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BERNHARD KARLGREN GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA REPRINTED FROM THE MUSEUM OF F AB EASTERN ANTIQUITIES, BULLETIN

BERNHARD KARLGREN

GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA

BERNHARD KARLGREN GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA REPRINTED FROM THE MUSEUM OF F AB EASTERN ANTIQUITIES, BULLETIN 29

REPRINTED FROM

THE MUSEUM OF F AB EASTERN ANTIQUITIES, BULLETIN 29 STOCKHOLM 1957

\ 1. l /6 7 .~· ,_) BERNHARD KARLGREN GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA REPRINTED FROM THE
\ 1. l /6 7 .~· ,_) BERNHARD KARLGREN GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA REPRINTED FROM THE

\

1.

l

/6 7

.~·,_)

BERNHARD KARLGREN

GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA

REPRINTED FROM

THE l\IUSEUlU OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES, BULLETIN 29 STOCiiHOLM 1957

GRAMMATA SERICA RECEN SA

BY

BERNHARD

KARLGREN

INTRODUCTION

It was in the Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 12, 1940, that the Grammata Serica was first published. This edition is now exhausted, and it has seemed desirable to issue a new edition.l) For several reasons, however, a mere reprint was out of the question; a thorough revision, embod:ying a multitude of new facts, has been found indispensable. In fact, the presen_t version is to a large extent a new work; hence the new title:

Grammata Serica Recensa. It has been included in our Bulletin 29 in order to furnish all subscribers to our Bulletins with the new work, which is to supplant the older one, now obsolete in certain respects. The principal modifications are of two kinds. In the first place, the classical texts contain a great number of words and phrases the m.eanings of which are in dispute and have been the subject of many learned discussions by Chinese philologists. In giving my definitions of meanings in the G. S. of 1940 I could follow neither Couvreur nor Legge. Couvreur accepted slavishly the interpretations of the Sung school, although these have very often been conclusively refuted by eminent Ts'ing scholars. Legge picked out at random his interpretations from various commen_taries of Sung, Yiian rtnd Ming times with almost as little consideration of the Ts'ing philology as Couvreur's. The Chinese dictionaries gave just as little help. The K'ang hi tsi tien as well as the modern Ts''i yuan merely repeated the ordinary orthodox glosses without regard to the brilliant Chinese researches of the 18th and 19th centuries. 2 ) I had, in 1940, no other expedient than to follow faithfully the Han time scholars and commentators, nearest in time (and thus in tradition) to the creative Chou era. In the years since 1940, however, I have published the results of extensive

1 ) In the very same year (1940) that the Grmnmata Serica was published in Sweden, a pirated edition of it (a photographic reprint) was published in Peking without my permission or knowledge. 2 ) The more recent Ts'i hai is somewhat better in this respect, but only occasionally does it draw upon the foremost Ts'ing scholars, ancl it is thus far from satisfactory; to a large extent it repeats uncritically word definitions from various early glossists refuted long ago by the best Chinese philo- logists.

1

BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES

researches in the earliest Chinese classical texts (Shi: king and Shu king),!) On scores of moot points my conclusions (based on a discussion of the best Ts'ing researches on the one hand and on linguistic arguments of my own on the other) have led me to reject the traditional interpretations and introduce different ones. A new edition of the G. S. had necessarily to take these results of mine into account, and so the definitions of meanings in the dictionary often diverge radically from those in the first edition. I have found it useful to give full references to the argumentations in my critical works on the Shi: and the Shu. 2 ) I always indicate the source of a meaning given (Shi:, Shu, Lunyii etc.) These data are necessarily brief, and the student who wishes fuller references has to turn, in the first place, to the excellent Index works published by the Harvard Yenching Institute, and, secondly, to the Shuo \Will t'ung hun ting sheng by Chu Tsun-sheng or similar works. In the second place, I have filled a serious void in the first version. vVe can know very little of the tones in Archaic Chinese, and since my primary interest in 1940 was to show what a fine key the archaic pronunciation gives to the phonetic compounds (h i e she n g) of the script, despite our ignorance of the tones; I left the words bare of any tone marks at all. To every linguist, however, it is of great interest to find registered what we really do know about the tones, and as far as Ancient Chinese (the language of the Ts'ie ylin, around 600 A. D.) is concerned, we have a detailed knowledge of them. Consequently, I have inserted here the Anc. Ch. tones of every character, not only its tone with its principal meaning, such as is recorded in the Ts'ie y1in (with T'ang y1in and Kuang yiin), but also the tone variations it has undergone when used with other shades of meaning or as k i a t s i e (phonetic loan character). In order to obtain all these facts I have had to refer constantly to the passages in the classics where it occurs and from there to the sound glosses of Lu Le-min.g (in the King tien shl wen, here called Sruwen). On the whole, a great amount of work has been devoted to the Ancient and Archaic readings generally, not only their tones. Curiously enough, there is not a Chinese or V\Testern dictionary which, in regard to the readings, has not mixed up data of the most heterogeneous kinds. They are all, therefore, misleading on numerous points. You cannot draw indiscriminately on the Kuang yiin, the Tsi yiin, the Yiin huei and the Cheng ylin, as all predecessors have done. The safest of them all is, to this day, the K'ang hi ts'i tien, since it at least indicates from which mediaeval dictionary it has borrowed each separate reading (though sometimes it

