and speech habits, pronounce
each reply several times until it sounds perfectly natural to you.
5. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies, point out his errors in pronunciation.
6. Use the Fall + Rise in the replies. Say what attitude you mean to render
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
|PelH aPQR VPK[IR gIKKLJg PJ{ /[IlH Pss KP K[I ORLVIM LJ M eIIz.
dJq e[IJ qP eI HKMRK{ dK JLJI LJ K[I VPRJLJg! LVMgLJI.
w[PHI ZNMJ LH LK K[IJ{ .KlH pRIqlH! + HQZZPHI.
0QK aPQ HMLq [I NLxIq LJ /K. \IKIRH`QRg. /P [I qLq! K[I NMHK KLVI . [IMRq sRPV [LV.
oQg[KJlK H[I KP KINN sMK[IR{ /[I qLq! MZZMRIJKNa.
yPQlRI gPLJg PQK LJ K[I RMLJ{ yIH. . NLzI eMNzLJg LJ HQT[ eIMK[IR.
w[MKlH K[I sLNV NLzI{ .KlH JPK `Mq! MTKQMNNa.
. ePJqIR e[IRI K[I T[LNqRIJ MRI. o[! K[IRI K[Ia MRI.
. K[PQg[K aPQ sLJLH[Iq aPQR.ePRz MK sLxI. /P . qP! QHQMNNa.
.lV M HKQqIJK Ps K[I }JLxIRHLKa JPe. .lq NPxI KP HKQqa MK K[I }JLxIRHLKa.
o[! e[a MRI aPQ NMKI{ .lV MesQNNa HPRRa. .K eMH JPK Va sMQNK.
(OMJ . `PRRPe aPQR QV`RINNM{) . HIIV KP [MxI NPHK VLJI.
/[I gPK K[I NIMqLJg ZMRK LJ K[I JIe ZNMa. . qLqJlK zJPe H[I eMH HQT[ M gPPq MTKRIHH.
.KlH M ePJqIRsQN ZLTKQRIc . zJIe aPQlq NLzI LK.
. VLHHIq aPQ HP VQT[. yPQ TMJlK LVMgLJI [Pe gNMq .lV KP HII aPQ.
va VPK[IR LH qMJgIRPQHNa LNN! mMJI. yPQ [MxI MNN Va HaVZMK[a. /PRRa! . TMJlK TPVI MJq
[INZ aPQ! qIMR.
. sIIN HP VLHIRM`NI! VPK[IR. w[MKlH K[I VMKKIR! qIMRIHK{
1P! aPQ VQHKJlK gP KP K[I TLJIVM KPqMa. 0QK .lxI PJNa `IIJ K[IRI PJTI K[LH eIIz.
. K[LJz! .lNN JIxIR `I [MZZa MgMLJ. o[! aPQlNN HPPJ gIK PxIR LK.
. KINN aPQ! . ePJlK qP LK. w[a MRI aPQ MNeMaH HP P`HKLJMKI{
yPQ VQHK sPNNPe [IR MqxLTI. vQHK . MNeMaH qP MH H[I HMaH{
.lV gPLJg KP gIK QZ. 1Pe! qPJlK `I HP HLNNa. (yPQlNN TMKT[ MJPK[IR TPNq.)
vQVVa! .lV `PRIq! TPVI MJq ZNMa eLK[ VI. w[IJ MRI aPQ gPLJg KP HKPZ `PK[IRLJg VI{
yPQ VQHK `RLJg K[I `PPz MK PJTI. wPQNq aPQ VLJq eMLKLJg QJKLN IxIJLJg{
. VQHK gP JPe. UPPq JLg[K! mMJIc
o[ qIMR! P[ qIMRc w[MK H[MNN + qP{ nP HKPZ TRaLJgc w[MKlH K[I VMKKIR{
vMa . TPVI MJq HII aPQ PJ vPJqMa{ nP aPQ RIMNNa K[LJz aPQ TMJ TPVI{
(OPVI! vMRgMRIK. .K LH KPP NMKI.) . LJHLHK PJ gPLJg [PVI LVVIqLMKINa.
(|IRI aPQ MRI MK NMHK.) . MV [MZZa KP HII aPQ.
. K[LJz .lNN JIxIR qP LK. o[! qPJlK HMa K[MKc
vPK[IR! .lxI NPHK aPQR gNPxIH. . KPNq aPQ JPK KP KMzI K[IV.
0QK . TMJlK HZIMz GJgNLH[. yIH! aPQ TMJ.
nP aPQ RIMNNa eMJK [LV KP TPVI{ . eLH[ [I ePQNq.
dRI aPQ RIMqa! 0LNN{ 1P! . TMJlK ePRz LK PQK sPR VaHINs.
1P! JP! . H[MNN JIxIR qP LK 1Pe! qP `I RIMHPJM`NI.
nP aPQ eRLKI ZPIKRa{ . qP! PTTMHLPJMNNa.
wPQNq aPQ NLzI KP [IMR PJI Ps Va RITPRqH{ (o[! .lq NPxI KP.) . MqPRI VQHLT.
|Pe MRI aPQ! vRH. 1INHPJ{ :IRa eINN LJqIIq! K[MJz aPQ.
nP aPQl [MxI VLNz LJ aPQR KIM! uPJa{ yIH! ZNIMHI.
|Pe LH aPQR qMQg[KIR! vRH. /VLK[{ /[I LH HKMaLJg eLK[ Va VPK[IR sPR M sIe qMaH.
w[MKlH [IR JMVI{ u[MKlH K[I K[LRq KLVI aPQlxI MHzIq VI K[MK.
/[IlH sMLNIq K[I HITPJq KLVI KPqMa. w[MK M qLHMZZPLJKVIJK sPR [IRc
7. Say the foIIowing sentences with a) the High FaII + the Low Rise; b) the Descending Head
+ the Low Rise. Observe the difference in attitudes:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
. NPxI VMRVMNMqIc nPJlK IMK LK MNN MK PJTI.
. VQHK `I Pss JPe. UPPq`aIc iIK VI HII aPQ MgMLJ KPVPRRPe.
wPQNq aPQ NLzI M TQZ Ps KIM{ yIH! ZNIMHI.
|IRI . MV! vPK[IR. w[IRI [MxI aPQ `IIJ MNN K[LH KLVI{
w[a qPJlK aPQ PLJ PQR gPNs TNQ`{ . K[LJz . H[MNN PJI Ps K[IHI qMaH.
|I [MH `IIJ MeMa sPR KeP [PQRH. nPJlK ePRRa. .KlH JPK KPP NMKI.
(iPPzc GxIRaK[LJg LH e[LKIc) . K[PQg[K LK eMH gPLJg KP HJPe.
(O[IIR QZc) . qP [PZI aPQlNN ZMHH aPQR ISMV.
|I HMLq [I sPRgPK KP RLJg aPQ QZ. wMH K[MK K[I RIMN RIMHPJ{
yPQR HPJ eMH NMKI sPR K[I sLRHK NIHHPJ KPqMa. . eMH MsRMLq [I VLg[K `I NMKI.
(o[! HKPZ `PK[IRLJg VI! T[LNq.) OMJlK aPQ HII .lV KLRIq{
wLNN aPQ ZPHK K[LH NIKKIR sPR VI{ dNN RLg[K.
UPPq VPRJLJg! nMxLq. |QNNP K[IRI.
. K[PQg[K + MHzIq aPQ KP gP KP K[I qIMJlH PssLTI. dNN RLg[K. mQHK M VLJQKI.
8. Give your own repIies to the VerbaI Context of Ex. 1 and 6.
9. Read the foIIowing situations. Convey the attitudes suggested in brackets:
nPJlK TRa. . eLH[ . [MqJlK `IIJ HP RQqI. yPQ [MxI MNN VI HaVZMK[a. (regret, 0ym(athy:
o[! KINN VI LK LH JPK KRQIc iLI KP VIc iLI KP VIc uINN VI LK LH JPK KRQIc ((.eading:
o[! e[MK M qIMR NLKKNI ZQZZac (0in)ere a((re)iation:
u[MJz aPQ HP VQT[. (0in)ere gratitude:
. qPJlK K[LJz LK eLNN NMHK NPJg. (rea00uring:
. K[LJz .lNN gP KP `Iq. .lV HP KLRIq. ((.aintive:
10. Listen to the diaIogue on the tape ("Dinner-tabIe TaIk"). Pick out sentences containing
the High FaiI + the Low Rise. Say what attitude is conveyed in them. Use these sentences in
conversationaI situations of your own.
11. Listen to the VerbaI Context and express sympathy in the repIies. Use the proper
intonation pattern:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
o[ .lV TPNq. \PPR K[LJgc . qP K[LJz! LKlH M ZLKa. .lV HP HPRRac 1IxIR VLJq.
|I HMaH [IlH LNN. w[MK M qLHMZZPLJKVIJKc OMJ aPQ LVMgLJI LKc uPP `Mqc 0Mq NQTzc mQHK
sMJTac u[LJgH qP [MZZIJc
. TMJlK TPVI K[LH IxIJLJg. oQg[KJlK aPQ KP `I MH[MVIq Ps LKc w[MK M qLHMZZPLJKVIJKc |Pe
ISKRMPRqLJMRac
. [MxIJlK HIIJ mIJJa sPR MgIHc uIRRL`NI! LHJlK LKc uPP `Mq sPR ePRqHc UPPq |IMxIJHc |Pe xIRa
ZITQNLMRc w[MK M ZLKac
mMJIK HIIVH KP `I MxPLqLJg VI. .HJlK H[I M sPPNc w[MK M KRMgIqac . HLVZNa TMJlK K[LJzc . qP K[LJz LKlH M
ZLKac
yPQlxI VMqI K[I HMVI VLHKMzI
MgMLJ.
dRIJlK . M sPPNc UPPq |IMxIJHc pMJTa K[MKc . HLVZNa TMJlK K[LJzc w[MK
M H[MVIc
u[I MTzIKlH ePRJ PQK MNRIMqa. w[MK M qLHMZZPLJKVIJKc \PPR VIc w[MK M ZLKac
vLT[MIN [MH QHK qLIq. \IRsITKNa [PRRLqc uPP `Mq sPR ePRqHc w[MK M KRMgIqac wMHJlK LK
M`HPNQKINa KRMgLTc
u[Ia ePJlK [INZ QH. wPQNqJlK LK `I HLVZNa MZZMNNLJg. oQg[KJlK K[Ia KP `I MH[MVIq Ps LKc
0IMHKNa! LHJlK LKc
12. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear and reproduce intonation in
conversation.
a) Listen to the dialogue "About the 1ob" carefully, sentence by sentence. Write it down.
Mark the stresses and tunes. The teacher will help you to correct your variant. Practise
reading each sentence of your corrected variant after the cassette-recorder.
b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for your teacher and your
fellow-students to detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for test reading.
13. Make up conversationaI situations, using the foIIowing phrases:
|I [MHJlK IxIJ gPK KP ... aIK.
u[MKlH Va LqIM Ps ... .
dRI aPQ HQRI aPQ qPJlK eMJK KP `I ...{
.H LK Va ... eIlRI ZNMJJLJg! PR aPQRH{
1P! .lV HPRRa! ... `QK .... .
iPPz [IRI.
dNN RLg[K! MNN RLg[K! K[IRI LH JP JIIq KP ... .
. RIMNNa eMJKIq KP `I ... .
. [MxIJlK VMqI QZ Va VLJq aIK.
vMa`I JPK.
wINN! K[MKlH JPK K[I eMa . NPPz MK LK.
yPQ [MxIJlK MJHeIRIq Va fQIHKLPJ aIK.
. qPJlK eMJK KP MK MNN.
14. Make up a diaIogue about your future profession.
15. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear intonation and reproduce it in
reading and narration.
a) listen to the joke "Nothing to Complain About", sentence by sentence. Write it down.
Mark stresses and tunes. Practise the joke for test reading.
b) Listen to the narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarities in intonation-group division,
pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use of temporizers. Reproduce the model narration of the
joke.
16. This exercise is meant to test your abiIity to anaIyze and reproduce materiaI for reading
and reteIIing.
a) Read the jokes silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Underline the
sentence expressing the essence of the joke. Split up each sentence into intonation groups if
necessary. Locate the communicative centre of each sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes,
concentrating your attention on the attitude expressed. It is not expected that each student will
mark the story in exactly the same way. Discuss your variants in class. The teacher will help
you to choose the best variant. Practise your corrected variant for test reading.
b) Retell the jokes in your own words:
No Music Lessons
oJTI K[I KIMT[IR MHzIq [LH ZQZLN: r0P``a! [Pe VMJa sLJgIRH [MxI aPQ{r u[I ZQZLN
MJHeIRIq MK PJTI: r. [MxI KIJ sLJgIRH.r
u[I KIMT[IR MHzIq [LV MJPK[IR fQIHKLPJ: rwINN! Ls sPQR eIRI VLHHLJg e[MK ePQNq aPQ
[MxI K[IJ{r r1P VQHLT NIHHPJH!r eMH K[I MJHeIR.
At the Lessen
rwINN! dNIS! [Pe VQT[ LH KeP ZNQH PJI{r MHzIq K[I KIMT[IR! r. qPJlK zJPe! HLR!r MJHeIRIq
K[I `Pa. rwINN! dNISc pMJTa . gLxI aPQ KeP qPgH MJq K[IJ PJI qPg VPRI. vPe VMJa qPgH
[MxI aPQ JPe{r rpPQR qPgH!r K[I `Pa MJHeIRIq KLVLqNa. rw[a! dNIS{r r0ITMQHI . [MxI PJI
qPg MNRIMqa! HLR.r

oJI VPRJLJg M `Pa eMH gPLJg `a M iPJqPJ `QH KP HT[PPN. |I [Mq M TPNq MJq eMH HJLssLJg
MNN K[I KLVI MJq HP NPQqNa K[MK K[I ZIPZNI `IgMJ KP NPPz MK [LV MJq H[MzI K[ILR [IMqH. dJ PNq
gIJKNIVMJ eMH HLKKLJg JISK KP K[I `Pa. |I HQssIRIq K[I `PalH HJLssLJg sPR HPVI KLVI `QK MK NMHK
NPHK [LH ZMKLIJTI MJq HMLq: r|MxIJlK aPQ gPK M [MJqzIRT[LIs! Va `Pa{r
ryIH! .lxI gPK M TNIMJ [MJqzIRT[LIs LJ Va ZPTzIK!r HMLq K[I `Pa! r`QK . TMJlK NIK aPQ [MxI
LK. vPK[IR HMaH LK LH JPK ZPNLKI KP MHz MJa`Pqa sPR M [MJqzIRT[LIs. yPQ VQHK QHI aPQR PeJ.r
SECTION SIX Compound Tunes
TWO OR MORE FALLS WITHIN ONE SENSE-GROUP
.J HIJHIgRPQZH eLK[ K[I |Lg[ pMNNLJg PR pMNNLJgLHLJg JQTNIMR KPJI K[IRI VMa `I PJI PR
VPRI PK[IR ePRqH VMRzIq `a M RINMKLxINa [Lg[ sMNNLJg KPJI. u[I sQJTKLPJ Ps HQT[ pMNNH LH KP
ZRPxLqI M gRIMKIR qIgRII Ps ZRPVLJIJTI sPR K[I ePRqH PJ e[LT[ K[Ia PTTQR. dNN PK[IR ePRqH
Ps K[I [IMq MRI JPK HKRIHHIq. u[I MKKLKQqI ISZRIHHIq `a K[I HIJKIJTI LH JPK T[MJgIq `QK K[I
QKKIRMJTI HPQJqH IVZ[MKLT. .J K[LH TMHI K[I [IMq LH TMNNIq #.iding"
OPVZMRI:
1. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on
the intonation of the repIies:
"erbal Conte#t $rill
w[MK eMH K[I ZMRKa NLzI{ u[I sPPq eMH KIRRL`NI! .lV HPRRa KP HMa.
uPVlH [MxLJg KIM. w[MK sPR aPQ! dRK[QR{ .lq ZRIsIR M TQZ Ps TPssII.
.KlH HQT[ M KLRLJg PQRJIa `a KRMLJ. wINN e[a JPK sNa{
w[LT[ PJI TMJ . [MxI{ w[LT[ ePQNq aPQ ZRIsIR{
o[ . zJPe [I TPQNqJlK [INZ LK u[IJ e[a MRI aPQ HP MJgRa eLK[ [LV{
.lV gPLJg KP iPJqPJ KPVPRRPe. |Pe NPJg qlaPQ LJKIJq `ILJg MeMa{
u[I qPPR ePJlK PZIJ. w[a JPK KRa KQRJLJg K[I zIa{
dLN RLg[K. iIKH gP KP K[I ZLTKQRIH. nP aPQ RIMNNa eMJK KP{
u[MKlH JPK xIRa TPJxLJTLJg. wINN! TMJ aPQ K[LJz Ps M `IKKIR MRgQVIJK{
/[IlH PJNa ePRzLJg [MNs KLVI JPe. yIH! `QK JIIq H[I gP KP ePRz MK MNN{
|MxI aPQ [IMRq M`PQK dNIS{ .HJlK LK LJTRIqL`NI{
os TPQRHI [IlNN MgRII. nPJlK `I KPP HQRI.
u[IHI HKIeIq MZZNIH MRIJlK xIRa HeIIK. |MxI HPVI VPRI HQgMR eLK[ K[IV.
w[MK KLVIlH TPJxIJLIJK sPR aPQ{ OPVI e[IJIxIR aPQlRI sRII.
. TMJlK VMJMgI MNN K[MK. wINN! IMK MH VQT[ MH aPQ TMJ! K[IJ.
|I qLqJlK HMa M ePRq. |Pe xIRa QJQHQMNc
|Pe M`PQK M H[Pe KPJLg[K{ .s PJNa aPQ MHzIq VI IMRNLIRc
.KlH Va `LRK[qMa KPqMa. :IRa VMJa [MZZa RIKQRJHc
2. Listen carefully to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice fall on
every stressed syllable.
3. listen to the Verbal Context and reply in the interval.
4. In order to fix the intonation in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the replies
yourself until they sound perfectly natural to you.
5. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him (her) what his (her) errors in
intonation are.
6. Listen to your teacher reading the Verbal Context below. Reply by using Sliding Head +
High Fall in the drill sentences. Say what attitude you mean to render:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
dJq JPe e[MK HeIIK eLNN aPQ [MxI! vMRa{ .lq ZRIsIR M ZLITI Ps MZZNI
KMRK.
|Pe VMJa HPJH [MH H[I gPK{ . [MxIJlK K[I HNLg[KIHK LqIM.
|I LH JPK TPVLJg. |IlH MJ MZZPLJKVIJK. yPQ PQg[K KP [MxI LJsPRVIq VI `IsPRI.
yPQ zJPe \IKIR xIRa eINN! . ISZITK. 1P! .lxI JIxIR VIK [LV LJ Va NLsI.
|Pe VQT[ LH K[I sMRI{ .lxI JP LqIM.
dJq e[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps iPJqPJ! vRH.
u[PVZHPJ{
.lxI JIxIR `IIJ [IRI `IsPRI. . NLzI LK HP VQT[.
1Pe e[MK ePQNq aPQ T[PPHI{ . qPJlK eMJK MJaK[LJg.
w[MK eLNN aPQ qP K[LH MsKIRJPPJ{ . MV ZNMJJLJg KP HII K[I \LTKQRI UMNNIRa.
. [MxI M sRII MsKIRJPPJ KPqMa. wINN e[a JPK gP HLg[KHIILJg{
. HQggIHK eI H[PQNq gP KP K[I TLJIVM. w[LT[ sLNV ePQNq aPQ ZRIsIR KP HII{ |MxI aPQ MJa
ZMRKLTQNMR sLNV LJ VLJq{
u[MK eMH \IKIR PJ K[I Z[PJI. w[a qLqJlK aPQ MHz [LV M`PQK K[I `PPzH [I [Mq
`PRRPeIq{
. TMJlK sLJq Va ZIJ MJae[IRI. dRI aPQ HQRI aPQ qLqJlK NIMxI LK MK K[I .JHKLKQKI{
w[MK MRI aPQ NPPzLJg sPR! dJJ{ |MxI aPQ HIIJ Va QV`RINNM MJae[IRI{
. [Mq M `Mq sMNN sRPV K[I HKMLRH MJq `RPzI Va MRV. |MxI aPQ MJa ZMLJ JPe{
OPVI MK HLS PJ /QJqMa. nP aPQ RIMNNa eMJK VI KP{
mMTz qPIHJlK eMJK LK. ULxI LK KP VI! K[IJ.
. TMJlK PZIJ K[LH TMJlK HPVIPJI INHI KRa{ ULxI LK KP VI! .lNN qP LK.
. TMJlK TPVI MK HLS. OPVI e[IJIxIR LKlH TPJxIJLIJK sPR aPQ.
w[MK H[MNN . qP eLK[ Va NQggMgI{ iIMxI LK LJ K[I TNPMzRPPV MK K[I HKMKLPJ.
. VMJMgIq KP gIK M KLTzIK. w[MK M ZLITI Ps NQTzc
vMJa [MZZa RIKQRJH Ps K[I qMa. |Pe JLTI Ps aPQ KP RIVIV`IRc
iIK VI qP LK sPR aPQ. u[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[c
/II aPQ KPVPRRPe. va NPxI KP MNN MK [PVI.
7. The teacher wiII suggest the VerbaI Context of Ex. 1 and 6. The students wiII repIy to it,
using SIiding Head + High FaII. The driII continues untiI every student has participated. Keep
the exercise moving on rapidIy.
II. (LOW PRE-HEAD +) HIGH FALLS + FALL-RISE
8. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on
the intonation of the repIies. Note aII the prominent words of the bead:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
nlaPQ HVPzI{ . qP HPVIKLVIH.
w[MK M JMHKa TPNq qMac .KlH `LKKIRNa TPNq. 0QK LKlH JPK JMHKa.
wPQNq [I NIJq VI [LH ZNMaIR{ |I VLg[K Ls aPQ KMNzIq JLTINa KP [LV.
yPQ `RPzI K[I eLJqPe! qLqJlK aPQ{ yIH! `QK JPK PJ ZQRZPHI.
. qPJlK HQZZPHI LK KRPQ`NIq aPQ VQT[. .K eMHJlK M gRIMK qIMN Ps KRPQ`NI. 0QK LK eMHJlK MNKPgIK[IR IMHa.
OMJlK . KMzI K[LH PJI{ yPQ TMJ Ls aPQ LJHLHK. 0QK K[I PK[IR PJIlH `IKKIR.
yPQ eLNN ZNMa! ePJlK aPQ{ .lq RMK[IR JPK.
OMJ . `PRRPe aPQR ZIJzJLsI{ .KlH JPK xIRa H[MRZ.
wINN e[MK M`PQK K[LH TPNPQR{ .K LHJlK ISMTKNa K[I H[MqI . eMJK
. eMJK K[PHI H[PIH VIJqIq fQLTzNa. . TMJlK gIK K[IV qPJI KPqMa.
iIK VI zJPe KPVPRRPe. . qPQ`K e[IK[IR . TMJ gLxI aPQ MJ MJHeIR `a K[IJ.
yPQ MRI JPK KRaLJg. . VPHK TIRKMLJNa MV.
wI gPK [IRI M`PQK VLqJLg[K. .K eIKH IMRNLIR K[MJ K[MK.
dNMJlH sPRgPKKIJ [LH QV`RINNM. |I MNeMaH NIMxIH HPVIK[LJg `I[LJq.
iIK VI [MxI K[IV `a KPJLg[K. . `Ig aPQR ZMRqPJ! `QK LKlH PQK Ps K[I fQIHKLPJ.
w[IRI [MH [I `IIJ MNN K[LH KLVI{ |IlH HPRRa KP `I HP NMKI! `QK [I eMH qINMaIq MK K[I PssLTI.
yPQR TPJqQTK eMH LJISTQHM`NI. 0IsPRI aPQ QVZ KP TPJTNQHLPJH! aPQ VLg[K MK NIMHK [IMR VI
PQK.
w[MK qLq aPQ K[LJz Ps K[I NITKQRI{ .K eMHJlK ISMTKNa HIJHMKLPJMN! eMH LK{
/[IlH MJ M`HPNQKI sMLNQRI. 1Pe `I sMLR.
wIlNN NIMxI `IsPRI qMeJ. |MxI M [IMRK. |MxI M `LK Ps HIJHI.
. K[LJz LKlH gPLJg KP RMLJ. o[ qPJlK HMa K[MK.
.lNN [MxI K[LH PJI. 1P! K[LH. .lV HPRRa. wINN! VMzI QZ aPQR VLJq. wINN! HMa LK MH Ls aPQ VIMJK LK.
OMJ . TPVI [PVI `a VaHINs! vQVVa{ wINN! `I TMRIsQN e[IJ aPQ TRPHH K[I VMLJ RPMq.
9. Listen carefully to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice fall on
the stressed syllables. Start the rise from the lowest pitch and do not go up too high,
10. Listen to the Verbal Context and reply in the intervals.
11. In order to fix the intonation in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the replies until
they sound perfectly natural to you.
12. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him (her) what his (her) errors in
intonation are.
13. Your teacher will suggest the Verbal Context of Ex. 8. You in turn reply to it, using
High Falls. The drill will continue until every student has participated. Keep the exercise
moving on rapidly.
14. Read the sentences taking into consideration the suggestions in brackets. Observe the
changes in sentence stress:
|PTzIa LH PJI Ps K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR gMVIH LJ eLJKIR. (Not foot&a..": GNot in 0ummer":
pPPK`MNN LH K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR gMVI LJ GJgNMJq. (Not tenni0": (Not in India":
OMRH MRI qRLxIJ PJ K[I NIsK HLqI Ps K[I RPMq LJ iPJqPJ. (Not on the right 0ide": (Not in
@o0)ow":
.J K[I VLqqNI Ps uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI HKMJqH 1INHPJlH VPJQVIJK. (Not in the midd.e of
7i))adi..y Cir)u0": (Not a 0tatue of Cromwe..":
0RIMzsMHK LH gIJIRMNNa M `Lg VIMN LJ GJgNMJq. (Not 0u((er": (Not on the Continent":
OPNNIgIH Ps GqQTMKLPJ LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ qPJlK TPJsIR qLZNPVMH PJ K[ILR gRMqQMKIH. ('ut
award )ertifi)ate0": (Not te)hni)a. )o..ege0":
oQR KIRVLJMN ISMVLJMKLPJH MRI [INq MK K[I IJq Ps IMT[ KIRV. (Not fina. eQam0": (Not every
other term":
15. Read the foIIowing sentences expressing the attitudes suggested in brackets. Use them
In conversationaI situations of your own;
(deta)hed, (h.egmati), re0erved:
/[MNN . MHz [LV M`PQK LK MgMLJ{
OMJ aPQ KRMJHNMKI M sIe HIJKIJTIH{
wINN! eLNN aPQ TPVI MJq HII [IR KPVPRRPe{
OPQNq eI VIIK PJ wIqJIHqMa! K[IJ{
vMa eI MNN zJPe e[MKlH MVQHLJg aPQ{
nP aPQ K[LJz HP{
wLNN aPQ KINN [IR M`PQK LK sRMJzNa{
(.ive.y, intere0ted, 0omewhat un(.ea0ant.y 0ur(ri0ed:
wINN e[IJ TMJ aPQ HZMRI K[I KLVI{
w[MKlH K[MK gPK KP qP eLK[ aPQ{
w[MK VMzIH aPQ HP HQRI{
w[a JPK MHz [LV M`PQK LK{
|Pe qLq aPQ VMzI K[MK{
(wondering, mi.d.y (u11.ed:
|Pe PNq LH H[I{ w[PlH [I gPJI KP HII{ |Pe VQT[ qP aPQ VMzI LK{ |Pe PsKIJ VQHK [I
KMzI LK{ |Pe NPJg qP aPQ eMJK KP zIIZ LK{ w[LT[ LH Va TMR{ w[IRI qLq . sLJq K[IV{
()ontradi)ting:
yPQ qPJlK NLzI LK. yPQ eMJK LK `MTz. |IlH qIsLJLKINa gPLJg. |I ePJlK `I M`NI KP [INZ.
yPQlxI gPK IJPQg[ VPJIa.
(di0a((roving:
w[IJ eLNN K[MK `I{ w[MK qP aPQ eMJK LK sPR{ |Pe PNq qLq aPQ HMa{ w[MK LH K[I TRPeq
NPPzLJg MK{ w[IJ qLq . HII [LV{ |Pe VQT[ qLq . gLxI sPR LK{ |Pe VMJa qLq aPQ HMa{
0IsPRI e[IJ{
16. The teacher wiII suggest a VerbaI Context You in turn repIy to it in the form of statements
and questions, expressing personaI concern or interest:
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps K[I [PQHIH LJ vLT[QRLJHzL dxIJQI{
w[MK MRI aPQR gIJIRMN LVZRIHHLPJH Ps vPHTPe{
w[MK INHI eMH LK K[MK aPQ IHZITLMNNa NLzIq LJ vPHTPe{
1Pe e[MK qP aPQ eMJK{
w[a qLqJlK aPQ VIIK VI MK K[I HKMKLPJ{
w[MK eMH [IR HLHKIR NLzI{
|Pe qLq mQqa gIK PJ eLK[ K[I gLRNH{
.lq NPxI gPLJg KP K[I TLJIVM.
yPQ [MxIJlK NIsK aPQR `PPz [IRI.
vMRa HMLq H[I LJKIJqIq KP TPVI `MTz.
|Pe VMJa `PPzH qP aPQ eMJK{
nP NIKlH `Qa K[LH qRIHH! vQVc
u[I NMHK `QH [MH gPJI.
|MxI aPQ [IMRq M`PQK vMRa{
17. Read the story "A Friend in Need" by S. Maugham (see p. 104). The sentences from the
text given beIow are not true to fact. One of the students wiII read a sentence, another win
correct him, using Intonation Patterns VI or VII.
vR. 0QRKPJlH JMVIHMzI eMH MJ QJZNIMHMJKNPPzLJg VMJ.
|I eMH PNq; [LH sMTI eMH ePRJ MJq eRLJzNIq MJq [I eMH MNeMaH ZPPRNa qRIHHIq.
|I ePRzIq [MRq KP IMRJ [LH NLxLJg.
oJTI [I TMVI KP vR. 0QRKPJlH PssLTI KP [INZ [LV eLK[ [LH ePRz.
|I KPNq vR. 0QRKPJ [I eMH gIKKLJg PJ LJ NLsI.
|I PssIRIq vR. 0QRKPJ M gPPq P`.
vR. 0QRKPJlH JMVIHMzI qLqJlK MTTIZK K[I TRQIN KIRVH [I eMH PssIRIq.
|I eMH M ZPPR HeLVVIR MJq [I TPQNqJlK VMJMgI K[I TQRRIJKH RPQJq K[I `IMTPJ.
vR. 0QRKPJ eMH HQRI K[MK [LH JMVIHMzI ePQNq HQTTIIq LJ TPxIRLJg K[I qLHKMJTI.
vR. 0QRKPJlH JMVIHMzI RIgMRqIq vR. 0QRKPJlH PssIR MH MJ IMHa MJq ePRK[a P`.
u[I aPQJg VMJ TMVI KP K[I TRIIz Ps uMRQVL PJ KLVI.
/P vR. 0QRKPJ ZRPxIq [LVHINs M RIMN sRLIJq.
.KlH RMK[IR M sQJJa HKPRa PJ K[I e[PNI.
18. Make statements to be corrected according to the modeI above. The driII wiII continue
untiI every student has participated. Keep the exercise moving on rapidIy.
19. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to bear the intonation and reproduce it in
proper speech situations.
a) listen to the dialogue "Sports and Games Popular in England", sentence by sentence.
Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the dialogue.
b) Record your reading of the dialogue. Play the recording back immediately for the
teacher and your fellow-students to detect your possible errors in pronunciation. Practise the
dialogue for test reading and memorize it.
c) Pick out of the dialogue sentences containing compound tunes and the logical stress.
d) Make up conversational situations about sport, using the following phrases:
w[MK ePQNq aPQ HMa eIRI o[! aIH! MJa MVPQJK.
K[I VPHK ZPZQNMR...{ yPQ H[PQNq PLJ Ls aPQlRI
wINN! . HQZZPHI.... zIIJ PJ....
w[MK M`PQK...{ . K[LJz . H[MNN Ls . gIK K[I
. H[PQNq HMa K[MK.... T[MJTI....
u[IJ K[IRI MRI! Ps TPQRHI.... 0a K[I eMa....
.lxI `IIJ KPNq K[MK.... wINN! . qP! `QK...
.H K[IRI MJa... KP `I [Mq JIMR...{
20. Make up a diaIogue of your own, using phrases from the diaIogue above.
21. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear the intonation and reproduce it in
proper speech situations.
M) NLHKIJ KP K[I mPzI rwIMK[IR pPRITMHKH! HIJKIJTI `a HIJKIJTI. wRLKI LK qPeJ. vMRz K[I
HKRIHHIH MJq KQJIH. \RMTKLHI K[I KISK
`) NLHKIJ TMRIsQNNa KP K[I JMRRMKLPJ Ps K[I PzI. o`HIRxI K[I ZITQNLMRLKLIH LJ LJKPJMKLPJ
gRPQZ qLxLHLPJ! ZLKT[! HKRIHH MJq KIVZP. 1PKI K[I QHI Ps KIVZPRLIRH. IZRPqQTI K[I VPqIN
JMRRMKLPJ aPQ [MxI NLHKIJIq KP.
22. Read the jokes siIentIy to make sure you understand each sentence. Find the sentence
expressing the essence of each joke. SpIit up each sentence into intonation groups if
necessary. Mark the stresses and tunes. UnderIine the communicative centre and the
nucIear word of each intonation group. It is not expected that each student win intone the
text in the same way. The teacher win heIp you to correct your variant. Practise reading the
jokes severaI times:
u[I TQZ eMH [MJqIq PxIR LJKP K[I aPQK[lH [MJqH MJq K[IRI eIJK TRLIH Ps r/ZIIT[c
/ZIIT[cr
vIMJe[LNI K[I NMq eMH M`NI KP TPNNITK [LH K[PQg[KH MJq! Ps TPQRHI! KP TMKT[ [LH `RIMK[.
u[IJ [I HKIZZIq QZ PJ M `IJT[. u[IRI TMVI MJ M`RQZK MJq IMgIR [QH[c rUIJKNIVIJ!r [I HMLq!
r. [MxI ePJ K[I TQZ `a K[I QHI Ps Va NIgH. . KRQHK . VMa JIxIR NPHI K[I QHI Ps Va NIgH `a K[I
QHI Ps K[LH TQZ.r

yPQlxI `IIJ eMKT[LJg VI sPR K[RII [PQRH. w[a qPJlK aPQ KRa sLH[LJg aPQRHINs{
. MLJlK gPK K[I ZMKLIJTI.

