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REFRACTOTRY INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES


IN CEMENT INDUSTRY
Chapter 3
Refractory Installation in the Cement Rotary Kiln

3.1 Installation of refractory bricks in the Cement Rotary
Kiln

The installation of refractory bricks in the Cement Rotary Kiln
is classified into 2 types.
3.1.1 Refractory installation in the Rotary Kiln with
rotation
- This type of refractory installation is only suitable for
Rotary Kiln that has less than 4 meters in diameter.
- It is only ideal for small quantity of bricks to be
installed.
- It requires longer installation time compared to
refractory installation without rotation (see 3.1.2)
- Low investment cost for support and accessories and
bricking equipment are its major advantages.
- The necessary requirements for kiln rotations during the
installation may affect other subsequent works.
- There are several methods of refractory installation with
a rotation of Rotary Kiln, they are as follows;

3.1.1.1 Screw Jack Method
- The procedures to be followed starting from the
beginning are shown in 3.1.2.1 - 3.1.2.5, discussed in
the succeeding sections.
- Install the refractory bricks on the lower-half portion of
the Rotary Kiln, for about 1-3 running meters, then
pause for installation break and proceed with the
instruction below.
- Place the rectangular timber battens against the installed
bricks on both sides along the kiln axis, then the timber
battens are pressed against the installed bricks using the
Screw Jacks, as shown in Fig. 3-1 and Fig. 3-2.
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Fig. 3-1: Picture of Screw Jack

Fig. 3-2: Pictures illustrating the use of timber batten and Screw
Jack in pressing against the installed bricks



Screw Jack
Sharp pins for pressing
the timber batten

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- The distance between the individual jacks should not be
more than 80cm.
- Tighten the jacks as tight as they can be, as shown in
Fig. 3-3.
















Fig. 3-3: Picture illustrating the Screw Jacks tightening

- Inspect any bricks that are not directly pressed by the
Screw Jacks, they should be tightened using wooden
wedges, in order to prevent them from falling while
rotating the Rotary Kiln, as shown in Fig. 3-4.













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Fig. 3-4: Picture illustrating the use of wooden wedges to
tighten the bricks in each ring

- After the inspection, remove all refractory and
equipment from the Rotary Kiln, then rotate the Rotary
Kiln by 90 degrees, and then continue the same
procedures as in the beginning, as shown in Fig. 3-5 and
Fig. 3-6.



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Fig. 3-5: Picture of the Rotary Kiln ready for rotation



Fig. 3-6: Picture of the Rotary Kiln after a 90 degrees rotation






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- Proceed until all refractory bricks are installed
completely in full rings, and repeat the same procedures
until all are completed, as shown in Fig. 3-7.



Fig. 3-7: Picture illustrating the proceeding installation of
refractory bricks to completion

3.1.1.2 Gluing Method
- The procedures to be followed starting from the
beginning are shown in 3.1.2.1 - 3.1.2.5, discussed in
the succeeding sections.
- The adhesive glue consists of resin mixtures with
Hardener.
- The surface to be glued must be kept clean and dry at all
times; the presence of contaminants will affect the
adhesive performance.
- The procedures are shown in Fig. 3-8.
- Begin with section I, install the refractory bricks about
5-6 pieces and leave them until the glue dries up.
- Soon after, install about 10-15 pieces of refractory
bricks in counter clockwise direction, without gluing.



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- Repeat the same procedure with glue as in section II,
install about 5-6 pieces of refractory bricks and leave
them until the glue dries up.
- Rotate the Kiln in clockwise direction and place the
installation area in a convenient position for installation.
- Repeat until all refractory bricks are installed in the full
rings completely.
- It should be noted that the glue to be used must be
within the range of its shelf life, since the bonding
property could degrade if the glue is kept for longer than
its shelf life.














Fig. 3-8: Picture illustrating refractory installation in the
Rotary Kiln with rotation, gluing method

3.1.1.3 Channel or bolt & nut method.
-The method was applied from screw jack method. The
Equipment usage in this method similar to screw jack
method. Only if it doesnt use screw jack the important tools are
M-20 bolt, nut, two sides screw bar with 20 mm diameter and
250 mm length, special washer, electric drill, Channel steel or
10x10x400 cm Harden wood and transformer for welding Nut
with kiln shell are required for installation as following;


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1. Cleaning and marking the center line are the first
things for rotary kiln work.
2. Selecting the straight pattern of brick laid which is
easily manage and control the quality of installation.
3. Installing brick by starting at the center line, this
method need 12 meter length and less 25 pieces axial
lay.
4. The marking of nut for welding on kiln shell is
measured in every 5 courses. It has to be cut the side
edge of wedge type brick as shown in the below picture:
In case of gluing application, corner cutting is not
necessary.

Fig. 3-9: Picture illustrating the corner and side cutting brick.

5. Marking every 1 meter length along the kiln and 25
courses of the brick circumference distance then weld
M-20 nut.
6. Using the distance of welded location, drill the 22-
23mm diameter through channel steel or harden wood
7. The special washer can be prepared by cut steel sheet
5 mm thickness, 40*40 mm width and drill 25 mm hole
for washer attachment.
8. Installing cutting bricks by connecting both of cutting
bricks as shown in the below picture.
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Fig. 3-10: Picture illustrating position of fasten installed brick
with kiln shell.

