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STAINLESS STEEL

INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY



Leader in continuing dental education
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HISTORY
EARLIER ORTHODONTISTS MADE ATTACHMENTS FROM
NOBLE METALS AND THEIR ALLOYS
GOLD,PLATINUM,IRIDIUM AND SILVER ALLOYS WERE
ESTHETICALLY PLEASING AND CORROSION RESISTANT
BUT LACKED FLEXIBILITY AND TENSILE STRENGTH

IN 1887 ANGLE TRIED REPLACING THESE METALS WITH
GERMAN SILVER.

BUT J.N.FARRAR CONDEMNED THE USE OF THE NEW
ALLOY SHOWING THAT IT DISCOLOURED IN THE MOUTH
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IN 1888 , ANGLE VARIED THE PROPORTION OF Cu,Ni,Zn
AND BY APPLYING COLD WORKING AT VARIOUS DEGREES OF
PLASTIC DEFORMATION
GERMAN SILVER
Cu-65%
Ni-14%
Zn-21%
IT WAS RIGID ENOUGH FOR EXPANSION ARCHES N
MALLEABLE ENOUGH FOR BANDS
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WILKILSON INTRODUCED STAINLESS STEEL IN 1929.
EVERSINCE IT HAD FORMED THE BASIS OF ORTHODONTIC
WIRES
IN 1934 , EMIL HERBST HELD THAT GOLD WAS STRONGER
THAN STAINLESS STEEL WIRES.HE PREFFERED GERMAN
SILVER TO STAINLESS STEEL
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A MODERN REFINMENT OF POWDER METALLURGY
PROCESS IS INJECTION MOLDING
IN THIS THE METAL POWDER ALONG WITH
ORGANIC INGREDIENTS IS FORCED INTO A MOLD.
THIS IS THEN SUBJECTED TO GRADUAL INCREASED
TEMPERATURES TO VOLATISE THE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
AND FINALLY TO SINTERIZE THE METAL PARTICLES
ADVANCES MADE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, SUCH AS
DIRECT ELECTRIC (HEROULT,1900) OR INDUCTION
FURNACES (KJELLIN,1907) HAVE ENHANCED THE
QUALITY OF METAL
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COMPOSITION
IRON- 71%
CARBON-0.2%
CHROMIUM-18%
NICKEL-8%
ROLE OF EACH COMPONENT
CHROMIUM-RESISTS TARNISH N CORROSION-
PROTECTIVE OXIDE IMPERVIOUS LAYER OF Cr2O3
NICKEL-STABILIZES STEEL AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
OTHER METALS THAT STABILIZE S.S. ARE MANGANESE
AND NITROGEN
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TYPES

FERRITIC MARTENSITIC AUSTENITIC
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FIG-28.2-SKINERS

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FERRITIC
AISI 400 STAINLESS STEEL
BCC STRUCTURE
GOOD CORROSION RESISTANCE AT LOW COST
LOW STRENGTH
NOT READILY WORK HARDENABLE
STABLE UPTO 912C
FERROMAGNETIC AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
LITTLE APPLICATION IN DENTISTRY
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MARTENSITIC
AISI 400
BCT
WHEN AUSTENITIC IS QUENCHED IT UNDERGOES A
SPONTANEOUS, DIFFUSIONLESS TRANSFORMATION TO
MARTENSITIC
CAN BE HEAT TREATED LIKE CARBON STEELS
HIGH STRENGTH AND HARDNESS
USED IN SURGICAL AND CUTTING INSTRUMENTS
CORROSION RESISTANCE IS LESS THAN THE OTHER
TYPES
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AUSTENITIC
AISI 302-BASIC TYPE
CONTAINS- 18% CHROMIUM
8% NICKEL
0.15% CARBON
AISI 304- SAME COMPOSITION
DECREASED CARBON-0.08%
AISI 316L
CARBON-0.03%-USED FOR IMPLANTS
AISI 316
MANUFACTURE OF BRACKETS-ONE PIECE
BRACKETS WITH NO SEPARATE MESH BASE
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AISI 316 steel
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TIME FOR SOLDERING SHOULD BE MINIMISED-TO
AVOID CORROSION RESISTANCE
SILICON-AT LOW CONCENTRATION IMPROVES
RESISTANCE TO OXIDATION CARBURISATION AT
HIGH TEMPERATURE AND TO CORROSION IN
SOME MEDIA.