r0P`!r HMLq 0LNN! MH [I TMQg[K QZ eLK[ 0P` PJ K[I eMa `MTz KP TMVZ! rMRI MNN K[I RIHK Ps
K[I `PaH PQK Ps K[I ePPqH aIK{r
ryIH!r HMLq 0P`.
rdNN HLS Ps K[IV{r
ryIH! MNN HLS Ps K[IV.r
rdJq K[IalRI MNN HMsI{r
ryIH!r HMLq 0P`! rK[IalRI MNN HMsI.r
ru[IJ!r HMLq 0LNN! [LH T[IHK HeINNLJg! r.lxI H[PK M qIIR.r

u[I VMJ PJ K[I `RLqgI MqqRIHHIq K[I sLH[IRVMJ. rdJa NQTz{r [I MHzIq.
rdJa NQTzcr eMH K[I MJHeIR. rw[a! . gPK sPRKa ZLzI PQK Ps [IRI aIHKIRqMa.r
rnP aPQ zJPe e[P . MV{r r1P!r HMLq K[I sLH[IRVMJ.
r.lV K[I T[LIs VMgLHKRMKI [IRI MJq MNN K[LH IHKMKI LH VLJI.r
rdJq qP aPQ zJPe e[P . MV{r MHzIq K[I sLH[IRVMJ fQLTzNa.
r1P.r
r.lV K[I `LggIHK NLMR LJ :LRgLJLM.r
SECTION SEVEN Intonation pattern XII
I. (LOW PRE-HEAD + ) HIGH RISE (+TAIL) II. (LOW PRE-HEAD + ) (HIGH
HEAD+) HIGH RISE ( + TAIL)
/KRIHHMJqKPJI VMRzH LJ K[I KISK: |Lg[ LHI l
.s K[IRI LH JP KMLN K[I xPLTI LJ K[I JQTNIQH RLHIH sRPV M VIqLQV KP M [Lg[ ZLKT[.
.s K[IRI MRI QJHKRIHHIq HaNNM`NIH sPNNPeLJg K[I JQTNIQH K[I NMKKIR LH ZRPJPQJTIq PJ M sMLRNa
[Lg[ NIxIN ZLKT[ MJq K[I HaNNM`NIH Ps K[I KMLN RLHI gRMqQMNNa. u[I HaNNM`NIH Ps K[I ZRI[IMq RLHI
sRPV M NPe ZLKT[ QZ KP K[I HKMRK Ps K[I |Lg[ LHI.
u[LH LJKPJMKLPJ ZMKKIRJ LH QHIq LJ fQIHKLPJH! IT[PLJg! TMNNLJg sPR RIZIKLKLPJ PR MqqLKLPJMN
LJsPRVMKLPJ! HPVIKLVIH H[MqLJg LJKP qLHMZZRPxMN PR ZQNIVIJK! HPVIKLVIH VIMJK KP zIIZ
K[I TPJxIRHMKLPJ gPLJg.
!"g" wI H[MNN [MxI KP RIKQRJ. .VlVIqLMKINa{
.KlH KIJ sIIK NPJg. l|Pe NPJg{
w[MKlH K[MK `PeN sPR{ lw[MKlH LK sPR{
.H LK RMLJLJg{ .H LK lRMLJLJg{
OMRIsQN. lOMRIsQN{
\LKa. l\LKa{
EXERCISES
1. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on
the intonation of the repIies:
"erbal Conte#t $rill
iue0tion0 e)hoing, )a..ing for re(etition or additiona.
information, 0ometime0 0hading into
di0a((rova. or (u11.ement
. eMJK aPQ K[LH VLJQKI. yIH{
. H[PQNq Z[PJI [LV M`PQK LK. 1Pe{
.KlH HJPeLJg. ! ! vQT[{
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps Va qRIHH{ 1Ie{
OPQNq . [MxI MJPK[IR TQZ Ps KIM{ /QgMR{
.lxI QHK RIMq K[MK JIe KRMxIN `PPz. .JKIRIHKLJg{
. NLHKIJIq KP IxIRa ePRq [I HMLq. GxIRa ePRq{
GxIRa`Pqa K[LJzH LKlH VMgJLsLTIJK. GxIRa`Pqa{
|IlH gPLJg PJ [PNLqMa. dNPJI{
.lxI gLxIJ QZ HVPzLJg. pPR gPPq{
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps K[I TMR{ yPQR PeJ{
.lxI QHK VIK [IR [QH`MJq. yPQ NLzI [LV{
|MxI aPQ HIIJ Va ZIJ MJae[IRI{ yPQlxI NPHK LK{
w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps Va TPMK{ .KlH M JIe PJI{
.lxI QHK [Mq M JIe HQLK VMqI. UPPq sLK{
dNMJlH JPK [IRI! .lV MsRMLq. |IlH gPJI [PVI{
wIlRI gPLJg H[PZZLJg. Lg[K MeMa{
iIKlH gP KP K[I ZLTKQRIH. yPQlxI gPK IJPQg[ VPJIa{
. K[LJz K[LH LH mPMJlH QV`RINNM. w[PHI{
u[MK `Lg PJIlH VLJI. w[LT[ PJI{
. H[MNN JIIq M qPIJ! MK NIMHK. |Pe VMJa{
u[IHI sNPeIRH MRI sPR aPQ. w[P MRI K[Ia sPR{
|I VQHK `I VMqI KP P`Ia. |I VQHK `I e[MK{
|IlNN VIIK QH MK K[RII sLsKIIJ. dK e[MK KLVI{
w[MK LH LK{ w[MK LH LK{
w[MK RIMHPJ qLq [I gLxI sPR [LH `I[MxLPQR{ w[MK RIMHPJ{
nPIH LK VMKKIR{ vMKKIR{
nP aPQ VIMJ LK{ vIMJ LK{
.H K[MK aPQR NLKKNI `Pa{ va NLKKNI `Pa{
wMHJlK LK HKQZLqc wMH LK HKQZLq! . ePJqIR{
w[MK NPxINa T[IRRLIHc wMJK HPVI{
. NLzI 0MR`MRM. nP aPQ{
|Pe qP aPQ NLzI Va HPJg{ nP aPQ MNeMaH HLJg MH sNMK MH K[MK{
wPQNq aPQ NLzI PJI{ wPQNq . NLzI PJI{
wI [Mq M VIIKLJg NMHK JLg[K. /[PQNq . [MxI `IIJ K[IRI{
.H LK RMLJLJg{ .H LK RMLJLJg{
|MxI aPQ MJHeIRIq [LH NIKKIR{ |MxI K MJHeIRIq LK{
|MxI aPQ sLJLH[Iq LK{ |MxI . sLJLH[Iq LK! qLq aPQ HMa{
nLq aPQ IJPa K[I TPJTIRK{ nLq . IJPa LK{
w[MK M qINLg[KsQN VIMNc wLNN aPQ [MxI HPVI VPRI TPssII{
/KPZ LK. /KPZ LK{
uINIZ[PJI VI! K[IJ. uINIZ[PJI aPQ{
jIIZ K[IV sPR VI. jIIZ K[IV sPR aPQ{
0I JLTI KP K[IV. 0I JLTI KP K[IV{
UIK RLq Ps LK. UIK RLq Ps LK{
\NIMHI qPJlK ePRRa. nPJlK ePRRa! qLq aPQ HMa{
uMzI LK [PVI. uMzI LK [PVI{
uINN VI K[I KLVI! ZNIMHI. uINN aPQ K[I KLVI{
vMRxINNPQHc vMRxINNPQH{
wPJqIRsQN JIeHc wPJqIRsQN JIeH{
pMJKMHKLTc pMJKMHKLT{
wINN qPJIc wINN qPJI{
2. listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice rise from a
medium level to a high pitch.
3. listen to the Verbal Context and reply to it in the intervals.
4. In order to fix High Rise in your mind, ear and speech habits, pronounce each reply
several times until it sounds perfectly natural to you.
5. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him (her) what his (her) errors in
pronunciation are.
6. listen to your teacher reading the Verbal Context below. Reply by using one of the drill
sentences. Pronounce it with Intonation Pattern XII. Say what attitude you mean to render:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
.lV KeIJKaKeP KPqMa. IMNNa{
. NLzI K[I eMa [I HZIMzH. yPQ qP{
. `INLIxI [I LH LJ /K. \IKIRH`QRg JPe. .J /K. \IKIRH`QRg{
u[Ia HZIJK K[I e[PNI qMa PJ K[I `IMT[. u[I e[PNI qMa{
wLNN aPQ ZMHH VI K[I ZIJTLN! ZNIMHI. u[I RIq PJI! aPQ VIMJ{
.KlH gIKKLJg eMRVIR. yPQ K[LJz HP{
w[IRI MRI aPQ gPLJg{ w[IRI{
|Pe VQT[ qP . PeI aPQ{ |Pe VQT[{
w[a TPQNqJlK aPQ eMRJ VI{ w[a TPQNqJlK .{
|Pe qP aPQ NLzI [LH JIe IHHMa{ |LH JIe e[MK{
.lV IS[MQHKIq. yPQlRI e[MK{
w[MK qLq [I ZRPVLHI K[MK qMa{ w[MK qLq [I ZRPVLHI{
|I LH M KMNIJKIq aPQJg VMJ. .H [I{
.lV MsRMLq . TMJlK `INLIxI LK. OMJlK aPQ `INLIxI LK{
wI qPJlK `NMVI [LV sPR MNN K[MK. yPQ qPJlK{
. TMJlK sPRTI [LV KP gP K[IRI. OMJlK aPQ sPRTI [LV{
u[Ia [MxIJlK T[MJgIq MJaK[LJg [IRI. |MxIJlK K[Ia{
. IJPaIq IxIRa VLJQKI Ps LK nLq aPQ{
/ZNIJqLq) /ZNIJqLq{
/[Pe [LV PQKc /[Pe [LV PQK{
ULxI LK QZc ULxI LK QZ{
nLHgQHKLJgc nLHgQHKLJg{
|QRRa QZc |QRRa QZ{
iIMxI LK MH LK LHc iIMxI LK{
7. Respond to the foIIowing sentences. Use Intonation Pattern X casing for a repetition of
the information aIready given.
vPqIN: u[LH HMq HKPRa VMqI K[I NLHKIJIRH TRa.
vMqI K[I lNLHKIJIRH lqP le[MK{
. eMJK aPQ KP RLJg VI QZ MgMLJ.
yPQ eMJK VI KP lqP le[MK{
u[I `PalH `I[MxLPQR VMqI VI K[LJz [I eMH LNN.
|LH HKMRI VMqI VI sIIN LNN MK IMHI.
u[I RMLJ VMqI QH RIKQRJ [PVI.
u[I TPNq VMqI QH ZQK PJ PQR TPMKH.
u[I ZNMa VMqI QH NMQg[ M NPK.
|LH NIKKIR VMqI VI T[MJgI Va ZNMJH.
u[I sPRILgJIR eMJKH VI KP KINN [LV HPVIK[LJg M`PQK Va TPQJKRa.
/[I eMJKH aPQ KP NIMxI [IR MNPJI.
|I eMJKH aPQ KP HKMRK LVVIqLMKINa.
/[I eMJKH [IR HPJ KP IJKIR K[I }JLxIRHLKa.
|I eMJKH QH KP gP K[IRI MK PJTI.
|I eMJKH VI KP KRMJHNMKI K[LH MRKLTNI.
8. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to near and reproduce intonation in
different speech situations.
a) listen to the dialogue "At the Station" carefully, sentence by sentence. Write it down.
Mark the stresses and tunes. Your teacher will help you to correct your variants. Make a
careful note of your errors in each tune and work to avoid them. Practise reading each
sentence of your corrected variant after the cassette-recorder.
b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for the teacher and your
fellow-students to detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for test reading. Memorize it. Play
it with a fellow-student.
9. Make up conversationaI situations, using the foIIowing phrases:
uRa MJq sLJq VI ... Ls aPQ TMJ. yPQlRI qQI KP MRRLxI MK... .
|MxI aPQ gPK aPQR ... aIK! HLR{ wINN! .lxI HKLNN gPK M sIe
1PK aIK. VLJQKIH KP HZMRI.
OPVI MNPJg eLK[ VI MJq .lNN.. . vLJq aPQ qPJlK VLHH K[I ....
|IRI LK LH. u[MKlH MNN RLg[K.
nP . [MxI KP ...{ .K ePJlK KMzI VI VPRI K[MJ
|IRI aPQ MRI. sLxI VLJQKIH KP ... .
w[MK KLVI qP eI gIK KP ...{
10. Read the foIIowing diaIogues. Define the communicative type of the sentences and say
what attitudes you mean to convey:
u[IRI aPQ MRI! K[IJ! . K[PQg[K aPQ VLg[K `I [IRI IMRNLIR. wMH aPQR KRMLJ NMKI{
1P! . qPJlK K[LJz HP; QHK M`PQK PJ KLVI. w[LT[ PJI qLq aPQ K[LJz . eMH TMKT[LJg K[IJ{
wMHJlK LK K[I PJI K[MK gIKH LJ MK sLxI KIJ{
1P! K[MKlH /MKQRqMaH PJNa. nLqJlK aPQ zJPe{
os TPQRHI! [Pe HLNNa Ps VI! MJaeMa! LK qPIHJlK VMKKIR.

GSTQHI VI! eLNN K[LH RPMq KMzI VI KP K[I HKMKLPJ{


yIH! HKRMLg[K PJ. uQRJ KP K[I NIsK e[IJ aPQ gIK KP K[I IJq. yPQlNN HII M JPKLTI K[IRI.
yPQ TMJlK gP eRPJg.
.H LK sMR{
d`PQK K[RII PR sPQR VLJQKIH.
u[MJz aPQ xIRa VQT[.
11. Make up a diaIogue of your own, using some of the phrases from the diaIogues above.
12. Read the foIIowing sentences. The prompts in brackets wiII heIp you to determine the
position of the IogicaI stress. Make up a situation to prove the position of the IogicaI stress:
wI MRI gPLJg HITPJq TNMHH. (Not fir0t:
. eMJK M RIKQRJ KLTzIK KP oSsPRq. (Not 0ing.e":
w[MK KLVI qP aPQ gIK QZ LJ HQVVIR{ (I u0ua..y get u( at 0even":
w[MK H[MNN . qP eLK[ [LH NQggMgI{ (I /now what to do with your0:
OMJ . [MxI M KRa{ (No&ody 0eem0 anQiou0 to do it":
|I RMJ MNN K[I eMa KP K[I HKMKLPJ. (We wa0 afraid to &e .ate":
. HMe vMRa MK K[I K[IMKRI aIHKIRqMa. (1PR Dohn":
.lq NLzI KP [MxI HPVI KIM. (Not 2om":
. MHzIq K[I ZPRKIR KP HII KP Va NQggMgI. (1PR you":
13. Listen to the text on the tape ("Commerce and Industry"). Write it down. Mark the
stresses and tunes. Practise the text.
14. Read the foIIowing sentences. Use Intonation Patters VI to singIe out the subject:
Model:
\
Bri
/
tain [ is one of the most important commercial and trading centres in the
world.
dQHKRMNLM LH K[I HVMNNIHK TPJKLJIJK LJ K[I ePRNq.
vMJT[IHKIR LH PJI Ps K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK LJqQHKRLMN TLKLIH LJ URIMK 0RLKMLJ.
oSsPRq LH PJI Ps K[I PNqIHK TIJKRIH Ps IqQTMKLPJ.
wMH[LJgKPJ LH K[I TMZLKMN Ps K[I }JLKIq /KMKIH.
vMRa LH Va `IHK sRLIJq.
u[I ZLMJP LH KP K[I RLg[K Ps K[I eLJqPe.
GJgNMJq LH M [Lg[Na qIxINPZIq LJqQHKRLMN TPQJKRa.
15. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear the intonation and reproduce it in
proper speech situations.
a) Listen to the text "Mother's Day" sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses
and tunes. Practise the text.
b) listen carefully to the narration of the text Observe the peculiarities in Intonation-group
division, pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use of temporizers. Reproduce the model narration
of the text.
16. Read the text "May Day" siIentIy to make sure you understand each sentence. SpIit up
each sentence into intonation groups if necessary. Mark the stresses and tones. UnderIine
the communicative centre and the nucIear word of each intonation group. It is not expected
that each student wiII intone the text in the same way. The teacher wiII heIp you to correct
your variant
Practise reading the text several times.
Retell the text in your own words:
May Day
pPR PxIR +)) aIMRH JPe vMa nMa [MH `IIJ RITPgJLIq LJ HPVI TPQJKRLIH Ps K[I ePRNq MH
K[I ePRzIRHl qMa. .K LH K[I qMa PJ e[LT[ ePRzIRH LJ K[IHI TPQJKRLIH VMHKIR K[ILR HKRIJgK[! MJq
qIVPJHKRMKI K[ILR qIKIRVLJMKLPJ KP HKRQggNI KP MT[LIxI K[I qIVMJqH e[LT[ [MZZIJ KP `I
ZMRKLTQNMRNa ZRIHHLJg MJq QRgIJK.
iMHK aIMRlH vMa nMa LJ 0RLKMLJ `RPzI JIe gRPQJq LJ KeP eMaH.
.K eMH K[I NMRgIHKIxIR qIVPJHKRMKLPJ KP `I [INq PJ vMa + LKHINs LJ MqqLKLPJ KP K[I
KRMqLKLPJMN qIVPJHKRMKLPJH PJ vMa /QJqMa.
0QK LK eMH VPRI K[MJ M qIVPJHKRMKLPJ. .K MHHQVIq K[I T[MRMTKIR Ps M JMKLPJMN HKRLzI!
LJxPNxLJg [QJqRIqH Ps K[PQHMJqH Ps ePRzIRH e[P qPeJIq KPPNH LJ iPJqPJ MJq M JQV`IR Ps
PK[IR VMPR TLKLIH.
.K eMH K[I TQNVLJMKLPJ Ps MJ QJZRITIqIJKIq TMVZMLgJ qLRITKIq MgMLJHK K[I UPxIRJVIJKlH
LJKIJKLPJH KP ZQK K[I TNPTz `MTz M TIJKQRa MJq VPRI PJ KRMqIQJLPJ RLg[KH.
.K eMH M [Lg[ ZPLJK LJ K[I TPJKLJQPQH HKRQggNI Ps K[I KRMqI QJLPJH sPR K[I QJsIKKIRIq RLg[K KP
QHI K[I HKRLzI eIMZPJ LJ sQRK[IRLJg K[I LJKIRIHKH Ps K[ILR VIV`IRH[LZ.
.K eMH M [LHKPRLT vMa nMa JPK PJNa LJ K[I RPNI LK ZNMaIq LJ MT[LIxLJg K[I LVVIqLMKI
qIVMJq Ps RIKMLJLJg K[I HPxIRILgJKa MJq LJqIZIJqIJTI Ps K[I QJLPJH.
d`PxI MNN! K[I sNISLJg Ps K[ILR VQHTNIH MJq K[I xLTKPRa MT[LIxIq K[I sPNNPeLJg mQNa! gMxI
K[I ePRzIRH Ps 0RLKMLJ M JIe HIJHI Ps TPJsLqIJTI MJq M qIIZIR QJqIRHKMJqLJg K[MK PJI [PQR
Ps MTKLPJ LH ePRK[ VPRI K[MJ M K[PQHMJq [PQRH Ps MRgQVIJK MJq ZNIMH sPR QHKLTI.
SECTION EIGHT. HIGH PRE-HEAD
/KRIHHMJqKPJI VMRzH LJ K[I KISK: K[I |Lg[ \RI|IMq .
u[I |Lg[ \RI|IMq JIxIR TPJKMLJH MJa HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NIH. 0IsPRI K[I |Lg[ pMNN LK LH HMLq
PJ K[I HMVI ZLKT[ MH K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps K[I sMNN. 0IsPRI MJa PK[IR JQTNIMR KPJI PR MJa [IMq K[I
ZLKT[ Ps K[I |Lg[ \RI|IMq LH [Lg[IR K[MJ K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps K[I sPNNPeLJg HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI.
dH TPVZMRIq KP K[I iPe \RI|IMq K[I |Lg[ \RI|IMq LH QHIq KP Mqq xLxMTLKa! NLxINLJIHH
PR ISTLKIVIJK KP K[I MKKLKQqIH ISZRIHHIq LJ K[I HIJKIJTI.
EXERCISES I.
HIGH PRE-HEAD + LOW FALL (+ TAIL)
Model:
-
I
\
do
/
think it's a
I
pity.
1. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on
the intonation of the repIies:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
yPQ ePJlK sPRgIK! eLNN aPQ{ .JqIIq . ePJlK.
.lq NPxI KP [INZ. . zJPe aPQ ePQNq.
. qPJlK `INLIxI aPQ ZPHKIq LK. . qLq ZPHK LK.
mP[JlH K[I eLJJIR. |I eLNN `I HQRZRLHIq.
nlaPQ K[LJz [IlH sPRgPKKIJ{ .lV HQRI [I [MHJlK.
.KlH JP gPPq MK MNN. yPQlRI MNeMaH qLHHMKLHsLIq.
.KlH fQLKI KRQI! aPQ zJPe. wINN aPQ qP MVMI VI.
. KINN aPQ . ePJlK MTTIZK. |Pe TMJ aPQ `I HP P`HKLJMKI{
. [MxIJlK KLVI JPe. w[IJ eLNN aPQ [MxI KLVI! VMa . MHz{
u[MKlH JPK VQT[ gPPq. wINN TMJ aPQ qP MJa `IKKIR{
w[MKlH QZ{ 0I fQLIK sPR M VLJQKI!
/[MNN . PR H[MJlK . MHz K[IV{ o[ qP VMzI QZ aPQR VLJq.
|QNNP! mMTz. UPPq IxIJLJg! vR. nIMJ.
wIlxI gPK KP ePRz PJ /MKQRqMa. o[ JPc
. [MxI KP gP JPe. w[MK M ZLKa aPQ TMJlK HKMa NPJgIR.
2. Listen to the repIies and repeat them in the intervaIs. Make your voice rise high when
pronouncing the initiaI unstressed syIIabIes.
3. Listen to the VerbaI Context and repIy to it in the intervaIs.
4. In order to fix the High Pre-Head in your mind, ear and speech habits pronounce each
repIy severaI times untiI it sounds perfectIy naturaI to you.
5. Listen to a feIIow-student reading the repIies. TeII him (her) what his (her) errors in
pronunciation are.
6. Read the driII sentences according to the given modeI. Concentrate your attention on the
High Pre-Head:
jer&a. ConteQt S@
|I VLHHIq vH NIHHPJ aIHKIRqMa. |I MNeMaH VLHHIH [LH NIHHPJH.
.s aPQ MRI LJ M [QRRa! e[a JPK KMzI M KMSL{ . K[LJz . eLNN.
|I ePJlK TPVI KPqMa. w[IJ LH [I gPLJg KP TPVI{
|I LH JPK LJ. w[IRI LH [I! K[IJ{
. MV NIMxLJg. o[! TMJlK aPQ HKMa M `LK NPJgIR{
/[I LH TRaLJg. o[! [MHJlK H[I ZMHHIq [IR ISMV{
u[I ZLTKQRIlH ePJqIRsQN. iIK VI [MxI M NPPz MK LK.
vPK[IR LH MHNIIZ. nPJlK qLHKQR` [IR! uPV.
iPPz MK [LH TNPK[IH. UPPq |IMxIJHc
UPPq MsKIRJPPJ! vRH. w[LKI. |MNNP! 0IKKa qIMRc
II. HIGH PRE-HEAD + HIGH FALL (+TAIL)
Model:
-
I'd simply
\
love to.
7. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on
the intonation of the repIies:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
nLq [I HMa MJaK[LJg{ 1P! JPK[LJg! aPQlNN `I ZNIMHIq KP [IMR.
wIlRI gPLJg M[IMq eLK[PQK \MQN. u[MKlH P`xLPQHNa K[I `IHK HPNQKLPJ.
|MxI HPVI VPRI ZQqqLJg! dJJ. . TPQNqJlK ZPHHL`Na.
yPQlNN [INZ! ePJlK aPQ! vMS. w[a VI{
. eMH MgMLJHK K[I ZRPZPHMN. w[MK qLq mMTz [MxI KP HMa M`PQK LK{
yPQ TMJ `PRRPe VLJI. nlaPQ VIMJ K[MK{
|I HMaH [IlNN qP `IKKIR LJ sQKQRI. nPIH [I RIMNNa LJKIJq KP ePRz [MRqIR{
/[MNN . MHz [LV KP KIM{ 0a MNN VIMJH MHz [LV.
.lV gPLJg KP ZNMa KIJJLH. iIKlH MNN [MxI M gMVI.
1P NQTz! .lV MsRMLq. uRa PJTI VPRI! K[IJ.
.lV JPK HQRI . eMJK KP gP. /KMa MK [PVI! K[IJ.
|IlH `RPzIJ M NIg. |Pe MesQNc
iPPzLJg sPR VI! uIRRa{ o[! K[IRI aPQ MRI! \IKIR.
8. Listen to the repIies, and repeat them in the intervaIs. Make your voice rise high when
pronouncing the High Pre-Head.
9. Listen to the VerbaI Context and repIy in the intervaIs.
10. In order to fix the High Pre-Head in your mind, ear and speech habits pronounce each
repIy severaI times untiI it sounds perfectIy naturaI to you.
11. Listen to a feIIow-student reading the repIies. TeII him (her) what his (her) errors in
pronunciation are.
12. Read the driII sentences according to the given modeI. Concentrate your attention on the
High Pre-Head:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
wMH LK qLssLTQNK{ /QRZRLHLJgNa HP.
. K[PQg[K aPQlxI `IIJ K[IRI. /P . [MxI.
.KlH JPK vMRa e[P Z[PJIq aPQ aIHKIRqMa. wINN e[P! K[IJ{
|IlH NIMxLJg KPJLg[K. |Pe qlaPQ zJPe{
|I HMaH [I LH gPLJg KP NIMxI. nPIH [I RIMNNa LJKIJq KP NIMxI{
u[LH `PPz LHJlK LJKIRIHKLJg. wLNN K[MK PJI `I VPRI LJKIRIHKLJg{
/[MNN . KINN [LV M`PQK LK{ 0a MNN VIMJH KINN [LV.
.lxI sMLNIq. uRa PJTI VPRI! K[IJ.
.lV JPK eINN. UP [PVI! K[IJ.
u[MJz aPQ HP VQT[. 1PK MK MNNc
iPPz MK K[LH ZLTKQRI. |Pe ePJqIRsQNc
|IRI LH M `PPz sPR aPQ. |Pe gPPq Ps aPQc
III. HIGH PRE-HEAD + LOW RISE (+ TAIL)
Model:
-
He
/
won't
13. Listen carefuIIy to the foIIowing conversationaI situations. Concentrate your attention on
the intonation of the repIies:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
uLVI KP gP. . zJPe.
.H K[MK RLg[K{ . K[LJz HP.
nLq [I T[ITz K[I RIHQNK{ |I qLq.
|MxI aPQ MJa TLgMRIKKIH NIsK{ d sIe.
. ePQNqJlK qRIMV Ps gPLJg LJ sPR LK. w[a JPK{
yPQ ePJlK TMKT[ VI gPLJg `a MLR. w[a qPJlK aPQ NLzI sNaLJg{
1Pe eRLKI qPeJ aPQR MJHeIR. wLNN ZIJTLN qP{
dJa`Pqa sPR VPRI KIM{ vMa . [MxI MJPK[IR TQZ{
w[MK M VLHIRM`NI qMac O[IIR QZ.
iIK VI TMRRa LK sPR aPQ. iPPz PQK.
wPQNq aPQ NLzI MJ PRMJgI{ yIH! ZNIMHI. 1P! K[MJz aPQc
.lV Pss KP `Iq. UPPq JLg[K! qIMRc
14. Listen to the repIies and repeat them in the intervaIs. Make your voice rise high when
pronouncing the High Pie-Head.
15. Listen to the VerbaI Context and repIy in the intervaIs.
16. In order to fix the High Pre-Head in your mind, ear and speech habits pronounce each
repIy severaI times untiI it sounds perfectIy naturaI to you.
17. Listen to a feIIow-student reading the repIies. TeII him (her) what his (her) errors in
pronunciation are.
18. Read the driII sentences according to the given modeI. Concentrate your attention on the
High Pie-Head:
jer&a. ConteQt Sri..
nP aPQ JIIq MJa VPRI VMgMLJIH{ u[MKlNN qP.
.lV MsRMLq . TMJlK qP LK. dH QHQMN.
|I LH M gPPq eRLKIR. |I LH.
|I [MH NIsK |I [MH e[MK{
.lV gPLJg KP /K. \IKIRHQRg KPVPRRPe. uP e[IRI{
.lV gPLJg KP K[I K[IMKRI KPJLg[K. vMa . gP eLK[ aPQ {
wLNN aPQ `I ZRIHIJK MK K[I ZMRKa{ nP aPQ eMJK VI KP{
w[MK H[MNN . qP JISK{ UP [PVI.
mMTz LH HKLNN PQK. nPJlK ePRRa.
UPPq VPRJLJg! vRH. 0RPeJ! |MNNP! vMRac
/II aPQ ZRIHIJKNa. /P NPJg! PNq T[MZ.
19. Give your own repIies to the VerbaI Context of Ex. 1, 6, 7, 12, 13, 18.
20. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to hear and reproduce intonation in
different speech situations.
a) Listen to the dialogue "Broadcast Programme" carefully, sentence by sentence. Write it
down. Mark the stresses and tunes. The teacher will help you and all the members of the class
to correct your variant. Practise reading every sentence of your corrected variant after the
cassette-recorder.
b) Record your reaing. Play the recording back immediately for the teacher and your
fellow-students to detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for test readiag. Memorize the
dialogue and play it with a fellow-student.
c) Make up conversational situations, using the following phrases:
o[! JPK KPP `MqNa.
\IRHPJMNNa! .lV JPK xIRa zIIJ PJ ... .
pPRKQJMKINa sPR VI! LK eMH M ....
w[MK zLJq Ps ... qP aPQ NLzI `IHK! K[IJ{
wLK[ MNN K[I ZRMTKLTI LJ IMRKRMLJLJg .lxI [Mq ....
. eLH[ . [Mq aPQR gLsK sPR ... .
w[IRI K[IRIlH M eLNN K[IRIlH M eMa! aPQ zJPe.
d) Make up a talk with a fellow-student, using phrases from the dialogue above.
21. Read the foIIowing sentences, using intonation patterns you find suitabIe. Use them in
conversationaI situations of your own:
vLJIlH RMK[IR MJ PNqsMH[LPJIq VPqIN TPVZMRIq KP aPQRH.
.KlH VQT[ KPP `Lg KP `I HIIJ LJ MJ [PQR PR HP.
u[IRI qPIHJlK HIIV KP `I MJaK[LJg RMqLTMNNa eRPJg eLK[ aPQ.
wI [MxI LTITRIMV KeLTI M eIIz MJq eI JIxIR [MxI TPRJVIMN VQH[.
. TMJlK eMLK [IRI MNN qMa.
. eLH[ aPQlq KPNq VI IMRNLIR.
.KlH MNN xIRa eINN KP VMzI ZRPVLHIH.
. TMJlK ZPHHL`Na sLJLH[ LK.
OPVI PJ! 1PRM. wI MRI gPLJg KP VLHH K[MK KRMLJ.
\IKIRlH JPK PNq IJPQg[ KP VMzI QZ [LH VLJq M`PQK HQT[ K[LJgH.
dRI aPQ HQRI aPQ qPJlK eMJK KP `I M sMRVIR! P`IRK{
.lq JIxIR [MxI gPJI Ls . [Mq zJPeJ LK eMH gPLJg KP `I HP HLNNa.
nPJlK aPQ HII e[MK M gPPq K[LJg LK eMH K[MK aPQ VIK VI{
. H[MNN HZIMz KP GqeMRq K[I VPVIJK [I TPVIH LJ.
. eMH [PZLJg . VLg[K `I Ps QHI KP aPQ.
. sLJq HPVI Ps K[I KMNzH xIRa LJKIRIHKLJg! KPP.
|I LH gIKKLJg PJ fQLKI eINN! K[MJz aPQ.
vLJq aPQ qPJlK VLHH K[I KRMLJ! \IKIR.
. ZRIsIR RIq Ls aPQlxI gPK LK.
. H[PQNq NLzI KP RIMq LK! e[IJ aPQlxI sLJLH[Iq eLK[ LK.
wI TMJ eMNz K[IRI Ls K[IRIlH KLVI.
yPQlNN `I NMKI Ls aPQ qPJlK [QRRa QZ.
. qPJlK QJqIRHKMJq aPQ e[IJ aPQ HZIMz HP sMHK.
u[MKlH fQLKI RLg[K MH sMR MH . zJPe.
yPQ VQHK `Qa K[I KLTzIKH `IsPRI[MJq Ls aPQ eMJK KP HII K[I ZNMa.
.lNN VIIK aPQ KPVPRRPe Ls JPK[LJg ZRIxIJKH.
wIlNN [IMR rOMRVIJr KPVPRRPe Ls . VMJMgI KP gIK KLTzIKH.
. VQHK ZQK QZ eLK[ LK HLJTI LK TMJlK `I [INZIq.
GxIRa`Pqa `ITMVI HLNIJK e[IJ [I `IgMJ ZNMaLJg K[I ZLMJP.
22. This exercise is meant to deveIop your abiIity to introduce teaching materiaI in cIass with
correct intonation.
a) Listen to an extract from the lecture on intonation very carefully. Write it down. Intone
it Single out the communicative centres and observe the intonation means they are made
prominent with.
b) Read and act the extract according to the model.
23. This exercise is meant to test your abiIity to introduce some teaching materiaI in cIass
with correct intonation.
