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UNVEILING EFFECTS OF ONLINE RISKS AMONG THE


GRADE 6 PUPILS OF BAYABAS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL







A RESEARCH
PRESENTED TO
THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE SCHOOL
CAPITOL UNIVERSITY
CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY





IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SUBJECT
EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION







Submitted by:


Nina D. Leyson
Charlie C. Quidet
Emelien C. Iniego


Summer 2014
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ABSTRACT

This study has examined the unveiling effects of online risks among the Grade
VI pupils in Bayabas Elementary School, summer 2014. Findings have shown that the
online risks are associated to children exposure to the inappropriate materials in the
internet. Considering pupils level of exposure majority of them are male ages 12 years
old were they spent for one to three hours at the internet cafe. Regarding, with children
experience on the different online risks is often assessed thus it implies that there is a
huge increase of children who are exposed online in which most of them can easily be
lured to do something out of their curiosity. It is evident that Internet use of children can
cause number of risks in terms of their academic performance, health problems and
relationship and social problems.


Key words: Online Risks, Internet Exposure, Academic Performance, Health Problems
& Relationship and social Problems



















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INTRODUCTION
Today, were technology is spreading its roots in every field from every nook
and corner of the world. The availability of Internet technology is a collection of various
services and resources that can help us a lot to make things easier, affordable and
accessible in just one click away. Indeed, the birth of the Internet has allowed everyone
to search and learn almost everything and anything under the sun. It shows that the
advancement of technology had its own positive and negative impact towards on the
childs development.
Nowadays the dark side of internet and mobile network is more and more
visible as it also offers possibilities for the abuse of children and young people.
Increasingly more children and young people have access to internet and mobile
phones, which may be beneficial but also brings significant risk of exposing them to
threats to their safety and well-being.
According to Tomaszewski (2005) he stated that for children internet is their
new digital playground that can keep them entertained for several hours. Studies have
shown that every year there is huge increase of children who are exposed online. Thats
why children using the Internet have become a big concern. Most parents do not realize
the dangers involved when their children connect to the Internet. When children are
online they can easily be lured or tempted to do into something dangerous out of their
curiosity. For example, children may receive pornography online by mistake or any
inappropriate materials. To keep children safe, parents and teachers must be aware of
the dangers. They must actively guide and guard their children online.
However, the researchers had observed that many school children like to
express themselves freely using the internet without an adult hanging over them or
being hindered by physical communication or parental approval in every aspect. In fact,
school children are given the privilege to enjoy the access of information like never
before without discerning the positive and negative benefits it would bring. This
observation is likewise similar circumstance among pupils in the region as viewed by
fellow teachers. Not only they do strongly oppose the use of technology, they struggle to
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handle the effects of internet in terms of their behaviours. This frustration with pupils
abilities has primarily showed the way to investigate their learning development.
In essence, the computer skills of the Grade VI pupils in Bayabas Elementary
School is more than a novice and enhancing their literacy skills is assumed to be part of
the overall learning development. For this reason, the researchers would like to prove
that childrens are facing violence online that needs to be proper addressed.
Dissemination of educational information needs to be imposed towards school
childrens because some of them had difficulty in understanding that their online actions
can have real world consequences.
OBJECTIVES
This study seeks to determine the online risks of the Grade VI pupils at
Bayabas Elementary School.
The investigation will answer the following questions.
1. What is the profile of the Grade VI pupils in Bayabas Elementary School being
exposed in the internet in terms of:
a. Age
b. Gender
c. Internet location?
2. What is the level of online risks among the Grade VI pupils of Bayabas
Elementary School?