9. The connection of 4 bricks was shown in the picture
which is it need to be installed at higher 3 or 4 courses
more.
10. Screw the steel rod and twist it tightly with the
welded
Nut inside the cuttings bricks hole. And lay down the
channel steel or harden wood by placed it over the bolt.
11. Insert special washer and cover it with the cover nut
then
Firmly and tightly twist it.
12. In case of incurring gaps between support steel or
wood bar, wood wedge can be applied by shimming
between brick and channel steel.
13. The fasten bolt and nut shall do the both sides which
already fixing. Next procedure, Kiln rotation needs to
rotate one eighth of the circular length.
14. Install brick with the same pattern. If kiln shell
distorted, mortar can trowel for adjustment.
15. Turn the rotary kiln until reaching its end position.
And brick can be installed only from left or right hand
side direction. Cutting or shimming for tightening brick
courses is necessary.
16. When bricking completed for whole brick courses,
Nut, washer, Channel steel and steel stud will be
removed out.
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17. Starting from the first step again until the bricking
work is done then follow the same procedures for the
next position.

The most important thing is to install and rotate no more than 12
Meters long. If installing distance is longer than separate area, it
is necessary to make sure by turning going well.
18. Seal all the cut brick holes with reliable material such as
C60A castable or Ram it with plastic 80.



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Fig. 3-11: Picture illustrating refractory installation by
Bolt and nut method.

Fig. 3-12: Picture illustrating refractory installation in the rotary
kiln with rotation, bolt and nut method.
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Advantage of bolt & nut method
The advantage of this method is similar to the Screw
jack method. However it is more useful in terms of no
obstruction from Screw jack and longer installation as
well as faster for one time installation compared to
screw jack method.
Disadvantage of bolt & nut method
The weakness is to cutting brick and fulfill it with
castable; which might run not so long, due to the low
quality of product or non-standard installation.

3.1.2 Refractory Installation in the Rotary Kiln without
rotation
- This type of refractory installation is suitable for Rotary
Kiln that has more than 4 meters in diameter.
- The refractory installation time is shorter than
installation with rotating.
- It has higher investment cost for accessories support and
bricking equipment.
- Mult-O-Ring machine is used as bricking equipment.

The refractory installation without rotating the Rotary Kiln has
the following procedures:

3.1.2.1 Cleaning of rotary kiln shell surface
- The kiln shell surface must be cleaned; the cleaning
includes de-scaling and removal of any foreign materials
such as mortars, dusts, and etc. The cleaning could be
done by sand- blasting, grinding, and etc., and
equipment to be used may include de-scaling hammer,
brush, and broom.
- The foreign materials may cause uneven kiln shell
surface and affect the quality of installation in the kiln
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lining which will result in loose installation of bricks
against the kiln shell.

3.1.2.2 Positioning of the Rotary Kiln
- The positioning of the Rotary Kiln should be rotated
wherein the manholes and deformed kiln shell areas are
located at the bottom (at 6 oclock) which is necessary
for easy and quality installation.

3.1.2.3 Locating the center reference line
- It is essential to locate and draw the center line reference
of the Rotary Kiln. Use the Levelling Bar and plumb to
mark the center points in every 1-2 meters and connect
the points to serve as center reference line. The more
center points from outlet through inlet direction could be
utilized to check kiln shell alignment and accuracy of
the centre line. The corrected centre line can count on
the harmony of most of center points. The marking
acceptance per center line is 80% of all center points.
- The most important thing is that center line which
marked with 2 center points is highly in risk of incorrect
line deviation. The incorrect center line marking will
cause alignment of bricking ring to be wrong and
shorten brick life. The quality of misalignment bricking
installation could be obviously notice as snaking brick
line.










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Fig. 3-13: Locating the center point of the Rotary Kiln by using
the Leveling Bar and Plumb

3.1.2.4 Drawing of circumference lines
Center line and Cross section line by Kiln non
Rotation

- After the center reference line is drawn, draw the
circumference line after every 1 meter interval from the
center reference line using a Steel Compass, 1- 2 meter
length, to locate and mark the intersection of two curve
lines, as shown in Fig. 3-14.
- Draw the circumference line fully along the
circumference of the Rotary Kiln by connecting the
intersection marks, as shown in Fig. 3-15. The lines are
used for controlling and monitoring the alignment of
refractory bricks installation.






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Fig. 3-14: Picture illustrating the use of Steel Compass to locate
and mark the intersection of two curve lines




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Fig. 3-15: Picture demonstrating the drawing of the
circumference lines in every 1 meter along the
circumference and throughout the length of the
Rotary Kiln where the refractory bricks are to be
installed.


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- In addition, if the Retaining Rings are to be used as
reference to draw the circumference lines, it must be
ensured that the Retaining Rings have been aligned and
welded correctly to prevent an erroneous reference point
and, consequently, an incorrect alignment of the
circumference line drawn.

Center line and Cross section line by Kiln Rotation.
- This method is easier than the non kiln rotation method
by just checking and drawing center line then rotating
kiln every 20 degree. The center line can be drawn by
several center points and alternatively draw along with
kiln rotation.
- Certer line must be exactly separated for every meter
with steel compass.
- Turning approximately 16 times and drawing 1 meter
marking point from the center lines, called cross section
lines, until completed.
- Actually it quit very necessary to check center line on
the last line according to Man-hole at 6 Oclock.
- During turning kiln, cleaning, repairing, kiln
deformation checking & marking brick location can be
done at the same time.
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Fig. 3-16: Picture illustrating kiln center line and
radial controlled lines marking.

3.1.2.5 Starting procedures for refractory brick installation

- Place the Angle-Bar Steel (or any alternative) on the
center reference line, press one side by putting weighs
(use of bricks) to fix the Angle-Bar in place and prevent
it from moving. Then start installing refractory bricks on
the other side for about 3-5 pieces along the reference
center line for 2-3 running meters in a row, as shown in
Fig. 3-17.
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Fig. 3-17: Picture illustrating the refractory bricks installation
after the center reference line is drawn

- Remove the Angle-Bar Steel, and start to install the
refractory bricks on the other side, the installation shall
be balanced on both sides (left-right) throughout the
Rotary Kiln.