Read the extract from the lecture silently. Intone it Single out the communicative
centres. Make them prominent as in the model above. Read and act the extract
according to the model:
d: .J PQR sLRHK KMNz eI qIHTRL`Iq e[MK . TMNN lK[I gNLqI qPeJl! M KQJI LJ e[LT[ K[I sLRHK
HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI Ps K[I HIJKIJTI LH HMLq PJ M sMLRNa [Lg[ JPKI. u[I sPNNPeLJg HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NIH
MRI HMLq gRMqQMNNa NPeIR MJq NPeIR QJKLN aPQ TPVI KP K[I NMHK HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI. u[LH HaNNM`NI
HKMRKH PJ M sMLRNa NPe JPKI MJq K[IJ sMNNH qPeJ KP K[I NPeIHK JPKI ZPHHL`NI. u[I e[PNI
HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa qPeJ.
.: u[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa qPeJ. u[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa
qPeJ.
d.: yIH! QHK NLzI K[MK. 0QK . eMJK KP ZPLJK PQK KP aPQ K[MK LJ M HIJKIJTI NLzI K[LH e[LT[ [MH
sLxI HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NIH! LKlH JPK xIRa IMHa KP VMzI K[I xPLTI gP gRMqQMNNa NPeIR MK IMT[
HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI.
.: 1P. .s aPQlRI JPK TMRIsQN aPQ sLJq K[MK aPQR xPLTI [MH sMNNIJ VQT[ KPP NPe LJ K[I
VLqqNI Ps K[I HIJKIJTI! e[IJ aPQ eMJK KP gP HKLNN NPeIR.
d.: GSMTKNa. 0QK K[IRIlH RIVIqa sPR K[MK. iLHKIJ MgMLJ KP K[I HMVI HIJKIJTI HMLq LJ M
HNLg[KNa qLssIRIJK eMa.
.: u[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa qPeJ. u[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa
qPeJ.
d.: nLq aPQ JPKLTI K[I qLssIRIJTI{ dsKIR K[I ePRq lHIJKIJTIl! K[I xPLTI gPIH QZ M NLKKNI
LJHKIMq Ps qPeJ! MH LK JPRVMNNa ePQNq LJ M gNLqI qPeJ! HP K[MK K[I ePRq lgNLqIHl LH PJ M
HNLg[KNa [Lg[IR JPKI. iLHKIJ MgMLJ.
.: u[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI gNLqIH HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa qPeJ.
d: u[IRI. nLq aPQ [IMR K[MK{ .KlH QHK M NLKKNI KRLTz eI [MxI sPR VPqLsaLJg K[I gNLqI qPeJ LJ
M NPJgIR HIxIJ HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NIH. wI HKMRK Pss fQLKI JPRVMNNa PJ M [Lg[ JPKI! MJq K[I HITPJq
HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI lHIJKIJTIl LH PJ M NPeIR JPKI! QHK MH LK LH LJ K[I PRqLJMRa gNLqI qPeJ; K[IJ
K[I NLKKNI RLHI PTTQRH; MJq MsKIR K[MK K[I KQJI TPJKLJQIH MgMLJ ISMTKNa MH `IsPRI.
.: u[IRIlH PJI ZPLJK . K[LJz eI PQg[K KP VIJKLPJ! MJq K[MK LH K[MK e[IJ K[I xPLTI RLHIH LJ
K[I VLqqNI Ps K[I HIJKIJTI! LK qPIHJlK gP QZ MH [Lg[ MH K[I sLRHK HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI.
d.: o[ JP! LKlH PJNa fQLKI M HVMNN RLHI! MJq aPQ VQHKJlK VMzI LK KPP `Lg! PR LK eLNN HPQJq
eRPJg. iLHKIJ KP LK QHK PJTI VPRI.
.: u[I e[PNI HIJKIJTI gNLqIH gRMqQMNNa qPeJ.
d.: wIlNN TMNN K[MK KQJI lK[I LJKIRRQZKIq gNLqI qPeJl HLJTI LK LH HLVZNa M HNLg[K xMRLMKLPJ PJ
PQR JPRVMN gNLqI qPeJ; MJq! `a K[I eMa! LK LH QHIq sPR ISMTKNa K[I HMVI zLJqH Ps HIJKIJTIH.
(From k$ OPQRHI Ps GJgNLH[ .JKPJMKLPJr `a m. n. olOPJJPR)
24. Act as a teacher in cIass, using the materiaI from the Iectures above.
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION ONE
Ex. 4. |INIJlH IaIH eIRI JPK xIRa gPPq. /P H[I QHQMNNa ePRI gNMHHIH. 0QK e[IJ H[I eMH
HIxIJKIIJ MJq `IgMJ KP gP PQK eLK[ M aPQJg VMJ! H[I JIxIR ePRI [IR gNMHHIH e[IJ H[I eMH
eLK[ [LV. w[IJ [I TMVI KP K[I qPPR KP KMzI [IR PQK! H[I KPPz [IR gNMHHIH Pss `QK e[IJ H[I
TMVI [PVI MgMLJ H[I ZQK K[IV PJ.
oJI qMa [IR VPK[IR HMLq KP [IR: r|INIJ! e[a qP aPQ JIxIR eIMR aPQR gNMHHIH e[IJ aPQlRI
eLK[ mLV{ |I KMzIH aPQ KP `IMQKLsQN ZNMTIH LJ [LH TMR `QK aPQ qPJlK HII MJaK[LJg.r rwINN!
vPK[IR!r HMLq |INIJ! r. NPPz ZRIKKLIR KP mLV e[IJ .lV JPK eIMRLJg Va gNMHHIH MJq [I NPPzH
`IKKIR KP VI! KPP.r
SECTION TWO
Ex. 16. oJI qMa vRH. mP[JIH eIJK H[PZZLJg. w[IJ [IR [QH`MJq TMVI [PVI LJ K[I
IxIJLJg! H[I `IgMJ KP KINN [LV M`PQK M `IMQKLsQN TPKKPJ qRIHH. /[I HMe LK LJ K[I H[PZ K[MK
VPRJLJg H[I HMLq MJq... rdJq aPQ eMJK KP `Qa LK!r HMLq [IR [QH`MJq. r|Pe VQT[ qPIH LK
TPHK{r rpLsKIIJ ZPQJqH.r rpLsKIIJ ZPQJqH sPR M TPKKPJ qRIHH{ u[MK i0 KPP VQT[.r 0QK IxIRa
IxIJLJg e[IJ vR. mP[JIH TMVI `MTz sRPV ePRz [LH eLsI TPJKLJQIq KP HZIMz PJNa M`PQK K[I
qRIHH MJq MK NMHK MsKIR M eIIz [I HMLq: ro[! `Qa K[I qRIHH. |IRI LH K[I VPJIar /[I eMH xIRa
[MZZa. 0QK K[I JISK IxIJLJg e[IJ vR. mP[JIH TMVI [PVI MJq MHzIq: r|MxI aPQ gPK K[LH
sMVPQH qRIHH{r H[I HMLq: r1P.r rw[a JPK{r [I MHzIq. rwINN! LK eMH HKLNN LJ K[I eLJqPe Ps K[I
H[PZ MsKIR M eIIz! HP . K[PQg[K JP`Pqa INHI eMJKIq K[LH qRIHH! HP . qPJlK eMJK LK ILK[IR.r
SECTION/THREE
Ex. 12. /II Z. +)3.
Ex. 14. d ZRIKKa eINNqRIHHIq aPQJg NMqa HKPZZIq M KMSL LJ M `Lg HfQMRI MJq HMLq KP K[I
qRLxIR: rnP aPQ HII K[MK aPQJg VMJ PJ K[I PK[IR HLqI Ps K[I HfQMRI{r ryIH!r HMLq K[I KMSL
qRLxIR. u[I aPQJg VMJ eMH HKMJqLJg PQKHLqI K[I RIHKMQRMJK MJq NPPzLJg LVZMKLIJKNa MK [LH
eMKT[ IxIRa sIe HITPJqH. ruMzI VI PxIR K[IRI!r HMLq K[I aPQJg NMqa. u[IRI eIRI M NPK Ps
TMRH MJq `QHIH MJq KRQTzH LJ K[I HfQMRI! HP K[I KMSLqRLxIR MHzIq: rdRI aPQ MsRMLq KP TRPHH K[I
HKRIIK{r ro[! JP!r HMLq K[I aPQJg NMqa! r`QK .lV K[RII fQMRKIRH Ps MJ [PQR NMKI. . HMLq K[MK .lq
VIIK K[MK aPQJg VMJ sPR NQJT[ MK PJI PlTNPTz! MJq LK LH JPe M fQMRKIR KP KeP! `QK Ls . MRRLxI LJ
M KMSL! LK eLNN MK NIMHK HIIV MH Ls . KRLIq JPK KP `I NMKI.r
SECTION FOUR
Ex. 12. Dinner-table Talk
UPPq IxIJLJg. .lV HP gNMq aPQ eIRI M`NI KP TPVI ... . nLJJIRlH RIMqa. iIKlH gP LJKP K[I
qLJLJgRPPV. vRH. u[PVZHPJ! eLNN aPQ HLK [IRI PJ Va NIsK! MJq aPQ! vR. u[PVZHPJ! K[IRI ....
|Pe NPJg [MxI aPQ `IIJ LJ iPJqPJ{
o[! PJNa M sIe qMaH! HLJTI NMHK vPJqMa! KP `I ISMTK! MJq .lV HPRRa KP HMa eI [MxI KP
RIKQRJ KPVPRRPe eIIz.
.H K[LH aPQR sLRHK xLHLK{
.KlH Va eLsIlH sLRHK xLHLK! `QK .lxI `IIJ [IRI HIxIRMN KLVIH `IsPRI. . [MxI KP TPVI PxIR MK
NIMHK PJTI M aIMR PJ `QHLJIHH! MJq . sIIN fQLKI MK [PVI LJ iPJqPJ.
dJq e[MK qP aPQ K[LJz Ps iPJqPJ! vRH. u[PVZHPJ{
GR . `Ig aPQR ZMRqPJ! . qLqJlK fQLKI TMKT[ e[MK aPQ HMLq.
. eMH MHzLJg e[MK aPQ K[PQg[K Ps iPJqPJ.
o[! . K[LJz LKlH M ePJqIRsQN ZNMTI. u[IRI MNeMaH HIIVH KP `I HPVIK[LJg LJKIRIHKLJg KP
qP.
dJq [Pe qP aPQ NLzI PQR eIMK[IR{
wINN! LKlH RMK[IR T[MJgIM`NI! LHJlK LK{
yIH! LK LH! `QK PJ K[I e[PNI LKlH JPK HP `Mq! PJTI aPQ gIK QHIq KP LK. wLNN aPQ [MxI HPVI
VPRI T[LTzIJ{
1P! K[MJz aPQ.
w[MK M`PQK aPQ! vR. u[PVZHPJ{
yIH! ZNIMHI! QHK M NLKKNI. .KlH qINLTLPQH.
.lV HP gNMq aPQ NLzI LK... MJq JPe e[MK HeIIK eLNN aPQ [MxI! vRH. u[PVZHPJ{ u[IRIlH
MZZNI KMRK MJq TRIMV! PR T[PTPNMKI KRLsNI.
GR KRLsNI sPR VI! ZNIMHI.
dJq aPQ vR. u[PVZHPJ{
uRLsNI sPR VI! KPP! ZNIMHI.
Insufficient Local Knowledge
Ex. 16.
d iPJqPJIR e[P eMH gPLJg KP K[I wIHK Ps GJgNMJq sPR M [PNLqMa! MRRLxIq `a KRMLJ MK M
KPeJ! MJq sPQJq K[MK LK eMH ZPQRLJg. |I TMNNIq M ZPRKIR KP TMRRa [LH `MgH KP M KMSL. oJ K[I
eMa PQK Ps K[I H MKLPJ! ZMRKNa KP VMzI TPJxIRHMKLPJ MJq ZMRKNa KP gIK M NPTMN PZLJLPJ PJ
ZRPHZITKH Ps eIMK[IR sPR [LH [PNLqMa! [I MHzIq K[I ZPRKIR:
r|Pe NPJg [MH LK `IIJ RMLJLJg NLzI K[LH{r
r. qPJlK zJPe HLR! .lxI PJNa `IIJ [IRI sPR sLsKIIJ aIMRH!r eMH K[I RIZNa.
SECTION FIVE
Ex. 12. About the 1ob
|MRRa: wINN! P`IRK! [MxI aPQ VMqI QZ aPQR VLJq aIK e[MK aPQ eMJK KP qP e[IJ aPQ
NIMxI TPNNIgI{
1PRM: o[! |MRRa! HQRINa [IlH M `LK aPQJg KP qITLqI PJ [LH TMRIIR{ `I [MHJlK IxIJ gPK KP
TPNNIgI aIK.
|MRRa: 1PK MK MNN! 1PRM. .KlH eLHIHK KP qITLqI LJ gPPq KLVI. iPPz MK VI! sPR ISMVZNI. .
RIMNNa eMJKIq KP `I M HMLNPR! `QK JPe . HZIJq Va qMaH HLKKLJg MK M qIHz LJ MJ PssLTI. yIH! LKlH
HLNNa KP KRMLJ sPR K[I eRPJg P`. dJq MsKIR MNN! P`IRK eLNN `I gPLJg KP TPNNIgI HPPJ.
1PRM: (mu0ing: 1Pe Ls . eIRI M VMJ .lq `I M sMRVIR. uP HII K[I TRPZH gRPeLJg K[MKlH
Va LqIM Ps M gPPq NLsI.
|MRRa: wINN! aPQ [MxIJlK MJHeIRIq Va fQIHKLPJ MK! P`IRK. w[MK ePQNq aPQ NLzI KP qP{
1PRM: (wi0tfu..y: dRI aPQ HQRI aPQ qPJlK eMJK KP `I M sMRVIR! P`IRK{ oR M VMRzIK
gMRqIJIR{
`IRK: 1P .lV HPRRa! vQV! `QK . qPJlK eMJK KP MK MNN. .lq RMK[IR `I M TLxLN IJgLJIIR. . eMJK
KP `QLNq RPMqH MJq `RLqgIH.
|MRRa: 1PK H[LZH{ .HJlK LK `IKKIR KP `I M H[LZ`QLNqLJg IJgLJIIR{
P`IRK: ()ro00.y: iPPz [IRI! LH LK Va TMRIIR eIlRI ZNMJJLJg PR aPQRH{
|MRRa (huffed: dNN RLg[K! MNN RLg[K! K[IRIlH JP JIIq KP NPHI aPQR KIVZIR. 0QK aPQlq `IKKIR eLJ
K[MK HT[PNMRH[LZ sLRHK.
Ex. 15. Nothing to Complain About
dJ LJKINNLgIJK HVMNN `Pa eMH HLKKLJg LJ M `QH. d ZMHHIJgIR HLKKLJg JISK KP [LV MHzIq [LV M
fQIHKLPJ:
r|Pe PNq MRI aPQ{r
r.lV sPQR!r MJHeIRIq K[I T[LNq.
r. eLH[ . eIRI sPQR!r HMLq K[I ZMHHIJgIR. |I eMH TPJHLqIRM`Na KMzIJ M`MTz! [PeIxIR!
e[IJ K[I T[LNq! KQRJLJg RMK[IR M HQRZRLHIq gMI QZPJ [LV! RIZNLIq:
r0QK aPQ eIRI sPQR PJTI.r
SECTION SIX
Ex. +2. /II Z. 2++.
Ex. 21. Weather Forecasts
ueP VIJ eIRI KRMxINNLJg LJ M xIRa eLNq ZMRK Ps dVIRLTM. u[Ia HMe JP VPqIRJ [PQHIH MJq
JP KRMTIH Ps TLxLNLMKLPJ sPR VMJa qMaH. w[MK K[Ia HMe eIRI PJNa M sIe [QKH VMqI Ps ePPq
PR KIJKH e[IRI .JqLMJH NLxIq. oJI qMa K[Ia VIK MJ PNq .JqLMJ e[P eMH M [QJKIR. |I eMH xIRa
TNIxIR MJq zJIe IxIRaK[LJg M`PQK K[I sPRIHK MJq K[I MJLVMNH NLxLJg LJ LK MJq VMJa PK[IR
K[LJgH. |I TPQNq MNHP HZIMz GJgNLH[ fQLKI eINN.
rOMJ aPQ KINN QH e[MK K[I eIMK[IR eLNN `I NLzI qQRLJg K[I JISK sIe qMaH{r PJI Ps K[I KeP
KRMxINNIRH MHzIq [LV.
ro[! aIH!r [I MJHeIRIq. rMLJ LH TPVLJg! MJq eLJq. u[IJ K[IRI eLNN `I HJPe sPR M qMa PR
KeP `QK K[IJ K[I HQJH[LJI eLNN TPVI MgMLJ MJq K[I eIMK[IR eLNN `I sLJI.r
ru[IHI PNq .JqLMJH 0eem KP zJPe VPRI M`PQK 1MKQRI K[MJ eI eLK[ MNN PQR HTLIJTI!r HMLq
K[I VMJ KP [LH sRLIJq. u[IJ [I KQRJIq KP K[I PNq .JqLMJ.
ruINN VI!r [I MHzIq! r[Pe qP aPQ zJPe MNN K[MK{r
u[I .JqLMJ MJHeIRIq: r. [IMRq LK PxIR K[I RMqLP.r
SECTION SEVEN
Ex. 8. /II Z. 2b2.
Ex. 13. Commerce and Industry
URIMK 0RLKMLJ LH PJI Ps K[I VPHK LVZPRKMJK TPVVIRTLMN MJq KRMqLJg TIJKRIH LJ K[I ePRNq.
0RLKMLJ `QaH VPRI gPPqH K[MJ H[I HINNH; [IR LVZPRKH ISTIIq [IR ISZPRK. 1PK `ILJg M gRIMK
MRgLTQNKQRMN TPQJKRa! GJgNMJq [MH KP P`KMLJ [IR sPPq HQZZNLIH NMRgINa sRPV M`RPMq. /[I MNHP
[MH KP LVZPRK VMJa RMe VMKIRLMNH! HQT[ MH ePPN sRPV dQHKRMNLM; KLV`IR sRPV /eIqIJ MJq
pLJNMJq; TPKKPJ! ZIKRPNIQV MJq KP`MTTP sRPV K[I }JLKIq /KMKIH. wLJI MJq sRQLK MRI LVZPRKIq
sRPV pRMJTI! .KMNa! /ZMLJ! MJq K[I nPVLJLPJH; qMLRa ZRPqQTI sRPV nIJVMRz MJq |PNNMJq!
MJq HP PJ.
oJI Ps K[I VPHK ISKIJHLxI LJqQHKRLIH LJ GJgNMJq LH K[I KISKLNI LJqQHKRa! LVVIJHI
fQMJKLKLIH Ps TPKKPJ MJq ePPNNIJ gPPqH MJq MRKLsLTLMN HLNz MRI ZRPqQTIq MJq ISZPRKIq. GJgNLH[
NIMK[IR gPPqH MRI MNHP LJ gRIMK qIVMJq LJ PK[IR TPQJKRLIH. URIMK 0RLKMLJ LH JPKIq sPR LKH TPMN
VLJIH MJq sPR LRPJ MJq HKIIN gPPqH! MJq LK HQZZNLIH VMJa TPQJKRLIH eLK[ TIRKMLJ TNMHHIH Ps
VMT[LJIRa. dJPK[IR NIMqLJg LJqQHKRa LJ K[LH TPQJKRa LH H[LZ`QLNqLJg. u[I VPKPR LJqQHKRa LH
MNHP xIRa sNPQRLH[LJg.
Ex. 15. Mothering Sunday (Mother's Day)
vPK[IRlH nMa LH KRMqLKLPJMNNa P`HIRxIq PJ K[I sPQRK[ /QJqMa LJ iIJK (K[I O[QRT[ HIMHPJ Ps
ZIJLKIJTI `IgLJJLJg PJ dH[ wIqJIHqMa! K[I qMa Ps e[LT[ xMRLIH sRPV aIMR KP aIMR). u[LH LH
QHQMNNa LJ vMRT[. u[I qMa QHIq KP `I zJPeJ MH vPK[IRLJg /QJqMa MJq qMKIH sRPV K[I KLVI
e[IJ VMJa gLRNH ePRzIq MeMa sRPV [PVI MH qPVIHKLT HIRxMJKH LJ `Lg [PQHI[PNqH! e[IRI
K[ILR [PQRH Ps ePRz eIRI PsKIJ xIRa NPJg. vPK[IRLJg /QJqMa eMH IHKM`NLH[Iq MH M [PNLqMa sPR
K[IHI gLRNH MJq gMxI K[IV MJ PZZPRKQJLKa Ps gPLJg [PVI KP HII K[ILR ZMRIJKH! IHZITLMNNa K[ILR
VPK[IR. u[Ia QHIq KP KMzI ZRIHIJKH eLK[ K[IV! PsKIJ gLxIJ KP K[IV `a K[I NMqa Ps K[I [PQHI.
w[IJ K[I NM`PQR HLKQMKLPJ T[MJgIq MJq IxIRaPJI eMH IJKLKNIq KP RIgQNMR KLVI Pss! K[LH
TQHKPV RIVMLJIq! MNK[PQg[ K[I qMa LH JPe PsKIJ TMNNIq rvPK[IRlH nMar. \IPZNI xLHLK K[ILR
VPK[IRH Ls ZPHHL`NI MJq gLxI K[IV sNPeIRH MJq HVMNN ZRIHIJKH. .s K[Ia TMJJPK gP! K[Ia HIJq M
rvPK[IRlH nMa TMRq!r PR K[Ia VMa HIJq PJI LJ MJa TMHI. u[I sMVLNa KRa KP HII K[MK K[I VPK[IR
[MH MH NLKKNI ePRz KP qP MH ZPHHL`NI! HPVIKLVIH K[I [QH`MJq PR T[LNqRIJ KMzI [IR `RIMzsMHK LJ
`Iq MJq K[Ia PsKIJ [INZ eLK[ K[I VIMNH MJq K[I eMH[LJg QZ. .K LH TPJHLqIRIq KP `I VPK[IRlH
qMa Pss.
SECTION EIGHT
Ex. 20. Broadcast Programme
wINN! [PelH aPQR HIK gPLJg{
o[! JPK KPP `MqNa! K[PQg[ .lxI [Mq HPVI qLssLTQNKa NMKINa LJ gIKKLJg gPPq RITIZKLPJ
sRPV K[I VPRI qLHKMJK HKMKLPJH.
yIH! .lxI JPKLTIq fQLKI M NPK Ps LJKIRsIRIJTI PJ Va PeJ HIK KPP. . HQZZPHI LKlH K[I
eIMK[IR. os TPQRHI! VLJIlH RMK[IR MJ PNqsMH[LPJIq VPqIN TPVZMRIq KP aPQRH. 0a K[I eMa!
qLq aPQ [IMR rOMRVIJr K[I PK[IR JLg[K{
yIH! . qLq. \IRHPJMNNa! .lV JPK xIRa zIIJ PJ PZIRM! `QK Va eLsI LH! MJq rOMRVIJr
[MZZIJH KP `I PJI Ps [IR sMxPQRLKIH! HP . qLqJlK NLzI KP HQggIHK HeLKT[LJg KP MJPK[IR HKMKLPJ.
pPRKQJMKINa sPR VI! LK eMH M KRMJHNMKIq xIRHLPJ. .lV JPK gPPq MK NMJgQMgIH! aPQ zJPe.
w[MK zLJq Ps ZRPgRMVVI qP aPQ NLzI `IHK K[IJ{
o[! . NLzI M HKRMLg[K ZNMa... . sLJq HPVI Ps K[I KMNzH xIRa LJKIRIHKLJg KPP! MJq . JIxIR
VLHH K[I HZPRKLJg IxIJKH. . gPK VPHK ISTLKIq PxIR K[I LJKIRJMKLPJMN RQggIR VMKT[ NMHK
/MKQRqMa... yPQ NLHKIJ KP K[I GJgNLH[ HKMKLPJH M gPPq qIMN! qPJlK aPQ{
yIH! . NLzI K[ILR ZRPgRMVVIH xIRa VQT[ MJq . QJqIRHKMJq JIMRNa IxIRaK[LJg. wLK[ MNN
K[I ZRMTKLTI LJ IMRKRMLJLJg .lxI [Mq! GJgNLH[ ZRPJQJTLMKLPJ MJq LJKPJMKLPJ [PNq JP KIRRPRH sPR
VI JPe! MJq Ls M HZIMzIR QHIH M ePRq .lV JPK sMVLNLMR eLK[! K[I TPJKISK QHQMNNa gLxIHl K[I
TNQI KP K[I VIMJLJg.
yPQlRI NQTza! aPQ zJPe GJgNLH[. . eLH[ . [Mq aPQR gLsK sPR NMJgQMgIH.
wINN! . qPJlK K[LJz . H[PQNq TMNN LK M gLsK. dJaPJI e[PlH ZRIZMRIq KP KMzI M NLKKNI KRPQ`NI
TMJ qP K[I HMVI. w[IRI K[IRIlH M eLNN K[IRIlH M eMa! aPQ zJPec
Ex.22.
d.: |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{
.: va LqIM LH K[LH. /QZZPHI eI QHK HMa M sIe PRqLJMRa HIJKIJTIH. dsKIR K[MK eIlNN gP `MTz
MgMLJ MJq JPKLTI [Pe eIlxI HMLq K[IV! MJq e[MK HPRK Ps KQJIH eIlxI QHIq! MJq K[IJ eIlNN KRa
KP VMzI HPVI TNIMR MJq gIJIRMN RQNI M`PQK K[IV.
d.: yIH! K[MKlH M gPPq LqIM. 1Pe K[I sLRHK K[LJg . HMLq eMH K[LH: |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI
PQg[K KP HKMRK{ . ePJqIR Ls K[I NLHKIJIRH TMJ [IMR K[I KQJI{ |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP
HKMRK{
.: yPQ HII! NLHKIJIRH! K[MK HIJKIJTI HKMRKH PJ M sMLRNa [Lg[ JPKI MJq LK TPJKLJQIH PJ K[MK
HMVI JPKI QJKLN LK RIMT[IH K[I ePRq lPQg[Kl. mQHK NLHKIJ.
|Pe |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{ iLzI K[MK! aPQ HII.
u[I ePRq lPQg[K LH HMLq PJ M HNLg[KNa NPeIR JPKI! MJq K[I HIJKIJTI TPJKLJQIH PJ K[MK NPeIR
JPKI QJKLN LK gIKH KP K[I xIRa NMHK HaNNM`NI.
d.: l|Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{l l|Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{l
.: dgMLJ! aPQ HII! K[I ePRq lHKMRKl LH PJ M HNLg[KNa NPeIR JPKI MJq JPK PJNa K[MK! LK sMNNH MH
aPQ HMa LK: lHKMRK HKMRKl.
d.: yIH! LK qPIH. .K sMNNH RLg[K qPeJ KP K[I `PKKPV Ps Va xPLTI! NLHKIJ: l|Pe qP aPQ K[LJz
eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{ |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{l
.: /P K[I HIJKIJTI LH RIMNNa LJ K[RII ZMRKH! TPRRIHZPJqLJg KP K[I JQV`IR Ps HKRIHHIq
HaNNM`NIH: l[Pel sPNNPeIq `a sPQR eIMz HaNNM`NIH; K[IJ lPQg[Kl sPNNPeIq `a PJI eIMz HaNNM`NI!
MJq NMHKNa lHKMRKl! sPNNPeIq `a JPK[LJg MK MNN.
d: |Pe qP aPQ K[LJz eI PQg[K KP HKMRK{
.: wI TMJ VMzI M gPPq RQNI PQK Ps K[MK. .J HIJKIJTIH NLzI K[LH! K[I sLRHK HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI
MJq MJa eIMz! PR QJHKRIHHIq HaNNM`NIH sPNNPeLJg LK! MRI HMLq PJ M sMLRNa [Lg[ JPKI; K[I HITPJq
HKRIHHIq HaNNM`NI! MJq MJa VPRI eIMz HaNNM`NIH MsKIR K[MK! MRI HMLq PJ M HNLg[KNa NPeIR JPKI!
MJq K[I HMVI eLK[ K[I K[LRq! MJq K[I sPQRK[! MJq HP PJ! QJKLN aPQ TPVI KP K[I NMHK HKRIHHIq
HaNNM`NI Ps MNN! e[LT[ JPK PJNa `IgLJH PJ M NPeIR JPKI K[MJ K[I ZRIxLPQH PJI! `QK MNHP sMNNH
RLg[K qPeJ QJKLN LK TMJ HTMRTINa `I [IMRq MK MNN. wINN! JPe eI VQHK gP `MTz KP K[I `IgLJJLJg!
MJq HII Ls PQR RQNI ePRzH sPR HPVI Ps PQR PK[IR HIJKIJTIH.
(From rd OPQRHI Ps GJgNLH[ .JKPJMKLPJ &y m. n. olOPJJPR)
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
THE INDICATIVE MOOD
REVISION EXERCISES ON TENSE AND VOICE
(To Units One-Three)
1. a) Comment at the use of the Present Indefinite and the Present Continuous:
L. .lV gNMq KP zJPe K[MK aPQ MRI TPVLJg KP GJgNMJq K[LH HQVVIR. 2. yPQR KIIK[ MRI
T[MKKIRLJg. w[MKlH K[I VMKKIR eLK[ aPQ{ 4.+ MV MNeMaH KINNLJg mIRRa K[MK [LH QJTNI VIMJH
VPRI KP [LV K[MJ [LH ZMRIJKH. 3. dJJI LH ePRzLJg [MRq sPR [IR ISMVH JPe! H[I TPQNqJlK KMzI
K[IV LJ HZRLJg. *. |PKINH PJ K[I HPQK[ TPMHK MRI ISZIJHLxI. ,. nP aPQ [IMR MJaK[LJg{ yIH!
. [IMR VQHLT. 7. wI VMa xLHLK aPQ MJq HKMa eLK[ aPQ JISK aIMR Ls LK LH TPJxIJLIJK KP aPQ K[IJ.
b.+ `INLIxI [IlNN `I VQT[ HKRPJgIR MsKIR [I HZIJqH [LH [PNLqMaH LJ K[I VPQJKMLJH.
b) Use the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets:
1. w[MK aPQ (KP K[LJz) Ps K[LH qRMeLJg{ . (KP K[LJz) LK (KP `I) ISTINNIJK. 2. d [PNLqMa
TMVZ QHQMNNa (KP [MxI) LKH PeJ HeLVVLJgZPPN MJq KIJJLH TPQRKH. 4. /[I (KP ZNMa) MK K[I
TPJTIRK KPJLg[K. 3. yPQ (KP NLzI) KP HZIJq aPQR [PNLqMaH eLK[ [QJqRIqH Ps PK[IR ZIPZNI{ *.
w[MK aPQ (KP NLHKIJ) KP{ .K (KP HIIV) KP VI . (KP [IMR) M HKRMJgI JPLHI PQKHLqI. ,. yPQ (KP
RIMq) MJaK[LJg LJ GJgNLH[ JPe{ yIH! . (KP RIMq) M ZNMa `a oHTMR wLNqI. 7. .lNN PLJ K[IV LJ
K[ILR KRLZ eLK[ ZNIMHQRI Ls K[Ia (KP LJxLKI) VI. b.+ (JPK KP HII) e[MK aPQ (KP qRLxI) MK. 2! yPQ
(KP IJPa) K[I KRLZ{ +)! OMJ . HII nPTKPR uRIJT[{ .lV HPRRa aPQ TMJlK; [I (KP [MxI) [LH
`RIMzsMHK NL. . (JPK KP NLzI) K[I gLRN; H[I TPJKLJQMNNa (KP `PK[IR) VI eLK[ HLNNa fQIHKLPJH. +2.
\NIMHI eMLK KLNN [I (KP sLJLH[). +4. 1INN (KP [MxI) M RIHK LJ K[I HPQK[! KPP! . (KP gQIHH). yIH!
aPQ (KP gQIHH) RLg[K. +3. yPQ PsKIJ (KP gIK) NIKKIRH sRPV [IR{ 1PK HP xIRa PsKIJ.
2. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using hear and am told where possibIe:
Notes:
+. .J HZPzIJ GJgNLH[ I hear LH PsKIJ QHIq LJHKIMq Ps . [MxI [IMRq.
GSMVZNIH: I hear aPQ eMJKIq KP HII VI.
|I LH gPLJg KP eRLKI M JIe ZNMa! I hear.
. [IMR aPQ [MxI `IIJ MHzLJg sPR VI{
2. I am told MJq I was told `PK[ TPRRIHZPJq KP K[I QHHLMJ @$ B! . MV KPNq LH
QHIq eLK[ RIsIRIJTI KP K[I ZRIHIJK.
GSMVZNI: I am told H[I LH HIRLPQHNa LNN. ( . [IMR H[I LH HIRLPQHNa LNN.)
+. 8D! D 7 ;. 2. " ! $ $
$%;. 4. 8D! . 3. 8D! 8 6
6. *. 8D! 6 ;.l,. " ! 8
85 . 7. ' > 9 A;! 8D. b. 8D!
9D . 2. 8D! 5 $. +). <$ !
>7 . ++. 8D! 8 6$ ; ; ".
+2. >5 $ >6! 8D.
3. a) Comment on the Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous:
+. .lV HPRRa . TMJlK MTTIZK aPQR LJxLKMKLPJ; eI [MxI MNRIMqa VMqI PQR ZNMJH sPR K[I [PNLqMa.
2. |INNP! dJJI. |MxIJlK HIIJ aPQ HLJTI K[I IJq Ps K[I KIRV. 4.+ K[LJz K[IRI LH HPVIK[LJg LJ
K[I HKPRLIH K[MK [MxI `IIJ gPLJg MRPQJq. 3. yPQ [MxIJlK aIK HMLq M ePRq M`PQK aPQR [PNLqMa!
vLzI. .lxI `IIJ eMLKLJg sPR Va T[MJTI KP ZQK M ePRq LJ.
b) Use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous instead of, the infinitives in
brackets:
+. r|Pe NPJg aPQ (KP `I) [IRI{r H[I qIVMJqIq MJgRLNa. 2. u[LH ZMLR Ps H[PIH LH QHK e[MK .