PHOSPHORUS AND SULPHUR-ARE UNDESIRABLE
IMPURITIES
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AUSTENITIC STEEL IS PREFERABLE TO FERRITIC
STAINLESS STEEL BECAUSE
GREATER DUCTILITY AND ABILITY TO UNDERGO MORE
COLD WORK WITHOUT FRACTURE
SUBSTANTIAL STRENGTHNING DURING COLD WORK
GREATER EASE OF WELDING
ABILITY TO OVERCOME SENSITIZATION
LESS CRITICAL GRAIN GROWTH
COMPARATIVE EASE IN FORMING
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SENSITIZATION[ FIG9.14.SCANOO52]
18-8 STAINLESS STEEL MAY LOOSE ITS CORROSION
RESISTANCE IF IT IS HEATED BETWEEN 400-900C.
PRECIPITATION OF CHROMIUM CARBIDE AT GRAIN
BOUNDARIES OCCURS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.
THE SMALL RAPIDLY DIFFUSING CARBON ATOMS
MIGRATE TO THE GRAIN BOUNDARIES FROM ALL PARTS
OF THE CRYSTAL TO COMBINE WITH THE LARGE
SLOWLY DIFFUSING CHROMIUM ATOMSAT THE GRAIN
PERIPHERY,WHERE THE ENERGY IS HIGHEST.
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WHEN CHROMIUM COMBINES WITH CARBON ITS
PASSIVATING EFFECT IS LOST ,LEADING TO DECREASE
CORROSION RESISTANCE .
WELD DECAY
FIG-161.PG229-NOORT
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STABILIZATION
THIS CAN BE MINIMIZED BY-
1. DECREASE IN CARBON CONTENT TO SUCH AN
EXTENT THAT CARBIDE PPT CANNOT OCCUR.
2. ADDITION OF SOME ELEMENT THAT
PRECIPITATES AS A CARBIDE IN PREFERANCE
TO CHROMIUM.
TITANIUM IS OFTEN USED
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CAUSES OF CORROSION
1.ANY SURFACE INHOMOGENITY ALLOWS CORROSION
CELLS TO FORM
SEVERE STRAIN HARDENING MAY PRODUCE
LOCALISED ELECTRIC COUPLES IN PRESENCE OF
SALIVA WHICH ACTS AS AN ELECTROLYTE
STAINLESS STEEL ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES
MUST BE POLISHED NOT ONLY FOR PATIENT
COMFORT BUT ALSO LOWERS SUSCEPTIBILITY TO
TARNISH AND CORROSION
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2.INCORPORATION OF BITS OF CARBON STEEL OR
OTHER SIMILAR METALS CAN CAUSE CORROSION.
-IF CARBON STEEL PLIERS ARE USED TO
MANIPULATE THE STAINLESS STEEL WIRES.
-IF A STAINLESS STEEL APPLIANCE IS CUT OR
ABRADED WITH A CARBON BUR

3.SUSCEPTIBLE TO CHLORINE
CHLORINE CONTAINING CLEANSERS SHOULD NOT
BE USED TO CLEAN REMOVABLE APPLIANCES
FABRICATED FROM STAINLESS STEEL.
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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
STRENGTH AND HARDNESS INCREASES WITH DECREASE
IN THE DIAMETER OF THE WIRE BECAUSE OF THE
AMOUNT OF COLD WORK INDUCED IN FORMING THE
WIRE
TENSILE STRENGTH-2100MPa
YIELD STRENGTH-1400MPa
KNOOP HARDNESS VALUES-600