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Fig. 3-18: Picture illustrating a balanced installation of the
two sides- left and right

3.1.2.5.1 Non- Parallel Joint (Stagger Joint) installation
method
- For brick installation at the non-parallel (stagger) joint
of refractory, a piece of wood (the same length and half
thickness of the refractory bricks) is required to place


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alternately in every ring at the beginning point of
refractory brick installation on that ring (from the
reference center line alignment), thus obtaining stagger
joints between each ring, as shown in Fig. 3-19.


Fig. 3-19: Picture illustrating the stagger joint of refractory
bricks installation between each ring

3.1.2.5.2 Parallel joint installation method
- For bricks installation in the parallel joint of refractory
bricks, make sure that the joints between the adjacent
bricks of each ring are parallel, then begin to install the
refractory bricks on each ring at the same reference, thus
it does not require placement of wood like the previous
method and obtain the parallel brick joints.
- It should be observed that during the installation of
refractory bricks, regardless of any method, every brick
must be tightened (tight against the kiln shell and each
other) by using Plastic Head Hammer to prevent loose
installation of refractory bricks on each ring.
- A hammer to be used for the refractory bricks
installation shall not be a rubber head hammer or metal
head hammer, but a plastic head hammer, which can

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better absorb the reflected force and is effective for
refractory bricks installation. A plastic head hammer is
an essential tool to tighten the bricks which will prevent
lining spiral problems after kiln operation.


Fig. 3-20: Picture illustrating the parallel joint of refractory
bricks installation between each ring


Fig. 3-21: Picture of Plastic Head Hammer [left] that is
recommended for refractory bricks installation



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3.1.2.5.3 Advantage and disadvantage of brick straight and
stagger joint pattern.
- The selection of bricking pattern is one of the popular
question being asked for lining work. It has to emphasis
on the skill of brick layer, brick size tolerance, smooth
kiln shell condition, corrective centerline marking and
counter measure for brick lining.
- The simplest thing to do is checking brick dimension
and size tolerance of both combined brick. In case that
the size tolerance is different from 0.5 -1.0 mm on brick
length. Clearance will caused the adjacent brick could
not put in the shorter length with the ordinary one or
longer length brick. Once If size tolerance became more
serious parameter. The stagger joint brick lining method
is recommended to avoid corner chipping. For
equivalent and zero size tolerance brick combination is
suitable for stagger and parallel joint pattern.
- Another unpleasant shell condition, the stagger pattern
brick lining is the key point incurring uncontrolled
alignment of bricking ring causing easily damage from
thermal mechanic.
- Skill of brick layers is the major part for pattern of
bricking method decision. The skillful brick layer
always pays attention to quality installation with
uniform mortar pasted, hammering, bricks surface
seated on shell and cleaning dirt. The stagger pattern
surely more difficult to clean while bricking compared
to straight pattern. Once the dirt is more difficult to
clean causing poor quality of bricking. Straight joint
pattern on brick lining should have more advantages in
this case.
- Closing the ring with straight pattern will be closed
quicker due to it can read easily from the previous ring.
- Practically installer trusts in stagger pattern however the
stagger pattern will cause bricking rate lower than
straight pattern approximately by 15-20%.
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3.1.2.6 Refractory Installation in the Upper-Half portion of
the Rotary Kiln
- After the refractory bricks are laid completely at the
lower-half portion for at least 8-10 meters, mobilize the
Mult-O-Ring into the Rotary Kiln, a machine needed for
installing the refractory bricks at the upper-half portion
of the kiln. The procedures to be observed are as follows

3.1.2.6.1 Set up the Mult-O-Ring
- First begin to install the Mult-O-Ring Support and fix
the platform, assemble and install the Arch Support and
check the various conditions listed below before starting
the refractory installation.
o Check the level of the Mult-O-Ring Support as
indicated by the levelling bar that is located next
to the Mult-O-Ring Support Beam.
o Check the Pneumatic System that operates the
Pneumatic Jig whether there is any leakage of
air pressure and the air pressure should not be
lower than 5 Bar.
o Check the space (distance) between the Arch
Support and the hot face of the refractory bricks,
the distance should be around 100 mm.
o In case the distance of the Arch Support is not
proper, it can be adjusted by using the folk lift to
move the platform either upward or downward
then lock the desired height/level using the
adjustable lock-bar.

3.1.2.6.2 Installation of refractory bricks at the Upper-Half
portion by using the Mult-O-Ring

- Installation in the upper-half portion requires ample
luminosity of lighting equipment, ventilation fan, and
piling of bricks into groups according to sizes and
computed quantity ratio, as these will promote better
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work efficiency. In addition, the Mult-O-Ring shall have
the support frame for safety purposes, see Fig. 3-17.
- In carrying the bricks onto the platform the weight of
the refractory bricks and other equipment should be
considered in order not to overload the weight support
capacity of the Mult-O-Ring.
- The installation procedure in the upper-half portion has
the same principles as the lower-half portion.
- Each brick installed at the upper-half portion shall be
temporally pressed and supported by the Pneumatic Jig,
and each must be tightened against the kiln shell and to
each other as much as possible by using the plastic
hammer.
- In case any of the individual rubbers attached to the
Pneumatic Jig is found to be worn-out and shorten,
which consequently become unable to reach the surface
of the bricks when pressed, the use of cardboard,
plywood, or shimming plate could compensate the
shorten length by placing it above the worn-out portion
enabling it to reach and press the bricks against the kiln
shell as tight as it can be, see Fig. 3-23.