(KP NPPz sPR) KP VMKT[ Va JIe sRPTz. 4.+ eMJK aPQ KP RIVIV`IR K[MK . JIxIR (KP MHz) aPQ sPR
MJaK[LJg `IsPRI. 3. w[MKlH K[MK JPLHI{ vMRa (KP `RIMz) M KIMTQZ. *.+ (KP K[LJz) M`PQK LK
K[I NMHK K[RII qMaH! LKlH HQT[ M `PK[IR KP VI. /P LK RIMNNa LH M RINLIs KP KMNz LK PxIR eLK[ aPQ. ,.
iLHKIJ KP VI! MNN Ps aPQc . (KP TPVI) eLK[ K[I VPHK KRIVIJqPQH JIeH. 7.+ HII aPQ (JPK KP qP)
VQT[. w[MK aPQ (KP qP MNN K[I VPRJLJg{ b. .KlH [MRq KP `INLIxI K[MK LK (KP `I) PJNa KeP aIMRH
MJq M [MNs HLJTI . VIK [LV. 2. wI (JPK KP HII) GqeMRq sPR M NPJg KLVI. |I (KP T[MJgI) xIRa
VQT[{ 1P! [I LH QHK K[I HMVI. +). os TPQRHI! eI KRQHK [IR. dsKIR MNN! vMRgMRIK MJq . (KP
zJPe) iQTa MNN PQR NLxIH. ++.+ (JPK KP eIMR) K[LH qRIHH sPR KeP aIMRH. +2. va eMKT[ (KP gP)
sPR K[RII qMaH MJq LK (JPK KP HKPZ) aIK +4. mMTz (KP gP) KP 0QNgMRLM sPR M [PNLqMa! . [IMR. .
VaHINs JIxIR (KP `I) K[IRI.
c) TransIate these sentences into Russian:
+. .lxI `IIJ eMJKLJg M ePRq eLK[ aPQ! iIeLH. 2. /[I [MHJlK `PQg[K MJa JIe TNPK[IH HLJTI
K[I `IgLJJLJg Ps K[I aIMR. 4. |I [MH eRLKKIJ VI PJNa PJTI HLJTI [I eIJK MeMa; .lxI HIJK [LV
sPQR NIKKIRH. 3. .lV gPLJg KP HQggIHK HPVIK[LJg KP aPQ. .lxI `IIJ KMNzLJg LK PxIR eLK[ aPQR
VPK[IR. *. 0IRaN [MH `IIJ KINNLJg VI K[I VPHK MVMLJg K[LJgH. /QRINa! H[I VQHK `I
ISMggIRMKLJg. ,. .lxI MHzIq [LV KP NQJT[ PJ /QJqMa. 7. u[MKlH e[MK .lxI `IIJ KRaLJg KP
RIVIV`IR HLJTI . VIK [LV. b. r.K TMJlK `I KRQI. .KlH M qRIMV .lxI `IIJ [MxLJg!r H[I K[PQg[K. 2.
yPQ zJPe! .lxI VLHHIq aPQ xIRa VQT[ K[IHI NMHK sIe eIIzH. +). .lV MsRMLq . qPJlK QJqIRHKMJq
aPQ! UIRMNq. . [MxIJlK T[MJgIq Va VLJq. |MxI aPQ T[MJgIq aPQRH{
4. Use the Past Indefinite or the Present Perfect instead of the infinitives in brackets:
N o t e : Remember that the Present Perfect is always associated with the present,
and the Past Indefinite refers the action to some past moment.
+. .K LH [MNs ZMHK ILg[K MJq aPQ (JPK KP qP) aPQR VPRJLJg ISIRTLHIH aIK. 2.+ (KP gIK QZ) eLK[
M [IMqMT[I KPqMa MJq (KP qITLqI) KP eMNz KP Va PssLTI LJHKIMq Ps KMzLJg M `QH. 1Pe . MV
sIINLJg VQT[ `IKKIR. 4. yPQ (KP VIIK) MJa LJKIRIHKLJg ZIPZNI MK K[I [PNLqMa TMVZ{ 3. /[I (JPK
KP [MxI) M [PNLqMa sPR KeP aIMRH. *. yPQ (KP IJPa) vMRalH HLJgLJg{ ,. w[IRI aPQ (KP `Qa)
K[IHI NPxINa gNPxIH{ 7. w[IRI H[I (KP gP){ vMa`I H[I LH LJ K[I NM`{ 1P! . QHK (KP `I)
K[IRI. .KlH NPTzIq. b. w[a aPQ (KP H[QK) aPQR `PPz{ \NIMHI PZIJ LK MgMLJ PJ ZMgI KIJ. 2.+ MV
HPRRa. w[MK aPQ (KP HMa)! vR. |MRKNIa{ +). |LH sMTI HIIVH sMVLNLMR KP VI. w[IJ MJq e[IRI .
(KP HII) [LV{ ++.+ [IMR aPQ QHK (KP gIK) VMRRLIq. w[IJ K[I TIRIVPJa (KP KMzI ZNMTI){ +2.
oNq UIPRgI (JPK KP `I) [IRI sPR aIMRHc +4. yPQ (KP RIMq) ru[I vMJ Ps \RPZIRKar{ . (KP
`IgLJ) K[I `PPz NMHK eIIz MJq QHK (KP sLJLH[) LK. +3. d sIe VPJK[H MgP K[Ia (KP ZQNN) qPeJ
HPVI PNq [PQHIH LJ PQR HKRIIK MJq (KP `IgLJ) KP `QLNq M JIe `NPTz Ps sNMKH. +*. nP aPQ
RIVIV`IR Va JMVI! PR aPQ (KP sPRgIK) LK{ +,. w[IJ . (KP TMNN) PJ [LV . (KP sLJq) K[MK [I (KP
`I) PQK. +7. |LH sLRHK fQIHKLPJ KP K[I gLRN (KP `I): rw[IRI aPQ (KP HII) K[I VMJ{r +b. w[MK (KP
`I) [IR MJHeIR KP aPQR fQIHKLPJ{ +2. w[IRI aPQ (KP ZQK) Va QV`RINNM{ . JIIq LK. 2). |I (KP
HLK) K[IRI fQLIKNa sPR M e[LNI MJq K[IJ (KP NIMxI) QJJPKLTIq.
5. a) Comment on the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous, the Past Perfect and the Past
Perfect Continuous:
+. |I eMH KLRIq [I eMH HP xIRa KLRIq. .K HIIVIq KP [LV K[MK [I [Mq `IIJ KLRIq sPR M xIRa
NPJg KLVI. 2. URMJK eIJK KP K[I qRMeLJgRPPV! e[IRI dNLHPJ eMH HLKKLJg eLK[ M `PPz. 4. /[I
NLHKIJIq! `QK TPQNq JPK sPNNPe e[MK eMH `ILJg HMLq. 3. w[IJ LK eMH KLVI KP gP . MHzIq Ls .
TPQNq HII K[I RPPVH . [Mq NLxIq LJ sPR sLxI aIMRH. *. 1P`Pqa zJIe [I eMH gPLJg KP iPJqPJ
PJ /QJqMa. ,. dNN K[I HKPRLIH LJ K[LH `PPz eIRI eRLKKIJ `IsPRI K[I sLRHK wPRNq wMR.
b) Use the required past tense instead of the infinitives in brackets:
+. .K (KP `I) K[I ZPPRIHK RPPV |LNMRa IxIR (KP HII). 2. 1P HPPJIR H[I (KP MRRLxI) MK K[I
HKMKLPJ K[MJ M sMHK iPJqPJ KRMLJ (KP TPVI LJ). 4. .K (KP `I qITLqIq) KP HMa JPK[LJg KP /LqJIa
QJKLN K[I MJHeIR (KP `I RITILxIq). 3. dRK[QR (KP gP) QZ KP [LH RPPV. 1PK[LJg LJ LK (KP `I
T[MJgIq) HLJTI [LH MRRIHK. *. 1P ePJqIR [I (KP `I) xIRa KLRIq. |I (KP ePRz) KPP [MRq sPR K[I
NMHK K[RII VPJK[H! ,. . (KP KRIV`NI) KLzI M NIMs. 7. vR. nIJJMJK! MTTQHKPVIq KP NMQg[ MK PK[IR
ZIPZNI! (KP HQHZITK) K[MK [I (KP `I NMQg[Iq) MK. b. /[I (KP HMa) LK LJ M xPLTI [I JIxIR (KP [IMR)
`IsPRI. 2.+ (KP NPPz) LJKP K[I zLKT[IJ. vMRadJJ (KP ZQK) K[I HQZZIR PJ M KRMa KP KMzI LK LJKP
K[I qLJLJgRPPV. +).+ (KP `I) sLsKIIJ MJq QHK (KP TPVI) `MTz sRPV HT[PPN sPR K[I HQVVIR
[PNLqMa. ++. .K (KP RMLJ) [IMxLNa HLJTI K[I VPRJLJg MJq H[I (JPK KP MNNPe) K[I T[LNqRIJ KP gP
PQK. +2. /PPJ . (KP gIK) M NIKKIR sRPV [IR KP K[I IssITK K[MK H[I (KP RIKQRJ) sRPV K[I /PQK[ Ps
pRMJTI; H[I (KP eMJK) VI KP VIIK [IR. +4. uRMsMNgMR /fQMRI (KP `I NMLq) M`PQK M [QJqRIq aIMRH
MgP. +3.+ (KP sLJLH[) Va ePRz sPR K[I qMa MJq (KP RIHK) fQLIKNa LJ Va MRVT[MLR! sNQJzLJg Ps
K[I qMaH K[MK (KP gP) `a. +*. UIPRgI! e[P (KP NMQg[) NPQqNa! HQqqIJNa (KP `RIMz Pss). +,.
w[IJ 0MV`aH VPK[IR (KP HKMJq) QZ [IR [IMq (KP `I [LqqIJ) MVPJg K[I `RMJT[IH. +7. /[I (KP
RIMq) K[I `PPz IxIR HLJTI H[I (KP TPVI) sRPV HT[PPN MJq TPQNqJlK KIMR [IRHINs MeMa sRPV LK.
+b. /[I (KP zJPe) mLV sPR VPRI K[MJ KIJ aIMRH! IxIR HLJTI [IR [QH`MJq! e[P (KP KIMT[) MK K[MK
KLVI LJ M URMVVMR HT[PPN LJ iPJqPJ! sLRHK [Mq VMqI [LH MTfQMLJKMJTI K[RPQg[ K[I iM`PQR
\MRKa. +2. |I (KP HMa) [I (KP eMLK) sPR VPRI K[MJ MJ [PQR. 2). . (KP `I) HQRI K[Ia (KP KMNz)
M`PQK VI! `ITMQHI K[Ia (KP `RIMz Pss) MH HPPJ MH . (KP IJKIR). 2+. |I (KP HMa) [I (KP gIK) KeP
NIKKIRH sRPV dNLTI. 22. u[I RMLJ K[MK (KP sMNN) HLJTI K[I VPRJLJg (KP TIMHI) `a K[I MsKIRJPPJ!
`QK M HKRPJg eLJq HKLNN (KP `NPe) MJq K[I Hza (KP `I TPxIRIq) eLK[ qMRz TNPQqH.
6. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, paying attention to the use of tenses:
+. 8D! 6; . 2. AD5! Y$!
9 ;6 5. 4. "8 >! ! D. 3. ' 8
> ! ; $. *. X 6! $
E$ $. ,. - ;. Y8 { 7. X! 7 $
5 8! 5D 8$. b. ' > 8D $; 8$6
. 2. ; ; 7! 8;. +). ' >
;! 7 ! D . ++. 6 $
86! $8 >$ $. +2. _$ 8 8 { < % 6
D$. +4. 8 D >! 85 { . ; 8 ; D{
< 6$$ %. ' ; 6 $. +3. ( $
$ %! $ 6 8D $8. +*. ' ;
8. +,. - 5 85 . ' $ 5 ;{
7. a) Comment on the use of the future tenses (the Future Indefinite, the Future Continuous
and the Future Perfect):
+. nPJlK TPVI HP IMRNa. mLV eLNN HKLNN `I HNIIZLJg! .lV HQRI. 2. 0a K[I +HK Ps mMJQMRa [I eLNN
[MxI ePRzIq MK K[I NM`PRMKPRa sPR HLS aIMRH. 4. nPJlK KINN aPQR MQJK M`PQK LK. /[I eLNN `I
KINNLJg LK KP PK[IR MQJKH. 3. .lNN KRa KP gIK K[IRI MH HPPJ MH . TMJ. *. dJPK[IR KIJ aIMRH MJq aPQlNN
[MxI sPRgPKKIJ MNN M`PQK LK. ,. r. VQHK `I Pss!r [I HMLq. r.NN `I `MTz sPR NQJT[.r
b) Use the required future or present tense instead of tee infinitives in brackets where
necessary:
+. |Pe aPQlxI gRPeJc UPPq gRMTLPQH VI! aPQ (KP gIK) M VPQHKMT[I HPPJc 2.+ [PZI aPQ
(JPK KP sPRgIK) MNN K[LH `a KPVPRRPec 4. 0a JISK /QJqMa aPQ (KP HKMa) eLK[ QH sPR sLxI eIIzH.
3. .s eI (JPK KP gIK) K[IRI `IsPRI HIxIJ! K[Ia (KP qP) IxIRaK[LJg. *.+ ZRP`M`Na (KP eMJK) KP HII
K[I `PPz `IsPRI [I (KP sLJLH[) LK. ,. yPQ VQHK JPK IMK MJa HPNLq sPPq QJKLN aPQR KIVZIRMKQRI
(KP gP qPeJ). 7.+ zJPe aPQ (KP e[LHZIR) e[IJ \Ig (KP gP). yPQ MNeMaH qP. b. w[IJ eI (KP
gIK) `MTz K[Ia (KP [MxI) HQZZIR. 2. iPPzc u[I NIMxIH MRI aINNPe! K[Ia (KP sMNN) HPPJ. +).
w[LNI . (KP NLxI)! . MNeMaH (KP RIVIV`IR) [LH sMTI. ++.+ qPJlK K[LJz [I (KP eLRI) `IsPRI [I (KP
MRRLxI). +2. 1P`Pqa zJPeH e[IJ LK MNN (KP `I HIKKNIq). +4. .lV JPK HQRI Ls [I (KP `I) gNMq KP HII
VI. +3. /[I (KP qP) [IR [PVIePRz MsKIR HQZZIR. +*.+ HQZZPHI aPQ (KP ePRz) xIRa [MRq LJ K[I
MQKQVJ.
8. Use the reguired tense instead of the infinitives in brackets:
r/[MNN . TMNN MgMLJ KPVPRRPe{r (KP MHz) K[I qPTKPR! `IsPRI KMzLJg NIMxI Ps K[I PNq VMJ.
ro[! JP! eI (KP HIJq) sPR aPQ Ls H[I (JPK KP `I) HP eINN!r [I (KP RIZNa). r/[I (KP [MxI)
[MRqNa MJa KIVZIRMKQRI KPqMa; [IR TPQg[ LH IMHLIR; MJq K[I ZMLJ fQLKI (KP qLHMZZIMR). . TMJlK
K[LJz! K[PQg[! [Pe H[I (KP TMKT[) K[LH gIRV. /[I [MRqNa (KP `I) PQK Ps K[I [PQHI sPR K[I NMHK
K[RII eIIzH! PeLJg KP K[I LJKIJHIJIHH Ps K[I TPNq! MJq JP`Pqa INHI (KP [MxI) LJsNQIJM! PR
IxIJ M TPNq.r
r/[I (KP `I) TIRKMLJNa xIRa HQ`ITK KP LJsITKLPJ. /[I IxIR (KP KRa) M TPQRHI Ps LJITKLPJH KP
HKRIJgK[IJ [IR HaHKIV MgMLJHK K[IHI gIRVH{ u[RII LJITKLPJH MK LJKIRxMNH Ps M eIIz! MK K[I
`IgLJJLJg Ps K[I eLJKIR! eLNN PsKIJ ePRz VMRxINH.r
r.K (KP `I) qLssLTQNK KP ZIRHQMqI [IR KP KMzI TMRI Ps [IRHINs! qPTKPR!r (KP HLg[) K[I sMK[IR!
r`QK e[IJ H[I (KP `I) `IKKIR . TIRKMLJNa (KP HQggIHK) LK KP [IR.r
9. RepIace the Infinitives in brackets by the required tense, paying attention to the sequence
of tenses:
vMJa aIMRH MgP . (KP `I K[RPeJ) `a MTTLqIJK MVPJg M TIRKMLJ HPTLIKa Ps GJgNLH[VIJ! e[P!
e[IJ K[Ia (KP `I) MNN KPgIK[IR! JIxIR (KP KMNz) M`PQK MJaK[LJg ePRK[ KMNzLJg M`PQK. u[ILR
gIJIRMN TPJxIRHMKLPJH (KP `I) M`HPNQKINa IVZKa MJq qQNN! MJq . (KP TPJTNQqI)! MH aPQJg VIJ
HP IMHLNa (KP TPJTNQqI)! K[MK K[PHI KeIJKa PR K[LRKa gIJKNIVIJ (KP [MxI) JPK [MNs M qPIJ LqIMH
MVPJg K[IV. d NLKKNI RIsNITKLPJ (KP RIVLJq) VI! [PeIxIR! K[MK Va PeJ KMNz (KP `I) JP `IKKIR
K[MJ K[ILRH! MJq TPJHIfQIJKNa K[MK K[IRI (VMa) `I PK[IRH LJ K[I TPVZMJa e[P MNHP (KP zJPe)
VPRI MJq (KP K[LJz) VPRI K[MJ K[Ia (KP ISZRIHH). . (KP sLJq) PQK `a MTTLqIJK! MsKIR M e[LNI! K[MK
HPVI os K[IHI VIJ (KP [MxI) VPRI K[MJ TPVVPJ TQNKQRI LJ xMRLPQH qLRITKLPJH: PJI PR KeP (KP
KRMxIN) sMR! MJq (KP `RLJg) [PVI K[I RIHQNKH Ps VQT[ P`HIRxMKLPJ; PJI PR KeP (KP RIMq) NMRgINa!
MJq eLK[ ZRPsLK; VPRI K[MJ PJI (KP HKQqa) M HTLIJTI; sLxI PR HLS (KP HII) M gRIMK qIMN Ps K[I
ePRNq. .K (KP `I) M aPQK[sQN VLHKMzI KP TPJTNQqI K[I VIJ (KP `I) qQNN `ITMQHI K[ILR gIJIRMN
TPJxIRHMKLPJ (KP `I) xIRa qQNN. u[I gIJIRMN TPJxIRHMKLPJH Ps GJgNLH[ HPTLIKa (KP `I) qQNN; LK
(KP `I) M JMKLPJMN T[MRMTKIRLHKLT.
10. Change the foIIowing from direct into indirect speech:
/QqqIJNa K[IRI TMVI M zJPTz KP K[I qPPR MJq nPRLMJ [IMRq iPRq |IJRalH xPLTI PQKHLqI:
rva qIMR `Pa! . VQHK HII aPQ. iIK VI LJ MK PJTI. . TMJJPK `IMR aPQR H[QKKLJg aPQRHINs QZ NLzI
K[LH.r
nPRLMJ VMqI JP MJHeIR MK sLRHK! `QK K[IJ QVZIq QZ MJq QJNPTzIq K[I qPPR.
r. MV HPRRa sPR LK MNN! nPRLMJ!r HMLq iPRq |IJRa! MH [I IJKIRIq. r0QK aPQ VQHK JPK K[LJz KPP
VQT[ Ps LK. uINN VI! qLq aPQ HII /L`aN :MJI MsKIR K[I ZNMa eMH PxIR{r
ryIH! MJq . eMH `RQKMN KP [IR! |MRRa ZIRsITKNa `RQKMN. 0QK LK LH MNN RLg[K JPe!r
rd[! nPRLMJ! . MV HP gNMq. . eMH MsRMLq Ps sLJqLJg aPQ KIMRLJg K[MK JLTI TQRNa [MLR Ps
aPQRH.r
r. [MxI gPK K[RPQg[ MNN K[MK!r HMLq nPRLMJ! H[MzLJg [LH [MJq MJq HVLNLJg. r. MV ZIRsITKNa
[MZZa JPe. . eMJK KP `I gPPq; . TMJlK `IMR K[I LqIM Ps Va HPQN `ILJg HP `Mq MJq QgNa. . H[MNN
`IgLJ `a VMRRaLJg /L`aN :MJI.r ($fter
oHTMR wLNqI)
11. Use the required teases instead of the infinitives in brackets:
. (KP JPKLTI) K[MK e[IJ HPVIPJI (KP MHz) sPR aPQ PJ K[I KINIZ[PJI MJq! sLJqLJg aPQ PQK! (KP
NIMxI) M VIHHMgI `IggLJg aPQ KP TMNN [LV QZ K[I VPVIJK aPQ TPVI LJ! K[I VMKKIR (KP `I)
VPRI LVZPRKMJK KP [LV K[MJ KP aPQ. w[IJ LK (KP TPVI) KP VMzLJg aPQ M ZRIHIJK PR qPLJg aPQ
M sMxPQR VPHK ZIPZNI (KP `I) M`NI KP [PNq K[ILR LVZMKLIJTI. /P e[IJ . (KP `I) KPNq `a vLHH
pINNPeH! Va NMJqNMqa! K[MK vR. dNRPa jIMR (KP eLH[) VI KP RLJg [LV QZ MK PJTI! . (KP sIIN)
K[MK . (TMJ) HMsINa LgJPRI [LH RIfQIHK.
. (JPK KP HII) Pa sPR K[RII VPJK[H MJq K[IJ PJNa sPR M sIe VLJQKIH MK M ZMRKa. riPJqPJ (KP
`I) MesQN!r [I (KP HMa). roJI JIxIR (KP [MxI) KLVI KP HII MJa Ps K[I ZIPZNI PJI (KP eMJK) KP.
iIKlH NQJT[ KPgIK[IR PJI qMa! H[MNN eI{r
dH . (KP HVPzI) M ZLZI `IsPRI gPLJg KP `Iq . (KP KQRJ) PxIR LJ Va VLJq K[I ZPHHL`NI
RIMHPJH sPR e[LT[ Pa (VMa) eMJK VI KP NQJT[ eLK[ [LV. ($fter /.
vMQg[MV)
12. Think of a suitabIe context to use the foIIowing sentences:
+. .KlH `IIJ M ePJqIRsQN IxIJLJg sPR VI.
2. wI MRI HKMRKLJg MK qMeJ.
4. .lxI `IIJ NPPzLJg sPR aPQ IxIRae[IRI. w[a MRI aPQ MNeMaH [LqLJg sRPV VI{
3. va qIMR mPJJac |Pe NPJg aPQlxI `IIJ TPVLJg [PVIc
*. /ZNIJqLq KP K[LJz eIlNN `I gIKKLJg LJKP K[I TPQJKRa K[LH eIIzIJqc
,. . eMH HQRI . [Mq HIIJ [IR. 0QK e[IRI{ w[IRI [Mq . HIIJ K[I gLRN{
13. TransIate these sentences Into EngIish:
+. '! >! ; ; { <! . ' 9 P $. 2.
' ]9 % $! ; $6. 4. ' 6
;5; 8. ' 9 ! . 3. # 8 8
E ${ X! ! 8 $ >. *. ' ;
! 9 $. ,. F7 $; ! ; $;
5. 7. 8 9 6! > $ ;. b. 8 ;
;{ 2. (5 > . +). <6 5 8 $! $ 8
! $8 5 . A. =$ ; +) !
> ?. +2. ' ! D ;$$! 9
5 $. +4. 8D! 9 6%. 7
6% { +3. h > >= 8$ %$ 8$ $
;85 6%8. $; 5 8D! 5 9D 87. +*. F
>6! D ;! ; $6 7. +,. !
$ 86 $ 9 9! =9
.
14. Use the required tenses instead of the infinitives in brackets:
u[I NMJqNMqa (KP `RLJg) K[I KIM. . (JPK KP eMJK) MJaK[LJg! `QK uIq (KP VMzI) VI IMK HPVI
[MV. u[IJ . (KP HLK) MK K[I eLJqPe. . (JPK KP NPPz) RPQJq e[IJ K[I NMJqNMqa (KP TPVI QZ) KP
TNIMR MeMa! . (JPK KP eMJK) MJaPJI KP HZIMz KP VI. uIq (KP RIMq) M `PPz; MK NIMHK [I (KP
ZRIKIJq) KP! `QK [I (JPK KP KQRJ) K[I ZMgI! MJq . (KP HII) K[I KIMRH qRPZZLJg PJ LK. . (KP zIIZ PJ)
NPPzLJg PQK Ps K[I eLJqPe. .K (KP `I) K[I IJq Ps mQJI! MJq K[I qMaH (KP `I) NPJg. . (KP NPPz) MK
K[I ZIPZNI gPLJg LJ MJq PQK Ps K[I ZQ`NLT[PQHI MJq K[I KRMVH gPLJg QZ MJq qPeJ. . (KP
K[LJz) K[I qMa JIxIR (KP TPVI) KP MJ IJq; K[IJ MNN Ps M HQqqIJ . (KP JPKLTI) K[MK LK (KP `I)
JLg[K. dNN K[I NMVZH (KP `I NLK).
rw[a aPQ (JPK KP NLg[K) K[I gMH{r . (KP HMa) KP uIq. r.KlH JP gPPq HLKKLJg LJ K[I qMRz.r
|I (KP NLg[K) K[I gMH. . qPJlK zJPe e[MK (KP TPVI) PxIR VI. . (KP sIIN) K[MK Ls . (KP gP PJ)
HLKKLJg LJ K[MK RPPV . (KP gP) VMq. . (KP eMJK) KP gP HPVIe[IRI e[IRI K[IRI (KP `I) NLg[KH MJq
ZIPZNI.
15. Comment on the use of tenses in the foIIowing sentences and transIate them into
Russian:
+. /[I NPPzIq MK VI ePJqIRLJgNa MH Ls MHzLJg! rw[MK [MH `IIJ [MZZIJLJg KP VI{r 2. |IR
HPsK xPLTI VMqI [LV KRIV`NI. r. sIIN aPQlxI `IIJ [IRI sPR aIMRH!r H[I HMLql. 4. dJq JPe!
nMqqa! . K[LJz .lq `IKKIR gP `MTz! LJ TMHI vQVValH ePJqIRLJg e[IRI . MV. 3. u[IJ H[I
ePzI QZ MJq HMLq! r|MxI . `IIJ MHNIIZ{r *.+ [PZI . [MxIJlK qLHKQR`Iq aPQ. yPQ eIRIJlK
MHNIIZ! eIRI aPQ{ ,. ryPQlxI gRPeJcr HMLq MJqMNN. .K eMH KRQI. /[I [Mq T[MJgIq. 7.
UPPqJIHH gRMTLPQHc w[MKlH K[MK{ .KlH K[I TNPTz HKRLzLJgc /P NMKI! MJq . [MxI `IIJ zIIZLJg aPQ
MeMzI. UPPq JLg[K! GNNIJ. b. r/KIxI NPxIq `LRqH!r HMLq vLRMJqM. r|I MNeMaH QHIq KP sIIq
K[IV. |I ePQNq RLJg M `INN IxIRa VPRJLJg MJq K[I `LRqH ePQNq TPVI.r 2. u[I eLJq [Mq
qRPZZIq M NLKKNI MJq sRPV HPVIe[IRI `I[LJq K[I [PQHI M TQTzPP eMH TMNNLJg. +). yPQ HZIMz
KP VI! MH aPQ MNeMaH qP! eLK[ K[I xPLTI Ps RIMNLKa. dJq e[MK aPQlxI `IIJ HMaLJg LH fQLKI
RLg[K. ++. GVVM RIVPxIq [IR gNMHHIH MJq HIK [IR zJLKKLJg MHLqI. /[I TMRIHHIq [IR TNPHIq IaIH
sPR M VPVIJK eLK[ NPJg sLJgIRH. +2. /[I HMLq! RPQHLJg [IRHINs! r/PRRa! iQTa! e[MK qLq aPQ
HMa{r +4. w[IJ pRMJTLH MJq pPa NIsK! jMK[IRLJI MHzIq iIeLH e[MK K[Ia [Mq `IIJ KINNLJg [LV
M`PQK aPQJg iQzI. +3. nP aPQ zJPe e[IJ K[I RIHQNKH eLNN `I PQK{ +*. |I NPPzIq MK [LH
eMKT[. .K eMH KLVI KP gP LJ JPe. vLNqRIq ePQNq `I eMLKLJg sPR [LV!
16. Use the required tenses instead of the infinitives in brackets and transIate the sentences
into Russian:
.. iIKlH [MxI qLJJIR QZ [IRI. .s eI (KP gP) qPeJ KP K[I RIHKMQRMJK eI (KP `I LJKIRRQZKIq)!
MJq K[I VQHLT (KP `I) HP NPQq K[IRI. wI (JPK KP `I) M`NI KP [IMR IMT[ PK[IR HZIMz. 2. yPQ
RIMNNa JIxIR (KP `I) KP M `MNN `IsPRI! iILNM{ 4. va eLsI (KP `I) LJ GQRPZI sPR K[I NMHK KIJ
VPJK[H PJ M xLHLK KP PQR INqIHK gLRN! e[P (KP `I VMRRLIq) NMHK aIMR. 3. |INNP! mP[Jc yPQ (KP
eMLK) NPJg{ *. /[I (KP KINN) [LV K[MK H[I (KP RLJg) [LV! `QK H[I (JPK KP qP) HP. ,. |I (KP NPPz)
QZ eLK[ HQRZRLHI! r.JqLM{ yPQ (KP gP) KP .JqLM{r 7.+ JIxIR (KP zJPe) MJaPJI . (KP NLzI) MH
VQT[ MH . (KP NLzI) aPQ. . JIxIR (KP sIIN) HP [MZZa eLK[ MJaPJI. 0QK . (KP `I) HQRI LK (JPK KP
`I) e[MK ZIPZNI MJq e[MK `PPzH (KP VIMJ) e[IJ K[Ia (KP KMNz) M`PQK NPxI. b. .K eMH JPe PxIR
M aIMR. |I (JPK KP [IMR) sRPV [IR HLJTI H[I (KP NIMxI)! ISTIZK sPR M ZPHKTMRq. 2. u[I gRIIJ
qPPR (KP PZIJ) MJq (KP H[QK) MgMLJ MJq MNN (KP `I) HLNIJTI. |I (KP eMLK) M VLJQKI PR KeP. w[MK
K[Ia (KP HMa) KP IMT[ PK[IR JPe{ +). /[I (KP `I) qLHMZZPLJKIq Ls aPQ (JPK KP TPVI). MJqMNN
(KP [IHLKMKI). r1P!r [I (KP HMa). r. (JPK KP TPVI) LJ. yPQ TMJ gP MNPJI.r ++. UPPq [IMxIJH!
Va PNq qPNNc yPQ (KP sLJq) LK LJ dJJlH RPPV{ . (KP sPRgIK) MNN M`PQK LK `a JPe. +2. va VPK[IR
(KP TPVI) KP HKMa eLK[ QH JISK eIIzIJq. +4. u[I gMRqIJ (KP NPPz) fQLKI qLssIRIJK JPe e[IJ
K[I NIMxIH (KP sMNN). +3.+ (KP `I) HQRI aPQ (KP sLJLH[) aPQR ePRz `a HLS PlTNPTz. +*. /[I (KP HMa)
H[I (KP qP) K[I eMH[LJg KPVPRRPe. +,. mMgP KPNq GNLPK K[MK 1Lg[KLJgMNI MJq [I QHK (KP
qLHTQHH) K[I sQKQRI Ps K[I TPNNIgI.
17. Use the required tenses instead of the infinitives in brackets and comment on their use:
+.+ PJNa eMJK KP MHz e[IJ K[I qITLHLPJ (KP KMzI); eIlq NLzI KP zJPe K[I qMKI! K[MKlH MNN 2.
r|MNNP! aPQ KeP!r [I (KP TRa) gMLNa. rw[IRI aPQ (KP [LqI){r 4. .lV MsRMLq . VQHK `I Pss JPe.
va ZMRIJKH (KP TPVI) KP HII VI QJISZITKIqNa. u[MJz aPQ! vRH! wINT[. . (KP IJPa) VaHINs
xIRa VQT[. UPPq`aI. 3. vMRgMRIK \IIN (KP KINN) VI K[MK 0IRKRMJq (KP TPVI) qPeJ MK K[I
eIIzIJq. *. |I eMH MNMRVIq `a K[I K[PQg[K K[MK [I (KP [MxI) KP KMNz KP K[I gLRN MNN K[I eMa
`MTz. ,. .J K[I qLJLJgHMNPPJ [I (KP JPKLTI) K[MK K[I qMRz VMJ e[P (KP HLK) MNPJI (KP `I) JPe
MK M KM`NI eLK[ vRH. OPTzHPJ MJq vRH. 0IJHPJ. 7. vR. \LJsPNq (JPK KP HNIIZ) sPR xIRa NPJg.
|I (KP MeMzI) MH QHQMN xIRa IMRNa. b.+ qPJlK HII e[MK aPQ (KP qRLxI) MK. 2. . zJPe xIRa NLKKNI
Ps [LV! K[PQg[ eI (KP NLxI) HP JIMR MNN K[IHI aIMRH. +).+ (KP eMJK) QH KP [MxI M NLKKNI KMNz sPR
fQLKI HPVI KLVI! PNq `Pa. GxIR HLJTI K[MK HQVVIR 0MNN! LJ sMTK. ++. dH K[Ia (KP HKRPNN) QZ
OPNNIgI PMq! 0IIHNIa `IgMJ KMNzLJg M`PQK K[I ISMVLJMKLPJ RIHQNKH LJ [LH nIZMRKVIJK +2.+
eMJK KP HIJq M KINIgRMV. . (JPK KP sIIN) xIRa eINN. . (KP ePJqIR) Ls aPQ (TMJ) eRLKI LK sPR VI{
+4. nLSPJ eMH M `LK qLHMZZPLJKIq! [I (KP sIIN) JPJI Ps K[I ZNIMHQRM`NI ISTLKIVIJK [I (KP
ISZITK). +3. wI (KP TPVI) sPR aPQ e[IJ eI (KP eMJK) aPQ. 0IKKIR NPTz K[I qPPR. +*.+ (KP
[MxI) Va IaI PJ [LV IxIR HLJTI eI (KP HKMRK). yPQ (KP JPKLTI) MJaK[LJg Pqq M`PQK [LV{ +,.
|I eMH JPK M TRQIN VMJ `a JMKQRI! MJq (KP `I) HITRIKNa M NLKKNI MH[MVIq Ps K[I ZMRK [I (KP
ZNMa) qQRLJg K[I NMHK VPJK[.
