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# 4141

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2

2009

513.
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. . -; .: .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. . , 2009. 40 .

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. -. , . .. )

15

) a = (2,3,5) , b = ( 1,3,8) , c1 = 5a + 5b , c2 = a b .

) , p , q , r .
x ;

) c1 c2 .

## 15.1. ) x = (1,1,1) , p = (3,0,1) , q = (2,2,2 ) , r = (1,0,1) ;

) a = (3,5,7 ) , b = (1,2,1) , c1 = a + b , c2 = 2a b .
15.2. ) x = (2,1,1) , p = (0,3,1) , q = ( 2,1,2 ) , r = ( 1,0,1) ;
) a = (2,3,4 ) , b = (3,4,4 ) , c1 = a + b , c2 = 2a + 2 b .
15.3. ) x = ( 1,1,1) , p = ( 1,0,3) , q = (2,2,2 ) , r = (0,1,1) ;
) a = ( 6,3,3) , b = (2,2,2 ) , c1 = 3a + b , c2 = a + b .
15.4. ) x = (2,3,1) , p = (3,1,2 ) , q = (1,3,2 ) , r = (2,1,3) ;

) a = (3,1,1) , b = (5,0,3) , c1 = a 2 b , c2 = a + 2 b .

## 15.5. ) x = (2,0,5) , p = (1,1,1) , q = ( 2,0,3) , r = (0,1,1) ;

) a = (3,2,1) , b = ( 5,4,0 ) , c1 = 3a 3b , c2 = a b .
15.6. ) x = (5,0,2 ) , p = (1,3,5) , q = (3,0,2 ) , r = (1,1,0 ) ;
) a = (3,2,1) , b = ( 5,4,0 ) , c1 = a + 2 b , c2 = 2a + b .
15.7. ) x = (0,5,2 ) , p = (5,3,1) , q = (0,3,2 ) , r = ( 1,1,0 ) ;
) a = (3,7,5) , b = (1,3,5) , c1 = 4a 3b , c2 = a + 3b .
15.8. ) x = (2,0,5) , p = (3,1,5) , q = ( 2,3,0 ) , r = (0,1,1) ;
) a = (0,3,2 ) , b = (1,2,1) , c1 = 5a b , c2 = a + 5b .
15.9. ) x = (3,2,1) , p = (1,3,2 ) , q = (2,3,7 ) , r = (3,1,2 ) ;
) a = (1,2,3) , b = (2,3,1) , c1 = 3a b , c2 = a + 3b .
15.10. ) x = (1,1,1) , p = (0,3,2 ) , q = ( 1,3,7 ) , r = ( 3,1,2 ) ;

) a = (8,3,1) , b = (2,6,1) , c1 = a + 4 b , c2 = 4a b .
) a = (6,1,2 ) , b = ( 1,0,1) , c1 = 5a + b , c2 = 5a b .
15.13. ) x = (1,0,2 ) , p = (3,2,0 ) , q = (1,3,1) , r = (2,2,2 ) ;
) a = ( 2,1,2 ) , b = (2,3,8) , c1 = 3a b , c2 = a + 3b .
15.14. ) x = (1,4,1) , p = (3,2,5) , q = (0,3,1) , r = (1,2,2 ) ;

) a = (3,1,3) , b = (2,1,2 ) , c1 = a + b , c2 = a + 4 b .

## 15.15. ) x = ( 1,4,1) , p = ( 1,2,5) , q = (1,1,1) , r = (2,2,1) ;

) a = (1,7,2 ) , b = (3,0,5) , c1 = a + 2 b , c2 = a 2 b .
15.16. ) x = (3,0,2 ) , p = ( 1,2,1) , q = (2,1,1) , r = (1,1,3) ;
) a = (2,7,1) , b = (5,0,3) , c1 = a + 2 b , c2 = a 2 b .
15.17. ) x = (7,3,1) , p = (1,1,1) , q = ( 2,1,2 ) , r = (3,1,1) ;
) a = (7,1,2 ) , b = (0,3,5) , c1 = 3a + b , c2 = a 3b .
15.18. ) x = (1,7,3) , p = (0,1,1) , q = (1,2,1) , r = (1,3,1) ;
) a = (7,2,1) , b = (0,5,3) , c1 = a b , c2 = a + b .
15.19. ) x = (3,1,7 ) , p = (1,0,1) , q = (1,1,1) , r = ( 1,2,1) ;
) a = (3,5,4 ) , b = (5,2,0 ) , c1 = a b , c2 = 4a + 4 b .
15.20. ) x = (1,3,1) , p = (2,1,3) , q = (3,2,5) , r = (3,0,2 ) ;
) a = (5,3,4 ) , b = (2,3,0 ) , c1 = a 4 b , c2 = a 3b .
15.21. ) x = (1,0,1) , p = ( 2,1,2 ) , q = (3,1,3) , r = (2,5,1) ;

) a = (4,3,5) , b = (0,2,3) , c1 = 4a b , c2 = a + 4 b .