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TABLE 59.PG 229-NOORT
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DISADVANTAGES DUE TO ANNEALING
AFTER ANNEALING S.S. WIRE LOOSES ITS RANGE OF
ELASTICITY OR WORKING RANGE THAT IS NECCESARY
TO PRODUCE SATISFACTORY ORTHODONTIC
APPLIANCES.
THIS CAN BE MINIMISED BY-
1. BY USING LOW FUSING SOLDERS.
2. BY CONFINING THE TIME FOR SOLDERING AND
WELDING PROCEDURES TO MINIMUM.

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BRAIDED AND TWISTED WIRES
SMALL DIAMETER WIRES-0.178mm ,CAN BE BRAIDED OR
TWISTED TOGETHER TO FORM LARGE WIRES-0.406 TO
0.635mm ROUND OR RECTANGULAR.

THESE WIRES CAN SUSTAIN LARGE DEFLECTIONS IN
BENDING,HENCE THEY APPLY LOW FORCES DUE TO
THEIR LOW APPARENT ELASTIC MODULUS WHEN
COMPARED WITH SOLID S.S WIRES.
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SOLDERING
DEFINITION-




LOW TEMPERATURE SOLDERING TECHNIQUE IS
EMPLOYED TO MINIMIZE CARBIDE PRECIPITATION
AND PREVENT EXCESSIVE SOFTENING OF THE WIRE.

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BASIC TECHNIQUE OF SOLDERING

1. METAL SURFACES SHOULD BE FREE OF
CONTAMINATION.

2. A METAL OR ALLOY WITH A LOWER MELTING POINT
THAN THE PARTS TO BE JOINED MUST BE CHOSEN

3.THE PARTS AND SOLDER SHOULD BE BROUGHT TO THE
SOLDERS MELTING TEMPERATURE.
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SOLDERS
SELECTION IS MADE ON THE BASIS OF SOLDERS-
CORROSION RESISTANCE
STRENGTH
FUSION TEMPERATURE
COLOUR
FUSION RANGE MUST BE ATLEAST 100C BELOW THAT
OF THE PARTS TO BE SOLDERED
HOW PERMANENT THE APPLIANCE WILL BE AND
WHETHER THE APPLIANCE CAN BE REMOVED FOR
CLEANING

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SOLDERS FOR ORTHODONTIC WIRES

LOWER MELTING POINT SOLDERS SUCH AS SILVER
SOLDERS ARE USED
COMPOSITION
SILVER-10 TO 80%
COPPER-15 TO 50%
ZINC-4 TO 35%
CADMIUM,TIN,PHOSPHORUS-SMALL AMOUNTS

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ROLE OF EACH INGREDIENT

SILVER-IMPROVES THE WETTING
WHITENS THE ALLOY
COPPER-LOWER THE FUSION TEMPERATURE
IMPROVES THE STRENGTH
MAKES IT AMNEABLE TO AGE
HARDENING
ZINC,CADMIUM,TIN,PHOSPHORUS-LOWERS THE
FUSION TEMPEATURE



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FLUX
FLUORIDE FLUXES ARE USED FOR SOLDERING ALLOYS
CONTAINING CHROMIUM - FLUORIDES DISSOLVE THE
CHROMIUM OXIDE.
COMPOSITION-
POTTASIUM FLUORIDE
BORIC ACID
BORAX GLASS
SODIUM CARBONATE OR SILICA
ALL THESE ARE GROUNDED TO FINE POWDER,WHICH
IS USED EITHER DIRECTLY OR AS A LIQUID IN ALCOHOL OR
A PASTE IN PETROLATUM
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ANTIFLUX
PREVENTS FLOW OF SOLDER AND IS USED TO CONFINE
THE SOLDER TO THE WORK AREA

GRAPHITE

SUSPENSION OF ROUGE ( FERRIC OXIDE ) OR CHALK
(CALCIUM CARBONATE ) IN ALCOHOL FOR PROLONGED
HEATING OR HIGHER TEMPERATURES.
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TECHNIQUE OF SOLDERING

CLEANING

INORGANIC GASES , ORGANIC MATERIAL , METALLIC
OXIDES SEPARATE THE TWO SURFACES AND PREVENT
THE SOLDER FROM WETTING THE METALS SURFACES

CASTING OXIDES ARE REMOVED BY PICKLING IN ACIDS.