I8. Pay attention to the use of the Continuous tenses. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
+. r|Pe MRI aPQ{r H[I MHzIq. rdNN RLg[K! K[MJzH; . have &een wor/ing"k 2. I6ve &een
ta./ing KP K[I \RLJTLZMN M`PQK K[I OPNNIgI oZIJ wIIz MK K[I IJq Ps K[I KIRV. 4. rwI are MNN
waiting, 1Iq!r vRH. wINT[ HMLq sRPV K[I ZLMJP. 3. .lxI eRLKKIJ KP }JTNI MHzLJg [LV KP NIK VI
zJPe e[IJ [IlH )oming `MTz. *. wINN! .lV HQRI aPQ MZZRITLMKI! \RPsIHHPR! K[MK .lxI &een
worrying M`PQK Va ZPHLKLPJ [IRI LJ K[I NMHK sIe VPJK[H. ,. . [PZI xIRa VQT[ aPQ6.. &e
)oming PJ /MKQRqMa. . [PZI HP KPP. UPPq`aI. 7. |I wa0 .oo/ing for hi0 TLgMRIKKIH e[IJ
mP[J TMVI LJ MK K[I qPPR. Wad [I &een .i0teningE b. o[! `a K[I eMa! OMRPN! .lxI &een
meaning KP KINN aPQ K[MK O[RLHKLJIlH )oming KP K[I qMJTI MsKIR MNN! MJq H[IlH &ringing [IR
QJTNI eLK[ [IR. 2. .lxI &een fee.ing xIRa qIZRIHHIq RITIJKNa. +). r|Pe are aPQ fee.ing,
/KIxI{r [LH eLsI MHzIq [LV! rJPK HP KLRIq! . [PZI{r ++. dK K[I IJq Ps qLJJIR vRH. /TMRsLINq
MHzIq: rdRI aPQ %oining QH sPR M RQ``IR{r MJq [I RIZNLIq: r1PK K[LH IxIJLJg! .lV MsRMLq.r +2.
r.lV MesQNNa HPRRa!r HMLq UNPxIR. r. HLVZNa qPJlK zJPe e[MK aPQlRI ta./ing a&out" +4. w[a!
K[MKlH ISMTKNa e[MK .lxI &een 0aying, LJ qLssIRIJK ePRqH. +3. nLSPJ! e[P had &een 0howing M
qLHZPHLKLPJ KP KRIV`NI! sPQJq [LH HZLRLKH zLTzLJg QZeMRqH MK K[I HLg[K Ps M KRMa eLK[ TQZH! M
sNMHz! MJq `LHTQLKH. +*. o[! vR. nLSPJ! .lxI &een wondering e[IJ . H[MNN HII aPQ MgMLJ. .
[MxI PJI PR KeP ZPLJKH . eMJK KP KMzI QZ eLK[ aPQ. +,. u[MK IxIJLJg `IsPRI qLJJIR [I PLJIq
K[I /TMRsLINqH. r.J M TPQZNI Ps qMaH it wi.. &e getting [PK!r HMLq vRH. /TMRsLINq. +7. 1Pe K[IJ!
nPRLH! eIlxI PJNa &een 0(ea/ing KP aPQ sPR aPQR PeJ gPPq.
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD AND THE CONDITIONAL MOOD
(To Units One-Three)
19. Name the obIique moods used in the foIIowing sentences and transIate the sentences
into Russian:
+. .s . eIRI aPQJg . H[PQNq [MxI M eMNzLJg [PNLqMa. 2. .s . eIRI aPQ . H[PQNq ZMa JP
MKKIJKLPJ KP e[MK H[I HMaH. 4. u[I xMHI LH `IMQKLsQN. yPQ ePQNqJlK sLJq MJPK[IR KP VMKT[ LK Ls
aPQ KRLIq. 3. .s aPQ [MKIq HLTz ZIPZNI aPQ ePQNqJlK `I M qPTKPR! qIMR. *. u[Ia HMa pRMJz [MH
T[MJgIq gRIMKNa. o[! aIH. yPQ ePQNq [MRqNa zJPe [LV Ls aPQ VIK [LV. ,. .s . [Mq zJPeJ
K[MK! . H[PQNqJlK [MxI TPVI. 7. wI H[PQNq JIxIR [MxI sPQJq K[I [PQHI Ls M ZMHHIR`a [MqJlK
[INZIq QH. b. .s aPQ [Mq NIsK IMRNLIR aPQ ePQNq [MxI TMQg[K K[I KRMV. 2. .s aPQ [Mq KMzIJ K[I
VIqLTLJI K[I qPTKPR ZRIHTRL`Iq aPQ! aPQ ePQNq sIIN `IKKIR JPe. +). .s aPQ [Mq RIMq K[I
MRKLTNI . RITPVVIJqIq! aPQlq zJPe [Pe KP MJHeIR HQT[ fQIHKLPJH.
20. Comment on the mood of the verb in the foIIowing sentences:
+. .lNN [INZ aPQ Ls . TMJ. 2. /[QK K[I qPPR MsKIR aPQc 4. /[I qLq JPK zJPe e[IRI H[I eMH MJq
e[MK [Mq [MZZIJIq. 3.+ RIVIV`IR LK HP TNIMRNa MH Ls LK [Mq [MZZIJIq PJNa aIHKIRqMa. *. /[I
ZRPVLHIq H[I ePQNq `I TMNV. ,. /[I ePQNqJlK `I TMNV Ls H[I zJIe e[MK [MH [MZZIJIq. 7. /[I
HMLq H[I qLqJlK zJPe VI. b. nPJlK NPPz MK VI MH Ls aPQ qLqJlK zJPe VI. 2. u[I MRKLTNI eMH JPK
qLssLTQNK MJq . TPQNq KRMJHNMKI LK. +). .s . [Mq M qLTKLPJMRa . TPQNq KRMJHNMKI K[I MRKLTNI. ++. .s .
[Mq JPK KPNq [LV! [I ePQNq JIxIR [MxI zJPeJ. +2. /[I eMH HQRI . [Mq JPK KPNq [LV K[I `Mq
JIeH.
21. CompIete the foIIowing sentences a) using the ConditionaI Mood;
+. .s LK eIRI JPK HP NMKI ... . 2. .s LK eIRI /QJqMa KPqMa ... . 4. .s aPQ LJxLKIq [LV ... . 3. .s .
eIRI aPQ ... . *. .s H[I NLxIq LJ vPHTPe ... . ,. .s aPQ [Mq eMLKIq M NLKKNI ... . 7. .s . TPQNq ZNMa
K[I ZLMJP.... b. .s aPQ [Mq qPJI MH . KPNq aPQ .... 2. .s H[I eIRI Va HLHKIR.... +). .s K[I eIMK[IR
eIRI sLJI ... .
b) using the Subjunctive Mood:
+. wI H[PQNq gP KP K[I TPQJKRa Ls .... 2.+ H[PQNq [INZ [IR Ls.... 4. |I ePQNq [MxI qPJI LK sPR
aPQ! JP qPQ`K! Ls.... 3. u[Ia ePQNq ZNMa KIJJLH JPe Ls .... *.+ H[PQNq [MxI TPVI aIHKIRqMa
Ls.... ,. w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP Ls... { 7. .K ePQNq `I xIRa JLTI Ls.... b. .lq [MxI M eMNzLJg [PNLqMa
Ls.... 2. u[Ialq `I PJNa xIRa gNMq Ls.... +). GxIRaK[LJg ePQNq [MxI `IIJ MNN RLg[K Ls....
22. SuppIy the correct mood of the verbs in brackets:
+. .s K[Ia (JPK KP [INZ) QH eI (JPK KP sLJq) K[I eMa. 2. .s . (KP [MxI) IJPQg[ VPJIa . (KP
`Qa) K[LH TMHHIKKIRITPRqIR. 4. yPQ (KP `I) M`NI KP HZIMz GJgNLH[ `IKKIR Ls aPQ (KP HKQqa)
[MRqIR. 3. .s H[I (KP `I) PNqIR H[I (KP QJqIRHKMJq) aPQ `IKKIR. *. .s [I (KP `I) LJ KPeJ
aIHKIRqMa [I (KP TMNN) PJ QH. ,. wI (KP IJPa) K[I ZNMa `IKKIR Ls LK (JPK KP `I) HP NPJg. 7. va
QJTNI (KP `I) M`NI KP [INZ QH Ls [I (KP `I) [IRI. b.+ (KP qP) K[I HMVI Ls . (KP `I) K[IRI. 2. .s . (KP
zJPe) Ps aPQR MRRLxMN . (KP VIIK) aPQ. +). .s aPQ (KP zJPe) e[MK LK LH MNN M`PQK! aPQ (JPK KP
zIIZ PJ) HVLNLJg. ++. .s aPQ (KP gP) KP K[I K[IMKRI NMHK JLg[K! .lV HQRI! aPQ (KP IJPa) K[I ZNMa.
+2. |I (KP MTK) qLssIRIJKNa Ls [I (KP RIMNLI) K[I HLKQMKLPJ. +4. .s H[I (KP TPVI) IMRNLIR H[I (KP
`I) M`NI KP HII K[IV `IsPRI K[Ia eIJK PQK. +3. 1P`Pqa KPNq VI M`PQK aPQR KRPQ`NI. . (KP [INZ)
aPQ Ls . (KP [IMR) M`PQK LK. +*.+ (KP TPVI) HPPJIR Ls . (KP zJPe) aPQ eIRI [IRI. +,. wI (JPK KP
zJPe) MJaK[LJg M`PQK K[ILR ZNMJH sPR K[I HQVVIR [PNLqMaH Ls vMRLP (JPK KP HIJq) QH M NIKKIR.
+7. .s aPQ (KP TPVI) `IKeIIJ KeP MJq K[RII aIHKIRqMa aPQ (KP sLJq) [LV LJ. +b. .s . (KP `I)
aPQ . (KP [MxI) M NPJg eMNNl rH K[I ZMRz. +2. .s + (TMJ) [INZ aPQ . RIMqLNa (KP qP) HP! `QK aPQ
zJPe . TMJlK. 2).+ VQHK `I Pss JPe. .s LK (JPK KP `I) HP NMKI . (KP HKMa) M NLKKNI NPJgIR.
23. Change into sentences of unreaI condition:
G S M V Z N I H: /[I ePJlK [INZ QH MH H[I LH JPK [IRI. /[I wou.d he.( QH Ls H[I were
[IRI.
wI qLq JPK VIIK HP PsKIJ `ITMQHI H[I NLxIq sMR sRPV Va ZNMTI. wI
0hou.d have met VPRI PsKIJ Ls H[I had not .ived HP sMR sRPV Va ZNMTI.
+. u[Ia eLNN qP LK Ls K[Ia TMJ. 2. .K LHJlK HQVVIR JPe! MJq eI qPJlK gP KP K[I TPQJKRa. r4.
|I qPIHJlK eRLKI KP VI! MJq . qPJlK eRLKI KP [LV. 3. /[I qLqJlK sLJq K[I `PPz `ITMQHI H[I
qLqJlK PZIJ K[I `Mg! *. .K eLNN `I `IKKIR Ls K[Ia qPJlK TPVI. ,.+ qLqJlK gLxI LK KP aPQ `ITMQHI
aPQ eIRI PQK. 7.+ TMJlK zJLK MJPK[IR HeIMKIR MH . [MxI JP VPRI ePPN. b.+ qPJlK HKQqa .KMNLMJ
MH . [MxIJlK VQT[ HZMRI KLVI. 2. /[I qLqJlK sPNNPe K[I qPTKPRlH MqxLTI MJq sINN HIRLPQHNa LNN.
+). u[I `Pa LH H[LxIRLJg. |I LHJlK fQLKI eINN. ++. |I RIsQHIH Va [INZ! MJq K[I ePRz ePJlK `I
sLJLH[Iq KPqMa. +2.+ [MxI M [IMqMT[I `ITMQHI . [Mq M HNIIZNIHH JLg[K. +4. dJJI TMJlK KRMJHNMKI
K[LH HPJg: H[I qPIHJlK zJPe pRIJT[ eINN IJPQg[. +3. yPQ MRI JPK fQLKI MNN RLg[K JPe `ITMQHI
aPQ qLqJlK KMzI K[I VIqLTLJI RIgQNMRNa. +*. u[Ia KPPz M KMSL MJq qLqJlK VLHH K[I KRMLJ. +,. |I
qPIHJlK zJPe [IR MqqRIHH! PR [I eLNN eRLKI KP [IR! .lV HQRI. +7. u[I gMRqIJ qPIHJlK NPPz
`IMQKLsQN `ITMQHI K[I KRIIH MRI `MRI. +b. |I VMzIH HP VMJa VLHKMzIH `ITMQHI [I qPIHJlK
zJPe gRMVVMR eINN IJPQg[. +2. wLNN aPQ qP LK sPR VI Ls . MHz aPQ{
24. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
+. t 8 8 ! 8 ; ; $
96{ 2. F 8 8 $! $6
;{ 4. ~ 8 $ 9D ;6 ! 8 8; . 3. "6
> 8! 8 $ 8 9. 5 $ D ;; . *. "8 8
6$ = ! 8 8 . ,. ~ 8 !
8 $! 8 6! 8 D. 7. ~ 8 8 ;
$ ! 8 ! 8 8 6 ;
D. b. ~ 8 $8 6 $! $8 8 > . 2. <
D$ $ 8 $ . Y! ;! . +). _5 $8 E
;! $8 8 $8. X. ~ 8 8 ! 8; 8 $
8$. +2. 8 E ! 8 ! E >. +4. ~
8 8 $$ ! 8 8 6 . +3. ~ 8 8
6 ; >! $8 8 9 $! 8 6 .
+*. ! 8 $; 8 6 E $5 $=! 8 6. h
8 . +,. 8! >5! 6! 8 $ D. +7. 8 8
E$ $! 8 9 $! 9$. +b. ~ 8 8
; > 9D! ! 8 8 $ > . +2. 8 5
! 8 $;. 2). ~ 8 8 $ ! 8 D . 2+. < D$
$ 8 D ;D.
25. Comment on the use of the Subjunctive Mood and transIate the sentences into Russian:
M) +. yPQ eIRI xIRa zLJq KP K[MK sPRILgJIR! nLTz. . eLH[ K[MK eI TPQNq HII [LV. 2. nPRM
eLH[Iq H[I [Mq gPK [IR `PPz PQK Ps K[I HQLKTMHI `IsPRI K[I KRMLJ HKMRKIq. 4.+ eLH[ . [Mq
K[PQg[K Ps LK `IsPRI. .KlH M gPPq LqIM. 3. |I JPqqIq [LH [IMq KP [IR MJq KQRJIq [MHKLNa LJ K[I
qLRITKLPJ Ps [LH PeJ RPPV. |I eLH[Iq H[I [Mq JPK HIIJ [LV. |I eLH[Iq H[I [Mq JPK `IIJ
K[IRI. *. |I eLH[Iq [IMRKLNa K[MK vLNqRIq [Mq JPK TPJHQNKIq [LV. ,. .K eMH M `IMQKLsQN LqIM. .
eLH[Iq . [Mq K[PQg[K Ps LK VaHINs. 7.+ eLH[ . TPQNq sIIN HQRI M`PQK it b. nPJlK aPQ eLH[ aPQ
[Mq TPVI IMRNLIR{
`) +. .K HIIVIq MH K[PQg[ [I eLH[Iq KP HZIMz! `QK sIMRIq KP gLxI PssIJTI. 2.+ RIVIV`IR
JPe K[MK [LH TPNPQR [Mq gPJI LJ M VPVIJK MJq [I HIIVIq KP `RIMK[I MH Ls [I [Mq `IIJ
RQJJLJg. 4. |IR IaIH [Mq H[MqPeH MH K[PQg[ H[I [Mq JPK HNIZK. 3. /QqqIJNa [I HVLNIq MJq
HZPzI LJ M T[MJgIq xPLTI! MH Ls [I eIRI TPJsLqLJg M HITRIK. *. /[I NPPzIq TPJKIJK! MH K[PQg[
H[I [Mq `IIJ eMLKLJg sPR K[LH VPVIJK MNN qMa. ,. |Qg[ eMH HQRZRLHIq MJq MJJPaIq MJq
T[LNNIq MH Ls K[I KIVZIRMKQRI Ps K[I RPPV eIRI HLJzLJg HKIMqLNa. 7. dJq aPQ `I[MxI MH Ls eI
eIRI KeP ZIPZNI e[P eIRI MTfQMLJKIq. b. yPQlRI MNVPHK gRPeJQZ JPe! MJq .lV gPLJg KP
KMNz KP aPQ MH Ls aPQ eIRI gRPeJQZ. dJq aPQ VQHK [INZ VI. 2. u[Ia HKMRIq MK IMT[ PK[IR LJ
K[I HLNIJTI Ps K[I [PQHI! MJq LK eMH MH Ls K[Ia eIRI NLHKIJLJg sPR qLHKMJK sPPKHKIZH. +). u[IRI
eMH M TQRLPQH TMRIsQNJIHH M`PQK [LH VMJJIR! MH K[PQg[ [I eIRI TPJTIMNLJg HPVI ZMLJ.
T) +. GxIJ Ls aPQ PJNa K[PQg[K K[MK . TPQNq `I Ps MJa [INZ KP aPQ! .lq `I xIRa gNMq! .lq `I
xIRa [MZZa KP `I MNNPeIq KP HKMa MRPQJq. 2. w[a HMa LK IxIJ Ls LK eIRI KRQI{ 4.+ H[PQNq gIK
K[IRI IxIJ Ls . [Mq KP eMNz MNN K[I eMa. 3. GxIJ K[PQg[ aPQ MHzIq [LV KeLTI [I ePQNq qP LK
MgMLJ; [IlH M HKQ``PRJ `Pa. *. yPQ TPQNqJlK [MxI gPK LJ KPQT[ eLK[ [LV IxIJ Ls aPQ [Mq KRLIq;
[I eMHJlK LJ KPeJ. ,. |Mq eI zJPeJ LJ KLVI eI TPQNq [MxI ZRIxIJKIq K[I TMKMHKRPZ[I. 7.
ryPQ HII!r HMLq MJqMNN! r. ePQNqJlK gP Ls aPQ qLqJlK eMJK VI KP.r b.+ K[LJz LK ePQNq `I
JMKQRMN Ls aPQ PLJIq K[IV. 2. rwPQNq IxIRaK[LJg [MxI `IIJ qLssIRIJK Ls VPK[IR [MqJlK qLIq{r
H[I K[PQg[K +). 1P qPQ`K HPVI`Pqa ePQNq [MxI JPKLTIq Ls H[I [MqJlK `IIJ K[IRI.
q) +. .s PJNa sMK[IR eIRI MNLxIc 2. .s PJNa LK eIRI KRQIc 4. .s PJNa . TPQNq `INLIxI K[MKc 3. .s
PJNa [I [Mq KPNq aPQ K[I e[PNI HKPRac *. .s PJNa H[I eIRI eLK[ QHc ,. .s PJNa . [MqJlK
VIJKLPJIq [LH JMVIc |Pe sPPNLH[ Ps VIc
26. SuppIy the correct mood of the verbs in brackets:
+. . qPJlK zJPe [Pe KP MqqRIHH [LV. . eLH[ . (KP zJPe) [LH JMVI. 2. . sIIN MH Ls Va [IMq (KP
`I) PJ sLRI. 4. .s PJNa . (KP zJPe) IMRNLIR! . (KP HIJq) aPQ M KINIgRMV. 3. va eLsI HMaH H[I
eLH[IH . (KP `I) M K[PQHMJq VLNIH MeMa. *. |I sINK MH Ls [I (KP sNPMK) LJ K[I MLR. ,. |I HKMRIq MK
VI MH Ls . (KP MHz) [LV HPVIK[LJg xIRa Pqq. 7. dK K[MK VPVIJK H[I eLH[Iq H[I (JPK KP HIJq)
sPR [LV. b. .s . (KP KINN) aPQ aPQ VLg[K [MxI K[PQg[K LK eMH Va T[PLTI. 2. GxIJ Ls LK (KP `I)
KeLTI MH qMJgIRPQH . (KP TMRRa PQK) Va ZNMJ. +).+ eLH[ . JIxIR (KP HII) aPQ. ++. nPJlK NPPz MK
VI MH Ls aPQ JIxIR (KP HII) VI `IsPRI. +2.+ K[LJz LK (KP `I) JMKQRMN Ls aPQ (KP PLJ) K[IV. +4.
IVIV`IR [IRc dH Ls . (TMJ) sPRgIK [IRc +3. u[IJ [I HQqqIJNa HMLq! ryPQ (KP KMzI) VI KP
URMa[MNNPTz Ls . (KP MHz){r +*. nPJlK aPQ K[LJz LK (KP `I) RMK[IR JLTI Ls eI (KP MHz) [IR KP HKMa
PJ sPR M eIIz MH PQR gQIHK{ +,. r|Pe . eLH[ . (KP `I) K[IRI eLK[ aPQ!r . HMLq eLK[ qIIZ
RIgRIK. +7. rnPJlK `I HPRRa!r H[I HMLq. r. (KP `I) RINLIxIq Ls aPQ (KP gP)! Ls LK (KP `I) HIKKNIq
HPVI[Pe.r +b. wINN! MK MJa RMKI! K[I eIMK[IR LHJlK gPLJg KP ZRIHIJK qLssLTQNKLIH. .K NPPzH MH
K[PQg[ LK (KP HIK LJ) sLJI. +2.+ (KP `I) HQRI Ps LK Ls . (KP `I) aPQ.
27. Comment on the use of the ConditionaI Mood and transIate the sentences into Russian:
+. . H[PQNqJlK ePRRa JPe LJ aPQR ZNMTI. GxIRaK[LJg eLNN TNIMR QZ xIRa HPPJ! .lV HQRI. 2. .K
ePQNqJlK [MxI MHKPJLH[Iq VI Ls [I [Mq sPQJq HPVI RIMHPJM`NI ISTQHI MJq HKMaIq MeMa. 4.
0QK IxIJ Ls aPQ eIRI RLg[K . H[PQNq ZRIsIR KP MTK LJ Va PeJ eMa. 3. 0QK sPR Va [INZ [I
ePQNq [MxI sMLNIq MK K[I sLJMN ISMV. *. .K HIIVH KP VI K[MK e[MK H[I RIsQHIq K[IJ H[I ePQNq
`I gNMq KP gIK JPe. ,. /LR |PRMTI MHzIq VI PJI PR KeP fQIHKLPJH MJq LK ePQNqJlK [MxI `IIJ
qITIJK VMJJIRH JPK KP RIZNa. 7. d sIe aIMRH `IsPRI [I ePQNq JPK [MxI HMLq HP Ps mMgP. b.
OPVI MNPJg! mMHHLIc .K ePQNq qP aPQ VPRI [MRV KP HKMa `a aPQRHINs. 2. .lV K[LJzLJg Ps gPPq
RIHQNKH eIlxI MT[LIxIq KPgIK[IR. wI H[PQNqJlK [MxI VMJMgIq K[IV MNPJI. .KlH M ZLKa KP sLJq QH
qLxLqIq JPe. +). .s aPQ `RIMz aPQR ZRPVLHI! ZIPZNI eLNN HMa K[MK ORMesPRq ePQNq JIxIR [MxI
qPJI HP LJ HLVLNMR TLRTQVHKMJTIH ++. 0QK sPR K[I `IIH eI H[PQNq [MxI JP [PJIa. +2. /[I IxIJ
qLqJlK eMJK KP NPPz LJ Va qLRITKLPJ; PR INHI .lq [MxI TPVI QZ MJq MZPNPgLIq. +4. |I eMH LJ M
gRIMK [QRRa MJq [Mq JP KLVI KP K[LJz LK PxIR. oK[IReLHI [I ePQNq [MxI sPQJq M `IKKIR eMa
PQK. +3. 0QK vRH. mMgPlH LVLKMKLPJ Ps iMqa vQRLIN eMH JPK ISMTK. iMqa vQRLIN ePQNq JIxIR
[MxI TMNNIq VIJ `a K[ILR TPNNIgI KLKNIH. +*.+ VaHINs H[PQNqJlK MgRII KP K[MK. +,. u[Ia ePQNq
MNN `I PJNa gNMq KP HII aPQ. +7.+ H[PQNq [MxI HIJK [IR MeMa! PJNa . K[PQg[K aPQ eMJKIq [IR KP
KMNz LJKP aPQR VMT[LJIH. +b. yPQ JIxIR qLq MJaK[LJg gPPq KP MJaPJI. .s aPQ [Mq qPJI aPQ
ePQNq [MxI VPRI HQZZPRK JPe.
28. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, paying attention to the use of the ConditionaI
Mood:
+. 8 8 6 $. 2. 8 8 86!
: 8 . 4. 8 8 6 7 >7 ;. 3. 8
8 9D 86 D C. *. 8 8 > 6 ; $ E$
. ,. $ 8 8 6 6 $. 7. ' 8 9D 6!
. b. "8 8 9 $ $;! $8 6
8 ;. 2. $7! 6 8!l > 6 8 D$. +).
9 8 7;! $5 $ $. ++. 8 D $ 7!
$ . +2. D! 8 D6 ! $
8 8 >6 ;9. +4. D 6 >6 %85
6! $8 9 8 ; +3. ' ;! ;
%$! 8 89 9. +*. ~ 8
; 6! 8 6 D5 $. +,. ' 8
8 ! 8 9D5 9 6%. +7. ~ 8 ;
9D 6! $; 8 8>6 9 5 E5 E%. +b.
~ 8 D 7! ! $ 8 > 6%. '
. +2. ~ 8 8 6 ! 8 8 ; D 9.
2). ~ 8 8 $$8 ! 8 8 > ! E 8
. 2+. ' 9 8 $! 8 ; 6. 22. (
>=c ' 8 6 $! > 8
9. 24. > 8 $ %7! E $; 8. ~$ > $
6 8 $6. 23. 8 ! 8 8 ! 8 65
! 6 $ . 2*. F 8 8
E { 2,. t 8 8 $$ ${ 27. 8
$ 6 $ . 2b. 8 E; ; D5 $=.
29. SuppIy the correct mood of the verbs in brackets:
+. . zJIe [I (KP `I) HLNNa! `QK . (JPK KP `INLIxI) K[MK [I (KP `I) MH HLNNa MH K[MK. 2.+ eLH[ [I
(KP `I) M `LK HKRPJgIR MgMLJHK ORMesPRq. 4. dsKIR M VPVIJKlH HLNIJTI [I (KP `RIMz PQK): r.K (KP
`I) M JQLHMJTI Ls . (KP `Ig) M TQZ Ps KIM LJ aPQR RPPVH{r 3. yPQ VQHK K[MJz [LV! JPK eI.
wLK[PQK [LV eI (JPK KP MT[LIxI) MJa HQTTIHH. *. . eLH[ H[I (JPK KP NPPz) HP ZMNI. ,. r.s . (KP
`I) ORMesPRq! . (KP K[MJz) wLJHNPe VQT[!r HMLq O[RaHKMN. 7.+ (KP gLxI) M gPPq qIMN sPR K[MK
MHHQRMJTIc b. dRI aPQ gNMq KP HII VI{ yPQlRI sQJJa! nLTzc dH Ls aPQ (JPK KP zJPe). 2. .s .
(KP K[LJz) MH aPQ qP . (KP sIIN) VLHIRM`NI. +). vR. nIRVMJKlH gNMJTI RIHKIq PJ /[INKPJ MJq
fQLTzNa sINN qPeJ KP K[I gRPQJq MH K[PQg[ [I (KP HII) HPVIK[LJg K[MK MNMRVIq [LV. ++.+ eLH[
aPQ (KP H[Pe) VPRI HLgJ Ps JPK NLzLJg LK LJ ZRMTKLTI. +2.+ TMJlK sPR K[I NLsI Ps VI QJqIRHKMJq
e[a aPQ qLqJlK eMLK `IsPRI K[Ia qITLqIq. . (KP ISZITK) aPQ KP qLHTQHH LK eLK[ VI. +4. w[IJ
|LNMRa PZIJIq K[I qPPR K[I HKRMJgIR VMqI M fQLTz VPxIVIJK sPReMRq! MNVPHK MH Ls [I (KP `I)
gPLJg KP HKLTz [LH sPPK [QRRLIqNa KP K[I PZIJLJg. +3. |IR xPLTI HPQJqIq MH K[PQg[ HPVIK[LJg
(KP PssIJq) [IR. +*.+ eLH[ . (TMJ) ZNMa KIJJLH MH eINN MH aPQ qP. +,. |I NPPzIq QZ H[MRZNa MH
Ls [I (KP VMzI) M qMJgIRPQH RIVMRz +7.+ VMa KRMxIN PQK eLK[ }JTNI! `QK LK (KP `I) HQT[ sQJ Ls
aPQ (KP TPVI). +b. |I HMe LK MH TNIMRNa MH K[PQg[ LK (KP `I) `IsPRI [LH IaIH. +2. 0QK sPR aPQR
sRLIJqH[LZ . (KP sIIN) NPJINa [IRI.
30. TransIate the sentences into EngIish paying attention to the use of the Subjunctive and
the ConditionaI:
.. F >6! 9. 2. ' >! 8 8 6 $ ! 8
! . 4. F >6! $! 8 6 7.
3. F >6! ; 6! 8 5 . *. "8
>! ; $ ;. ,. '! 8 $ . ;
$8 . {. ' >! D . b. ?E !
8 8 ; 8 6;. 2. < $ $ ! ;
$ 6D. +). - 5 ! ! 6. ++.
> 8 $8 ;$$ ! 8 8 D$ . +2.
> 8 8 6 ! 8 D $ 6
6%. +4. ~ 8 6 8 $ 8$c +3. '! 8 $; 86
5! E c +*. ~ 8 ! 8 ;. +,. ~ 8
D 6! ; D 8. +7. ~ 8 ;
66! $8 8 8 8 8 5
8. +b. ~ 8 ! 8 D6! 8 $. +2. 8 D
$! $ D! $ . 2). h 8 8 >
;! 6. 2+. $ 8 8 6 88$ $ ;85 ;
31. Comment on the use of the OId Present Subjunctive and transIate the sentences into
Russian:
+. r/P &e LK!r RIKQRJIq /KIIRsPRq. 2. /QTTIHH attend aPQc 4. 1Pe LK eMH wIqJIHqMa! MJq [I
eMH qIKIRVLJIq KP gP! )ome e[MK VLg[K! LJ K[I NMKI MsKIRJPPJ. 3. va HIJKIJTI LH K[MK K[I
ZRLHPJIR &e hanged" <" w[PIxIR [I &e, [I VQHK `I ZQJLH[Iq. ,. /II K[MK MNN &e ZRIHIJK! e[IJ
[I TPVIH. 7. |I LJHLHKIq K[MK K[I `Pa remain LJ `Iq. b. u[I ePRzIRH qIVMJqIq K[MK K[ILR
eMgIH &e in)rea0ed"
MODAL VERBS
(uP }JLKH pPQR/LS)
)an, may
42. /Ma e[IK[IR )ou.d LH K[I sPRV Ps K[I .JqLTMKLxI PR Ps K[I /Q`QJTKLxI. uRMJHNMKI K[I
HIJKIJTIH LJKP QHHLMJ:
+. |I KPPz QZ M ZPHLKLPJ sRPV e[LT[ [I TPQNq HII e[MK eMH gPLJg MRPQJq. 2. o[c .s . PJNa
TPQNq gP `MTz KP Va sNPeIR `MHzIKc 4. .s . K[PQg[K NLzI aPQ . TPQNqJlK HKMa MJPK[IR qMa LJ
.JqLM. 3. . qPJlK `INLIxI . TPQNq QKKIR PJI Ps K[I PNq HPQJqH Ls . KRLIq. *. o[! UQHKMxI! eIlRI HP
K[LRHKa. OPQNq aPQ `RLJg QH HPVI gLJgIRMNI{ ,.+ TMJlK KINN HKPRLIH! JIxIR TPQNq. 7. /[INKPJ
TPQNq JPK [INZ M HVLNI; iMqa 0PJLJgKPJ LJ K[I ZNMTI Ps K[I ZPPRc b. 0QK [I TPQNq JPK! qLq JPK
zJPe [Pe KP KQRJ MJq gP MeMa. 2. |Pe TPQNq aPQ `I HP HLNNa! |IJRa{ +). nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ
TPQNq TPVZNIKI LK `a K[I IxIJLJg{ ++. .s H[I [Mq HMLq r|IlH gPJI KP vMRHr H[I TPQNq JPK [MxI
qIMNK mMVIH M VPRI HKQJJLJg `NPe. +2. w[MK TPQNq [I qP KP [INZ [IR{ .s PJNa [LH sMK[IR eIRI
MNLxIc |I TPQNq [MxI qPJI HP VQT[c +4. |I TPQNq JILK[IR VPxI JPR HZIMz. +3. w[MK TPQNq
aPQ zJPe Ps HQT[ K[LJgH{ +*. OPQNq aPQ `INLIxI K[MK{ +,. OPQNq LK `I K[MK [I LH NaLJg{ +7. .
ePJqIR e[MK K[MK TPQNq [MxI VIMJK{ +b. |I TPQNqJlK `I HP HQRI Ls [I qLqJlK zJPe LK sPR
TIRKMLJ. +2! nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ TPQNq TPVVMJq MJ MRVa{ 2). u[I VPQJKMLJH eIRI M NPJg eMa
MeMa MJq aPQ TPQNq HII HJPe PJ K[ILR KPZH.
33. Comment on the form and meaning of the verb can. TransIate the sentences into
Russian:
+. . TMJlK ISMTKNa ISZRIHH Va VIMJLJg. 2. |I TPQNq JPK KMzI [LH IaIH Pss [IR. 4. /[I TMJ
ZNMa K[I ZLMJP fQLKI `IMQKLsQNNa. 3. wIlNN gP MeMa KPqMa! Ls aPQ NLzI. wI TMJ IMHLNa TMKT[ K[I
4.3). *. .K LH fQLKI sLJI! ONMRM! K[I RMLJ [MH HKPZZIq. wI TMJ eMNz KP M VPKPR `QH. ,. yPQ TMJlK
KMzI K[I zJPeNIqgI aPQ gMxI VI. 7.+ eLNN NIK aPQ zJPe! HP aPQ TMJ `I K[IRI. b. |I eMH HP
eIMz K[MK [I TPQNq JPK NLsK [LH [IMq. 2. |I LH VQT[ `IKKIR MJq TMJ eMNz eLK[PQK Va [INZ JPe.