1 ) Bernhard Karlgren, Glosses on the Kuo feng Odes, Bull. 14, 1942; Glosses on the Siao ya Odes Bull. 16, 1944; Glosses on theTa ya and Sung Odes, Bull. 18, 1946; Glosses on the Book of Documents

Bull.

•) My Glosses on these works (see the preceding note) are numbered in a continuous sequence, so that a reference here such as »Gl. 155>) ( = Gloss 155) or >)Gls. 306, 892» ( = Glosses 306 and 892) will

take the reader who has these available directly to the gloss or glosses in question.

20, 1948; Glosses on the Book of Documents II, Bull. 21, 1949.

2

BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA

gives erroneous information even in this respect). Ts''i ylian is deplorably faulty in regard to the readings. Ts'1 hai is somewhat better, but like its predecessors it draws, in its readings, upon all kinds of heterogeneous sources quite uncritically, not realizing the necessity of keeping within one school of tradition, with the readings based on one and the same ancient pronunciation, for instance that of the Capital as opposed to that of dialectal areas, in order to obtain a consistent, systematic result. 1 ) Fortunately it is possible to obtain a perfectly consistent set of readings for all the words occurring in the classics, in their various meanings. This is because we have two excellent sources: firstly the Ts'ie yiin dictionary published in 601 A. D., 2 ) and secondly the King tien shi: wen by Lu Te-ming (died about 630 A. D.). These two sources are based on one and the same ancient pronunciation, that of the Capital Ch'ang-an, and they supplement each other exceedingly well. In our present GSR. we keep strictly within the Ts'ie_yiin-Shi:wen tradition, and we do not mix up with data of these consistent and precious sources any extraneous matter from unrelated sources like the Tsi yiin of Sung time, or the Cheng yiin of early ~fing time, as all previous lexicographers, both Chinese and Western, have done. The letters used in our GSR. for designating Arch. and Anc. Chin. sounds are as follows:

Voiceless:

Consonants:

Voiced:

Gutturals

k,

Tc',

X

g,

g',

ng,

y

Palatals

t,

t ', s, ts, ts'

a, a·, n, j,

z,

di',

nz

Dentals

t,

t',

s,

ts,

ts'

d,

d',

n,

l,

r,

z,

dz,

dz'

Supradentals

d(

Labials

p, p'

 

b,

b',

m,

w

Laryngals

·('iu)

0

(iu).

K', g' etc. are aspirates; X= Germ. ach, y =North-German g in wagen (fricative); t etc. are formed like the Ital. c in citta with the predorsum against the alveoli; the laryngal '('j1t) is the ))Knacklaut)> in Germ. 'Eclce; no initalletter: 0 (i_u) is a smooth vocalic ingress, as in Engl. aim.

1 ) A single example: for i]i 'slice of meat' (Liki: Shao yi) Ts'i hai gives the reading fN: ~ id. e. J'fiip (c he), whereas the correct reading, according to the authoritative King tien shiwen, is z ~ id. e. t#iip (c he). For its aberrant reading {l'i_iip it bases itself upon Cheng tsi t'ung (a dictionary first published in 1705 A. D.!) quoted in K'ang hi tsi tien.

pien

contains various important Ts'ie yiin and T'ang yiin fragmentary manuscripts and the complete

Kuang yful.

2 ) With its enlarged versions T'ang ytin and Kuang yiin. The useful compilation Shi yiin huei