IF POLISHED THEN THE PARTS MUST BE THOROUGHLY
WASHED WASHED WITH SOAP AND WATER THEN PICKLED
TO REMOVE RESIDUAL POLISHING MATERIALS

RUBBER-BONDED FINISHING WHEELS AND POINTS-REMOVE
OXIDES AND CONTAMINATION.
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FREE HAND SOLDERING
ORTHODONTIC TORCHES CAN BE PLACED ON THE
BENCH SO THAT BOTH HANDS ARE FREE TO HOLD THE
PARTS IN POSITION

-NEEDLE LIKE , NON-LUMINOUS GAS-AIR FLAME
-HYDROGEN OXYGEN TORCH
-ELECTRIC RESISTANCE HEATING
-INDIRECT HEATING USING A BRASS WIRE
INTERMEDIARY



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SOLDERING PROCEDURE
CLEANING
TACK WELDING
FLUX
HEAT
FLUX FUSES
SOLDER
HEAT
QUENCHED

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DEFECTIVE SOLDERING
OVERHEATING CAN LEAD TO CARBIDE PPT,SOFTENIN
THE WIRE.

MICROSTRUCTURAL CHANGES,SURFACE
PITTING,INTERNAL POROSITY

WEAK JOINT

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REASONS FOR AN INCOMPLETE JOINT
1. PARTS WERE TOO COOL WHEN THE SOLDER WAS
APPLIED
2. PARTS WERE NOT AT SIMILAR TEMPERATURE,SO
SOLDER FLOWS OVER THE HOOTER PART
3. INSUFFICIENT FLUX
4. CONTAMINATION
5. OXIDATION FROM AN IMPROPERLY ADJUSTED
TORCH
6. OXIDATION DUE TO REMOVAL OF REDUCING
PORTION OF THE FLAME FROM THE JOINT BEFORE
THE SOLDER FLOWED
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7. GAP DISTANCE WAS TOO SMALL ( <0.1mm ) FOR THE
SOLDER TO PENETRATE
8.GAP DISTANCE TOO LARGE
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WELDING
BONDING OCCURS BETWEEN TWO METALLIC SURFACES
IN CONTACT IF THEY ARE OF SURFACE FILMS AND
ROUGHNESS
3 METHODS OF WELDING-
1.SPOT WELDING
2.PRESSURE WELDING
3.LASER WELDING
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SPOT WELDING
TWO METAL SURFACES ARE BROUGHT IN CONTACT
UNDER PRESSURE BETWEEN TWO COPPER ELECTRODES
AND ELECTRIC CURRENT IS PASSED THROUGH THE
JOINT TO CAUSE INTERFACIAL MELTING
THE METAL FIRST MELTS AT THE CONTACT POINTS DUE
TO CONSTANT CURRENT
LIQUID CONTACT IS ESTABLISHED DUE TO MELTING
MOLTEN AREAS SPREAD BECAUSE THE RESISTANCE OF
THE METAL IN LIQUID IS GREATER THAN IN SOLID
STATE
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SIMILAR CONDITION OCCURS AT THE ELECTRODE
INTERFACE BUT A HIGHER ENERGY IS REQUIRED TO
CAUSE MELTING SINCE COPPER HAS LOW RESISTANCE
AND HIGH THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
SMALL WELDS ARE PREFFERD SINCE BONDING IS
ACHIEVED WITH A MINIMUM CHANGE IN ORIGINAL
GRAIN STRUCTURE