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Fig 3-22: Picture illustrating the refractory installation at the
upper-half portion by Mult-O-Ring with the safety
frame and platform

Fig. 3-23: Picture illustrating the use of shimming plates to
offset the shorten length of the worn-out portion of
the Pneumatic Jig attached rubber enabling to press
or support the bricks tightly against the kiln shell

- In installing refractory bricks on each ring, there should
be a balanced installation rate between the two-sides,
Arch
Support
Pneumatic Jig
Shimming
plates


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while following the circumference curve of the kiln
shell. Once the remaining space to be installed between
the two sides has reached 0.8-1.0 m., apply the
Hydraulic Jack to tightly push the two-sides of the
refractory bricks against each other, as shown in Fig. 3-
24. Then turn off the air pressure valve of the Mult-O-
Ring to release down the Pneumatic Jigs and then move
the Mult-O-Ring through slide rails to the next
installation ring position.
- The closure procedure of each ring and the use of
shimming plates are to be discussed in the succeeding
topics.
- After the refractory bricks have completely reached 1.5-
2.0 running meters, remove the wheels lock-bars of the
Mult-O-Ring support, then push the Mult-O-Ring
manually or by Forklift.



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Fig. 3-24: Picture illustrating the use of Hydraulic Jack

3.1.2.7 Ring closure installation
The last refractory brick to be installed for ring closure is one of
the most important steps that determine the quality of
installation work and shall adhere to the principles below;
- In each ring, once the remaining space to be installed
between the two sides has reached 0.8-1.0 m., as shown
in Fig. 3-25, measure the exact distance between the
two-sides of the opposite bricks, and calculate the
quantity combination of full and key bricks to be used in
advance to improve the installation time rather than
doing trial and error approach which consumes more
installation time.
- The last brick to be used as ring closure should be the
full bricks and not the key bricks, which are better at
adsorbing the stress from hitting during the ring closure
than the key bricks.
- The installed key bricks shall not be adjacent to each
other rather they should be installed alternately with full
bricks, and the key bricks to be installed in each ring
must not exceed 4 pieces, as shown in Fig. 3-26.


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Fig. 3-25: Measuring distance of the remaining space to
calculate the bricks combination for ring closure

Fig. 3-26: Picture illustrating the allocation of key bricks and
shimming plates

- When the last brick has been inserted as a ring closure,
the bricks within the ring are often remained loose (un-
tight), therefore the shimming plates with a thickness of
2-3 mm. are to be inserted between the bricks until the
ring is sufficiently tightened. Take note that the ring is
tightened when there is difficulty and friction force
observed when inserting the shimming plate. In
Steel
Shimmed
Plate
Key
Brick


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inserting the shimming plates, use proper equipment
such as Pneumatic Hammer, or hammer to push or hit
the shimming plate until it fully penetrates into the small
gap between the bricks, as shown in Fig. 3-27.
- The shimming plates shall be sharpened at its insertion
edges and lubricants such as grease shall be thoroughly
applied for ease of insertion. Also, it is strongly
prohibited to insert the shimming plate more than 1
piece per joint, and shall not be more than 4 pieces per
ring.
- The shimming plates shall only be inserted in between
the full bricks, as they have higher strength to overcome
the collision force from shimming.


Fig. 3-27: The use of hammer to hit the shimming plate


3.1.2.8 Installation of refractory bricks on the deformed/
distorted kiln shell area.

The deformed or distorted areas are, for example, swollen and
bended portion, where they might have experienced abnormal
temperature or conditions that caused bricks falling down or

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thin lining. Such areas need special installation procedures in
fixing the deformities following the principles below.

- In case the deformation or distortion in the kiln shell
area is small and does not exceed 2-3 mm. from the
original curve, use the Refractory Mortar to compensate
the deformed area, as shown in Fig. 3-28. In doing so, it
would keep the bricks combination installed in the area
and not deviate from other non-deformed areas.















Fig. 3-28: Picture illustrating the use of Refractory Mortar to
compensate the deformity

- In case the deformation or distortion in the kiln shell
area is larger and exceeds 3 mm. but less than 8 mm.,
use the Refractory Plastics or Castable which can
withstand the weight better than the Mortar. If need to
use the Refractory Castable, remove the coarse grains
and use only the fine grains, mix with water and apply
to patch-up the deformities, then leave it set before
installing the bricks and follow the original designed
bricks combination ratio.


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- In case the deformation or distortion in the kiln shell
area is extreme and exceeds 8 mm., repair of kiln shell is
strongly recommended. This could be done by welding
the steel plates and smoothing the surface by grinding,
as shown in Fig. 3-29.


Fig. 3.29: Welding applied in the kiln shell area with extreme
deformation

3.1.2.9 Installation of refractory bricks at the Retaining
Ring Area inside the Rotary Kiln

The installation of refractory bricks at the Retaining Ring area
could be done in several ways, for example, Chipping or Cutting
Method, Installation above the double Retaining Rings and
Fixing Anchors as shown in Fig. 3-30, Refractory Castable
Method, as shown on Fig. 3-31.







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Fig. 3-30: Picture illustrating the refractory installation at the
Retaining Ring area





















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Fig. 3-31: Picture illustrating the installation of C 60 A at the
Retaining Ring located in the middle of the Rotary
Kiln



Fig. 3-32: Picture illustrating the installation of supporting
castable at brick retainer.

3.1.2.10 Installation of refractory bricks at the Tyre Areas.
It is known that the refractory linings under the tyre areas are
often more damaged at the hot face of the bricks and form more
brick spalling, as compared to other areas (shown in Fig. 3-33).
This is a result of either excessive mechanical stress generated
under the tyre area or high kiln ovality value exceeding 0.1% of
the Kiln Diameter length.


