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Field Work No.

4 [DETERMINING THE AREA OF A POLYGONAL FIELD USING ONLY THE TAPE]




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FIELD WORK NO. 4
Determining the area of a polygonal field using only the tape
OBJECTIVES:
1. To develop the skills in determining the horizontal distance of a
uneven ground by breaking the tape method up and down the slope.
2. To acquire the skills in determining the horizontal distance of a
sloping ground by using the tape and the automatic level.
3. To to apply the value of excellence and patience in measuring the
distance of the ground.

REASERCH
Measuring the polygonal field with different sides are called measuring of
irregular polygons.
An irregular polygon is any polygon that is not a regular polygon. It can
have sides of any length and each interior angle can be any measure. They
can be convex or concave, but all concave polygons are irregular since the
interior angles cannot all be the same. If you drew a polygon at random, it
would probably be irregular.
Specific irregular polygons such as a parallelogram have some interesting
properties and have their own web pages.
So how to do it?
One approach is to break the shape up into pieces that you can solve -
usually triangles, since there are many ways to calculate the area of
triangles. Exactly how you do it depends on what you are given to start.
Since this is highly variable there is no easy rule for how to do it. The
examples below give you some basic approaches to try.


Field Work No. 4 [DETERMINING THE AREA OF A POLYGONAL FIELD USING ONLY THE TAPE]


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1. Break into triangles, then add
In the figure on the right, the polygon can
be broken up into triangles by drawing all the diagonals from one of the
vertices. If you know enough sides and angles to find the area of each,
then you can simply add them up to find the total. Do not be afraid to
draw extra lines anywhere if they will help find shapes you can solve.

Here, the irregular hexagon is divided in to 4 triangles by the addition of
the red lines.


2. Find 'missing' triangles, then subtract
In the figure on the left, the overall shape is a
regular hexagon, but there is a triangular piece missing.

We know how to find the area of a regular polygon so we just subtract the
area of the 'missing' triangle created by drawing the red line.



3. Consider other shapes
In the figure on the right, the shape is an
irregular hexagon, but it has a symmetry that lets us break it into two
parallelograms by drawing the red dotted line. (assuming of course that
Field Work No. 4 [DETERMINING THE AREA OF A POLYGONAL FIELD USING ONLY THE TAPE]


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the lines that look parallel really are!)

We know how to find the area of a parallelogram so we just find the area
of each one and add them together.

As you can see, there an infinite number of ways to break down the shape
into pieces that are easier to manage. You then add or subtract the areas
of the pieces. Exactly how you do it comes down to personal preference
and what you are given to start.


4. If you know the coordinates of the vertices
If you know the x,y coordinates of the vertices (corners) of the shape,
there is a method for finding the area directly.. This works for all polygon
types (regular, irregular, convex, concave). There is also a
computer algorithm that does the same.


INSTRUMENTS NEEDED:

Qty. Material Illustration description



2
pcs.




Range
Poles
A range pole, which
may also be called a
lining pole, is a pole
painted with
alternating stripes of
different colors in
consistent widths used
often to site
measurements. The
tool may be a common
one for surveyors,
where the colors for
Field Work No. 4 [DETERMINING THE AREA OF A POLYGONAL FIELD USING ONLY THE TAPE]


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the stripes are usually
red and white or red
and yellow. The colors
are picked based on
their visibility. One end
of the pole will typically
have either a pointed
tip or gripping shoe to
aid in standing it on
edge. Longer range
poles may be equipped
with a tripod or stand.


3 pcs.


Chalk

is a soft, white, porous
sedimentary rock, a
form of limestone
composed of the
mineral calcite. This is
used in marking
measurements on
ground.


2 Pcs.


Plumb
bobs

A plumb bob is a tool
used to ensure that a
building structure like a
door frame or a
shelving support is as
vertical as possible. It
is also used to measure
if an object is placed
directly under a point
above it, such as
placing a shower drain
relative to some point
on the ceiling, or
putting something right
under a lighting fixture.
Field Work No. 4 [DETERMINING THE AREA OF A POLYGONAL FIELD USING ONLY THE TAPE]


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1 pc.


50 meter
tape

A tape measure or
measuring tape is a
flexible form of ruler. It
consists of a ribbon of
cloth, plastic, fiber
glass, or metal strip
with linear-
measurement
markings. It is a
common measuring
tool. Its flexibility
allows for a measure of
great length to be
easily carried in pocket
or toolkit and permits
one to measure around
curves or corners.
Today it is ubiquitous,
even appearing in
miniature form as a
keychain fob, or
novelty item. Surveyors
use tape measures in
lengths of over 100 m
(300+ ft).