3

BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERIGA REGENSA Vowels: the
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERIGA REGENSA
Vowels:
the simple expedient of leaving even-tone words without any tone mark at all
c1 as in French pate;
a as in French patte;
short d;
as e in Germ. Knabe;
(e. g. )
{izien), and .to indicate rising tone by a colon after the word (ii kno:) and
the falling tone by a hyphen (fi,~ tdi-).
lf
=
a
e
as
in French ete;
a as in Germ. Biir;
E a still more open, slack ii-sound (Engl. man);
With the aid of the An c. Chin. tones the modern Mandarin tones can be concluded
in a majority of cases, according to the following rules:
A.
Unmarked Anc. forms (i. e. p' in g she n g) give Mandarin Tone 1, if
as
·D
in Engl. b7d;
the Anc. form had a voiceless initial (see p. 3 above), but Mand. Tone 2, if the
i
as
ee in Engl. bee;
Anc. form had a voiced initial:
o as in Genu. Sommer;
o as in French beau;
:Oii
*to
I tno /
t u 1
u;JJ
*d'o I d'uo 1t' u2
9 =
r!J.i
t'ang 1t'ling 1t' an g 1
f.lf *d'dng I d'dng f t' an g 2
t!
=
short 6;
open o as
an
in Engl.
law;
~fl *sf.ang Jsjang
I s i an g 1
~
*dziang
/ zjang
/
s i
a
n g 2
11
as
~~ as
in Engl. value;
in Engl. Tude;
B. Anc. forms marked with a hyphen (k' ii she n g) always give Mand. Tone 4.
il,
e, 0 =short
e,
o;
ft,
~' ~' ~ =subordinate vowels in diphtongs or triphtongs.
:k *t'ad 1t'di- 1t' a i1
Ji!. *kian /
kien- I k i e n 4
For each reading of a character in the dictionary we give a triple form:
A
C.
Anc. forms marked with a colon (shan g she n g) give Mand. Tone 3,
*n1"en l1iiien I j e n
if they l1ad a voiceless initial (seep. 3 above) or ng-, n-, j-, n-, l-, m-; but they give
t; *ko f kuo: f k u
7.W *tad 1tui-
1t a i
]\{and. Tone 4, if they had the
affricates and fricatives):
remaining voiced initials (i. e. voiced explosiYes,
The first, with the asterisk, is the Archaic form (early Chou); the middle one is
Ancient Chin. (the language of Ch'ang-an around 600 A. D.); the third is modern
i;
*ko (
lnw: 1k ua
fi
*g'o I
yuo:
I h u4
:fifl
*pwo
/ puo:
I Jl u 3
fti~ *b'o I
b'uo: I p u 1
*dz'jan J dz'iiin:
/
1\'I:andarin.
~M tsfan
/ tsfJin-: I t
s i
e n 3
~
t
1t' a n
3
1!! *d'an
d'dn:
f t a
:1!1 *t'an 1t'un:
s i e n 4
n 4
The reader may well ask: how do we know how the words were pronounced in
Arch. and Anc. Chinesd The answer is given in my work Compendium of Phonetics
ih'f= *sian
sian- ( s i e n 3
¥f.
*dian
i!iin:
I s h a n 4
I
**u~in- 1 (1~iei.:/ m j3
;J& *d'ior
d'iei: f t i 4
in Ancient and Archaic
Chinese, BMFEA 26, 1954, pp.
211-367. 1 ) In that extensive
1t! *lfag
f lji:
jl i 3
jjl~ *dziJg
paper I have given the proofs for my reconstructions, step by step, and in no single
case is a reconstruction propounded without a reason being clearly stated. The
reason given may sometimes seem not to be an absolutely conclusive proof, but,
at least, no mndom guesses about >>ancient sounds>> are made in my reconstructive
system (as they are in so many other attempts). The best confirmation of my
Archaic system is that it allows of a natural and organic evolutionary scheme
from Arch. to Anc. Chinese; and that this Anc. Chin. of Ts'ie yiin was a true mirror
·Of a living language (that of Ch'ang-an) and not an artificially established compromise
between various dialects of Suei time is proved by the fact that the great majority
·Of the widely divergent modern dialects can be systematically and logically derived
ix *n1·o j1iiwo: j n iP
1JI
*g'io
zi: 1s 1 4
/ g'jwo: I k ii 4
How the Anc. forms ending in -p, -t, -lc (j u she n g words) have been distributed
over the :Mandarin tones cannot be read of£ in this book.
The Chinese script of our time is a technically modified version of the so-called
s i a o chua n >>Small Seal» style made obligatory in 213 B. C.
(in the present
'vork simply called >>Seal>>). The earlier script forms of the Yin and Chou eras
known tln-ough inscriptions on tortoise shell, bone and bronze are frequently very
different from the Seal forms, and one and the same graph was often varied widely
from it as their ancient mother language'.
In Anc. Chin. there was the tone distinction between
in its details. I have quoted here only a small selection of such early forms, and
exclusively such as are of direct interest as prototypes of the later Seal forms and
JJ' in g
she n g
(even
tone): s h a n g s h eng (rising tone): k' ii she n g (falling tone). I have used
modern normalized characters. A great many of the most important bronze
inscriptions can be dated within fairly narrow limits (see B. Karlgren, Yin and
.·Uso
available
as a separate book.
1 )
Chou in Chinese Bronzes, BMFEA 8); hence it has been possible to assign an
approximate date to the pre-Han graphs cited. The signum Chou I for an Archaic
5

BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES

graph means that it is attested in an inscription from the period 1027 - circa

900 B. C.;

IV means c. 450-c. 250 B. C. In other cases we have to be satisfied with wider

limits: Chou Ifii means that the inscription in question falls within the period 1027-c. 770, and so forth. 1>Chom> (no.t followed by Roman figures) means that

we can only know that it falls within the Chou era, and l>pre-Ham> that it is anterior to the normalization of the script in 213 B. C.