+). o[c .K TMJlK `I KRQIc ++. o[{ pRIqqa! K[IRI VQHK `I PJI (M TM`). yPQ TMJlK [MxI KRLIq. +2.
|I TMJlK [MxI KMzIJ LK (K[I `PS) QZHKMLRH K[LH VPRJLJg. +4. dJJI TMJlK VIMJ K[MK! LKlH JPK NLzI
[IR. +3. |I TPQNqJlK [MxI qPJI LK MNN `a [LVHINs. /PVI`Pqa [INZIq [LV! .lV HQRI. +*. OMJ
aPQ `INLIxI K[I gLRN{ OMJ LK `I KRQI{ +,. rOMJ [I `I Va HPJ{r H[I K[PQg[K. +7. OPQNq H[I
[MxI qPJI LK eLK[PQK TPJHQNKLJg VI{ +b. OMJ LK RIMNNa `I MH `Mq MH K[MK{ +2. u[IRIlH HQT[ M
HVINN Ps `QRJLJg. nMqqa. OMJ . gP qPeJ MJq HII{ 2). mMVIH! aPQ TMJ KMzI dgMK[M qPeJ. 2+.
yPQ TMJ eMLK LJ K[I zLKT[IJ. 22. yPQ TMJ zIIZ K[I T[MJgI. 24. yPQ TMJ KMzI Va PK[IR
QV`RINNM. 23. w[MK LH qPJI TMJJPK `I QJqPJI. 2*. 1PK[LJg TMJ `I qPJI! LKlH KPP NMKI. 2,.+
qPJlK `INLIxI M HLJgNI ePRq Ps [LH; [I TMJlK [MxI sMLNIq to NIMV K[I JIeH `IsPRI QH.
34. Use the verb can in the correct form foIIowed by the appropriate infinitive:
+. |MxI aPQ M sRLIJq e[PV aPQ ... (KP KRQHK){ 2. w[MK ... pRIqqa (KP qP) MNN K[LH KLVI{ |I
[MH `IIJ gPJI sPR KeIJKa VLJQKIH. 4. |I ... JPK (KP HII) VI. . TMVI e[IJ [I [Mq gPJI. 3. .
MV JPK M ZIRHPJ e[P ... (KP KINN) M NLI. *. |Pe ... aPQ (KP VMzI) HQT[ M VLHKMzI MH KP HQZZPHI
K[MK . eMH aPQJgIR K[MJ aPQ{ ,! /QRINa aPQ ... (KP qP) LK `IsPRI. w[MK [MxI aPQ `IIJ qPLJg MNN
K[I VPRJLJg{ 7. /Ma e[MK aPQ NLzI! `QK K[I ePRz ... JPK (KP qP) LJ KeP qMaH. b. vR. pIJeLNNlH
[PQHI eMH `QLNK PJ K[I KPZ Ps K[I [LNN MJq ... (KP HII) sRPV MsMR. 2.+... JPK (KP HNIIZ) KeP [PQRH!
. HKLNN sIIN KLRIq. +). |I ... JPK (KP `I) [IR sMK[IR: [I LH KPP aPQJg. ++. u[Ia .JPK (KP [IMR) QH.
jJPTz MgMLJ. +2. .s aPQ [Mq MHzIq VI sPR VPJIa .... (KP NIJq) aPQ HPVI. +4. |I ... (KP KINN)
VI K[I MJHeIR `QK [I RIsQHIq KP. +3. ... [I HKLNN (KP HNIIZ){ .K HIIVH KP VI K[Ia HLVZNa qPJlK
eMJK QH KP HII [LV. +*.+... JPK (KP HeLV) . eLH[ .... . +,. /[I [MH M QJLxIRHLKa IqQTMKLPJ
MJq ... (KP VMzI) M TMRIIR sPR [IRHINs Ls H[I [MqJlK VMRRLIq. +7. yPQ ... JPK (KP sPRgIK). . qPJlK
`INLIxI aPQ.
35. TransIate Into EngIish, using; the verb can;
+. |I $> 86! 8 ;. h ; 9>. 2. <> E !
8$ ${ 4. < $> 86! 8 8 . '
$ 9> ; ;. 3. E . $ $8 $>$
E 6. *. X! 8 $; 8 >6 89
69{ ,. $; 6 7 D. ' 885 >.
7. <> E D6 ; C{ b. ~ 8 ! $8 $; 8 6.
-> $. 2. < D$ $ 8 $ ! $> $6 . +).
$. $ ; 8 8 9. ++. 8 ; ; $>
6 ;$ $ C7. +2. < $> 86! 8
$. "8 8 6 9. +4. < $> 86! 8
$. "8 8 $ . +3. <6 6 D.
<>6 $. +*. <> E $6 &{ F 8c +,. ";
6 7=;{ F >7! . ' ; +2. +7. < $; 8
8 6 $ 8 ! 9 { +b. ' !
$> >6 %. +2. "> 8 6! 8 ! 9
8;6 8$. 2). "> 6 { <! $
{ 2+. h 6 6 8. $ >6. 22. ' $
6 8 $; 6! $ . 24. <> 8 $>D6
]6 $! 8 96 { 23. A $;
=6 6 D! ; % 6. 2*. < $; E;
6. ' ;! 8 $D6. 2,. 8 $; E 6! 8 !
E . 27. R 7! 6 ! 8 6 6. "8
$! 9 6. 2b. < $> 86! 8 E 8 .
36. Comment on the form and meaning of the verb may. TransIate the sentences into
Russsian:
+. .K VMa `I HP PR LK VMa `I JPK... . qPJlK zJPe! MJq e[MKlH VPRI! . qPJlK TMRI. 2. ru[I PNq
MTKPR eMH qRQJz!r K[PQg[K [I. r/KLNN K[IRI VMa `I KRQK[ LJ e[MK [I HMLq.r 4. u[LH VMa `I K[I
RIMHPJ Ps K[ILR RIsQHMN KP PLJ QH. 3. yPQ VMa eMJK M sRLIJq HPVI qMa. *. . K[LJz eI VLg[K `I
gRIMK sRLIJqH. ,. /[I VLg[K `I M HLHKIL Ps vIRTa! . H[PQNq K[LJz! HLR. 7. mMJI VMa [MxI VIK [LV
MK [IR QJTNIlH. b. u[Ia VMa JPK [MxI TPVI `MTz aIK. iIKlH RLJg K[IV QZ MJq sLJq PQK. 2. .
HQZZPHI H[I VLg[K `I gNMq KP HII [LV! K[PQg[ . MV JPK HQRI. +). /KLNN K[IRI LH K[I RLHz K[MK [I
VLg[K TPVI. ++. .s [I [Mq `RPQg[K M eIMZPJ /PMVIH VLg[K [MxI QHIq LK MK K[MK VPVIJK. +2.
.s [I eIRIJlK LNN [I VLg[K `I LJ VQT[ gRIMKIR qMJgIR. +4. |I [Mq zJPeJ `IsPRI [I NPPzIq! `QK
M xMgQI [PZI K[MK [I VLg[K [MxI `IIJ VLHKMzIJ [Mq IJTPQRMgIq [LV. +3. vMa . TPVI! vR.
nPPNLKKNI{ . H[PQNq `I xIRa HPRRa KP VLHH aPQR eIqqLJg. +*. vMa . MHz e[IK[IR aPQ TPVZNMLJ
Ps aPQR KRIMKVIJK [IRI{ +,. vR. |LggLJH KPNq VI . VLg[K TPVI. +7. . K[LJz aPQ VLg[K ePRz
[MRqIRc +b. /QRINa |PNNa VLg[K [MxI KPNq [LV MNN K[LH `IsPRI. +2. IMNNa! VMVVM! aPQ VLg[K
[MxI HZMRIq pRIqqa K[MKc 2). |I VLg[K `I HIIJ LJ K[I TNQ` MJa JLg[K Ps K[I aIMR. 2+. .
HQssIRIq VPHK sRPV K[I K[PQg[K K[MK ZIPZNI VLg[K gQIHH Va HKMKI. 22. iIKlH gP M NLKKNI sMRK[IR!
.lV MsRMLq K[Ia VMa [IMR QH sRPV K[I [PQHI. 24. .K LH ZPHHL`NI K[MK [I VMa NIMxI LK MH LK LH. 23.
. [PZI aPQR qRIMV VMa TPVI KRQI. 2*. |PeIxIR [MRq [I VMa ePRz [I ePJlK TMKT[ QZ eLK[
K[I gRPQZ MsKIR `ILJg HP HIRLPQHNa LNN sPR M NPJg KLVI. 2,. vMa . KMNz KP aPQ HPVIKLVIH{ .
zJPe .lV JPK M `LK TNIxIR `QK .lNN KRa JPK KP `I M `PRI.
37. TransIate these sentences into EngIish, using the verb may.
+. 5 >$ $;. '! $>! = . 2. '! $> 86!
; E$ . 4. "; $> 6 $ 88$ >5 .
3. "5 ! $>! ! > 9 6 ;. ">{ *.
@YD! $> $ 6 = 9{B Y$. ,. ">! E 9
! ;D $ . 7. "> 6 $!
$> 96 ! b. A <! ! $>! > 85 C6$.
(! ; $6. 2. $$ ! >! 8 $; 8 ]6 $
$; ! 6 E 8 >. K). ~ 8 8 &! 8!
$>! $! E ; . ++. 7! ; ! $> 86!
! ! $> 86! D . +2. < . "> 86! =
8. +4! $7! ! $>! 9 5!
$ . +3. "> 86! E >! > $! 8 6D
9. +*. ~ 8 $ 5 $! $8 8! $>!
; ; 6D . +,. " > $> 5! { +7.
$>! > . +b. 76! $8 $>$ 6. +2.
<76! $8 $ $ D . 2). ' 6! 9! $>! !
$ Y$ D $. 2+. F 8 8 6! >6 .
22. $ 6D5 =! 8 8 $; 6 D ;.
38. FiII in the bIanks with the verbs "an or may in the correct form:
+. w[IJ aPQ gIK K[IRI KINN K[IV KP eMLK. .... `I M NLKKNI NMKI. 2.+ ... TPVI MK HLS. .lNN `I sRII
`a K[MK KLVI. 4. ... K[LH PNq VMJ `I uPV 0RPeJ{ |I ... JPK [MxI T[MJgIq HP VQT[c 3. 1PJI Ps
QH zJPe e[MK... [MZZIJ `IsPRI LK LH sLJLH[Iq. *. u[LH ... `I M gRIMK LqIM. .K ... MNHP `I M KRMZ LJ
e[LT[ GJgNMJq eLNN ZIRLH[. ,. .lV JPK HQRI! `QK H[I ... [MxI gPJI KP K[I xLNNMgI H[PZ. 7. . KPNq
K[IV [I ... `I LJ K[I gMRqIJ. b. /[c /[I ... [IMR aPQ. 2. |Pe HKRMJgIc... aPQ `INLIxI K[MK{ +).+
[MxIJlK HIIJ [IR sPR MgIH. /[I ... `I fQLKI VLqqNIMgIq `a JPe. ++. nPJlK HIJq [LV MeMa. wI
... JIIq [LH MqxLTI. +2. . sIMR K[Ia ... VLHH K[I KRMLJ. u[Ia NIsK RMK[IR NMKI. +4. .K ... `I HIIJ K[MK
[I eMH ZQNIq. +3. w[a qP e[MK... JIxIR `I JIIqIq{ +*. \IPZNI ... T[MKKIR M`PQK [IR! `QK
K[Ia qPJlK zJPe MJaK[LJg qIsLJLKI MgMLJHK [IR. +,. |I ... JPK [MxI K[PQg[K Ps K[LH [LVHINs.
w[P HQggIHKIq LK KP [LV{ +7. |I... `I M VIqLTMN HKQqIJK K[PQg[ .lV JPK HQRI. +b. 0QK e[MK
VPRI [I ... [MxI HMLq . qPJlK zJPe sPR . NIsK. +2r. yPQ ... KINN VI e[MK [I HMLqc . [MxI M RLg[K
KP zJPe. 2). vLHH OMRKIR ... [MxI gPJI KP K[I HT[PPN KP TMNN PJ vR. GxIRMRq. 2+. u[IJ [I
sPQJq K[MK [I ... JPK HKMa LJ `Iq. 22.+... JPK HeLV. . ISZITK aPQ .... GxIRaPJI ... ISTIZK VI. 24.
yPQ ... [MxI eMRJIq VI `IsPRI[MJqc 23. |I ... JPK [MxI HMLq K[MK. . qPJlK `INLIxI aPQ. 2*. .K
eMH M aIMR PR KeP MgP! PR LK... `I K[RII aIMRH MgP. 2,. /[I TMVI KP MHz [IR VPK[IR Ls H[I ...
HKMa MJq qMJTI M NLKKNI NPJgIR.
39. Point out the obIique moods and modaI phrases with can and may. TransIate the
sentences into Russian:
+. wLNN aPQ `I TPVLJg MgMLJ K[LH aIMR! vR. wINT[{
. VLg[K VMJMgI LK! . HQZZPHI.
2. .K VLg[K JIxIR [MxI [MZZIJIq Ls aPQlq HIJK [LV KP M RIMN qPTKPR e[IJ [I sLRHK gPK HLTz.
4. ru[MK ePQNqJlK HQRZRLHI VI LJ K[I NIMHK!r 0IRKRMJq HMLq! HKMJqLJg MHLqI HP K[MK vMRgMRIK
TPQNq ZMHH [LV.
3. /[I gNMJTIq QZ fQLTzNa MH Ls H[I [Mq `IIJ ISZITKLJg KP `I MHzIq K[LH! `QK [I TPQNqJlK
KINN e[IK[IR H[I eMH gNMq PR HPRRa e[IJ LK TMVI.
*. OMJ aPQ HKPZ KMNzLJg M`PQK LK{
. eLH[ . [MqJlK HMLq e[MK . qLq HMa. . eMH M sPPN. . MTKIq NLzI M ZIRsITK sPPN.
,. . K[LJz K[Ia gPK `MTz `IsPRI QH. u[Ia VLg[K [MxI gPK M KMSL.
7. w[a qLqJlK aPQ KINN VI{
. TPQNqJlK. .K ePQNqJlK [MxI qPJI VI MJa gPPq.
b. 0QK sPR aPQR zLJqJIHH MJq QJqIRHKMJqLJg . TPQNqJlK [MxI qPJI LK MNN LJ HP H[PRK M KLVI.
2. . eLH[ . [Mq Va TMR [IRI HP K[MK . VLg[K qRLxI aPQ [PVI.
+). |Mq H[I `IIJ M VMJ H[I VLg[K [MxI `IIJ qIHTRL`Iq MH M `RLg[K aPQJg VMJ Ps
`QHLJIHH.
40. TransIate these sentences into EngIish, using can or may.
+. <> E >$ (C{ ' $ ! 5 85c 2. $7!
B 9 $5 ;6. 8 $. "> 86!
$ 4. < $> 86! 8 $ 9! 85 . 3. X 8
$; ;6! > 6;{ *. ">! E$! 9
6 $. ,. < $> 86! 8 D D; $. $ 5 D
. 7. <> = { $ ; 6! b. 8 $;
8 6 $ E$ c 2. 8 6$ D! ! $>!
. +). "> 86! E ! $>! . A. < $; 8 8 >6 $ 4
{ +2. 7 $! $>! ! 6. +4. $
6! 8 $> 6. +3. 7 ! $;! 8
$6 $. +*. F 8 E $; 5{ +,. 8 $; 8 6 E $! 8
86. +7! A5 >! 8 $; D $6. +b!
8 $> ; 6 C;C{ +2. < $9 6! E;
$> 6. 2). $>! 6 > $ . 2+. < $> 86!
8 E$. ' 8 . 22. F 8 E $; 6 7 =6{
24. '! $>! $ > . 23. A>! . "> 86!
] $! $ .
mst
41. Comment on the meaning of the verb must. TransIate the sentences into Russian;
+. oNq MgI VQHK NIMJ PJ HPVIK[LJg! 2. d VMJ VQHK HKMJq QZ sPR [LH RLg[KH. 4. yPQ VQHKJlK
K[LJz LKlH HP xIRa IMHa. 3. vQHK LK `I qPJI `IsPRI KPVPRRPe{ *. /[I VQHK ePRz sRPV VPRJLJg
KLNN JLg[K KP IMRJ [IR NLxLJg! ,. oJI VQHK [MxI M RIHK MsKIR M qMa Ps [MRq ePRz. 7. u[I PJNa
K[LJg [I zJIe sPR TIRKMLJ eMH K[MK [I VQHK JPK VIIK dJKPJLM. b. yPQ MRI RLg[K! . VQHKJlK HKMa
[IRI. 2. yPQ VQHK `I RIMHPJM`NI! vR. |LggLJH; RIMNNa aPQ VQHK. +). ULxI [LV HPVIK[LJg KP
IMK. |I VQHK `I [QJgRa. ++. u[MK sINNPe VQHK `I VMqI Ps HKIIN. |IlH JIxIR KLRIq. +2. .KlH fQLKI
M T[MRVLJg NIKKIR. vQHK [MxI KMzIJ K[I ZPPR aPQJg VMJ MJ [PQR KP eRLKI LK. +4. |I VQHK `I
fQLKI PNq `a JPe. +3. yPQ VQHK [MxI sRLg[KIJIq [IR. +*. u[MK sINNPe [MH HIIJ MJq sINK KIJ
KLVIH MH VQT[ MH .! MNK[PQg[ [I VQHK `I KIJ aIMRH aPQJgIR. +,.+ sINK K[MK `IsPRI NPJg Va
HITRIK VQHK `I zJPeJ. +7.+ [IMR HPVI`PqalH HKIZH PJ K[I HKMLRH. /[I VQHK `I TPVLJgc +b.
mQqgLJg sRPV K[I `PPzH MJq ZMZIRH PJ [LH eRLKLJgKM`NI [I VQHK [MxI `IIJ ePRzLJg sPR
HIxIRMN [PQRH.
42. TransIate the foIIowing sentences Into EngIish:
Note: IVIV`IR K[MK must LJ K[I VIMJLJg Ps HQZZPHLKLPJ LH JPK QHIq LJ K[I JIgMKLxI.
+. Y$! > 86! ; . 2. '! > 86! ; .
4. '! ! $! = $ "8! 3. 8! 5
! ! 9 ; &. *. '!
! 6 5. ,. 8! ! ; ;
$6D! D Y$. 7. $! > 86! ; E$ 6. b. !
> 86! $! > $. 2. '! ! ; E$
. +). '! ! $ 8 $%9 5
;5; 5. ++. h! > 86! > $ 8$! E C.
+2. '! > 86! .
43. Change the foIIowing sentences from Active into Passive:
+. yPQ VQHK KMzI K[LH VIqLTLJI RIgQNMRNa. 2. /KQqIJKH VQHK qP [PVIePRz LJ KLVI. 4. wI
TMJ eLJ ZIMTI. wMR LH JPK LJIxLKM`NI. 3. yPQ VMa ZQK K[I `PPz PJ K[I QZZIR H[INs. *. yPQ
VMa MNNPe K[I T[LNqRIJ KP gP sPR M eMNz. ,. wI VQHK qLHTQHH K[I VMKKIR JPK NMKIR K[MJ
KPVPRRPe. 7. 1P`Pqa TMJ qP LK eLK[PQK aPQR [INZ. b. wI VQHK NPPz LJKP K[I VMKKIR. 2. yPQ
VQHKJlK KMzI K[I VMgMLJI MeMa. +). yPQ VQHK ZPHK K[I NIKKIR MH HPPJ MH aPQ [MxI eRLKKIJ LK.
++. vMa . KMzI K[I `PPzH MJq ZMZIRH MeMa{ +2. . VQHK ZMa sPR K[I qLJJIR. +4. yPQ VQHK ePRz
sPR HQTTIHH! +3. yPQ TMJlK qIHTRL`I LK. oJI VQHK QHK HII LK.
44. FiII in the bIanks with the verbs "an, may or must:
1. . [MxI sPRgPKKIJ Va PeJ NMJgQMgI MJq ... HZIMz JPK[LJg `QK aPQRH. 2! wI ... gP
HPVIe[IRI. wI ... JPK eMJqIR M`PQK sPR IxIR. 4. 0QK . K[LJz aPQ ... [MxI KPNq QH K[LH [MNs MJ
[PQR MgPc 3. yPQ ... HII VQT[ Ps LJKIRIHK K[IRI. *. . qLq JPK [IMR [LV RIKQRJ KP K[I RPPV. ....
[MxI `IIJ MHNIIZ. ,. yPQ ... [MxI VLHKMzIJ [LV! Va qIMR. |I ... JPK [MxI LJKIJqIq KP HMa K[MK.
7. .K HIIVIq ZPHHL`NI K[Ia ... RIKQRJ. b. .K.. JPK [MxI [MZZIJIq MK dLJHeLTz. 2. 1P gPPq
NPPzLJg `MTz; K[LJgH [MZZIJ MH K[Ia .... +). uP `I MH[MVIq Ps [LH PeJ sMK[IR LH ZIR[MZH K[I
`LKKIRIHK ISZIRLIJTI M aPQJg VMJ ... gP K[RPQg[. ++. |Pe ... aPQ NIK K[LJgH HNLqI NLzI K[MK!
nLTz{ +2.+ K[LJz aPQ ... `I gNMq Ps HPVI TPssII `IsPRI aPQ HKMRK `MTz KP aPQR [PKIN. .KlH HQT[
M TPNq JLg[K. +4. .K eMH zJPeJ e[LHZIRIq MVPJg K[I PNq! qLHTQHHIq MVPJg K[I aPQJg
K[MK K[I sMVLNa ZRLqI ... HPPJ RITILxI M `NPe. +3. dJq K[PQg[ [I QJqRIHHIq MJq gPK LJKP `Iq
[I ... JPK HNIIZ. +*. yPQ ... JPK gP PQK HP NMKI MK JLg[K. +,.+ K[LJz LK... [MZZIJ HPPJIR PR NMKIR.
+7.+... TPVI KPJLg[K! ... . JPK{ +b. /PVI`Pqa LH zJPTzLJg MK K[I qPPR. .K... `I mP[J. .K ...
JPK `I mP[J. .KlH KPP IMRNa sPR [LV KP `I `MTz. +2.+ qPJlK zJPe sPR TIRKMLJ! `QK [I ... [MxI `IIJ
M HMLNPR LJ [LH aPQK[. 2). u[Ia... MHz VI M`PQK [LV. w[MK H[PQNq . HMa{
:=, TransIate these sentences into EngIish, using the verbs "an, may, mash
+. ~ 8 $! 8 8. 8 >8 $6. 2. $>!
D; ; 6D! E 8{ 4. Y6 8
$>D6 6! . 3. ~ E$! > 86! 6. *! '! $>
86! ; $! $8 $ $6 $6
; ! ,. 6 . ' $ 8
$; ; 86. 7! ~ 8 D6 6 $; $
$! $> 6 ;. b. "6! $>! 8
;! 7 8 . 2. ~ E ! ; >
6. +) 8 $> 5 ; ! ;7. '! > 86! ;
>$$. ... '! $> 86! ; E$. 8 > >8 5
; ;6 . +2. ' ;! &
8$ . ' ; $! E $> 86 :
6 $! 89 ;. +4. "8 $; 8 5 ;
6 $! 8 ! &. +3. A =
%8! 8 D6 C;C7. (> $! $>D6! E. +*.
X! $> 6 6 { $>! > "E. +,.
t E D${ h! > 86! 5 . F $. +7. ~ 8
E $> 8 6 ! 8 8 8$. +b. F 8 E
$; 86 7 $ 6$$ { <> >${ +2. < $> 86!
8 >$ 8 7. ! ; $. 2). < $; 8 8
5 $; 6D{ h 8 8 $. 2+. ' ! $8!
$> $ $ 5! "! ; . 22. $7
;6 C%! ; $. 24. > 86! 6
8$ 8$! {
46. Comment on the meaning of ha3e to. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
+. .lV MsRMLq! . H[MNN [MxI KP HIJq [LV MeMa. 2. wMH K[I sLRI MNRIMqa NMLq PR qLq aPQ [MxI KP
NMa LK{ 4. u[I RPZI eMH HP HKRPJg K[MK [I [Mq KP KMzI M zJLsI KP TQK LK. 3. 0QK eMH LK ePRK[
e[LNI gPLJg KP `Iq e[IJ [I [Mq KP `I QZ MgMLJ MK sLxI{ *. . HQZZPHI . H[MNN [MxI KP gP `MTz KP
iPJqPJ! H[MJlK .{ ,. nP aPQ [MxI KP gIK QZ IMRNa IxIRa VPRJLJg{ 7. |I eLNN [MxI KP ZMa VI
`MTz `IsPRI /QJqMa. b. |Pe NPJg qLq aPQ [MxI KP HKMa K[IRI{ 2. rwI H[MNN [MxI KP eMLK M
NPJg KLVI sPR PQR [PNLqMaH!r H[I HMLq eLK[ M HLg[. +). dJq aPQ [MxI KP gP K[IRI KeLTI M eIIz!
qPJlK aPQ{
47. FiII in the bIanks with must or ha3e to:
+. nPJlK ePRRa M`PQK K[MK. yPQ ... qP MH aPQ K[LJz `IHK. 2. va VPK[IR eMH QJeINN! MJq ....
gP KP K[I T[IVLHKlH. 4.+... gP MJq NPPz MK K[I qLJJIR. 3. yIHKIRqMalH RMLJ HZPLNK Va [MK
TPVZNIKINa; . ... `Qa M JIe PJI. *. u[IRI eMH JP PJI KP [INZ [LV HP [I ... VPxI K[I sQRJLKQRI
[LVHINs. ,. ro[! [MNNP!r H[I HMLq; r. K[PQg[K aPQ ... [MxI gPJI [PVI.r 7. u[Ia qLqJlK MJHeIR
Va sLRHK zJPTz HP . ... zJPTz KeLTI. b. yPQ ... MNeMaH TPVI KP VI Ls MJaK[LJg gPIH eRPJg. 2.
|I eMH xIRa HPRRa KP K[LJz K[MK [I ePQNq ... ZMRK eLK[ LK. +). . [Mq M HNIIZNIHH JLg[K. . ... gP
MJq HII K[I qPT MJq gIK [LV KP gLxI VI HPVIK[LJg! . TMJlK gP PJ NLzI K[MK.
48. Make the foIIowing sentences negative and interrogative:
+. |I eLNN [MxI KP TPVI MgMLJ. 2. va HLHKIR [MH KP gP KP ePRz. 4. u[Ia [Mq KP gP `MTz
MNPJI. 3. yPQ [MxI KP MJHeIR MNN K[IHI fQIHKLPJH. *. . H[MNN [MxI KP gP PQK MsKIR MNN. ,. |I eLNN
[MxI KP TPVI PJ sPPK. 7. u[I HKQqIJKH [Mq KP RIMq K[I e[PNI `PPz. b. /[I [MH KP TPVI IxIRa
eIIz. 2. |I [MH KP HKMa K[I JLg[K. +). u[Ia [Mq KP `IgLJ xIRa IMRNa.
49. Change the foIIowing statements into disjunctive questions:
+. . gMK[IR aPQ [MxI KP RIMq M NPK LJ GJgNLH[. 2. |I [Mq KP eMLK MK K[I HKMKLPJ KLNN LK HKPZZIq
RMLJLJg. 4. u[I ePRz eLNN [MxI KP `I qPJI `IsPRI JLg[KsMNN. 3. u[Ia QHQMNNa [MxI qLJJIR MK
[PVI. *. /[I PsKIJ [MH KP gP KP K[I qIJKLHKlH. ,. yPQ [MxI KP gP KP HT[PPN PJ /MKQRqMa. 7.
u[Ia eLNN [MxI KP qP e[MK K[Ia MRI KPNq. b. wI [MxI KP `IgLJ `IsPRI sLxI PlTNPTz. 2. dH sMR MH
. QJqIRHKMJq aPQ [Mq KP HKMa K[IRI M sPRKJLg[K. +). yPQ NPPz M `LK KLRIq! aPQlxI [Mq M NPJg
eMNz. ++. /[I [MH KP TNIMJ K[I [PQHI [IRHINs. +2. u[Ia [Mq KP sLJLH[ K[MK NMHK JLg[K
50. Group the exampIes according to the meaning of the >be + infinitive" construction: (i)
expressing a previousIy arranged pIan (2) expressing instructions or commands:
+. . MV KP HII [LV KPVPRRPe. 2. w[MK MV . KP qP JPe{ 4. yPQ MRI JPK KP TPVVQJLTMKI
eLK[ MJa`Pqa. 3. /[I HMLq K[MK . eMH JPK KP NIMxI K[I [PQHI. *. /[I LH KP RIKQRJ KPVPRRPe. ,.
|I HMLq K[MK uPV eMH KP MZPNPgLI. 7. |I LJfQLRIq e[IJ K[I HITRIKMRa eMH KP TPVI. b. /[I
HMaH . MV JPK KP NMa K[I KM`NI `IsPRI KeINxI PlTNPTz. 2. dK e[MK KLVI MV . KP TPVI{ +).
/PVIK[LJg VQHK [MxI [MZZIJIq. |I eMH KP [MxI TPVI MK ILg[K. ++. mLV RIVLJqIq VI K[MK eI
eIRI KP `I MK K[I HKMKLPJ JPK NMKIR K[MJ HIxIJ. +2. w[LT[ Ps aPQ LH KP `RLJg K[I VMgMLJIH
MJq JIeHZMZIRH{
51. Comment on the use of must, ha3e to, be to and transIate the sentences into Russian:
+. . eMJK aPQ KP P`Ia [IR. yPQ VQHK qP ISMTKNa MH H[I HMaH MJq VMzI JP JPLHI. 2. rwINN!
e[MK MV . KP qP M`PQK qLJJIR{r HMLq vLHH |MJqsPRK[. r/ZPLN LK `a PxIRTPPzLJg PR NIK LK gIK
TPNq{r 4. MJqMNN eMH ISTLKIq. |I K[PQg[K [I VQHK KINIZ[PJI [IR MK PJTI! [I VQHK HII [IR!
HPVI[Pe! K[MK xIRa qMa. 3. GVVM VQHK [MxI `IIJ xIRa `IMQKLsQN e[IJ H[I eMH aPQJg. /[I
[MH M sLJI sMTI. *. rwI MRI JPK KP `I KRLsNIq eLK[!r RIKQRJIq K[I ZPNLTIVMJ LJ M K[RIMKIJLJg
xPLTI. ,. yPQ VQHK TPVI MJq [MxI qLJJIR eLK[ VI HPVI KLVI. 7. |I NPHK MNN [LH VPJIa MK K[I
RMTIH MJq . [Mq KP NIJq [LV sLxI ZPQJqH. b.+ [PZI . ePJlK QZHIK PR MJJPa aPQ `a HZIMzLJg
sRMJzNa. . VQHK [MxI aPQR MqxLTI. 2. wMzI QZ! qP aPQ [IMRc yPQ MRI KP eMzI QZ MK PJTI. +).
/P pRMJz [MH TPVI{ o[! aIH; fQLKI QJISZITKIqNa. |I eMH KP [MxI HKMaIq M eIIz NPJgIR.
++. yPQ MRI JPK KP HKMa HP NMKI. yPQ VMa NIMxI MsKIR qLJJIR. +2. u[I HKPRa eMH HKLNN TNIMR LJ
[LH VLJq. |I zJIe e[MK [Mq KP `I qPJI. |I KPPz [LH ZIJ MJq eRPKI LJ [LH JIMK! HKIMqa [MJq
K[I KLKNI Ps [LH JIe JPxIN.
need
52. Comment on the meaning of the verb need:
+. |I JIIqH HIM MLR. 2. wI qPJlK JIIq MJaK[LJg INHI. 4.+ JIIq JPK sLJLH[ Va HIJKIJTI! sPR
aPQ MNRIMqa zJPe e[MK . eMH gPLJg KP HMa. 3. 1IIq LK `I sLJLH[Iq `a /MKQRqMa{ *. w[MK VPRI
qP aPQ JIIq{ ,. |I JIIq HMa JP VPRI KP [IR K[LH IxIJLJg! MJq RLHz gLxLJg [LVHINs MeMa. 7.
yPQ JIIqJlK [MxI TMRRLIq MNN K[IHI ZMRTINH aPQRHINs. u[I H[PZ ePQNq [MxI qINLxIRIq K[IV Ls
aPQ [Mq MHzIq K[IV. b. yPQ JIIqJlK KMzI MJa VPRI ZLNNH MsKIR JISK vPJqMa. 2.+ VQHK gP MK
PJTI! `QK aPQ JIIqJlK. +). yPQ JIIqJlK [MxI eMLKIq sPR VI! . TPQNq [MxI sPQJq K[I eMa. MNN
RLg[K. ++. iPPzLJg `MTz . TMJ HII ISMTKNa [Pe LK [MZZIJIq. .K JIIq JIxIR [MxI [MZZIJIq. +2.
dJq [I eMH MNeMaH TMRIsQN KP [MxI VPJIa LJ [LH ZPTzIK! MJq KP `I VPqLH[ LJ [LH qRIHH! HP
K[MK [LH HPJ JIIq JPK `NQH[ sPR [LV.
53. FiII in the bIanks with didn?t ha3e to or needn?t ha3e:
+. yPQ ... (KP `RLJg) aPQR QV`RINNM! MH eI MRI gPLJg `a TMR. 2. yPQ ... (KP eMKIR) K[I
sNPeIRH! MH LK LH gPLJg KP RMLJ. 4. . ... (KP KRMJHNMKI) LK sPR [LV! [I qLq LK [LVHINs! [I QJqIRHKMJqH
iMKLJ. 3. .... (KP MJHeIR) K[I fQIHKLPJH! e[LT[ HMxIq VI M NPK Ps KRPQ`NI. *. . zJIe . ... (KP
NPTz) K[I qPPR MsKIR VI! `QK [Pe eMH . KP zJPe aPQ eMJKIq KP TPVI PQK! KPP{ ,.+... (KP RLJg)
K[I `INN `ITMQHI K[I qPPR PZIJIq `IsPRI . gPK KP LK. 7. .... (KP [INZ) K[IV MK MNN! K[Ia
K[IVHINxIH zJIe e[MK KP qP. b. . ... (KP eRLKI) [LV `ITMQHI K[I JIeH eMH MNRIMqa zJPeJ KP
[LV. |I Z[PJIq VI H[PRKNa MsKIReMRqH. 2. yPQ ... (KP NLHKIJ) KP [LV. |LH LJsPRVMKLPJ eMH
VLHNIMqLJg. +). yPQ ... (KP `Qa) HQT[ M NPK Ps sNPeIRH. wIlxI MNRIMqa gPK VPRI K[MJ
JITIHHMRa. ++. |I... (KP gIK QZ) HP IMRNa IxIRa qMa. .K eMH PJNa PJ K[MK ZMRKLTQNMR PTTMHLPJ
K[MK [I qLq. +2. yPQ ... (KP HMa) Ls aPQ qLqJlK eMJK KP. wI TPQNq [MxI qPJI eLK[PQK aPQ QHK MH
eINN.