PROCEDURE:
A. Determination of the area of triangle components using the basic
formula.
A= B x H
2
1. The students designates the locations of 5 random points that
is likely to be a pentagonal shape.
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2. The chief of party divides the field area into convenient
triangular components and calls them A1 ,A2 and A3.
3. For first trial use the basic formula to compute the field and
designate this as the base of the triangle.
4. Determine the length of the altitude to this base. The
determination of the altitude is done by locating a point on this
base after dropping a line perpendicular to this from opposite
vertex by swaying.
5. Record the length of the base and altitude in the fieldwork
computation sheet provided.
6. Repeat the same procedures 4-6 with the rest of the triangular
components of the polygonal field and the sum up the areas.
B. Determination of the triangles by using the formula.

Area = ab sin C
2
1. The same triangular field will be used for this second trial but
change the naming of the vertices of polygonal filed.
2. The chief of party divides the field area into convenient
triangular components and calls them A1 ,A2 and A3.
3. For second use the basic formula in B to compute the field and
designate this as the base of the triangle.
4. Determine the measurement of the angles between the lines.
5. Record the lengths of two sides and and included angle in the
field work. Record in the data.
6. Repeat procedures 4-6 with the rest of triangular components
of the polygonal area to compute the entire area.

C. Determination of the area using the formula.



1. The same triangular field will be used for this second trial but
change the naming of the vertices of polygonal filed.
Field Work No. 4 [DETERMINING THE AREA OF A POLYGONAL FIELD USING ONLY THE TAPE]


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2. The chief of party divides the field area into convenient
triangular components and calls them A1 ,A2 and A3.
3. For third use the basic formula in C the herons formula to
compute the field and designate this as the base of the
triangle.
4. Record the lengths of the three sides of each triangles.
5. Repeat procedures 3-5 with the rest of the triangular
components until the data is complete.


COMPUTATIONS:


A= area of the triangle
B= Base of the triangle
H= Altitude of the triangle


A= area of the triangle
b and a = random two sides of the triangle
sin = sine of the included angle of the measured sides a and b



Field Work No. 4 [DETERMINING THE AREA OF A POLYGONAL FIELD USING ONLY THE TAPE]


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A= area in triangle in square meters
S = half perimeter of triangle
a,b and c= sides of the triangles

PRINCIPLE
There are several ways that we can measure the distance of the ground. It
can be accomplished by breaking the tape method, by making a irregular
polygon. A horizontal line of sight is established if the bubble is centered
while sigthing through the tube. This device is simply a level adopted for
measuring vertical angles. Vertical aide is acted on where angles are read.
It gives the value and the slope in terms of arc measure.













Field Work No. 4 [DETERMINING THE AREA OF A POLYGONAL FIELD USING ONLY THE TAPE]


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Final Data Sheet

A) 1
st
method: By base and altitude
Triangle Base Altitude Area
1 21.9m 12.1m 132.485sqm
2 21.9m 14.4m 156.68sqm
3 21.9m 8.6m 93.68sqm
Total 382.845sqm

B) 2
nd
method by two sides and included angle
Triangle Angle in Sides Area
a b
1 82.89 17.55m 15.2m 132.39sqm
2 90.97 21.9m 21.8m 156.51sqm
3 100.71 17.6m 10.75m 92.95sqm
Total 381.80sqm

C)3
rd
method: By herons formula
Triangle Sides Semi perimeter Area
a b c s
1 17.55m 15.2m 21.9m 27.325m 132.55sqm
2 21.9m 21.8m 15.86m 29.58m 157.97sqm
3 10.75m 17.6m 21.8m 25.058m 93.77sqm
Total 384.29sqm




Field Work No. 4 [DETERMINING THE AREA OF A POLYGONAL FIELD USING ONLY THE TAPE]


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ILLUSTRATION



Marking the 5points of the polygon.
Field Work No. 4 [DETERMINING THE AREA OF A POLYGONAL FIELD USING ONLY THE TAPE]


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Measuring the field by breaking the tape method.


Field Work No. 4 [DETERMINING THE AREA OF A POLYGONAL FIELD USING ONLY THE TAPE]


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CONCLUSION
Based on my own observation to get more accurate results you
need to measure the measurement slowly and carefully to obtain
better results. You may also measure along the ground on a. But
to obtain horizontal distances, you will need to correct these
ground measurements afterwards by using correct mathematical
formulas . As an additional information we must also apply the
value of patience in making the task because the location is
outside so expect extreme heat or rain. Calculate all solutions
properly and make the distance measured more accurate. We
need to be patient and follow all the procedures carefully to make
the measurement accurate.