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Nowadays, new media has certainly become a source of valuable information.
Popular search webpage like Google or Yahoo have made researching easy and hassle
free as a wide range of data becomes readily available. It shows that it allows children
to access data related to their academics as well as practical knowledge which they can
use in their daily lives. In line with this no one can argue that exposing children with
technology had made them even smarter. (Livingstone, 2013).
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Most of the social networking sites that children commonly viewed are
Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram that allows children to connect to almost everyone
from different parts of the world. In fact, recent surveys shown that the number of
children-users is growing at a significant rate. Facebook for instance, allows children as
young as 13 years of age to register. Reports however suggest that there are over 8
million children below 13 years old who possessing a Facebook account. Additionally,
there are more than five million users who are reportedly under the age of ten (Seiter,
2005,). It reveals that most of the generation today that is an avid fan of using social
medias are those younger children.
Otherwise, it is important to point out that the Internet offers only virtual and
remote interaction. Face to face interaction is only limited as one of the primary source
of technology to facilitate communication. Thus it shows that one way of the direct
interaction of both children and adult communication could it be through exchanges of
email, chats, instance messages, or video calls. Despite of the convenience it offers,
online interaction would often associate to uncertainty and doubtfulness as opposed to
the intimacy and transparency brought about by face-to-face communication. The shift
from personal to virtual interaction therefore suggests that convenience has taken over
simple and direct interaction and relationships (Hunter, 2012,).
The Internet has indeed made mans life easier. It is however important to
remember that convenience does not trump true knowledge and true communication.
Children of this era are given the privilege to enjoy the access of information like never
before but it is also crucial that they practice critical thinking in order to discern both the
positive and negative benefits of the Internet. Accordingly, parents and teachers alike
should take part in educating the youth how to properly and efficiently use the Internet.
Although the internet can be a valuable tool both educationally and socially but
there are some serious risks that adults must considered with the use of technology.
Reality, children are vulnerable and may knowingly or unknowingly expose themselves
to danger when using the internet, mobile phones, tablets and other technology
gadgets. One of the main risks that children may encounter using the internet is that
they may be exposed to inappropriate materials such like pornography, hateful or
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violent in nature that encourages them to do activities that are dangerous or illegal and
inappropriate for their age.
As supported by Haddon (2008) he stressed out that children may be exposed to
some physical danger. Taking considerations that some people used the internet to
make contact with children with the intention of creating a relationship which they can
progress to sexual activity which commonly known as grooming. It shows that some
predators use gifts in order to build relationships with childrens.
Another aspect of online risks is children may experience harassment or bullying
which perceived by providing an anonymous method by which bullies can torment their
victims. Children may receive texts or e-mails that make them feel sad, embarrassed,
upset, depressed or afraid with this kind of activity it can damage a lot to the childs self
esteem and psychological well being. However, online groups or forums may get
involved childrens to inappropriate, antisocial or illegal behaviour while using the digital
technology. It shows that they can easily access online and some children become
involved into serious illegal activities like identity thief, selling stolen goods, participation
in hate websites, access sites and online gambling. These activities really give an
alarming scenario for adults most especially to the parents (Livingstone, 2009)
He also pointed out that some childrens had difficulty in understanding their
online actions that can carry out some serious consequences. It is commonly now for
schools or any institutions to screen online websites and search for information about
the students background and even the whereabouts.
In addition with, children of all ages may lack of some emotional maturity that can
make them more susceptible to manipulation, intimidation and even victimization.
Knowingly, childrens have a strong desire for attention, validation and affection that will
lead them as a victim because they are not cautious or concerned about their self
preservation. Children are taught to obey request and demands from the adults and
they are not aware when it is better or not to comply with an adult. They are naturally
curious more about sex and other forbidden topics. Thats why children may hesitant
to tell a trusted adult if theyve approached in an inappropriate way or even scared by
something theyve encountered online because they will fear of losing the internet
privileges or much worried about to be labelled as tattletale
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Moreover, Scherer (1997) found out that 13% of his respondents reported
difficulties in their academic work and professional performance due to their Internet
use. Nalwa and Anand (2003) stressed out that Internet addictive users used the
Internet for long sessions, resulting in personal behavioural problems and neglected
important work responsibilities.
Indeed, some young people are spending most of their free time using the
Internet with potential deleterious effects on their physical and mental health. These
significant negative impacts include Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI), declining physical
fitness, eating disorders and Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS), typified by sore and
itching eyes, and a lag in visual responses (Chou & Hsiao, 2000; Young, 1996). Jacobs
and Baker (2002) investigated the ergonomic design of workstations and the muscular-
skeletal wellbeing of a sample of 12-year-old students. They reported that ergonomics,
relating to young people and their workstation setup, had been neglected; that is,
furniture was often inadequate for the students use, and there were problems adjusting
keyboards, monitor placement and chair height to suit the needs of the children.
Another risk of internet use to consider is cyber bullying. Cyber bullying is the use
of the Internet and related technologies to harm other people, in a deliberate, repeated,
and hostile manner (Belsey, n.d) and subsequently has been defined as when the
Internet, cell phones or other devices are used to send or post text or images intended
to hurt or embarrass another person (National Crime Prevention Council, n.d). It is
reported that about 10% of 2,000 middle-school students in the southern United States
had been cyber-bullied in the previous 30 days while over 17% reported being cyber-
bullied at least once in their lifetime (Hinduja & Patchin, 2009).
According to Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study (ACBPS) they found
out that over a quarter (27%) of school students aged 8 to 14 years reported being
bullied and 9% reported bullying others on a frequent basis (every few weeks or more
often) (Cross et al., 2009). It shows that a number of serious consequences of cyber
bullying victimisation (Hinduja & Patchin, 2007, 2008). For example, victims have lower
self-esteem, increased suicidal ideation, and a variety of emotional responses,
retaliating, being scared, frustrated, angry, and depressed (Hinduja & Patchin, 2009).
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Therefore, parent, guardians and educators need to supervise children and help
them learn how to behave and interact with others online. Giving children a safe guard
discussion about online preventions. Keeping communication lines open so that children
can easily approach or even ask for help when something they will encounter online that
will make them frightened, upset or afraid.