Chou II means c. 900 - c. 770; Chou III means c. 770 - c. 450; Chou

ARCHAIC GRAPHS

In the dictionary below archaic graphs will be quoted according to the following

system.

0

r a c I e

i n

s c r

i p t

.,-

i o n s.

Yin time graphs on tortoise shell and bone will be quoted directly, by k ii a n and page in one or other of the following repertories, represented, for brevity's sake, by capital letters:

A

=

Yin k'ii shu k'i ts'ien pien;

B

=

Yin k'ii shu k'i hou pien;

C

=

Yin k'ii shu k'i sii pien;

D

Yin k'ii shu k'i tsing hua;

E

T'ie yiin ts'ang kuei;

F

=

T'ie yiin ts'ang kuei chi yii;

G

Tie yiin ts'ang kuei shi yi;

H

Kuei kia shou ku wen tsi;

I

Tsien shou t'ang so ts'ang Yin k'ii wen tsi;

K

Yin k'i pu ts'i;

L

Yin k'ii wen tsi ts'un chen;

M

Sin huo pu ts'i sie pen;

N

-

T'ien ye k'ao ku pao kao I;

0

Yin k'i tsuei pien;

P

Yin k'i yi ts'un.

Thus, for instance, an entry like this: A 5: 40,5 means that the graph in question

p. 40, shell

is to be found in Lo Chen-yii's Yin k'i.i shu k'i ts'ien pien, k i.i an

(or bone) no. 5.

5,

B r o n

z e

a n

d

s t

o n

e

i n s

c r i p

t

i o n s.

The inscriptions upon which I have drawn I register here in a numbered series, and in the dictionary an entry like this: Chou I 57 means that the graph in question

is to be found in our inscription 57 below, which is an inscription of the period Chou

I (cf. the introduction above). In our list of inscriptions here, the repertories are

indicated by the following abbreviations:

6

BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA

Chengsung

Chengts'iu

Eumorf.

Huaimi K'i K'ia Kiin :Mengwei Faoyiin. Santai Senolm Shan Sh'ierkia Sh'iku Siaokiao Sung chai, sii T'ao Tsunku T'ulu Wuying

Cheng sung t'ang tsi ku yi wen; Cheng ts'iu kuan ki kin t'u; The George Eumorfopoulos collection of Chinese and Korean Bronzes 1929, 1930; Huai mi shan fang ki kin t'u;

K'i ku shi

k i

kin

wen

shu;

K'ia chai tsi ku

Ki.in ku lu kin wen; Meng wei ts'ao t'ang ki kin t'u;

lu;

Pao

yi.in lou

yi k'i

t'u

lu;

San

tai ki

kin

wen ts'1m;

Senoku seisho (Surnitomo cat.);

Shan chai

Shi er

Shi ku shu ki (stone drums); Siao kiao king ko kin shi: wen tsi;

Sung chai

T'ao chao ki kin lu;

Tsun ku chai so

ki kin

lu;

kia

ki kin t'u

ki kin

lu;

si.i lu;

kien ki kin t'u;

Liang Chou kin wen ts'i ta hi t'u lu;

Wu ying tien yi k'i t'u lu.

List

of

1.

Chengsung 2: 24

2.

Chengsung 2: 41

3.

Chengsung 2: 44

4.

Chengsung 4: 12

5.

Chengsung 4: 43

B.

Chengsung 7: 18

7.

Chengsung 8: 23

8.

Chengsung 8: 24

9.

Chengsung 8: 28

10.

Chengsung 8: 31

11.

Chengsung, sii sang 26

12.

Chengsung, sii chung 4

13.

Chengsung, sii chung 8

14.

Chengsung, sii chung 9

15.

Chengsung, sii chung 19

16.

Chengsung, sii chung 24

17.

Chengsung, pu shang 18

18.

Chengsung, pu chung 9

19.

K'i 2:1

20.

K'i 3:20

21.

K'i 3:20

22. K'i

5: 12

23. K'i 13:13

24. K'i

16: 3

25. K'i

16: 4

26. K'i

16: 6

27. K'ia

6: 5

inscriptions

quoted:

Yin:

28. K'ia 6:8

29. Ki.in 2/1 20

30. Ki.in 2/1: 41

31.

Kiin 2/1: 49

32.

Ki.in 2/3: 86

33.

T'ao 1: 25

34.

Chengsung 2: 9

35.

Chengsung 8: 14

36.

Chengsung 8: 18

37.

Chengsung, si.i shang 19

38.

Chengsung, sii hia 10

39.

Chengsung, pu shang 19

40.

Chengsung, pu shang 22

41.