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Fig. 3-33: The condition of refractory lining under tyre area
with the spalling effect.

- When installing bricks on this area, it is strongly
recommended to apply Refractory Mortar with thickness
of not more than 2 mm. between each side of every
bricks installed below the tyre area, along (+/-) 1.5 - 2.5
running meters from the center of tyre area, as shown in
Fig. 3-34.



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Fig. 3-34: Picture illustrating tyre area

- It is noted that the application of Refractory Mortar
would increase the installation time as compared to
normal clench lining installation method, as show in
Fig. 3-35.

Fig. 3-35: Graph of brick installation rate
3 Meter
(15 rings)

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- The application of Refractory Mortar method usually
takes more time than other methods. Especially at the
upper- half portion, if the masons are inexperienced and
apply Refractory Mortar too quickly, the ring may be
loose.





Fig. 3-36: Picture illustrating tire area and covering mortar
applied.
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Fig 3-37: Installing refractory bricks at the tire area with
refractory mortar

- For the convenience and efficiency of the refractory
installation, SRIC had set a team to study and innovate a
Pre-Mortared Brick System to solve those
disadvantages of mortared lining. By this system, the
advantages of clench lining and mortared lining are
combined. The refractory mortar is applied on the
bricks surface from SRIC plant and those bricks are
ready to be installed as clench lining. The applications
of this system were applied in many Cement Rotary
Kilns and the outcomes were very satisfactory. All
previous difficulties were solved, especially the speeds
of installation were approximately 2.5 times faster than
regular mortared lining, as shown in Fig. 3-35.






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Fig. 3-38: Picture illustrating the Pre-mortared Bricks
installation under the tyre area

In case the problem of mechanical stress in the lining under the
tyre area is not severe, it can be mitigated by inserting 1-2 mm
thickness Ceramic Paper, 1260C, between the sides of the bricks
at an interval of 7-10 pieces of refractory bricks (radial
direction) of each ring along (+/-) 1.5-2.5 running meters from
the center of tyre area.











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Fig. 3-39: The pictures illustrate good performance of Pre-
Mortared Brick after 8 months of service

3.1.2.11 Cutting of refractory bricks for the installation on the
last ring.

To complete the installation of the last portion or last ring, the
installation of the last ring often requires brick cutting, as shown
in Fig. 3-40. The important principles for the installation of the
last ring are given below;
- The cut brick shall remain at least 2/3 of their original
length.
- The bricks in the last ring that is adjacent to the old
lining or Retaining Ring must be the original un-cut/full
bricks.
- If cutting is required in more than 1 ring, the cut brick
rings must not be adjacent to each other.
- In all cases, the cutting of bricks must not be for more
than 3 rings. To remedy the cutting work, or to reduce
cutting of rings, SRIC produces special length bricks for
the last ring installation, they are 150, 200, 230, 250,
M.4-7 with
Pre-Mortared Brick
good performance
M.2-4 without Mortar
some surface spalling
Good performance after 8 months of
service

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and 300 mm. in length which help to reduce the possible
cutting to 1 ring only.
- Before the installation of the last ring that is adjacent to
the remaining old lining, the bearing that were
previously temporarily fasten to the old lining as
protection to its movement must be removed and the
kiln shell surface of the area must be smoothed by
grinding.












2/3 L<X<L : Cutting of bricks for 1 Ring

X = remaining space to cut the bricks



L = original length of full bricks

1/3 L<X<2/3L : Cutting of bricks for 2 Rings

0 <X<1/3L : Cutting of bricks for 3 rings.
Retaining Ring or Line of the
Old Lining


Retaining Ring or
Line of the Old
Lining
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Fig. 3-40: The picture illustrates the cutting of bricks for 2
rings

3.2 Installation of Refractory Castables in the Rotary Kiln

- Other than the refractory bricks lining in the Rotary
Kiln, Refractory Castable are also to be installed in the
Kiln Outlet and Kiln Inlet areas.
- Normally, the kiln inlet and outlet areas are
approximately 1-2 meter long and install with low
cement castable.

Cut Brick
Full Brick
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- The Refractory Castable are to be installed in the Kiln
Outlet/areas either before or after the installation bricks
in the Rotary Kiln, as shown in Fig. 3-41 and Fig. 3-42.
However in normal practice, the sequential order is to
install the Refractory Castable in the lower-half portion
first, and then rotate the Rotary Kiln 180 degrees after
the castable is set and remove the forms/ moulds.
Afterwards, the installation of the refractory bricks as
well as the remaining parts to be installed with
Refractory Castable follows. This method will allow
more time for the installed Refractory Castable to cure,
which will reduce the possibility of Refractory Castable
explosion during the heating up period.



Fig. 3-41: Installation of Refractory Castable before the
installation of refractory brick in the Rotary Kiln

Kiln Outlet

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Fig. 3-42: Installation of refractory castable after the installation
of refractory bricks in the Rotary Kiln

- The installation of Refractory Castable could be done in
3-4 panels at the bottom portion of the kiln
simultaneously at a time. After they have been set,
approximately 2-3 hours, the Rotary Kiln could be
rotated to install the castable on the succeeding panels,
and so on until all panels have been fully installed. This
method does not require covering or closing of moulds,
and thus can be ensured that the Refractory Castable
will be consistently filled up by means of gravitational
force as visibly observed. The Refractory Castable
installation of this method often done before installation
of refractory bricks.
- For Refractory Castable installation method for the
whole lower-half portion without kiln rotation, rotate the
Rotary Kiln 180 degrees after the installed castable is set
to install again the castable in the remaining portion.
The moulds are needed to be covered or closed at the
casting panels so that the Refractory Castable will not
spill out especially at the side panels of the kiln.