METHODS AND PROCEDURES
The study used the descriptive method of research because it is design just to
gather information about the existing situation of the Grade VI pupils.
There were 30 Grade VI pupils in Bayabas Elementary School were involved in
the study. The participants were the community neighbours of one of the researchers. It
was done due to the fact that there are no classes during summer and most of the
respondents spent a lot of time in the internet. The participants are purposively selected
knowing their background about the computer exposure.
Before administering the questionnaires, a written permission was submitted to
the parents and participants seeking for their approval in the conduct of the study. The
researchers personally administered the questionnaires to the respondents afterwards
the researchers immediately conducted in depth interview based on their responses.
The survey questionnaires used were researchers made. It contains three parts.
The first is on the demographic profile of the respondents, second is on the level of
online risks and lastly is on the Internet Addictive effect which is adopted from the study
of Wanajak 2011.
The respondents responses were interpreted using the scoring procedure
below:
Table 1
Scoring Procedure on Level of Online Risks and Internet Addictive Effects
3.70 4.0 Always
2.70 3.69 Often
1.70 2.69 Sometimes
1.0 1.69 Never

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Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used in the data analyses of the
study. For quantitative analysis, the researchers utilized the percentage and over all
mean. To come up a better understanding of the study, in depth interviewed were
employed to have a closer look of the problems.

RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS
Problem Number 1
What is the profile of the Grade VI pupils in Bayabas Elementary School being
exposed in the internet in terms of:
d. Age
e. Gender
f. Internet location
Table 2
Frequency and Percentage Distribution on Pupils Ages

No. of Hours 10 Years Old 11 Years Old 12 Years Old
1 3 7 8 10
4 6 0 1 3
7 9 0 0 1
10 above 0 0 0
Total 0 0 14
Percentage (%) 23 30 47

Table 2 tabulates the distribution of pupils level of ages which the overall
percentage score is 47 percent. This result would manifest that 30 percent of the
children ages 11 years old are prone to online usage while 23 percent of the children
ages 10 years old are inclined with internet surfing. However, out of 100 percent
younger children only 47 percent of them ages 12 years old are really exposed on the
online materials. As supported by the idea of Seiter (2005) he noted that most of the
generation today is an avid fan of using social medias.

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Table 3
Frequency and Percentage Distribution on Pupils Gender

No. of Hours Male Female
1 3 14 11
4 6 3 1
7 9 1 0
10 above 0 0
Total 18 12
Percentage (%) 60 40

Table 3 reveals the distribution of pupils level of gender which the overall
percentage score is 60 percent. The data shows that most of the children exposed on
the internet are male with 60 percent compare to female which they only have 40
percent. As supported by the findings that most of the children hooked up with the
internet are boys. Based on the conducted interviewed that boys really like to play on
the internet because most of their friends are playing online games.
Table 4
Frequency and Percentage Distribution on Pupils Internet Location

No. of Hours Home Cafe
1 3 8 17
4 6 1 3
7 9 1 0
10 above 0 0
Total 10 20
Percentage (%) 33 77

Table 4 shows the distribution of pupils level of internet location which the
overall percentage is 77 percent. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents
were exposed on the internet cafe which most of them spent for one to three hours
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while 33 percent of them are exposed at home. It shows that most of the children
considering their status cant afford to have an internet at home.
Based on the conducted individual in depth interviewed by the researchers,
the participants purported that they are exposed to any violence because they are not
properly guided by their parents so they can do anything they want beyond restriction.
Children can easily influence by their peers to do some hateful and sexual activities out
of their curiosity.
Meanwhile, study shows that children having internet at home can easily
looked out and guided by their parents or any adult from the family because their
computer are properly place at their living room or sala.