Chengsung, pu chung 18

42. Chengsung, pu chung 21

43. Chengsung, pu chung 29

44. K'ia 7: 16

45. Siaokiao 4: 51

46. Siaokiao 2: 34

47. Siaokiao 2: 48

48. Siaokiao 3: 70

49. Siaokiao 4: 46

50. Siaokiao 5: 20

51. Siaokiao 5: 94

52. Shierkia 4: 12

53. Shan 5: 44

7

BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES

Chou I

(1027-c i rca

900 B. C.).

5-!.

55. Chengsung 4: 47, T'ulu 11

56. Shan 2: 8I, T'u1u 12

57. K'i 16: 9, Kiin

58. Chengsung, pu shang 29, Shan 8: 98

59. Chengsung 4: 48, T'ulu 12

60. Chengsung 3: I8, Kiin 2/3: 22, T'u1u 4

61.

62. Chengsung 3: I5, Paoyiin 8, T'ulu 15

63. Chengsung 4: 48, Eumorf. I: 26, T'ulu

Chengsm1g 6: 6, T'ulu 9

3/I: I4

Kiin 1/2: 47

20

Chengsung 8: 42, T'ulu 21

'

6-!.

65. K'i 2: 35, Kiin

66. Chengsung, pu chung 12, T'ulu 24

67. Ktin 3/3: 42, T'ulu 19

68. K'i 7: 30, T'ulu 24

69. Chengsung 6: ll, T'ulu 2

70. Chengsung 4: 49, T'ulu 2-3

71. Chengsung 7: I7, T'ulu 4

72. Ktin 2/3: 82, T'ulu 13

73. Ktin 2/3 80, T'ulu 12

3/3: 31, T'ulu 18

7

4.

Chengsung, sti chung 23, T'ulu 16

7

5.

Chengsung 3: 25, T'ulu 17

76. K'i 6: 15, T'ulu 86

77. T'ulu 23

78. Chengsung, pu chung

79. K'i 17: I7, T'ulu 38

80. Kiin 1/3: 42

81. K'i 17:7, T'ulu 33

I2, T'ulu 36

8 ')

Chengsmig 4: 21, T'ulu 32

83. 6:

K'ia

ll,

T'ulu 31

84. 2: 39,

T'ao

T'ulu 33

85. Senoku II: 105, T'u1u 34

86. K'i 4: 16, T'u1u 35

87. Kiin 3/I 15, T'ulu 32

88.

K'ia

4: 28,

Shan 2: SO

89. K'i 16: 5, T'ulu 8

90. Chengsung 7: I9, T'ulu 5

91. I9: 22, T'u1u 5

K'ia

 

9 ')

K'ia

I9: 3,

T'u1u 21

93.

K'i 2: 5, T'ulu l4

 
 

Chou

I

I

(circa

132.

K'i 2: 21, T'ulu 83

 

133.

K'ia 4: 26, T'ulu 61

13-!.

K'ia 11: 7,

T'ulu 58

135.

Chengsung 3: 30, T'ulu 38

 

136.

Chengsung 3: 3I, T'ulu 39

94. Chengsung, pu shang 12, T'ulu 14

95.

96.

97.

98.

99. Chengsung 4: 5, Shan 3: 19

K'i

K'i

K'i

K'i

2: 51

I6: 7

I6: 36, T'ulu 64

6:

6:

I4

I5

100.

101.

102.

I03.

104.

K'i

K'i 2:3 Chengsung 3: 29, Shan 2: 79 Chengsung 3: I6, T'ulu 266

lVIengwei 1: 24, Chou kin wen ts'un 3: 109

K'i I6: 13, T'ulu

105.

106. ~Kiin 2J3: 10

107.

108. Kiin 2J3: 6I, T'u1u 35

II: 5,

110.

111.

112.

113.

ll4.

ll5.

116. Chengsung 4: 45, T'ulu 2II

117.

ll8.

119.

I20.

121.

122.

I23.

124. K'i 5: 6

125. Chengsung 2: 35, Shierkia 6: 3

126. Burlington Mag. Apr. 1937

127. K'i 18: 8, T'ulu 225

128.

129. Shan 3: 33

130.

131.

131 a.

131

I4

K'ia 4: 2I,

K'ia

T'u]u 31

T'u1u 27

109.

Kiin 2J3: 36 Chengsung, pu shang 34 Chengsung 4: 44 K'ia 11: 25, T'ulu 234 K'i 1: I3, Mengwei I: 9 Chengsung 8: 23

Kun 2J2: 5, Chengts'iu 27 K'ia 9: 7, T'ulu 264 Chengsung 9: 27 Chengsung, pu shang IO K'i 6: 30 Shan 9: 32 Shan 8: 48

T'ao 2: 38

K'i

K'i

6: 23

6: 8

Tsunku I: 36 Sungchai, sii 37

b.

900-c i r c a

770).

137. Chengsung 3: 33, T'ulu 62

138. K'i 4: 15, T'ulu

139. K'ia 5: I, T'ulu IIO

140. Chengsung 3: 34, T'u1u ll3

141. Chengsung 6: 3, T'ulu 107

60

8

BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA

142. K'ia 15: 18, T'ulu 112

 

173.