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- The installation procedures for the Kiln Inlet are the
same with the Kiln Outlet. Depending on the work
quantity, that is if Kiln Outlet requires total
demolishing/ removal and installation, they can be done
simultaneously.
- The detailed guidelines for mixing and installing
Refractory Castable, including preparation of anchors
and mould setting shall strictly follow the Refractory
Castable Installation Guidelines explained in Chapter 7
to ensure the best quality outcome of the installation.
- The most appropriate type of Refractory Castable for the
Kiln Inlet and Kiln Outlet areas is Low Cement
Castable, because of its
o High mechanical strength at both ambient and
working temperature.
o High resistance to clinker abrasion.
o High resistance to thermal shock.
o High resistance to alkali and chemical attack.
- The appropriate Refractory Castable to be used in these
areas are TufDura S 300 and TufDura S 600 which are
the special series of Low Cement Castable containing
Silicon Carbide, produced by special technology. Such
castable have excellent abrasion and thermal shock
resistance properties. Alternatively, C60A and C70A
could also be used.

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Fig. 3-43: Picture illustrating the marking of anchor positions,
alternating pattern



Positions marked
for fixing anchors


Positions
marked for
fixing
anchors
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Fig. 3-44: The anchors are fixed at the Kiln Outlet area


Fig. 3-45: Picture illustrating the preparation of wooden moulds
for installation of Refractory Castable at the Kiln Outlet
Area


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Fig. 3-46: Pictures illustrating the installation of Refractory
Castable during casting


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Fig. 3-47: Picture of Kiln Outlet area lined with Refractory
Castable after completion of installation

- The entire refractory repairing for cement rotary kiln was not
only brick, but also castable repairing too. The areas with do
need repairing such as outlet area, inlet area.
- By general, kiln outlet and inlet length approximately 1-2
meter long will be installed with low cement castable.
- Kiln outlet repaired refractory can be installed before and
after brick installing as show in Figure 9-42 and 9-43. In
generally practice, castable shall be installed firstly at lower half
portion then kiln will be rotated 180 degree. The sequential on
installation with was illustrating step by step as below pictures.
Installing will be completed on former no 1-11 and rotated 180
degree for the less installing on former no. 12-20.After castable
became hard, formers had been released and brick started in
next step. With this method, the installed castable have
sufficient and more time for curing which can prevent castable
explosion cause from initially heat up.




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Fig 3-48 : picture illustrating castable installation prior brick
will be installed.






Fig. 3-49: Installation of refractory castable after the
installation of refractory bricks in the
Rotary Kiln





SRIC
(KILN OUTLET)

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Fig 3-50: picture illustrating casting position.

- Castable installation can be described in 2 methods as
following.
1) For this method, boundary of former have to be located
after anchor completely welded for castable installing
as illustrated in picture before. Former will be shuttered
at side views of kiln outlet and reinforced with steel rod
or anchors by wire rod. Then the first portion of
castable will be installed within 120 degree. After
castable became solid or 2-3 hours later, Kiln will be
rotated 120 degree for adjacent casting on the second
time. Castable will be installed as previously done in
next step.






1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
20

18
19

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Fig. 3-51: Installation of refractory castable at nose
ring step by step.
2) In some occasion as above installing method, castable
might face with it will not completely fulfil at the
corner from unskilled installer. We can solve this
problem with other installing method by placing the
wood expansion joint on radial direction firstly. (Please
see figure 3-52) Castable will be filled close to axial
expansion joint level; Wood expansion which prepares
will be installed as illustrated in Figure 3-54. For this
method, its ensuring that improperly casting problem
will not happen.


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Fig. 3-52: Installation wooden former at bottom dead position.

Fig. 3-53: Picture illustrating the side former for prevention
castable spill out.


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Fig. 3-54: Picture illustrating charging of castable at side
from top part.

- Installation castable with surface covered former.
- For this method, castable will be installed a half lower
part . Kiln will be rotated for the less of castable
installation. This method needs former to cover on castable
surface which prevent castable spillage. The most specific
formers placed at left and right side especially 3-4 formers
from center.











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steel rod

radial expansion joint steel rod






Fig 3-55 : picture illustrating tie rod for supporting.


Fig 3-56: picture illustrating radial expansion joint.
Plywood 3 mm. installed as radial expansion joint.

Steel rod apply for support
plywood.

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Fig 3-57: picture illustrating castable feed in
prepared former.


Pour castable here


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Fig 3-58: picture illustrating insertion of axial
expansion while casting.
- For the last formers at both left and right sides, it had to
adapt castable former with extra castable opening hole to
charge castable and include vibrator insertion as Fig 3-57.
Anyhow, it shall apply vibration at external of formers
surface while casting which can assist castable flowing.
- For kiln inlets casting position, it has the same guide
line as casting at kiln outlet with base on amount of
repairing areas. If castable at kiln outlet and inlet were be
replaced. These both sides were be managed and executed
in the same time.
- Mixing castable detail and its installation, anchor,
former preparation are followed casting instructions refer in
chapter 7 strictly. In order to achievement the best
installation quality.






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Fig 3-59: picture illustrating the remaining of casting position.


Fig 3-60 : picture illustrating
castable extra hole at the last
former.

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REFRACTOTRY INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES
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- Installation castable without surface covered former
For this method, boundary of former have to be located
after anchor already welded for castable installing as
illustrated in picture before. Former will be shuttered at side
view of kiln outlet and reinforced with steel rod or anchors
by wire rod. Then the first portion of castable will be
installed within 120 degree. After castable became solid or
2-3 hours later, Kiln will be rotated 120 degree for adjacent
casting on the second time. Castable will be installed as
previously done in next step.


