54. FiII in the bIanks with mast, ha3e to, be to or need:
+. yPQ ... JPK (KP `RLJg) aPQR `PPzH KP TNMHH KPVPRRPe! eI MRI gPLJg KP NLHKIJ KP M eLRINIHH
ZRPgRMVVI. 2. .lV gNMq K[I NIHHPJH eLNN `IgLJ NMKIR JPe. u[I T[LNqRIJ ePJlK... (KP gIK QZ) HP
IMRNa. 4. yPQ ... JPK (KP NIMRJ) K[I ZPIV. yPQ ... PJNa (KP RIMq) LK. 3. O[LNqRIJ ... JPK (KP ZNMa)
eLK[ VMKT[IH. *. .K eMH NMKI! MJq K[Ia ...(KP NLg[K) M sLRI KP TPPz K[ILR HQZZIR. ,. yPQ ... (KP
gLxI) LK `MTz KP VI `IsPRI aPQ gP. 7. yPQ ... JPK (KP `I) NMKI sPR K[I TPJTIRK. b.+ VMqI M sIe
VLHKMzIH! HP .... (KP qP) K[I e[PNI ISIRTLHI MgMLJ. 2.+... [MRqNa (KP HMa) [Pe LVZPRKMJK LK LH.
+). /[I ... (KP `I VMRRLIq) JISK VPJK[. ++. yPQ... JPK (KP VLHH) K[MK sLNV! LK LH ISKRMPRqLJMRa
gPPq. +2. yPQ ... JPK (KP HKRLzI) M VMKT[; . TMJ HII eINN IJPQg[. +4. mLV ... (KP VMzI) M HZIIT[
MK K[I VIIKLJg! `QK [I [Mq sMNNIJ LNN! HP uPV ... (KP HZIMz) LJHKIMq! +3. yPQ ... JPK (KP `RLJg)
MJa sPPq eLK[ aPQ KPVPRRPe. .lNN [MxI IJPQg[ sPR `PK[ Ps QH. +*. wI ... (KP `I) K[IRI MK +2
H[MRZ. +,! wI ... JPK (KP eMLK) NPJg. d `QH TMVI MNVPHK MK PJTI. +7. yPQ ... (KP NIMRJ) K[I
e[PNI ZPIV.
55. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using must, ham to, be to or need:
+. _ $8 8D $ ! . 2. "8 $>$
D6. <$ > 86 $ 6D b.4). 4. 8 >8 6 9 $.
h 8 8 ; D5 8. 3. X! 6 5
{ *. " D6 6 6! > . ,. @~
685 $! $6! $> 96 DB. 7.
$ $ 6! . <! >6 >5
Y$8 A$: 9 6 . b. < > 86! X
h > ! $ $ 7 >6 E; ;$; ;. 2. $
6 >6! 7! 8 >! 989 $
& $ $ ! ^...
. +). ' >8 8 6 $ , . ++. t $
6 D$ ;$ &{ 'D $ %$7
; YE. +2. ' ! $ $8 >8 8 5!
86. +4. "8 D! >8 . +3.
< >8 $6! F$6 87=5 $5 $ 8. h
$ . +*. " D6 6 E ;D! 9 6 >
. 9 6 9 89 5. +,. ' ! $!
$>! >6 $ 6D $%. +7. ( ! ;
> D C. +b. $8 >8 8 6
7 6% E$ $; 5 .
ought
56. Comment on the meaning of the verb ought. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
+. . K[LJz sPR aPQR eLsI MJq T[LNqRIJlH HMzI aPQ PQg[K KP [MxI M KRa. 2. u[IRI MRI ZIPZNI
e[P K[LJz K[Ia PQg[K KP `I RIsPRVIq. 4. wI MNN zJPe K[MK K[LJgH MRI JPK MNeMaH e[MK K[Ia
PQg[K KP `I. 3. yPQ PQg[K KP qP HPVIK[LJg! aPQ zJPe; LKlNN `I sMKMN sPR aPQ KP [MxI JPK[LJg KP
qP. *. |MxI . HMLq MJaK[LJg . PQg[KJlK{ ,. r. PQg[K KP [MxI KPNq /PMVIH!r [I K[PQg[K! rK[MK .
K[LJz [LV TPVLT.r 7. . HQZZPHI H[I LH RLg[K. . PQg[KJlK KP [MxI KRLIq KP HZIMz KP [IRc b. 0a K[I
IJq Ps K[I IxIJLJg . MNVPHK sINK K[MK . PQg[K KP TMNN [LV r}JTNI mMTz.r 2. .KlNN `I NPxINa RPQJq
K[IRI KPqMa. yIH! LK PQg[K KP `I fQLKI JLTI. +). .K LH K[I NMHK Ps K[I vMqILRM . [Mq sRPV vR.
mPNaPJ e[IJ eI TMVI LJ [IRI; LK PQg[K KP `I LJ ZRLVI TPJqLKLPJ HKLNN.
57. Paraphrase the foIIowing sentences so as to use ought &oughtn?t' foIIowed by a correct
form of the infinitive:
G S M V Z N I: . sINK LK ePQNq `I PJNa ZRPZIR KP sPNNPe [LH MqxLTI.
. sINK . ought KP sPNNPe [LH MqxLTI.
+. . zJIe LK ePQNq `I LVZRPZIR Ls . PZIJIq K[I NIKKIR. 2. . RITPVVIJqIq aPQ KP sLJLH[ aPQR
ePRz `IsPRI gPLJg PQK. 4. . MqxLHI aPQ JPK KP IMK `IKeIIJ VIMNH; LK eLNN VMzI aPQ sMK. 3. .
qLHMZZRPxI Ps aPQR HVPzLJg HP VQT[; aPQ MRI eMHKLJg aPQR VPJIa MJq qPLJg [MRV KP aPQR
[IMNK[. *. .KlH M ZLKa . qLqJlK KMzI K[PHI `PPzH `MTz KP K[I NL`RMRa NMHK eIIz. ,. .K eMH eRPJg Ps
aPQ JPK KP KINN PQR gQLqI K[MK aPQ eMJKIq KP gP HLg[KHIILJg MNN `a aPQRHINs. 7. yPQ qLqJlK eMLK
KLNN K[I NLg[KH eIRI gRIIJ `IsPRI TRPHHLJg K[I RPMq! MJq LK eMH eRPJg! aPQ zJPe. b. .K eMH
QJRIMHPJM`NI Ps aPQ KP [MxI TRPHHIq K[I RPMq e[IJ K[I NLg[KH eIRI RIq. 2. . eLH[ aPQ [Mq
`IIJ K[IRI. u[I ZIRsPRVMJTI eMH ePJqIRsQN. +). .s [I HKMRKH MK ILg[K [I eLNN ZRP`M`Na `I
K[IRI `a PJI PlTNPTz.
58. FiII in the bIanks with ought, ha3e to, be to or need foIIowed by the appropriate infinitive:
+. vPK[IR MNeMaH KINNH VI K[MK . ... (KP `I) VPRI TMRIsQN. 2. yPQ ... JPK (KP KINN) [LV Va
KINIZ[PJI JQV`IR! [I zJPeH LK. 4. yPQ ... JPK (KP HMa) K[MKc /II [Pe qLHKRIHHIq H[I LH. 3.+
qPJlK eMJK KP qP LK! `QK ..... *. dNN K[I HMVI! . K[LJz aPQ ... (KP HII) M qPTKPR. u[IRI VQHK `I
HPVIK[LJg K[I VMKKIR eLK[ aPQ. ,. nPJlK sPRgIK K[MK aPQ ... (KP gIK QZ) MK HIxIJc 7. 0QK K[IRI
eMH JP PK[IR eMa PQK. +... (KP TPVVQJLTMKI) eLK[ [LV. 1P PJI INHI zJIe [IR MqqRIHH. b.
/QT[ K[LJgH ... JPK (KP `I MNNPeIq). 2! yPQ ... JPK (KP eRLKI) HQT[ M NPJg TPVZPHLKLPJ. u[I
KIMT[IR PJNa MHzIq sPR 2)) ePRqH! MJq aPQ [MxI eRLKKIJ 3)). +). r\IR[MZH .... JPK (KP KRPQ`NI)
aPQ.r |I TNPHIq [LH NLZH KLg[K. |I eMH PssIJqIq.
should
59. Comment on the meaning of the verb should. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
+. OMJ aPQ H[Pe VI MJa GJgNLH[ ePVMJ e[P HZIMzH GJgNLH[ MH LK H[PQNq `I HZPzIJ{ 2. d
eLsI H[PQNq P`Ia [IR [QH`MJq. 4. 0IHLqIH aPQ H[PQNqJlK TQK aPQR PNq sRLIJqH JPe K[MK aPQ
[MxI RLHIJ LJ K[I ePRNq. 3. u[Ia H[PQNq `I KMQg[K M NIHHPJ. *. . TPJsIHH . qLq JPK sPRIHII K[LH
KQRJ Ps IxIJKH. 0QK . H[PQNq [MxI sPRIHIIJ LK. ,. yPQ [MxI qLHTPxIRIq e[MK . LJKIJqIq aPQ
H[PQNq JIxIR [MxI zJPeJ. 7. |I H[PQNq JPK [MxI HMLq LK. u[I VPVIJK K[I ePRqH TRPHHIq [LH
NLZH [I zJIe LK eMH JPK K[I RLg[K K[LJg KP HMa. b. OPJHLqIRM`NI qI`MKI KPPz ZNMTI `IKeIIJ K[I
KeP HLHKIRH e[IK[IR uLVPK[a H[PQNq PR H[PQNqJlK `I HQVVPJIq KP HII dJJIKKI. 2. ryPQ
H[PQNq TPVI [IRI PsKIJ!r [I HMLq KP /[INKPJ... ryPQ PQg[K KP TPVI [IRI PsKIJ!r [I RIZIMKIq
KP /[INKPJ. +). yPQ PQg[K KP sLJLH[ aPQR ePRz `IsPRI gPLJg PQK. . zJPe . H[PQNq.
60. State whether should is auxiIiary or modaI:
+. r/P aPQ K[LJz . H[PQNq gP! K[IJ{r HMLq MJqMNN `I[LJq [LV. 2. dK `RIMzsMHK . KPNq vMRa
K[MK . H[PQNq `I M`HIJK MK NIMHK sPQR qMaH. 4. . H[PQNqJlK [MxI `INLIxIq LK Ls . [MqJlK HIIJ LK
eLK[ Va PeJ IaIH. 3. yPQ RIMNNa H[PQNqJlK [MxI HMLq K[MK! pINLS. .lNN KMNz KP [LV VaHINs. *.
|Pe M`PQK \LJsPNq{ /[PQNqJlK [I `I [IRI{ ,. u[MJz UPq sPR PQR ULN`IRK. w[MK H[PQNq eI qP
eLK[PQK [LV{ 7. 1P PJI zJIe e[IJ . eMH KP `I `MTz PR Ls . H[PQNq `I `MTz MK MNN. b. pINLS
HMLq [MHKLNa! rpPRgLxI VI. . H[PQNqJlK [MxI KRPQ`NIq aPQr. 2. 1INN [MH QHK KPNq VI aPQ eMJKIq
KP HII VI PR . H[PQNqJlK [MxI KRPQ`NIq aPQ. +). u[Ia [Mq JPK HIIJ JP PJI H[PQNq HII [IR
qLHKRIHH! JPK IxIJ [IR gRMJqsMK[IR.
61. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using must, ought, should, need, ha3e to or be to:
+. X! > ! $ 8 6 $5 6!
8 $ > . 2. % % $8 D! $ $
6D 6 > 6 ;8. 4. Y8 > 6 $
D! 9! 8 8 9 D . 3. 8 >8
8 ;6 $D . Y; 8 $ D6 6
89 . *. < 8 > 6 $. Y 8 D 8
6 $ . 8 ! 8 9! ,. '! > 86! 7
. < $ $D6. 7. A$ 8 D { >
8 6 77 . Y; 8 > 8 8
6! $8 8 >. b. A5! D6! 76 $D6
! $ ;! $ 96. 2. ! ! 8$.
(8 ; ; ;. +). < ; $D; $! .
<> 86 6. X. ~$ 6 6!
$. +2. Y8 ! E D ! 6. <> 86
$68$ 7$. +4. A; 9 %85 6.
F>$ D6 6! +3. Y 7 58 9=. +*. "
D ; ;6 $! 8. +,. < D5 $ ;6
$5 $. ' $ 9 $! $ 6
. +7. $ > 8 6 C. $; 8 6 $ 7
9$7 C$%7. +b. X$ 8 >6 ; ; $;
D;. ' = >7 E$. +2. 7 $! 8 .
9D 7! ;$ 6.
62. Comment on the use of should for the sake of emotionaI coIouring. Pay attention to the
structure of the sentences and the word combination it is found in:
+. bhy 0hou.d aPQ `I qLssIRIJK sRPV PK[IR VIJ{ 2. 0QK why 0hou.d [I KMzI K[I HTMJqMc PJ
[LVHINs{ .K eMH JPK sMLRc 4. u[Ia PJNa eMJK K[ILR LJqIZIJqIJTI! MJq why 0hou.dn6t K[Ia [MxI
LK{ 3. rnP aPQ HII VQT[ Ps MJqMNN{r r|I ZRMTKLTMNNa NLxIH [IRI. 0QK aPQ zJIe{!r r1P!r HMLq
|Qg[! |I eMH HQRZRLHIq MJq MJJPaIq. r bhy IxIR HJPQLq . zJPe{r *. w[MK qP aPQ K[LJz
PQg[K KP `I qPJI{ nPJI{ Wow 0hou.d . zJPe{ ,! rpRIH[ MLRcr ISTNMLVIq mMVIH! kbhat
0hou.d . qP eLK[ sRIH[ MLR{r 7. v R H. | L g g L J H: 0QK e[IRI qPIH K[I gLRN NLxI{ | L g g L n H:
wLK[ QH! Ps TPQRHI. bhere 0hou.d H[I NLxI{ b. #trange that K[I qPg 0hou.d die QHK JPec 2.
Ironi)a. that /PMVIH 0hou.d )ome qPeJ [IRI KP K[LH [PQHI! `QLNK sPR [LVHINsc +). |I
[IMRq K[I JQRHI TRaLJg PxIR K[IRI `a K[I sLRI; )uriou0 that H[I! M HKRMJgIR! 0hou.d &e K[I PJNa
PJI Ps K[IV e[P TRLIqc ++. .KlH xIRa intere0ting that aPQ 0hou.d 0ay K[MK! GqeMRq xIRa
LJKIRIHKLJg. +2. It 0tru)/ her &itter.y that H[I! e[P [Mq `IIJ [LH sLRHK MqPRIq! 0hou.d have KP
HT[IVI KP HII [LV. +4. ... it annoyed him very mu)h that [LH TPVZMJLPJ! e[P eMH MNHP KLRIq!
0hou.d grow VPRI T[IIRsQN. +3. It60 very 0trange that [I 0hou.d have to.d aPQ K[I KRQK[c
+*. ... HQqqIJNa [I [IMRq [LH JMVI TMNNIq sRPV `I[LJq! MJq who 0hou.d RLqI QZ KP [LV PJ
ILK[IR HLqI &ut 0LNN nIJJMJK MJq dJKPJLM [IRHINsc
63. Pay attention to the use of should in subordinate cIauses after some verbs and
expressions. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
A. I" It i0 ne)e00ary K[MK . H[PQNq HII [IR `IsPRI aPQ qP. 2. It i0 norma. K[MK K[IRI H[PQNq `I
M ZIRLPq Ps RI`QLNqLJg MsKIR eMR. 4. r/[I [MH HLS T[LNqRIJ!r HMLq dQJK mQNa! kif0 very (ro(er
K[MK H[I H[PQNq `I TMRIsQN.r 3. It i0 e00entia. K[MK aPQ H[PQNq sLJq PQK KP e[PV K[PHI PRqIRH
MRI gPLJg. *. . VIMJ Ls eI MRI KP qIxINPZ nLIHIN ZNMJIH if0 vita. K[MK eI H[PQNq [MxI PQR PeJ
VMgJIHLQV HQZZNLIH.
B. ,. |I demanded K[MK ePRz H[PQNq HKMRK MK PJTI. 7. wI re)ommend K[MK [I H[PQNq `I
T[PHIJ PQR qINIgMKI. b. |I ordered K[MK K[Ia H[PQNq MNN NIMxI K[I [PQHI. 2. |I 0ugge0ted K[MK
K[I ePRzLJg [PQRH H[PQNq `I RIqQTIq. +). u[I qPTKPR in0i0t0 K[MK K[I T[LNqRIJ H[PQNq `I HIJK
KP K[I TPQJKRa.
C. ++. .s H[I H[PQNq Z[PJI . eLNN KINN [IR e[IRI aPQ MRI. +2. /[PQNq aPQ RIfQLRI MJaK[LJg
VPRI! ZNIMHI RLJg K[I `INN sPR K[I MKKIJqMJK.
64. FiII in the bIanks with mast, should or need:
+. .lV HQggIHKLJg K[MK! aPQ ... VMRRa ;;! vLqgI. 2. /[I ... `I ZLTzLJg T[IRRLIH LJ K[I
PRT[MRq! KINN [IR KP TPVI LJKP K[I [PQHI. 4. rwINN.r HMLq GVLNa eLK[ TMNV! raPQ ... JPK gIK LJKP
HQT[ sQHHIH e[IJ eI KINN aPQ K[LJgH.r 3. .H LK JITIHHMRa! qP aPQ K[LJz! K[MK K[I ZPNLTI ... zJPe
M`PQK LK{ *. yPQ ... JPK `I MsRMLq Ps [LV. |IlH M zLJq PNq VMJ. ,. .K i0 IHHIJKLMN K[MK [I ... `I
ZRIZMRIq sPR LK. 7. /PsK VQHLT sLNNIq K[I RPPV. ru[MK ... `I M gRMVPZ[PJI RITPRq!r K[PQg[K [I.
b. . ZRPZPHI K[MK K[I ZRLI ... `I qLxLqIq. 2. o[! . qPJlK zJPe. .KlH RIMNNa RMK[IR Pqq K[MK [I ...
IxIR [MxI `IIJ KMzLJg [IR KP K[I 0MNN. +). yPQ ... [MxI HIIJ K[MK sLNV e[IJ LK eMH [IRI NMHK
eIIz. ++. .K LH HKRMJgI K[MK aPQ ... RIVIV`IR K[I ZNMTI. +2. w[a ... JPK . KMNz KP OMK[IRLJI{
nP aPQ K[LJz .lV JPK ePRK[a KP! PR HPVIK[LJg{ +4. \PPR `Pac |I ... [MxI HQssIRIq HP. +3.
yPQ ... JPK MJHeIRMNN Va fQIHKLPJH Ls aPQ qPJlK eMJK KP. +*. w[a ... aPQ HMa HQT[
qLHMgRIIM`NI K[LJgH{ +,. UP QZHKMLRH MK PJTI. yPQ ... T[MJgI aPQR eIK TNPK[IH. +7. .K eMH PJNa
ZRPZIR K[MK nPRM! e[P eMH aPQJg MJq [IMNK[a! ... gLxI [IR HIMK KP K[MK PNq NMqa. +b. . K[LJz .lNN
TPVI PJ KLVI! `QK Ls . ... `I NMKI! ZNIMHI zIIZ M HIMK sPR VI. +2. |I PRqIRIq K[MK K[I gMKI ... `I
NPTzIq. 2). /[I TPJsLHTMKIq K[I VPRJLJg ZMZIRH HP K[MK K[I T[LNqRIJ ... JPK HII K[IV. 2+.
yPQ ... JPK eMzI QZ `IsPRI HIxIJ PlTNPTz. wIlNN HKMRK MK [MNs ZMHK ILg[K. 22. . eMH QHK
ePJqIRLJg Ls Va eLsI eMH [IRI.l 1P! H[I LHJlK [IRI. w[a ... H[I `I{ 24. yPQ ... JPK ePRz
HP [MRq MsKIR aPQR LNNJIHH. 23. |IJRLIKKM HQggIHKIq KP UIRqM K[MK K[Ia ... gP MJq NPPz MK K[I
zLKT[IJ gMRqIJ.
shall, will
65. Comment on the modaI coIouring of the foIIowing sentences with shall:
+. yPQ H[MNN JPK HIMRT[ Va RPPVH. yPQ [MxI JP RLg[K KP qP LK. . sPR`Lq aPQc 2. |I [MHJlK
HIIJ aPQ MJq [I H[MJlK. 4. u[I ZPNLTI H[MNN KMzI aPQ QZ. 3. dNN RLg[K; Ls H[I eMJKH KP `I
PZIJIq QZ! H[I H[MNN `I. *. yPQ H[MNN gP QZ MJq qPeJ MJq RPQJq K[I KPeJ LJ M KMSL IxIRa qMa.
,. yPQ H[MNN [MxI MNN K[I JIeH . TMJ HIJq aPQ. 7. r/[MNN . PRqIR M KMSL{r [I MHzIq. b. u[MK
H[MNN `I ZQK MJ IJq KP JPe MJq sPR IxIRc
66. Comment on the meaning of will and would. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
+. . eLNN NIK aPQ zJPe! HP aPQ TMJ `I K[IRI. 2.+ eLNN KINN aPQ e[MK LK LH. 4. . eLNN VMzI aPQR
ISTQHIH KP vMRgMRIK. 3. .s LK [Mq `IIJ M gLRN . ePQNq [MxI TMNNIq [IR MsKIR Va VPK[IR. *. wLNN
aPQ gP PQK PJ K[I KIRRMTI MJq NPPz MK K[I HQJHIK{ ,. . MV MsRMLq Ls aPQ eLNN ISTQHI VI .
VQHK PLJ Va eLsI. 7. dRK[QR! ePQNq aPQ VLJq HIILJg Ls vRH. GRNaJJI [MH TPVI `MTz{ b. .
eMJK M Z[PKPgRMZ[ Ps aPQ! ePQNq aPQ gLxI VI PJI{ 2. wLNN aPQ MHz K[IV KP TMNN Va
TMRRLMgI! ZNIMHI{ +). wLNN aPQ gP MJq NPPz PxIR K[I Z[PKPgRMZ[ MN`QV K[MK . HII K[IRI{ ++. .
eLNN JIxIR HZIMz KP aPQ MgMLJ. +2. 1P! JPc . eLNN gP `MTz! NIK dRK[QR qP eLK[ VI e[MK [I
ZNIMHIH. +4. 0QK . KPNq [LV . ePQNqJlK gLxI [LV MJ MJHeIR KLNN KPVPRRPe. +3. yPQ qLq eMJK KP
TPVI! MNK[PQg[ aPQ ePQNqJlK HMa HP. +*. /[Ilq NLzI aPQ KP RLJg [IR QZ K[LH MsKIRJPPJ! `IsPRI
sLxIK[LRKa! Ls aPQ ePQNq. +,. . H[PQNq `I HP gNMq Ls aPQ ePQNq KINN [LV KP TPVI QZ! mMJI. +7. .
zJPTzIq VPRI K[MJ PJTI `QK H[I ePQNqJlK NIK VI LJ. +b. r. eLH[l aPQ ePQNq NIMxI VI MNPJI
HPVIKLVIH!r HMLq nPRM. +2.+ HQZZPHI K[LH eLNN `I K[I NMHK `MNN Ps K[I HIMHPJ{ 2). |I ePQNq HLK
PJ K[I `Iq `IHLqI [LV MJq eMKT[ [LV sPR [PQRH. 2+. . HVPzI NLzI M T[LVJIac dJq Va NLg[KIR
ePJlK ePRz.
67. Comment on the meaning of shall and will. TransIate the sentences into Russian:
+. w[IRI H[MNN eI ZQK K[LH xMHI{ 2. . eMJK KP `I [INZsQN KP aPQ `PK[; Ls aPQ eLNN NIK VI. 4.
nPJlK aPQ ePRRa M`PQK MJaK[LJg. . eLNN `I MNN RLg[K. 3. ryPQ VQHK MNeMaH TPVI KP VI Ls
MJaK[LJg gPIH eRPJg.r ros TPQRHI! . eLNN!r H[I HMLq MH Ls H[I eIRI HPPK[LJg [LV. *. wLNN K[IRI
`I KLVI KP `Qa K[I KLTzIKH{ ,. .lNN `IgLJ MgMLJ MJq aPQ H[MJlK HKPZ VI K[LH KLVIc 7! rnP gLxI
Va NPxI KP O[RLHKLJI!r HMLq nPRM. r/QRINa . eLNN!r HMLq vLT[MIN. b. O[LNqRIJ! [MxI aPQ `IIJ
ZNMaLJg eLK[ Va QV`RINNM{ .K ePJlK PZIJc 2. u[Ia H[MNN JPK ZMHHc +). wLNN aPQ [MxI
HPVIK[LJg KP qRLJz{ ++. |Pe NPJg eLNN aPQR sRLIJqH `I [IRI{ +2. yPQ H[MNN [MxI LK `MTz
KPVPRRPe. +4. dH [I TMJlK TRIMKI MJaK[LJg [LVHINs! [I LH qIKIRVLJIq aPQ ePJlK! +3. wLNN aPQ
TPVI KP KIM KPVPRRPe{ +*. |I H[MNN JIxIR TPVI [IRI MgMLJc .lNN KMzI TMRI Ps LK. +,. .s aPQ eLNN
eMLK [IRI M VPVIJK! .lNN sIKT[ aPQ M T[MLR.
68. RepIace shall and will with the suggested aIternative verb, making any necessary
changes:
+. .K eLNN HPPJ RMLJ. iPPz MK K[I TNPQqH! (KP `I gPLJg) 2. yPQ H[MNN HKMa [IRI KLNN . TPVI
`MTz! (KP `I KP) 4. . ePJlK qP e[MK aPQ KINN VI. (KP RIsQHI) 3. yPQ H[MNN [MxI MJ MZZNI MsKIR
qLJJIR! (KP ZRPVLHI) *. w[MK eLNN aPQ qP JPe{ (KP `I gPLJg) ,. wI H[MNN xLHLK MNN K[I HLg[KH Ps
iPJqPJ! (KP [PZI) 7. w[IJ eLNN aPQ NIMRJ GJgNLH[ ZRPZIRNa{ (KP LJKIJq) b. u[LH KLVI JISK
eIIz . H[MNN `I LJ /K. \IKIRH`QRg! (KP [PZI) 2. wLNN [I NLHKIJ KP Va HLJgLJg! qP aPQ K[LJz{ (KP
NLzI) +). nP aPQ K[LJz K[IalNN sPNNPe QH MNN K[I eMa [PVI{ (KP VIMJ)
69. FiII in the bIanks with should or would:
+. r.s . HII [LV!r . HMLq! r.lNN NIK aPQ zJPe.r r. ... `I xIRa VQT[ P`NLgIq Ls aPQ ... !r HMLq
0RPeJ. 2. 0QK . ...nlK NLI M`PQK M K[LJg NLzI K[MK!... .{ 4. ... aPQ qRLxI QH `MTz KP OMVZqIJ |LNN{
3. /[I ...JlK gP LJ KP HQZZIR eLK[ MJaPJI `QK wLJKPJ. *. .s . eIRI aPQ .... `Qa K[MK [MK! . NLzI
K[I TPNPQR xIRa VQT[. ,! .KlH RLqLTQNPQH K[MK aPQ ... TPJTIMN LK sRPV aPQR VPK[IR. 7. .s PJNa
|IJRLIKKM ... VMzI QZ [IR VLJq KP VMRRa [LV. b. w[a ... . HQssIR VPRI K[MJ .lxI HQssIRIq
MNRIMqa{ w[a ... .{ 2. ... aPQ TMRI KP TPVI KP KIM eLK[ QH{ +). |I ...JlK NPPz MK [IR. |I H[PPz
[IR Pss gIJKNa MJq gIJKNa HMLq! rwIlNN HII M`PQK K[MK.r ++. |I ZRIHHIq HPVIK[LJg LJKP [IR
ZMNV. r|IRIlH M H[LNNLJg LJ TMHI aPQ ... JIIq LK.r +2. . ePJqIR Ls aPQ ... VLJq VI NMaLJg qPeJ
Va QV`RINNM. +4. w[a! P[c w[a ... . [MxI KP ISZPHI Va VLHsPRKQJI KP K[I ZQ`NLT NLzI K[LH{
+3. |I ... RMK[IR NLHKIJ KP K[I PK[IRH K[MJ KMNz [LVHINs. +*. |I PRqIRIq K[MK K[I [PRHIH ... `I
HMqqNIq. +,. /[I ... HLK sPR [PQRH eMKT[LJg K[I H[LZH. +7. . eLH[ aPQ ...nlK fQMRRIN eLK[ mIHHLI.
+b. |I sQNNa `INLIxIq! [Mq LK `IIJ JITIHHMRa! H[I... [MxI `IIJ M gIJLQH MK MJaK[LJg. +2. .J
PRqIR KP VMzI K[IHI qIVMJqH IssITKLxI eI HQggIHKIq K[MK K[IRI ... `I JP RIKQRJ KP ePRz KPqMa.
2). w[a qPJlK aPQ eMJK KP HKMa MJPK[IR eIIz LJ K[I TPQJKRa{ .K... qP aPQ PJNa gPPq.
70. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using should or would:
+. ' >! 8 8 %. 2. "8
$$! > ; $D. 4. " 8 96!
8 8 %$ . 3. ( 5 $;6 ${ '
$> 6 $. *. -6! 8 $68
$ $c ,. ! 8 9 6 $>
6D ! 8 ; 7. 7. < 8 78 $;
>6{ D $8 = ;8. b. <$ 96 6 8
! ; >6 $. "8 8 8. 2.
$! 8 ; 7 . +). A $ 8{
! 8 78. X. <9$! 8 >85
$ ; %5. +2. ~ ; E$!
>! 5 $ D $. +4. < 9D6 $; { ' 6
85. +3. _ $! 85 $$! ($ !
5. +*. _$ $ 6 ! $ { <>! E
. h 6! 8 E D6. +,. ! >5! 7
$. - $ ;. +7. 8 8 $ $; !
8 8 D D6 . +b. A$ $ 6! 7 6{
' ; ; $ ;. +2. F ! = 8;. 2).
$ 8 6 $ 7 7 ;.
REVISION EXERCISES ON MOOD AND MODAL VERBS
71. RepIace the infinitives in brackets by the appropriate obIique mood:
+. .s . (KP `I) MH aPQJg MH aPQ MRI! . (KP [MxI) M eMNzLJg [PNLqMa. 2. \IR[MZH! H[I (JPK KP
NPPz) HP `Mq! Ls H[I (JPK KP ZQK PJ) HP VQT[ eILg[K. 4. |I eMNzIq HNPeNa MH K[PQg[ LK (KP
MT[I) KP VPxI. 3. .K (KP `I) JMKQRMN sPR [LV KP gP KP HNIIZ! *. .K HIIVIq MH Ls MNN K[I `MRI KRIIH!
KPI `QH[IH! K[I TQK `RQH[ MJq MNN K[I gRMHH MJq K[I `MRI gRPQJq (KP `I xMRJLH[Iq) eLK[ LTI. ,.
nMqqa! Ls aPQ (KP `I qRIHHIq) LJ T[ITzIq gLJg[MVH MNN aPQR NLsI! aPQ (KP QJqIRHKMJq) [Pe .
sIIN. 7.+ (KP NLzI) KP gP [QJKLJg K[IRI! `QK .lV MsRMLq . JIxIR (KP `I M`NI) KP `IMR K[I TPNq. b.
|I NPPzIq NLzI MJ PssLTIR. dJa PJI (KP `I ZRPQq) KP `I HIIJ Pss `a [LV. 2. |I RIZMLq VI K[I
[MNsTRPeJ MH K[PQg[ LK (KP `I `PRRPeIq) aIHKIRqMa. +). u[I gLRNH (JPK KP K[LJz) HP VQT[ Ps
[LV Ls K[Ia (KP HII) [LV K[IJ. ++. u[I aPQJg NMqa eMH IxLqIJKNa dVIRLTMJ MJq [I eMH
IxLqIJKNa GJgNLH[: PK[IReLHI . (KP gQIHH) sRPV [LH LVZRIHHLxI MLR K[MK [I eMH [IR sMK[IR. +2. .s
GJgNMJq (KP HeIIZ MeMa) [IR [IqgIH MJq (KP ZQK) LJ K[ILR ZNMTI sIJTIH! K[I HMxLJg Ps NMJq (KP
`I) IJPRVPQH. +4. wINT[ HMLq LK TPNqNa MH Ls [I (KP `I MHzIq) KP VMzI HPVI TPJTIHHLPJ. +3. r.
(KP `I MH[MVIq) Ps VaHINs! ONMRM!r RIKQRJIq vLHH vQRqHKPJI! rLs . (TMJJPK) QJqIRHKMJq K[I
`Pa PR MJa `Pa.r +*. .s . (VMa) HQggIHK . (KP HMa) K[MK LK (KP `I) `IKKIR KP ZQK Pss K[I KRLZ. +,.
w[MK (VMa) [MxI [MZZIJIq PR (KP [MZZIJ) Ls nPRM MJq . JIxIR (KP zJPe) IMT[ PK[IR{ +7. va
TPVZMJLPJ HKQV`NIq! K[I `RMJT[ [I [Mq `IIJ [PNqLJg HJMZZIq MJq [I (KP sMNN) Ls [LH [MJq
(JPK KP TMKT[) MJPK[IR `RMJT[.