K'i 2: 7, T'ulu 90

143. Chengsung 6: 44, T'ulu 116

 

I74.

K'ia II: 9, T'nlu I29

 

144.

Chengsung 6: 9, T'ulu 116

175.

Chengsung 6: 10, T'u1u 74

145. K'i 2: I5, T'ao I: 40, T'u1u 118

176.

Chengsung 3: 35, T'u1u 75

146. K'i 9: 30, T'ulu 118

 

l 77.

K'i 4: 22, T'u1u 76

147. K'i 8: 21, T'ulu 127

178.

Chengsung 6: 42, T'u1u 144

148. Chengsung 1: 9, T'ulu 93

 

179.

K'i

2: IO,

T'ulu 143

149. Chengsung 3: 22

 

180.

K'i

2: 41,

T'ulu 131

150. Kii.n 3/2:25, T'ulu 133

 

181.

K'i IS: 25, T'ulu ll7

151. K'i 4: 27, T'ulu 135

 

182.

K'i

4: 25, T'ulu I35

I

52.

K'i

9: 17, T'ulu 140

183.

K'ia

5: 7,

T'ulu 63

I 53.

Chengsung 6: 17, T'u1u I46

 

184.

Kiin 3/2: 56, T'ulu 25

I

54.

Chengsung 6: 20

 

185.

K'ia II: 23, T'ulu I37

155. Chengsung, pu shang 39, T'ulu 8!

186.

Kiin 3/2: 49, T'ulu 36

156. K'ia 9: 17, T'ulu 137

 

187.

K'i 5: 19, T'ulu .'58

157. K'i 8: 15, T'ulu 88

188.

Kiin 3/1: 32, T'ulu 67

I

58.

K 'ia 15: 16, T'ulu 79

189.

K'i 8: 19, T'ulu I34

159.

K'i 16: 10,

T'ulu 99

190.

Chengsung 6: 3, T'ulu 27

160.

T'ao 2: 10, T'ulu IOI

191.

K'i 4:4

 

161.

Kii.n 3/2:21, T'ulu 99

192.

K'i 4:7, T'ulu 69

162.

K'ia ll: 6,

T'ulu I02

193.

K'ia 13: 9, T'ulu 70

163.

Chengsung 6:5, T'ulu 43

 

194.

T'ao 2: 16, T'ulu 130

I6J.

Chengsung 3: 36, T'u1u -!5

195.

Chengsung 6: 2

I65.

Kiin 1/3:62

196.

K'i I6: 33, Chengsung 6: 4.

166.

Chengsung, pu shang I4, T'ulu 71

197.

Chengsung 1: 18, T'ulu 124

167.

K'i 9: 11

 

198.

Chengsung 5: 23.

168.

Chengsung, pu shang I6

 

199.

K'ia

16: 25,

Kiin 2/2: ll

169.

Chengsung 6: 7, T'ulu 73

200.

Kiin 3/l: 15, T'ulu 92

170.

K'i 4: 29, T'ulu 73

 

201.

K'i 16: 6, T'ulu 282

171.

Chengsung 5:25, T'u1u 90

 

202.

K'ia 5: 11, T'ulu

29

172.

K'i 4: 30, T'ulu 89

 
 

Chou IJI I (10:27-c i rca 770 B. C.).

203.

Kiin 2/3:74, T'ulu 80

 

210.

Chengsung 3: 23

204.

K.'i

16: 32, T'ulu 79

211.

Kiin 2/2: 61

205.

K'ia,

14: 13,

T'ulu 80

212.

K'i

3: 15

206.

Chengsung 3:16

213.

Siaokiao 3: 22

207.

T.'u1u 24:

 

2I4.

Siaokiao 3: 26

208.

K'i

4:

I,

T'ulu

30

2I5.

Siaokiao 3: 98

209.

K.'i

4:

2

 

C h o u

III

(circa

770-c i r c a

450 B.

C.).

2I6.

Chengsung, sii chung I

 

222.

Chengsung 1: 5

217. Chengsung 1:16, Kiin3J1: 38, T'ulu

223. Chengsung 3:21, T'ulu 164

 

213

224.

K'ia 2: I9, T'ulu

165

218. Kiin 3/2: 6, T'ulu 216.

2I9.

225.

K'i

9: 14, T'ulu I72

Chengsung 11: 3, T'ulu 203

226.

K'i 17: 35, T'ulu 170

220.

Chengsung, sii

shang I, T'ulu 227

227.

K'i

17: 36, T'ulu 170

221.

Kiin 1j3: 38, T'ulu 206

228.

K'i 18: 21, T'ulu 239

9

BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES

229.

Chengsung 6: 13, T'ulu 288

230.

Chengsung 1: 13, T'ulu 152

231.