Fig 3-61:
picture
illustrating
Sequent of
uncovered
former
casting
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In some occasion as above installing method, castable
might face with incompletely fulfil at the corner from
unskilled installer. We can solve this problem with other
installing method by placing the wood expansion joint on
radial direction firstly. (Please see figure 3-56) Castable
will be filled close to axial expansion joint level; Wood
expansion which prepares will be installed as illustrated in
Fig 3-58. For this method, its ensuring that improperly
casting problem will not happen.

- The suitable refractory concrete for kiln outlet and kiln
inlet should be low cement castable according to its
properties following.
1) High strength at low and high temperature.
2) Ability to anti abrasion from clinker and raw meal.
3) Ability to withstand for suddenly temperature
changing.
4) Good for anti chemical reaction cause from Alkali.
- The suitable refractory castable shall be installed in this
area are TUFDURA 300, TUFDURA600 with contain low
cement and silicon carbide ingredient. The compound
properties gain higher properties on abrasion and sudden
temperature or might consider to use C-60-A castable for
installation.
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Fig 3-62: Installed refractory castable completely.

3.3 Final inspection of installation works

- After the completion of refractory installation in the
Rotary Kiln, before moving out the Mult-O-Ring, the
quality of installation of refractory bricks must be
individually inspected for their tightness in every ring.
This could be done with the use of plastic-head hammer
or timber batten to knock the upper-half portion of the
bricks installed in every ring. In case any of the
refractory brick is found loosen, insert again the
shimming plates until they are sufficiently tight. Then
the Mult-O-Ring can now be removed out of the Rotary
Kiln.





SRIC
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Fig 3-63 Picture illustrating ring tightening checked.

- In order to make sure that the whole rings are already
perfectly installed, kiln might be rotated 180 degree and
physical checking on brick surface and mark ring by
ring again.
- In case that brick surface still have some clearance
mortar or shim plate have to be applied. For the small
clearance 1 mm or less mortar is preferred and the wider
clearance than 1 mm shim plate is necessary to insert
and impact with plate driver until it tight enough.
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Fig 3-64 Picture illustrating the 180 degree kiln rotated prior
ring tighten all clearances.

- The damaged brick or corner chip can be applied with
mortar. However serious damaged brick which is
chipped or broken into surface depth nearly 30 % of
brick thickness must be fixed by partial replacement.
For upward installing has to be detected and replaced at
the right position if found during final inspection.


Fig 3-65 Picture illustrating the upturn brick installed.
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Fig. 3-66: Picture of completed refractory installation work

3.4 Installation of Refractory Castables for Main Burner
(or Burner Pipe)
3.4.1 Horizontal casting
This simple method is widely use in cement factory with
acceptance on easily arrangement. The burner body
must be cleaned from dirt and mark for suitable anchor
welding prior to horizontally former closing.
- The Main Burner is the major burner of the production
process in burning kiln feed to be the quality expected
cement clinkers.
- Normally, it is located at the front gate of the Rotary
Kiln above the Cooler.
- The Refractory Castable recommended are Low Cement
Castable, for example TufDura S300, TufDura S600,
and C60A, because they have properties of high
mechanical strength at ambient and working
temperature, thermal shock resistance, high abrasion
resistance and anti-oxidation.
- At the tip of the burner approximately 1 meter in length,
the refractory lining should be thicker of about 10 cm.

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than the normal burner body thickness in order to yield
better resistance to clinker abrasion.
- The refractory installation procedures for Main Burner
are listed below;

3.4.1.1 Place the Main Burner on the bedding frame, as shown
in Fig. 3-67.
3.4.1.2 It might be possible to repair the refractory without
removing it but the use of scaffolding is needed, as
shown in Fig. 3-68.
3.4.1.3 Demolish the damaged portion of refractory and clean
the metal surface with metal-brush. In case the body of
the burner is severely damaged, fix it by welding and
grinding.


Fig. 3-67: Picture illustrating the damaged part of Main Burner
that requires repairing

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Fig. 3-68: Picture illustrating the refractory maintenance of the
burner at its original position (without removing)

3.4.1.4 Fix the stainless steel anchors, which have the grade
above SUS 310S, and apply compatible Welding
Electrodes to the selected anchors. Remove the welding
deposits along the welding seam joint to check its
consistency.
3.4.1.5 There are 2 types of mould for installing the Refractory
Castable, one is a wooden mould affixed with
galvanized iron sheet, and another is made of metal
sheets, with half circular shape and approximately 1
meter in length.
3.4.1.6 Before installing the Refractory Castable, wrap the Main
Burner with Ceramic Fiber Blanket, 13 mm. thick, with
glue or wire. This will protect the Main Burner from
heat transfer from outside to the metal surface during its
operation, as shown in Fig. 3-69.


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Fig. 3-69: Picture illustrating how the Main Burner is
wrapped with Ceramic Fiber Blanket

3.4.1.7 Assemble the moulds prepared, one by one, starting
from the lower-half portion. The casting can be started
right after the completion of assembling the mould. The
continuous use of vibrator will ensure a consistent
smooth flow of the Refractory Castable in filling up the
mould fully.


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Fig. 3-70: Picture illustrating the installation of Refractory
Castable at the lower-half portion of the Main Burner

3.4.1.8 Remove the moulds from the casting panels, only after
the Refractory Castable are already set. Then insert the
Ceramic Fiber Blanket- 6 mm. thickness, or Cardboard
or Plywood 4 mm. thickness in between the connecting
sides to other adjacent panels (both radial and axial sides
directions) in order to create the expansion joints that
allow possible expansion of the Refractory Castable, as
shown in Fig. 3-71.


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Fig. 3-71: Picture illustrating the insertion of expansion joint.