72. Answer the foIIowing questions:
+. w[MK ePQNq aPQ HMa Ls aPQ eIRI MHzIq KP KMzI ZMRK LJ M TPJTIRK KPJLg[K{ 2. w[IRI
ePQNq aPQ gP Ls aPQ eIRI PJ NIMxI{ 4. w[MK ePQNq aPQ `I qPLJg JPe Ls LK eIRI K[I 4+HK Ps
nITIV`IR{ 3. w[IRI ePQNq aPQ NLzI KP ePRz MsKIR gRMqQMKLJg sRPV K[I }JLxIRHLKa{ *. w[MK
ePQNq aPQ HMa ss aPQ eIRI PssIRIq KP gP KP K[I vPPJ{ ,. w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP Ls aPQR sRLIJq
sINN LNN MNN Ps M HQqqIJ{ 7. w[MK ePQNq aPQ `I qPLJg JPe Ls aPQ eIRI JPK [MxLJg M NIHHPJ{ b.
w[MK ePQNq aPQ qP Ls HPVI`Pqa MHzIq aPQ KP TMNN M qPTKPR{ 2. w[MK ePQNq aPQ RITPVVIJq
KP M ZIRHPJ e[P [MH M xLPNIJK [IMqMT[I{ +). .s aPQR sRLIJq [Mq `IIJ LNN [Pe ePQNq aPQ [INZ
[LV KP TMKT[ QZ eLK[ K[I gRPQZ{ ++. w[IRI ePQNq aPQ gP KP `Qa HPVI VIMK (`RIMq!
xIgIKM`NIH){ +2! w[MK ePQNq aPQ eIMR KP M 1Ie yIMR ZMRKa{ +4. w[MK ePQNq aPQ ZRIsIR KP
[MxI sPR qIHHIRK{ +3. w[MK ePQNq aPQ NLzI KP qP Ls LK eIRI PZZRIHHLxINa [PK{ +*. w[MK ePQNq
aPQ qP Ls aPQ [Mq M [Lg[ KIVZIRMKQRI{ +,. w[MK HIMKH ePQNq aPQ ZRIsIR Ls aPQ eMJKIq KP gP
KP K[I K[IMKRI{
73. RepIace the infinitives in brackets by the correct form of the obIique moods:
+. GxIJ Ls K[I qPTKPR (KP `I) [IRI [I (TMJJPK) [INZ aPQ. 2. .s LK (KP `I) HQVVIR eI (KP [MxI)
M eMNzLJg [PNLqMa. 4. .s PJNa [I (KP MxPLq) TPVZNLTMKLPJHc 3. .s PJNa . (TMJ) zIIZ sRPV
K[LJzLJg M`PQK Va KRPQ`NIHc *. .s aPQ (JPK KP eMNz) `MRI[IMqIq aPQ (JPK KP TMKT[) TPNq. ,. 0QK
sPR aPQ . JIxIR (KP sLJq) M eMa PQK K[IJ. 7. .s . (TMJ) sPRgIK IxIRaK[LJgc b. .s aPQ (JPK KP `I)
TPNq aPQ (JPK KP H[LxIR) sRPV [IMq KP sPPK. 2. .s K[LH VIqLTLJI (JPK KP `RLJg qPeJ) K[I sIxIR
eI (KP [MxI KP) HIJq sPR M qPTKPR! +). .s dJJI (KP ZMHH) [IR ISMVH LJ HZRLJg H[I (KP sIIN) M
HITPJqaIMR HKQqIJK. ++. .s [I (KP sPNNPe) MNN K[I qPTKPRlH LJHKRQTKLPJH [I (KP MxPLq)
ZJIQVPJLM. +2. .s K[I `Pa (KP zJPe) M`PQK K[I OIJKLgRMqI K[IRVPVIKIR [I (JPK KP K[LJz) Ps
qIMK[. +4. .s LK (KP MT[I) [LV KP VPxI [I (JPK KP eMNz) [LVHINs. +3. .s [I (KP [IMR) aPQR ePRqH
[I (KP gIK) PssIJqIq.
74. TransIate these sentences into EngIish:
.. F >6! 8 ; $. 8 $ E 8. 2. >7!
E 6. ~ 8 8 $ 8! 8 $; 8 E 6. 4. 6
8 $ > 9D 6! ! 8. 3. @6! 9 F5B!
$ &E. *. "8 >! D $ $ . ,. F >6!
$ ! 6 9 9. 7. D 8 6 D
$ ; $. b. 6! 8 9 $8 $; 6D
;6. 2. ' ; 5 5! > $!
D . +). 6! 8 D . $ 8 8 5
; D. .K. F >6! 8 D6 $. "8 $; 8 5
8 $. +2. 6! 8 7 $. 8 8
6$ D E .
75. TransIate the foIIowing sentences Sato EngIish. Pay attention to the use of the obIique
moods;
+. F >6! 8 8 >8. h; 8 6! 8 8
D D9 5! 2. ~ 8 ! 5 8 8 $ $. 4.
' 8; $ 8$! 89. 3. 6! 8
; ! $8 $; 8 96 $ ;. *. - $ !
8 ; >. ,. ~ 8 8 D$ $! 8
D6 5 %. 7! E $> 8 8 6! ;
E $ ; $8. b. 6! $ 8 $! ; E 6.
2. @ 8 ! 8 $5 ! ; 8 $8$ 8$B!
. +). &75 $ $ 8 > $. ++. < $5
! ; = ! $; 8! 8 D
6D. +2. ~ 8 9 8 ! $8 8 $; 8D6. +4. ~
8 8! $5 ! 8 $; 6. 8 $ >6. +3. 6
D$ $! 8 E 9. +*. ! >6 !
5 .
76. CompIete the foIIowing sentences:
+. .s aPQ [Mq KMzIJ Va MqxLTI .... 2. u[I eMKT[ ePQNqJlK `I HNPe Ls .... 4. |IR NLsI VLg[K
[MxI `IIJ HMxIq Ls .... 3. .s aPQR VPK[IR HMe LK... . *. .lq [MxI `RPQg[K sNPeIRH Ls... . ,. .s aPQ
[Mq MHzIq [IR ZIRVLHHLPJ ... . 7. yPQ ePQNq [MxI `IIJ MJgRa Ls... . b. .s . [Mq M TMR... . 2. w[a
qLq aPQ `I[MxI MH Ls... { +.). w[IJ . VIK [LV [I NPPzIq MH Ls ... . ++. GxIJ Ls . [Mq M
KPPK[MT[I.... +2. wI H[PQNq [MxI sPQJq K[I ZNMTI .... +4. |I LH HZIMzLJg xIRa HNPeNa MH Ls ....
+3. \QK PJ aPQR e[LKI qRIHH MJq aPQlNN NPPz MH K[PQg[ ... . +*. GxIJ Ls K[Ia [Mq gPK K[LH
KINIgRMV ... . +,. .K ePQNq `I xIRa gPPq Ls.... +7. .s . eIRI gPLJg KP KRMxIN ... . +b. .s K[I `PPz
eIRI JPK HP `PRLJg ... . +2. u[I gLRN `IgMJ TRaLJg MH Ls....
77. RepIace the infinitives in brackets by the correct form of the obIique mood:
+. uINN VI! e[MK aPQ (KP qP) Ls aPQ (KP `I) LJ Va ZNMTI{ 2. 0QK sPR aPQ . (KP NIMxI) NPJg
MgP. 4. /[I HZIMzH HP HNPeNa MH Ls H[I (KP KRMJHNMKI) sRPV M sPRILgJ NMJgQMgI. 3. . eLH[ . JIxIR
(KP VIIK) [LV. *. \IPZNI eIRI HKMJqLJg MRPQJq MH Ls K[Ia (KP ISZITK) HPVIK[LJg KP [MZZIJ. ,.
. eLH[ aPQ (KP `I) NLzI VI sPR KeP VLJQKIH. 7. .s 0P` (KP gP) PQK `IsPRI! eI (KP JPKLTI) [LV.
b. 0QK sPR K[I QJqIRgRPQJq K[I KRMssLT LJ vPHTPe (KP `I) xIRa [IMxa. 2. /[I LH NPPzLJg MK VI
MH Ls H[I (KP zJPe) VI. +). u[MK (KP LJKIRIHK) VI HPVI sPQR aIMRH MgP. ++. .s . (KP zJPe) e[MK
LK MNN VIMJK . (JPK KP TPVI). +2. .K HIIVH KP VI K[MK e[MK H[I RIsQHIq K[IJ H[I (KP `I) gNMq KP
gIK JPe. +4. va qIMR dNga! aPQ KMNz ISMTKNa MH Ls aPQ (KP `I) M qIJKLHK. +3. 0QK sPR [IR ePRqH
Va NLsI (KP KMzI) M qLssIRIJK TPQRHI. +*. dK K[MK VPVIJK H[I MNVPHK eLH[Iq H[I (JPK KP HIJq)
sPR [LV. +,. /[I eRPKI eLK[ [IR PeJ [MJq K[I NIKKIRH e[LT[ QJqIR JPRVMN TLRTQVHKMJTIH H[I
(KP qLTKMKI) KP [IR HITRIKMRa.
78. TransIate these sentences into EngIish. Pay attention to the use of the obIique moods:
.. A$ 8 { ~ 8 8 !
! 8 8 ; ; D. 2. F >6!
! ; $6 7. 4. ~ 8 E ! $ 8
8 >8 ;8 ! 3. > 8 8 $8! $ 8 8
D >6 ;. *. - ; 5 ! . ,. 8 8
$ 6 ! 8 8 $ $ 6
D. 7. F >6! 85 > D$ . <$
9 6 $; $ ;. b. ~ 8 8 6 ;8
! 8 8 6 >6. 2. '
> 86 5 $ $! E $ $
. +). 6! % E$ $ $; $6 $! ++.
> 8 $! 8 . A6
$c +2. ~ 8 C! 8 8 $
$6. +4. < 9 6 ;5{ 8 6$ 8
C 5. +3. ' 5! ;
; 6. +*. ( ; $! $
. +,. 8 $6 $5. (]" F >6! E D
D . 6 8 6! 8 $; 8 E 6. +b. ~ 8 $
8 6D $! 8 ; 9 8 $. +2. 6
>7! 8 $6 8 58 D; ;!
79. Comment on the meaning of the modaI verbs and transIate the sentences into Russian;
+. .s aPQ eMJK KP VIIK NPKH Ps GJgNLH[ ZIPZNI! aPQ VLg[K NLzI KP gP KP M [PNLqMa TMVZ. 2.
u[I PJNa KRPQ`NI LH + TPQNqJlK KMzI Va ISMVH LJ HZRLJg MJq VQHK [MxI K[IV JPe. 4. va
ZMRIJKH [Mq KP gP PJ MJ ISZIqLKLPJ! K[Ia MRI gIPNPgLHKH! MH aPQ zJPe! MJq . eMH NIsK KP zIIZ
[PQHI. 3. yPQ MRI KP KMzI M KM`NIHZPPJsQN Ps K[LH VLSKQRI K[RII KLVIH M qMa. /. .J K[LH [QRRa
HTQRRa . VQHK [MxI NIsK K[I HQgMR`MHLJ LJ K[I qRIHHIR. ,. |I TPQNqJlK ZMa [LH [PKIN `LNN MJq
K[Ia ePQNqJlK gLxI [LV MJa VPRI TRIqLK. 7. u[I HeLV H[PQNqJlK KMzI aPQ VQT[ PxIR MJ [PQR
MJq M fQMRKIR. b.+ JIIqJlK [MxI [QRRLIq; [I eMHJlK RIMqa aIK. 2! wI MRI KP [MxI M NITKQRI JPe!
+). vMa . [MxI M NPPz MK K[I Z[PKPH{ ++. u[IRI VQHK `I HPVI VLHKMzI [IRI. +2. |I HMLq aPQ
eIRI K[I ZRIKKLIHK gLRN ZRIHIJK. |I TMJlK [MxI ZPHHL`Na VIMJK LK. +4. .s aPQ MRI LJKIRIHKIq LJ
T[QRT[IH MJq [LHKPRLT ZNMTIH aPQ H[PQNq gP KP wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia! K[I |PQHIH Ps \MRNLMVIJK!
/K. \MQNlH MJq K[I uPeIR. +3. .lV KPNq PJI PQg[K KP HII K[I 0RLKLH[ vQHIQV! +*. . TPQNqJlK
LVMgLJI K[MK LJ MJ GJgNLH[ ZMZIR . H[PQNq [MxI KP NPPz sPR K[I T[LIs MRKLTNIH LJ K[I VLqqNI Ps
K[I ZMZIR. +,. .s aPQ qPJlK KMzI TMRI Ps aPQRHINs! aPQ VMa [MxI M JIRxPQH `RIMzqPeJ MJq
[MxI KP gP KP [PHZLKMN. +7. yPQ TMJlK TPVI LJ. yPQ VQHKJlK [MxI K[I qLHIMHI . [MxI. +b. u[I
gIRVH Ps LJsNQIJM TMJ PJNa ISLHK LJ MJ MTLq TPJqLKLPJ. +2.+ [IMR K[Ia MRI KP T[PPHI K[I
ZNMaIRH KPVPRRPe sPR K[I dNN}JLPJ VMKT[.
80. Use the verbs can oi may.
+. oJI ... JIxIR zJPe e[MK... [MZZIJ. 2. yPQ ... [MxI HIJK QH M JPKI MK NIMHKc wI eMLKIq sPR
aPQ K[I e[PNI qMa. 4. nP aPQ K[LJz aPQ ... TPVVMJq MJ MRVa{ 3. wINN! aPQR eLxIH ... JPK
NLzI K[I NMqa .lV gqLJg KP VMRRa. *. iMHK eLJKIR [I ... `I HIIJ LJ K[I TNQ` MJa JLg[K. ,. w[MK...
dJJI `I qPLJg MNN K[LH KLVI LJ K[I zLKT[IJ{ 7. w[MKIxIR K[I RIMHPJ ... `I! K[I sMTK RIVMLJH. b.
/[I ... [MxI NPHK [IR RLJg [IRHINs! LK ... JPK [MxI `IIJ HKPNIJ. 2. w[P ... [MxI HMLq HQT[ M K[LJg{
+). /PVI`Pqa... [MxI gLxIJ [IR Va MqqRIHH. ++. /QT[ qLssLTQNKLIH ... `I IMHLNa ZQK QZ eLK[.
+2. .s PJNa .... VMzI [LV QJqIRHKMJq VI ZRPZIRNa. +4. . ... [MxI [INZIq [LV `QK . qLqJlK
RITILxI [LH NIKKIR.
81. FiII in the bIanks with should, need, hare to with the appropriate form of the Infinitive:
+.+... (KP ZRIZMRI) sPR Va TPVLJg ISMV aIHKIRqMa! `QK .... (KP NPPz MsKIR) Va HLTz HLHKIR. 2.
|I ... JPK (KP gIK QZ) IMRNa. |I `IgLJH ePRzLJg MK 2.4). 4. r. ... (KP HMa) K[PHI ePQJqLJg
ePRqH!r [I RIZRPMT[Iq [LVHINs. 3. .K LHJlK K[I HPRK Ps K[LJg PJI ... (KP qLHTQHH) eLK[ QJzJPeJ
ZIPZNI. *. yPQ ... JPK (KP ePRRa) M`PQK VPJIa. .lxI gPK IJPQg[ sPR `PK[ Ps QH. ,. yPQ ... JPK
(KP eMNz) MNN K[I eMa KP K[I HKMKLPJ. yPQ ... (KP KMzI) M `QH RPQJq K[I TPRJIR. 7. /PPJIR PR NMKIR
PJI ... (KP T[PPHI). b. vPK[IR ... (KP gIK QZ MJq qPeJ) M gPPq `LK qQRLJg K[I VIMN! sIKT[LJg
K[LJgH `MTz MJq sPReMRq. 2. . VMJMgIq KP gIK K[IRI MK [MNs ZMHK KeINxI. 0QK . ... JPK (KP [QRRa).
u[Ia [Mq MNRIMqa NIsK. +). 0RIMzsMHK LH PsKIJ M fQLTz VIMN! `ITMQHI K[I sMK[IR Ps K[I sMVLNa ...
(KP gIK) MeMa KP [LH ePRz! T[LNqRIJ ... (KP gP) KP HT[PPN! MJq K[I VPK[IR [MH [IR [PQHIePRz KP
qP. ++. .s aPQ MRI LJKIRIHKIq LJ [LHKPRLT ZNMTIH aPQ ... (KP gP) KP wIHKVLJHKIR d``Ia. +2. /[I
qRIe M T[MLR JIMR [LH [I ePJqIRIq Ls [I ... (KP [INZ) [IR eLK[ K[I T[MLR MJq HMK qPeJ
`IHLqI [LV. +4. u[Ia ... (KP zJPTz) KeLTI `IsPRI K[I qPPR eMH PZIJIq. +3. /[I ... (JPK KP gLxI)
VPJIa KP [IR `Pa. u[IJ LK ePQNqJlK [MxI [MZZIJIq. +*. /[I ... (KP TPJTIMN) [IR RIMN sIINLJgH
NIHK MJaPJI ... (KP JPKLTI) [Pe QJ[MZZa H[I eMH. +,. yPQ ... (JPK KP TPVI) aPQRHINs. yPQ VMa
HIJq HPVI`Pqa INHI.
82. TransIate the sentences into EngIish, using modaI verbs:
+. - ; 9 $! 8> 6 . 2. < >
6! $ 6 7! 4. < $> 86! 8 6 8 8. $
. 3. $>! > 8! $8 $>$ 5 $6
6. *. <> 8 8 D5 { ,. ~$ 8 86
> E$. 7. t $> 6 $ ;{
<! . Y8 > D6! $> 6 ; ; 7
$. b. <; 6 6 $ 7. ' $> 6
D8$. 2. $ 6 E ;. ' $ > 6. +). $
6 =! E$ 9$6. ++. '! 8 >
9 9c +2. ' 8; 6 8$: ; ! ! . +4.
$$ ! 8 $; 8 6 $ c Y; $ D6 8
6 6 $ . +3. 8 >8 8 6 !
$! 9$. +*. > 86! 6 D6 7;.
+,. 8 $; 8 $ > 9$ 6 E $. +7! < $> 86! 8
;$$. ' 89 $. '! ! 8. +b. $ 8
8 =6 $ E$ ;. "> 8 >6 .
83. Insert tee appropriate modaI verb:
+. |I [MH LJHQNKIq PQR sMVLNa MJq [I ... HQssIR sPR LKc 2. yPQ ... JPK [MxI gPJI PQK eLK[PQK
MJ QV`RINNM LJ HQT[ RMLJa eIMK[IR. 4. .lV MsRMLq . ... [MxI HPQJqIq M `LK QJsRLIJqNa PxIR K[I
Z[PJI. 3. r.... KP [MxI KPNq /PMVIH!r [I K[PQg[K! rK[MK . K[LJz [LV TPVLT.r *. wI ... NLxI KP
K[ILR MgI! ZIR[MZH. ,. |IRI H[I... HLK! HIeLJg MJq zJLKKLJg! e[LNI [I ePRzIq MK K[I KM`NI. 7.
w[a ... aPQ `I qLssIRIJK sRPV PK[IR ZIPZNI{ b. rUPPq VPRJLJg!r HMLq K[I gLRN. r. `INLIxI
aPQ ... `I uP`a. |MxI . gQIHHIq RLg[K{r 2. .s aPQ ... RIMq eLK[PQK HZITKMTNIH! MJq . `INLIxI
aPQ ... `I HP gPPq MH KP RIMq K[LH NIKKIR sPR VI. +). OMZKMLJ /KIIRsPRK[ ... . HZIMz KP aPQ sPR M
VPVIJK{ ++. dJJI sINK H[I ... JPK HKMJq VQT[ VPRI Ps K[LH qLHTQHHLPJ. /[I HMLq H[I ... gP PJ
eLK[ [IR ePRz MJq `IgMJ KP RLHI. +2. w[a... PJI VMzI KRPQ`NI sPR PJIHINs e[IJ PJI LH PNq{
+4. ... aPQ qP VI M sMxPQR MJq VIIK [IR .MK K[I HKMKLPJ{ +3. |I eMH JPK PNq! [I ... JPK [MxI
`IIJ VPRI K[MJ sPRKa. +*. u[I qMa eI ... KP HKMRK LK RMLJIq ePRHI K[MJ IxIR. +,. yPQ ... not
[QRRa. u[IRI LH ZNIJKa Ps KLVI. +7. vPK[IR [MH sMNNIJ LNN! HP .... KP T[MJgI Va ZNMJH. +b. wI
qLqJlK zJPe e[MK KP qP; K[I zIa... JPK KQRJ MJq eI ... JPK gIK LJKP K[I RPPV. +2.+ ... JPK KP
[MxI NIsK OMZI uPeJ NMHK JLg[K. . eLH[ . [Mq JPK. 2). ... . HZIMz KP vR. \LKK! ZNIMHI{ .lV
MsRMLq [IlH PQK MK K[I VPVIJK.... aPQ RLJg `MTz NMKIR{
84. TransIate the sentences into EngIish using modaI verbs:
+. ~; . $>! 8 8D ; $. 2. = $ 7$!
= ! > $ $5. > 86! ; . 4. <;
$; 5 E . <> { 3. < $ E.
! $. *. 6 c D 6
$ c ,. 8 6; $ ; 6D
6 6. 7. Y8 > 8 ;6 5; E; >. F$
;! D . b. <9$! 8 >85 E$
. 2. <6 > % ;6 $ $ >c +). A6
>! 8 7= 8 $ E$ . ++.
$ ; 8$86. $ >! 6. +2. 8 ; $
8D{ <! 8 = 8Dc +4. >5 $; 86 6! 85
> 8 86 $ 68 85 ; . +3. "
6 > 6: 6 7 $. +*. < $> 86! 8
;. $ 5. +,. <$ $ 8 6 .
t6 8 $> 8 >6 ;. +7. "; >6 $ D
7! { +b. <6 86 $ 8$. ; 6
8$ ;9 75. +2. 8 >8 ! ;
6 $; 6. 2). $ 9 96 { 2+. <
8 8 $6 $ 6 ${ t $$!
8. 22. ' > 8 5 6 ! $8 >$ ;
! ; . # 8 $; 86{ 24. _$ $ $;6 ${ '
9 6. 23. ' 8 5 9 9 $6.
NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB
(To Units Seven-Nine)
The Infinitive
85. Comment on the forms of the infinitives:
+. iMqa pRMJzNLJ eMH [PRRLsLIq MK [IRHINs. uP [MxI MHzIq [LH JMVI! KP [MxI `IIJ KPNq [LH
JMVI! MJq KP [MxI sPRgPKKIJ LKc 2. /[I HIIVIq KP `I ZMaLJg JP MKKIJKLPJ KP e[MK eMH gPLJg
RPQJq [IR. 4. |I HQqqIJNa MePzI sRPV [LH fQIIR KRMJTI! K[IRI eMH M qITLHLPJ KP `I VMqI. 3.
UPPq`aI! vR. mMTzHPJ. UNMq KP [MxI `IIJ Ps HIRxLTI KP aPQ. *.+ HMa! qPJlK aPQ K[LJz aPQ
PQg[K KP `I gPLJg{ ,. |I eMH xIRa KLRIq! MJq KP [MxI `IIJ TMQg[K JMZZLJg [Mq LRRLKMKIq [LV
MJq [QRK [LH ZRLqI. 7. u[IRI MRI M gRIMK VMJa K[LJgH KP `I KMzIJ LJKP TPJHLqIRMKLPJ. b. mQqgLJg
sRPV K[I `PPzH MJq ZMZIRH PJ K[I eRLKLJgKM`NI [I VQHK [MxI `IIJ ePRzLJg HLJTI K[Ia NIsK
[LV LJ K[I VPRJLJg. 2. /[I KPNq K[IV KP KMzI Pss K[ILR H[PIH HP K[MK K[ILR sPPKHKIZH TPQNq JPK
`I [IMRq LJ K[I sNMK `INPe. +). rwI MRI xIRa HPRRa KP [MxI qLHKQR`Iq aPQ!r `IgMJ \IKIR. ++. .
eMJK aPQ KP ZRPVLHI VI aPQ ePJlK KMNz KP dJKPJLM M`PQK K[MK HPRK Ps K[LJgH. +2. u[MK ePVMJ
LH HKLNN HLKKLJg. /[I HIIVH KP [MxI `IIJ eMLKLJg PxIR MJ [PQR. +4. wINN! sQJJa K[LJgH HIIV KP
`I [MZZIJLJg. +3. uP [MxI `IIJ HP [MZZa MJq JPK KP [MxI zJPeJ LKc +*. u[IRI eMH JPK[LJg
KP `I qPJI! `QK KP eMLK sPR K[I JISK ISZRIHH! e[LT[ eMH qQI MK sPQR.
86. SuppIy the missing forms of the foIIowing infinitives:
KP [MxI `IIJ qPJI! KP `I HZPzIJ KP! KP TQRN! KP `I `RIMzLJg! KP [MxI JPqqIq! KP qRLxI! KP `I
RQLJIq! KP `I RQ``LJg! KP NMJq! KP `I HZPzIJ KP! KP KQRJ! KP [MxI `IIJ HNIIZLJg! KP `I gPK! KP `I
RQJJLJg! KP [MxI `IIJ RIMq! KP `I HMLq! KP MRRLxI! KP `I KINNLJg! KP ZNMa
87. Use the appropriate foia of the infinitives in brackets:
+. .lV HP qRIMqsQNNa HPRRa (KP `PK[IR) aPQ LJ K[LH HKQZLq eMa. 2. |I zIZK NMKI [PQRH NMHK
JLg[K! [I VMa HKLNN (KP HNIIZ). 4. r/[I VQHK (KP `I) xIRa `IMQKLsQN aIMRH MgP!r vMRIJ K[PQg[K.
3. .KlH M HITRIK! MJq JP PJI INHI VQHK (KP KINN). *. UPPq`aI. /P ZNIMHIq (KP VIIK) aPQ. ,. |IlH
M KMNIJKIq IJgLJIIR. |IlH HQZZPHIq (KP ePRz) MK M JIe LJxIJKLPJ. A" o[! Va vMRgMRIK! Va
qMQg[KIR. yPQ H[PQNq JIxIR (KP gP). .K eMH MNN aPQR sMK[IRlH sMQNK. b. /[I HIIVH (KP ePRz) MK
[IR TPQRHI ZMZIR HLJTI HZRLJg MJq HMaH H[I [MH HKLNN M NPK (KP qP). 2. .lxI QHK HIIJ [LV ZMHHLJg
K[I IJKRMJTI qPPR! HP [I TMJlK (KP ePRz) MK K[I NM`PRMKPRa MH aPQ HMa. +). u[I JISK VPRJLJg [I
HIIVIq (KP sPRgIK) LK MNN. ++. .K PQg[K (KP qP) NPJg MgP; MK NIMHK `IsPRI K[ILR NIMxLJg
0NMTzHKM`NI. +2. /[I HIIVIq MK KLVIH (KP HILI) eLK[ MJ QJTPJKRPNNIq LRRLKMKLPJ MJq ePQNq HMa
H[MRZ MJq ePQJqLJg K[LJgH. +4. yPQ ZRP`M`Na K[LJz K[MK . VQHK (KP NLxI) M xIRa gMa NLsI LJ
pRMJTI! `QK LK eMHJlK HP. mn" 1P ePRqH TMJ qIHTRL`I LK: LK VQHK (KP HII).
88. TransIate these sentences Into EngIish, paying attention to the form of the infinitive:
+. "E;; >! 5 $! >. 2. 8
6! $ = 6 ';. 4. 8 8!
; 9 %. 3. h 6 ; $6 $6. *. "
8 96! 8 E = . ,. < $> 86! 8
= 6$ . <! > D. 7. '! > 86!
= ; 9 5 . b. <> 6{ 2. 6
! 9 %7. +). F $ ! 8 E$
. ++. D 7= 7 $! 8 6 E
E$ D5 . +2. A$ ;c ' D
7 >7 . +4. $ $5 . ' 5
9 $ $ $$ $. +3. ' E$ 6$ 8
$6 . ' $> 6! 6
%. +*. F>! >! 8 $ 9$8 ! 8
8$ E; .
89. Put to where necessary before the infinitives:
+. u[I KIMT[IR VMqI VI ... RIZIMK LK MNN PxIR MgMLJ. 2. yPQ JIIqJlK... MHz sPR ZIRVLHHLPJ! .
NIK aPQ ... KMzI Va `PPzH e[IJIxIR aPQ NLzI. 4. wLNN aPQ [INZ VI ... VPxI K[I KM`NI{ 3. |I LH
ISZITKIq ... MRRLxI LJ M sIe qMaH. *. yPQ HIIV ... zJPe K[IHI ZNMTIH xIRa eINN. ,. yPQ [Mq
`IKKIR ... VMzI M JPKI Ps LK. 7. . [IMRq K[I qPPR ... PZIJ MJq HMe M H[MqPe ... VPxI MTRPHH K[I
sNPPR. b. |I KPNq VI ... KRa ... qP LK PJTI MgMLJ. 2. .lq RMK[IR ... eMNz M NLKKNI `IsPRI gPLJg KP `Iq.
+). u[IRI LH JPK[LJg... qP `QK ... eMLK KLNN HPVI`Pqa TPVIH ... NIK QH PQK. ++. yPQ PQg[K JPK...
H[Pe aPQR sIINLJgH. +2. w[a JPK ... eMLK M NLKKNI NPJgIR{ +4. . sINK [IR ... H[LxIR eLK[ TPNq. +3.
wI H[PQNq NPxI aPQ... HKMa eLK[ QH. +*. yPQ MRI JPK ... VIJKLPJ K[LH KP MJaPJI. +,. wI gPK
vPK[IR ... TQK QZ HPVI HMJqeLT[IH. +7. PHI eMJKIq K[IV ... HKPZ NMQg[LJg! eMJKIq K[I
TQRKMLJ ... TPVI qPeJ. +b. .lNN [MxI ... gP K[IRI. +2. u[IRI qPIHJlK HIIV ... `I MJaK[LJg eRPJg
eLK[ aPQ. 2). /[I [INZIq VI ... gIK PxIR Va sIMR. 2+. iPPz [IRI! mMJI! e[a !.. `I HP TRPHH{
22. |I eMH HIIJ ... VMzI M JPKI Ps LK. 24. w[MK VMqI aPQ ... qITILxI VI{ 23. |I eMH JPK M`NI
... ISZNMLJ MJaK[LJg.
90. TransIate the foIIowing sentences into Russian, paying attention to the use of the
particIe to, which impIies the verb aIready mentioned:
+. |I [MqJlK eMJKIq KP NMQg[ K[IJ! JPR qLq [I eMJK to JPe. 2. yPQ JIIqJlK HMa MJaK[LJg Ls
aPQ qPJlK eMJK to" 4. vLT[MIN zJIe M NPK! PR HIIVIq to" 3. wINN! NIKlH sPRgIK LK! H[MNN eI{
.lV gNMq to, K[MJzH xIRa VQT[. *. /[I MNeMaH zIZK [IR VPQK[ H[QK e[IJ KPNq to" ,. .K eMH Va
sMQNK. .lV HPRRa. . qLqJlK eMJK to, . qLqJlK VIMJ to" 7.+ zJPe . H[PQNq [MxI TPVI KP aPQ MJq
KPNq aPQ M`PQK LK! `QK . eMH MsRMLq to" b. .lq `I gNMq KP HII aPQ. OPVI MJa KLVI aPQ NLzI.
nMRNLJg! aPQ zJPe . NPJg to" 0QK . TMJlK. 2. yPQ TMJlK HIJq K[MK NIKKIR. + MV TIRKMLJNa
gPLJg to, `a MLRVMLN sRPV \PRK /MLq. +). . TPQNqJlK qP e[MK . eMJKIq KP.
91. Respond to the foIIowing questions or statements, using the phrases from the Iist in
brackets:
+. u[Ia HMa aPQ RIMq M NPK. 2. w[a qLqJlK aPQ LJxLKI K[IV{ 4. wLNN aPQ eRLKI M NIKKIR KP
[IR{ 3. w[a TMJlK aPQ gP eLK[ QH{ *. .lV MsRMLq aPQ TMJlK TPVI. ,. . HII aPQ [MxIJlK `PQg[K
MJa PRMJgIH. 7! yPQ VQHK KMzI VPRI TMRI Ps LK. b. /[I HMaH aPQ MRI gPLJg KP [INZ [IR. 2. w[a
qLqJlK aPQ qMJTI eLK[ [LV{ +). yPQ qLqJlK HLgJ aPQR KIH ZMZIR.
(1PR 0o mu)h a0 I u0ed to9 I 0im(.y didn6t want to9 Be0, if you wi0h me to9 'ut hmm try to9
h not a..owed to9 I mount to, &ut I forgot9 Be0, I ought to9 I 0u((o0e I6.. have to9 We didn6t
a0/ me to9 No, I forgot to":
92. CompIete the foIIowing, using the infinitive
a) as subject:
+. ... ePQNq `I QJQHK. 2. ... eMH xIRa ZNIMHMJK! 4. ... LH K[I PJNa K[LJg KP qP. 3. ... ePQNq `I
VQT[ VPRI QHIsQN. *. ... LH JPK MJ IMHa VMKKIR.
b) as predicative:
+. va [P``a LH ... . 2. u[I `IHK eMa KP VMHKIR M sPRILgJ NMJgQMgI LH x.. . 4. u[I JISK K[LJg
KP `I qPJI LH ... . 3. oQR MLV eMH ... . *. uP HMa HP VIMJH ... . ,. |LH PJNa eLH[ LH ... .
c) as object:
+. |I MHzIq ... . 2. .J K[I zLJqIRgMRKIJ T[LNqRIJ MRI KMQg[K ... . 4. . MV HP gNMq ... . 3. wI MRI
MesQNNa HPRRa ... . *. u[I qPTKPR MqxLHIq ... . ,. u[I T[LNq LH MsRMLq ... . 7. .lxI TNIMJ
sPRgPKKIJ ... . b. GxIRa`Pqa ZRPVLHIq ... . 2. wPQNq aPQ NLzI ... { +). w[P [MH MNNPeIq
aPQ ... { ++. dQJK \PNNa LJHKRQTKIq mLV ... .
d) as attribute;
+. |I eMH MNeMaH K[I sLRHK ... . 2. wI [MxI JPK[LJg .... 4. u[LH LH M T[MJTI ... . 3. 0IJJa [MH
JP sRLIJqH ... . *. |I LH JPK M VMJ ... . ,. /[I VMqI MJ MKKIVZK ... . 7. .H K[IRI MJa`Pqa ... { b.
|I MNeMaH sLJqH HPVIK[LJg ... . 2. u[LH LH K[I LJsPRVMKLPJ .... +). |I HZPzI Ps [LH eLH[ ... .
e) as adverbiaI modifier of purpose:
+. |I TMVI LVVIqLMKINa ... . 2. wIlNN HKMa MsKIR K[I NITKQRI ... . 4. u[Ia HKPZZIq ... . 3.
wRLKI qPeJ K[LH RQNI ... . *. .lxI PZIJIq K[I qPPR ... . ,. |I HKIZZIq MHLqI ZPNLKINa .... 7. ... aPQ
VQHK ePRz [MRq. b. u[I `Pa RMJ PQK....
f) as adverbiaI modifier of resuIt:
+. /[I eMH KPP sRLg[KIJIq .... 2. u[I MRKLTNI LH KPP qLssLTQNK ... . 4. u[I sIJTI LH