USED TO JOIN FLAT STRUCTURES, SUCH AS
ORTHODONTIC BANDS AND BRACKETS,AND
ORTHODONTIC WIRES
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FIG 18-1 O BREIN
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PRESSURE WELDING
WHEN TWO METAL PARTS ARE PLACED TOGETHER AND A
LARGE FORCE IS APPLIED UNDER PRESSURE
PERPENDICULAR TO THE SURFACE,PRESSURE WELDING
OCCURS
EX-GOLD FOIL WELDED IN GOLD FOIL CONDENSORS TO
FORM GOLD FOIL RESTORATIONS
LASER WELDING
A LASER GENERATES A COHERENT, HIGH INTENSITY PULSE
OF LIGHT THAT CAN BE FOCUSSED .DUE TO EXPANSION
THER IS CHANGE IN STATE,THE TWO LIQUID SURFACES
CONTACT N FORM A WELD ON SOLIDIFICATION
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PROPERTIES OF WELDS
STRENGTH- INCREASES WITH INCRESE IN
WELDABLE AREA
DECREASES WITH INCREASE IN
RECRYSTALLIZATION

CORROSION RESISTANCE-WELDS ARE MORE
SUSCEPTIBLE TO CORROSION
CORROSION DUE TO CHROMIUM CARBIDE PPT AND
LOSS OF PASSIVATION
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AUSTRALIAN STAINLESS STEEL WIRES
DR.P.R.BEGG WITH M AJ WILCOCK INTRODUCED A
TENSILE MATERIALTHIN ENOUGH TO DISTRIBUTE
OPTIMAL TOOTH MOVING FORCES FOR A LONG
PERIOD,OVER LONG DISTANCE WITH MINIMAL LOSS IN
THE INTENSITY OF FORCE

THE DIAMETERS HAVE BEEN DECREASING DUE TO
CONCEPTS OF LOW INTENSITY FORCES BEING USED IN
ORTHODONTICS
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TYPES
1. REGULAR
2. REGULAR PLUS
3. SPECIAL
4. SPECIAL PLUS
5. EXTRA SPECIAL PLUS
6. PREMIUM
7. PREMIUM PLUS
8. SUPREME
9. ALPHA TITANIUM
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AVAIABLE IN SPOOLS AND STRAIGHT LENGHTS

FIG PG 301-GURKIRAT
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MANUFACTURING INVOLVES 2 PROCEDURES

1.SPINNER STRAIGHTENING
FOR REGULAR TO EXTRASPECIAL WIRES
PULLING OF WIRE IN ITS COLD DRAWN CONDITION
THROUGH ROTATING BRONZE ROLLERSWHICH
TORSIONALLY TWIST THE WIRE INTO A STRAIGHT
CONDITION
THIS HAS-RELUCTANT DEFORMATION
-DECREASED YIELD STRESS
-STRAIN SOFTENED
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2.PULSE STRAIGHTENING PROCESS
FOR NEWER PREMIUM AND SUPREME WIRES
WIRE IS PULSED IN A SPECIAL MACHINE WHICH
PERMITS HIGH TENSILE WIRES STRAIGHTENING
SMALL DIAMETER WIRES CAN BE MANUFACTURED
THIS HAS-SMOOTH FINISH
-HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH
-HIGHER WORKING RANGE
-GOOD RECOVERY PATTERN
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DUPLEX STEEL
CONSIST OF ASSEMBLY OF AUSTENITE AND FERRITE
GRAINS
COMPOSITION-IRON
MOLYBDENUM
CHROMIUM
MOST LOWER NICKEL CONTENT
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PROPERTIES
IMPROVED TOUGHNESS AND DUCTILITY COMPARED
TO FERRITIC STEELS
YIELD STRENGTH IS MORE THAN TWICE THAT OF
AUSTENITIC STEELS
HIGH STRESS CORROSION RESISTANCE
WHEN IMPROPERLY HEATED,THEY HAVE A TENDENCY
TO FORM A BRITTLE PHASE(SIGMA) THAT DIMINISHES
THEIR CORROSION RESISTANCE
USED IN ONE-PIECE BRACKETS
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HYPER AND HYPO-EUTECTOID STEELS