## 15.22. ) x = (2,1,2 ) , p = (3,1,1) , q = (2,3,5) , r = (5,3,2 ) ;

) a = (4,5,3) , b = (3,0,2 ) , c1 = a 4 b , c2 = a + b .
15.23. ) x = (2,2,1) , p = (1,1,3) , q = (5,3,2 ) , r = (2,3,5) ;
) a = (2,2,2 ) , b = (1,2,0 ) , c1 = a + b , c2 = a 3b .
15.24. ) x = (1,2,2 ) , p = (1,3,1) , q = (3,2,5) , r = (5,1,3) ;
) a = (1,7,2 ) , b = (2,7,1) , c1 = 3a + 3b , c2 = a b .
15.25. ) x = (2,3,4 ) , p = (1,4,4 ) , q = (2,3,2 ) , r = (1,3,5) ;
) a = (7,1,2 ) , b = (1,7,2 ) , c1 = 3a b , c2 = 6a + 2 b .
15.26. ) x = (1,4,3) , p = (4,1,4 ) , q = (2,3,3) , r = (5,3,1) ;
) a = (2,7,1) , b = (7,1,2 ) , c1 = a 3b , c2 = a + 5b .
15.27. ) x = (3,1,4 ) , p = (4,4,1) , q = (3,3,2 ) , r = (3,1,5) ;
) a = (1,0,3) , b = (1,1,1) , c1 = 5a + b , c2 = a b .
15.28. ) x = (4,1,3) , p = (1,4,4 ) , q = (1,3,3) , r = (5,1,3) ;
) a = (1,3,1) , b = (2,2,3) , c1 = a + 5b , c2 = a 5b .
15.29. ) x = (5,5,0 ) , p = (1,1,1) , q = (2,1,2 ) , r = (3,0,1) ;
) a = (3,2,5) , b = (5,1,1) , c1 = 2a + 2 b , c2 = 7a b .
15.30. ) x = ( 5,0,5) , p = (1,2,3) , q = (2,1,2 ) , r = (3,5,4 ) ;
) a = (1,1,1) , b = (3,7,1) , c1 = a + b , c2 = a b .
15.31. ) x = (1,1,1) , p = (1,1,2 ) , q = (1,2,1) , r = (2,1,1) ;
) a = (5,3,1) , b = (1,7,3) , c1 = 2a 3b , c2 = a + b .

16
16.1. x , a = i 2 j 2k ,
j

x = 15 .
16.2. x ,
, x = 2 3 .
16.3. x , j 60 ,

k 120 , x = 5 2 .
16.4. x ,
a = 7 i 4 j 4k

b = 2i j + 2k ,
x =5 6.
16.5. a = ( 3;0;4 )

b = (5;2;14 ) . , ,
,
a b .
16.6. a = 5 = 45 , = 60 , = 120 .

a
a .
16.7. a = (1;5;15) .
, a ,
a .
16.8. x OY OZ
= 60 , = 135 .
OX? x , x = 3 .
16.9. a OX OZ
= 60 , = 135 . ,

a = 2 . a .
16.10. a = 3 , b = 5 , a + b = 19 . a b .

16.11. a = 11 , b = 23 , a b = 30 . a + b .
16.12. a b , a = 5 , b = 7 .
a + b , a b .
16.13. b = ( 12;4;8) .
, ,
?
16.14. ,

a = 2i + k 3 j b = i + 12 j + 8k .
16.15. , A(1;1;1) , B(5;4;8) , C(3;2;1) ,
D( 5;12;13) .
16.16.

a+b

ab

a = (3;1;3) ,

b = (3;2;4) .
16.17. a ,

## a = AB + 3CD , A(0;0;1) , B(2;2;1) , C(4;3;5) , D(3;6;3) .

16.18. - ABC:
rA = i + 2 j + 3k , rB = 3i + 2 j + k , rC = i + 4 j + k . ,
ABC .
16.19.

a = i + 2j+ k

1
(4i + 8 j + 3k )
5

.
16.20. M1 (1;2;3) , M 2 (3;4;6 ) .
M1M 2 .
16.21. a = 4i 2 j + 3k . b ,

b = a , b y = a y , b x = 0 ,
b .

16.22. - M OY 60 ,
OZ 45 , r = 8 .
M, .
16.23. a = 2i + 5 j + k . ,
.
16.24. a A B:
A(2;1;4 ) , B(1;3;2 ) . a
.
16.25. x , a = 2i 2 j + k ,
k
x = 45 .
16.26. - M OX 45 ,
OY 60 , r = 8 .
OM , , M
.
16.27. a = (2; 2 ) b = (2; 4 ) .
x y ,
x + 3y = a , x 3y = b .
16.28. a = 13 , b = 19 , a + b = 24 . a b .
16.29. a , j 60 ,
i 120 , a = 3 .
16.30. x ,
a = (2;3;6 ) b = ( 1;2;2 ) ,

x = 3 42 .
16.31. a = 7 i + 2 j + 5k .
a .

