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Steam cooled water wall

Steam cooled water walls are extensively employed in boilers of 2 pass construct
ion. In a normal water wall, the circulating water has to travel upwards and has
to maintain an inclination of 5 to 7 in horizontal runs. Both these are not requ
ired if steam flows inside the tubes instead of water. This feature is used bene
ficially in arranging long roof and rear enclosure walls typically when steam fr
om the top drum is taken to the inlet headers of primary SH located in the remot
e 2nd pass. Such an arrangement of a flat roof and the downward flow of steam wo
uld not be possible with water.
Zirconium Oxide based oxygen analyzers are the latest ma or development in measu
ring oxygen in flue gas. Zirconium oxide is a ceramic that will allow the transf
er of oxygen ions across its matrix at temperatures above 650 degrees Centigrade
(1200 degrees Fahrenheit). This transfer of ions and the subsequent electrical
charge buildup is proportional to an oxygen differential across the Zirconia cel