EUTECTOID-AT A CARBON CONCENTRATION OF 0.8%,
THE ALLOY SHOWS TRANSFORMATION FROM A SINGLE
PHASE AUSTENITE TO A TWO PHASE STRUTURE
CONSISTING OF FERRITITE AND CEMENTITE
CEMENTITE-WHEN THE LIMI OF SOLUBILITY OF CARBON
IS EXCEEDED FOR EITHER FERRITIC OR AUSTENITIC
FORMSFORMS OF STEEL,THE EXCESS CARBON
PRECIPITATES OUT AS Fe3C WHICH IS HARD AND BRITTLE
PHASE CALLED AS CEMENTITE
FIG 158-NOORT
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EUTECTIC-TRANSFORMATION OF A SINGLE LIQUID PHASE
DIRECTLY INTO TWO PHASES
HYPER-EUTECTOID STEELS-CARBON CONTENT GREATER
THAN 0.8%
USED IN MANUFACTURING OF BURS AND CUTTING
INSTRUMENTS
HYPO-EUTECTOID STEELS-CARBON CONTENT OF LESS
THAN 0.8%
USED IN MANUFACTURE OF DENTAL INSTRUMENTS-
FORCEPS
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PEARLITE
ON SLOW COOLING,0.8%CARBON STEELS UNDERGO
CHANGES IN STRUCTURE.
THE AUSTENITE IS CONVERTED INTO A MIXTURE OF
FERRITE AND CEMENTITE WHICH IS CALLED AS
PEARLITE

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ON RAPID COOLING ,AUSTENITE IS QUENCHED IN
WATER,THE FERRITE AND CEMENTITE CANNOT FORM
SINCE THERE IS NOT ENOUGH TIME FOR DIFFUSION AND
ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS.
INSTEAD A VERY RAPID TRANSFORMATION OCCURS TO A
BODY-CENTERED TETRAGONAL-MARTENSITE
WHEN MARTENSITE IS REHEATED IN THE TEMPERATURE
RANGE OF 200-450C AND THEN COOLED RAPIDLY IT
CONVERTS TO PEARLITE
THIS CONVERSION CAN BE CONTROLLED BY
TEMPERATURE AND DURATION OF HEAT TREATMENT-
TEMPERING
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FIG-160-NOORT
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ADVANTAGES
1. LOWER COST OF WIRE ALLOYS
2. PROVEN BIOCOMPATIBILITY FROM EXTENSIVE
CLINICAL USE
3. EXCELLENT FORMABILITY FOR FABRICATION
INTO ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES
4. CAN BE SOLDERED AND WELDED,ALTHOUGH
WELDED JOINTS MAY REQUIRE SOLDER
REINFORCEMENT
5. GOOD IN FINE DETAILING
6. GREAT FOR ARCH CO-ORDINATION
7. GOOD TORQUE CONTROL
8. RELATIVELY PREDICTABLE BIOMECHANICAL
PROPERTIES
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FIG-PG-230-NOORT
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DISADVANTAGES
1. HIGH FORCE DELIVERY
2. RELATIVELY LOW SPRINGBACK IN BENDING COMPARED
TO BETA TITANIUM AND NICKEL TITANIUM ALLOYS
3. CAN BE SUSCEPTIBLE TO INTERGRANULAR CORROSION
AFTER HEATING TO TEMPERATURE REQUIRED FOR
JOINING
4. MORE CHAIR-SIDE TIME
5. RESILIENCE DEPENDS ON DIAMETER
6. NO SHAPE MEMORY OR SUPER ELASTICITY
7. POOR DEFLECTION RANGE
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