Problem Number 2
2. What is the level of online risks among the Grade VI pupils of Bayabas
Elementary School?
Table 5
Frequency, Percentage and Mean Distribution of Pupils
Exposure to Online Risks

Online Risks X Description
1. Giving personal comments or
information easily online
3.71 Always
2. Seeing pornography 1.83 Sometimes
3. Seeing violent or hateful
activities
2.70 Often
4. Harassed and bullied online 2.54 Sometimes
5. Met an online contact 2.96 Often
Overall Mean 2.73 Often

Table 5 illustrates the distribution of pupils level of exposure to online
risks with the overall mean score of 2.73 and described as often. This result would
manifest the fact that majority of the respondents rated themselves that they are being
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exposed with inappropriate materials in the internet. In other words, the respondents
often assessed their online risks.
The data in this table also presents that most of the respondents can
easily give their personal comments or information online with (3.71) and described as
always. This reflects that they are more expressive online through facebook, instagram,
twitter, etc. without knowing that their actions may results to some serious
consequences.
In addition with, the indicators who possess the highest means are: met
online contact (2.96) and seeing violent or hateful activities (2.70) and both were
classified as often and lastly children being harassed and bullied online with (2. 54) and
described as sometimes. However, the least indicators that being viewed by the
children is the exposure to pornography with (1. 83) and described as sometimes.
In line with this study, the results revealed that children exposed to online
may create negative effects on their academic performance, health problem and
relationship and social problems. In their academic performance these are the unveiling
effects as explained by the respondents, to wit; school activities such as homework,
projects, sport or social activities are neglected, school absences are noticeable,
having poor grades noticeable and they build up poor study habit are being
developed.
In terms of their health problem like; behavioural problems exist such as
aggressiveness, isolation, sleep deprivation, skipping meals or exercise, psychological
problems occur like restlessness, anxiety, short attention, span, depression and also
physical problems are being experienced like back pain, eye soreness, hand corns,
weigh gain, weigh lost, dehydration.
So with their relationship and social problems theyve encountered like;
mingling with other people is a problem, asking money to parents is rampant, stealing
the money of their parents is being practiced and using harsh words.
These findings are supported by different researches conducted; for
academic performance, Scherer (1997) found that 13% of his respondents reported
difficulties in their academic work and professional performance due to their Internet
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use. Nalwa and Anand (2003) found that Internet addictive users used the Internet for
long sessions, resulting in personal behavioural problems and neglect of important work
responsibilities; for health problems these includes Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI),
declining physical fitness, eating disorders and Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS),
typified by sore and itching eyes, and a lag in visual responses (Chou & Hsiao, 2000;
Young, 1996); for relationship and social problems found out that there are number of
serious consequences of cyber bullying victimisation (Hinduja & Patchin, 2007, 2008).
For example, victims have lower self-esteem, increased suicidal ideation, and a variety
of emotional responses, retaliating, being scared, frustrated, angry, and depressed
(Hinduja & Patchin, 2009).

CONCLUSIONS
Based on the preceding findings; the following conclusions were drawn:
In this study, the online risks are associated to children exposure to the
inappropriate materials in the internet. Consequently, looking into the pupils level of
exposure majority of them are male ages 12 years old were they spent for one to three
hours at the internet cafe. Regarding, with children experience on the different online
risks is often assessed thus it implies that there is a huge increase of children who are
exposed online in which most of them can easily be lured to do something out of their
curiosity. It is evident that Internet use of children can cause number of risks in terms of
their academic performance, health problems and relationship and social problems.
Therefore, parent, guardians and educators need to supervise children and help them
learn how to behave and interact with others online.

Recommendations
Based on the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations were
drawn:
1. Local officials need to impose mandatory regulations especially to those internet
cafes near at the visibility of the school. Through this act, it can minimize children who
can be a victim online and gives security and assurances to those parents and
community as well.
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2. Proprietor of the internet cafe must set strict rules when using the internet to ensure
that childrens are guided of the dos and donts inside their premises.
3. Every internet cafes are required to have internet filters just to make sure that
childrens could not sort inappropriate activities online.
4. Parents, guardians and educators need to supervise and monitor children activities
and help them learn how to behave properly and interact with others online.
5. Further studies may be conducted considering bigger respondents focusing on the
internet users for elementary and secondary learners.

























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REFERENCES


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Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2009). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and
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Hunter, B. (2012). The Subtle Benefits of Communication. Stanford. Retrieved 28 June
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Jacobs, K., & Baker, N. A. (2002). The association between children's computer use
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Livingstone, S. (2013) Children and the Internet. NY: Wiley.

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Nalwa, K., & Anand, A. P. (2003). Internet Addiction in Students: A Cause of Concern.
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Seiter, E. (2005). The Internet Playground: Childrens Access, Entertainment, and
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Young, K. (1996). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder.
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