After the completion of installation at the lower-half
portion, begin to install in the upper-half portion following the
preceding procedures.

3.4.1.9 After the completion, inspect all the installation quality
for any non-filled pores. This can be done by using
metal hammer to knock on the casted Refractory
Castable and observe the reflection sound. A fully filled
castable gives strong solid sound.
3.4.1.10 The heating up time of the Refractory Castable
installed in the Main Burner is the same as that of the
Rotary Kiln, which is around 24 hours.
3.4.1.11 The alignment of the Main Burner must be set
right in the center of the Rotary Kiln which will give the
frame fire right into the center and will not affect any
sides of the refractory lining from direct fire contact,
which deteriorates the service life of the lining.

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Fig. 3-72: Picture illustrating Refractory Castable installation at
the upper-half portion of the main burner



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Fig.3-73: Picture of Main Burner completely lined with
Refractory Castable


3.4.2 Vertical casting.
The vertical casting is better in vibrating quality than horizontal
casting, since we could put vibrator through formwork in
straight way not in curvature. However this method needs
special equipment to lift and lock the burner body.

For vertical casting, the preparation steps have to be done same
as horizontal casting such demolishing old refractory, cleaning
burner shell, fixing the anchor and these jobs could be done on
floor before stand the burner up.

3.4.2.1 Prepare Scaffolding for casting along burner length; the
casting step could be done from both top to bottom or
bottom to top.


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Fig 3-74: Picture illustrating on site preparation for vertical
casting.

3.4.2.2 Wrap the Main Burner with Ceramic Fiber Blanket 13
mm. thick, with glue or wire. The Ceramic Fiber
Blanket will protect the Main burner from heat transfer
from outside to the metal surface during its operation.
And cover the Ceramic Fiber by plastic sheet as shown
in Fig 3-75.



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Fig 3-75: Picture illustrating of Ceramic fibre wrap around
burner body.



Fig 3-76: Picture illustrating plastic sheet was used to cover on
ceramic fibre blanket.


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3.4.2.3 Assemble the moulds prepared, half circular shape with
700-1000 mm. length, from one side. Starting casting
there and move to above section after castable already
set and insert Ceramic Fiber Blanket 6 mm. thick for
radius expansion joint.

Fig 3-77: Picture illustrating casting in vertical direction at one
side.

Fig 3-78 : Picture illustrating radial expansion joint with
ceramic fiber blanket.


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3.4.2.4 Continue casting work, repeat, until completion one side
casting. Remove moulds from all casting panel and
insert Ceramic Fiber Blanket 6 mm. thick for axial
expansion joint.














Fig 3-79: picture illustrating an axial expansion joint with
ceramic fibre blanket.

Begin casting work on another side by aassembly the moulds
prepared, cast by preceding procedures.


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Fig 3-80: picture illustrating completed casting.

3.5 Application of gunning castable instead of casting.

- In emergency cases, Refractory materials can be utilized for
preheater cyclone, cooler wall, hot gas duct and riser pipe with
castable rather than brick. The more advantage and convenient
of material preparation are attracting while compared to brick.
- However, refractory repairing with castable required a lot of
man power and former preparation. Moreover timing was being
utilized longer as necessary for castable setting before former
release to next casting. In the urgent case with customers have
limit on time and man power. Repairing with gunning castable
is most alternative appropriation, due to its not necessary to
employ 50-60 man power. In additional reason, former will not
be required and shortly times spend while waiting for castable
curing and setting. This method shall minimum operating time
spending.


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Fig 3-81: Picture illustrating various kinds of
refractory materials being chosen for preheater
cyclone.






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Fig3-82: Picture illustrating refractory materials chose for
Clinker Cooler.








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REFRACTOTRY INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES
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- Repairing by gunning castable can be applied on existing
materials surface without dismantling. However this principle
was recommended to dismantle the whole damaged area and
install new anchor then gunning will be operated.
- Regarding to amount of anchor per area and expansion joint
for installation with following to casting standard.



Fig 3-83: The perfected anchor welding which have been
installed with gunning castable.





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Fig 3-84: Picture illustrating on gunning castable has
Being applied on bull noses existing surface.


Fig 3-85: Picture illustrating bull nose after gunning
Successfully did.


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Fig 3-86: Picture illustrating coolers roof had
been gun in over head direction.

Fig 3-87: Picture illustrating coolers roof with
Complete installed by gunning castable.


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Fig 3-88: Picture illustrating the 8 months gunning
castable performance with well physical figure.

- Gunning castable installation shall be prepared some facility
such as
1) Air compressor with minimum capacity 650 CFM at 700
Kpa.
2) Constant water pressure 250 Psi.
- Avoiding for low impaction and too high rebound. It shall be
considered by operating with competent person.
- The essential of gunning castable will primarily nozzle
concern and summarized in 3 points as following;




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Fig 3-89: Picture illustrating the effective of nozzle angle.
1. Nozzle angle
For installation in the general area, the nozzle
shall be installed in a perpendicular angle to the
work piece being installed with gunning
castable, otherwise the amount of rebound will
be high and cause to reduction of the compact.
There is an exception for the corner that gunned
by directing the nozzle in the plane bisecting the
angle of intersection of the two surface
2. Nozzle distance
Distance between the nozzle and surface is
about 0.5-1.0 meter
Distance > 1.0 meter rebound increase ,
compaction and strength reduce
Distance < 0.5 meter rebound also increase if
no reduction in pressure
3. Nozzle motion


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Fig 3-90: Picture illustrating nozzle motion.

A steady circular or elliptical movement of the
nozzle across the surface

The nozzle should not be directed toward one spot
for extended periods increase rebound , difficult
control the thickness of the layer

consistency moved consistency compacted area.

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