K'i 18: 23,

T'ulu 182

232.

Shan 2:69

233.

Chengsung 11: 8, T'ulu 211

234.

K'i 18:16, T'ulu 255, Huaimi, hia 16

 

Chou II/I I I (circa

240.

Chengsung 10: 39, T'ulu 205

241.

Shan 8:78

242.

K'ia 14: l4

243.

Chengsung 6: 31, T'ulu 237

244.

Chengsung 6: 29

245.

Ktin 2/2: SO

246.

Ktin 2/2: lO

247.

Shan 2:70

248. Chengsung 3: 5, and 5: 19

235. Kiin 2/1: 29

236.

237. Burlington Mag. Jan. 1937

238. Kiin 3j3: 28, T'ulu 268

239. BurlingtonMag. 1930

K'i

17: 19

900-c i r c a

450 B.

C.).

261.

262.

263. Kiin 3/l: 9, T'ulu 203

264.

265. Chengsuhg 5: 27

266. Chengsung 6: 33

267. ~hengsung 10: 27

K'ia 15: 19

268.

269. Kiin 2/2: 77

K'i

K'i

K'i

1: 28 8: 34, T'ulu 204

17: 34

249.

Ktin 2/2: 70

 

250.

K'i 16: 34, T'ulu 226

251.

Chengsung 10: 35

252.

Ktin 2j3: 18

 

253.

K'ia 16:20

254.

Ktin 2/2: 58, T'ulu 224

255.

T'ao

2: 18,

T'ulu 190

256.

T'ao

1: 29,

T'ulu 190

257.

Chengsung 7: 33, T'ulu 208

258.

K'i 5: 26, T'ulu 207

259.

K'i 3:18

 

260.

K'i

5: 22, T'ao

2: 46

 

Chou IV (circa

282.

K'ia 1: 21, T'ulu 217

283.

Shan 4: 54, T'ulu 181

284.

Chengstmg 5: 42, T'ulu 258, Pao yiin 74, Wuying 79

285.

Chengsung 6: 33

286.

K'i 4: 13, T'ulu 260

287. Ktin 3/1: 21, T'ulu 257

270. Shan 8: 82

K'i 16: 33,

271. K'ia 8: 15, Huaimi, hia 22

272. Chengsung 5: 22

273. Sh!erkia 5: 6

274. T'ao, sti shang 18

275. Shan 8: 47

276. Chengsung 3: 6

277.

278. Chengsung 5: 37

279. T'ulu 165

280. Wuying 100

281. Shan 4: 51

K'ia

12: 6, Shan

8: 65

450-c i rca

250 B.

C.).

288. T'ulu 261, BMFEA 7, p. 26

289. Kiin 2/3: 77, T'ulu 179

290.

291. K'i 17: 26, T'ulu 257

292. Kiin 2/3: 40, T'ulu 257

293. Kiin 2/3: 66, T'ulu 266

K'i

6: 35,

T'ulu

262

chou

I II/I v (circa 770-circa 250 B. C.).

294. K'i 5: 26, T'ulu 194

295. Chengsung 1: 18, Eumorf. 1: 29, T'ulu 269

296. Chengsung 3: 24, T'ulu 282

297.

298. K'i 3: 29, T'ulu 254

299. K'i 8: 14, T'ulu 253

300. K'i 8: 12, T'ulu 238

301. K'ia2: 21, T'ulu 251

K'ia

5: 15,

T'ulu 205

302. K'i 3: 14, Shan 8: 62

303. Kiin 2/1: 55

304. Kiin 2/3: 64, T'ulu 156

305. Kiin 3/1: 12, T'ulu 158

306.

307. Chengsung 1: 20, T'ulu 175

1: 2, T'ulu

K'ia

167

308. Kiin 3/1:8, T'ulu 187

309. T'ulu 187

310. Chengsung 1: 15, T'ulu 194

10

BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA

:311.

Chengsung 7: 34, T'ulu 266

322.

Siaokiao 1: 13

 

:312.

Chengsung 12: 20, T'ulu 279

323.

Shiku: Wu kii

:313.

T'ao 2: 48

324.

Shiku: K'ien yi

31±.

Shan: 9: 7

325.

Shiku: T'ien kii

315.

Chengsung 1:21

326.

Shiku: Luau kii

316.

K'ia 2: 17

327.

Shiku: Ling yii

317.

Chengsung 4: 46

328.

Shiku: Yu tso

 

318.

Chengsung 7: 14

329.

Shiku: Er shi

aw.

K'i 8: 11

330.

Shiku: T'ien

320.

Chengsung, J>U shang 2

331.

Shiku:

W u

shuei

321.

Santai 1: 2

332.

Shiku: Wu jen

 

Chou.

3:33.

Kiin 2/2: 74, T'ulu 182

365.

K'i

17: 29

3:34.

T'ulu 186

366.

K'i

18: 13

335.

K'i 5: 18, T'u1u 191

367.

K'i

18: 19

336.

Chengsm1g, sii shang 24, T'ulu 191

368.

K'ia

11: 13

337.

T'ulu 200

369.

K'ia 19: 25

 

3:38.

Kiin 2/1: 65, T'ulu 222

370.

Kiin 2/1: 57

3:39.

Kiin 2/3: 5, T'ulu 286

371.

Kiin 2/1: 58

3-!0.

Chengsung 2:42

372.

Kiin 3/1: 16

3-!l.

Chengsung 2:42

373.

Santai 3: 36

3-!2.

Chengsung 3: 14

374.

Santai 6: 51

:3-!3.

Chengsung 3: 18

375.

Siaokiao 1: 7

:3-!4.

Chengsung 3: 20

376.

Siaokiao 1: 13

3-!5.

Chengsung 3: 23

377.

Siaokiao 1: 18

:3-!6.

Chengsung 5: 41

378.

Siaokiao 2: 89

:3-!7.

Chengsung 6: 26

379.

Siaokiao 2: 92

3-!8.

Chengsung 6: 27

380.

Siaokiao 3: 96

:349.

Chengsung 6: 38

381.

Siaokiao 9: 29

:3:30.

Chengstmg 6: 39

382.

K'i 8: 10

:351.

Chengsung 6: 40

383.

Siaokiao 9: 79

:352.

Chengsung 6: 41

384.

Chengsung 2: 33

3.53.

Chengstmg 7: 32

385.

K'ia 11: 18

 

:354.

Chengstmg 10: 29

386.

see Ku wen sheng hi, cheng 1

Chengsung 10: 32

387.

see Ku wen sheng hi, yu 7

356.

Chengsung 10: 41

388.

Chengsung 2: 47

J57.

Chengsung, pu shang 37

389.

Kiin 2/1: 50

 

:J58.

Chengsung, pu chung 29

390.

Chengsung 3: 17

:J.'iH.

K'i

l: 25

391.

Kiin 2/2:65

 

:360.

K'i 3:30

394.

see Shuo wen ku chou san pu 7: 7

:361.

K'i 5:31

395.

K'i 8: 11

 

:362.

K'i

16: 1

396.

K'ia 12: 9

36:3.

K'i

16 23

397.

Chengsung 11: 6

:364.

K'i

17: 23

398.

see Slmo wen ku chou pu pu

 

Pre-Han.

399.

Wuying 63

402.

Chengsung 2: 35

400.

Shan 2: 45

403.

Chengsung 3: 14

401.

Chengsung 2: 32

404.

Chengsung 4: 43

11

BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES

405.

Chengsung 4: 44

434.

see Ku wen sheng hi,

yu

8

406.

Chengsung 4:45

435.

see Ku wen sheng

hi, yang 4

407.

Chengsung 4:47

436.

see Ku wen sheng hi, yang 15

408.

Chengsung

5: 10

437.

Kun 1/2: 33

 

409.

Chengsung

7: 10

438.

K'ia 23: 14

410.

Chengsung 7: 13

439.

see Ku wen sheng hi, siao

5

411.

Chengsung

7: 15

440.

K'ia 11: 27

 

412.

Chengsung

7: 25

441.

Chengsung, sii shang 27

 

413.

Chengsung

8: 36

44•) ~.

Yin wen ts'un, hia 31

±1±.

Chengsung, pu chung ll

443.

see Ku wen sheng hi, yii

13

±15.

K'i

5: 9

444.

see Ku wen sheng hi, yii

19

±16.

K'i

16:8

445.

Kun 2j2: 56

 

±17.

K'i

17: 13

446.

see Ku wen sheng hi,

chi

1

±18.

K'i

18: ll

447.

see Ku wen sheng hi,

chi

3

±19.

K'ia

3:12

448

,.Chengsung

4: 35

 

±20.

K'ia 5: l4

 

449.

see Ku wen sheng hi,

chi 12

±21.

K'ia

6: 13

450.

K'ia 22: 2

-!22.

K'ia

17: 14

451.

K'i

1: 19

±23.

Kiin

1/2:47

452.

Chengsung 8: 41

 

±2-i.

!Gin 1/2:52

 

453.

see Ku wen sheng hi, ts'i

1

425. Kiin 1/3: 52

454.

see Kin wen pien 2: 9

426. !Gin 2/1:79

455.

K'i 7:30

 

427. Santai 3: 18

456.

Kun 2/1: 5

 

428. K'ia

6: 13

457.

Kun

1/3: 52

429. K.'ia

14: 23

458.

K'i

1: 17

430. K'i 1: 9

 

459.

K'i

18: 7

431. Chengsung 9: 9

460.

Chengsung 8: 42

 

432. T'ao 3:7

 

461.

see Ku wen sheng hi,

chi

l.

433.

K'i

7:

19

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