17.
ABCD. : )

AC AD ; ) ABC; )
ABCD.
17.1. A(4;0;0 )

B( 2;1;2 )
C(1;3;2 )
D(3;2;7 )
17.2. A ( 2;1;2 )
B(4;0;0 )
C(3;2;7 )
D(1;3;2 )
17.3. A (1;3;2 )
B(3;2;7 )
C(4;0;0 )
D( 2;1;2 )
B(1;3;2 )
C( 2;1;2 )
D(4;0;0 )
17.4. A (3;2;7 )
17.5. A (3;1;2 )
B(1;2;1)
C( 2;1;0 )
D(2;2;5)
17.6. A (1;2;1) B(3;1;2 )
C(2;2;5)
D( 2;1;0 )
B(2;2;5)
C(3;1;2 )
D(1;2;1)
17.7. A ( 2;1;0 )
17.8. A (2;2;5)
B( 2;1;0 )
C(1;2;1)
D(3;1;2 )
17.9. A (1;1;6 )
B(4;5;2 )
C( 1;3;0 )
D(6;1;5)
B( 1;3;0 )
C(4;5;2 )
D(1;1;6 )
17.10. A (6;1;5)
17.11. A ( 5;1;8)
B(2;3;1)
C(4;1;2 )
D(6;3;7 )
17.12. A (5;1;4 )
B(1;2;1)
C(3;3;4 )
D(2;2;2 )
B(2;3;4 )
C(4;3;2 )
D(3;2;4 )
17.13. A (1;1;1)
17.14. A (1;1;2 )
B(2;3;1)
C(2;2;4 )
D( 1;1;3)
17.15. A (2;3;5)
B(0;2;1)
C( 2;2;3) D(2;3;4 )
B( 1;0;2 )
C(2;4;6 ) D(1;1;1)
17.16. A (1;3;4 )
B(3;3;3)
C(1;1;2 )
D( 1;2;3)
17.17. A (2;1;2 )
17.18. A (1;1;1)
B(2;0;2 )
C(2;2;2 )
D(3;4;3)
B(1;1;0 )
C(2;1;0 )
D(0;0;6 )
17.19. A (0;0;0 )
17.20. A (0;0;0 )
B(4;1;1)
C(1;1;0 )
D(0;0;8)
17.21. A (1;2;1)
B(0;1;5)
C( 1;2;1)
D(2;5;3)
B(5;6;2 )
C(1;3;1)
D(2;3;1)
17.22. A (1;1;2 )
17.23. A (2;1;1)
B(5;5;4 )
C(3;2;1)
D(4;1;3)
17.24. A (2;3;1)
B(4;1;2 )
C(6;3;7 )
D( 5;4;8)
B(3;0;1)
C(2;1;3)
D(0;8;0 )
17.25. A (2;1;1)
17.26. A (4;0;1)
B( 2;1;3)
C(1;3;2 )
D(3;2;5)

17.27. A ( 2;1;3)

17.28. A (1;3;5)

17.29. A (3;1;5)

17.30. A (6;5;4 )

17.31. A (4;1;2 )

B(4;1;1)
B(3;2;4 )
B(1;3;2 )
B(1;1;1)
B(2;3;1)

C(1;3;2 )
C(4;1;1)
C( 2;0;2 )
C(1;0;3)
C(6;3;7 )

D(3;2;6 )
D( 2;1;2 )
D(3;5;3)
D(5;6;4 )
D( 5;1;8)

18

2
2
. (a1 + 2a 2 ) .
3
2
(a1 , a 2 ) =
.

18.1. a1 = 2 , a 2 = 5 , (a1 , a 2 ) =
18.2.

a1 = 2 ,

a2 = 5 ,

(2a1 + a 2 )(a1 2a 2 ) .

18.3. a1 = 2 , a 2 = 5 , (a1 , a 2 ) =

2
2
. (a1 + a 2 ) .
3

18.4. ,
a = 2 p + 3q , b = p q ,

p = 2 , q = 3 , (p, q ) =

2
.
3

18.5. a b , c
,

c = 1 , (2a b )(c a ) .

. , a = b = 2 ,
3

18.6. a b , c
,

c = 1 , (a + b + c ) .

. , a = 1 , b = 2 ,
3

. , a = 5 ,
3
b = 4 , c = 5a + 2 b .

18.7. a b

18.8. a , b , c ,

a = 3 , b = 2 , c = 2 , b c
a 60 .
b c s = a + b + c .
18.9. a , b , c ,
a = 2 , b = 3 , c = 6 .
s = a + 2 b + 3c .
18.10. a , b ,

( )

a = 3p 2q b = p + 4q , p q .
18.11. 3 m 2(m, n ) + 4n 2 ,
m =

, n = 6 , (m, n ) = .
3
3

18.12. ,
a = 5p + 2q , b = p 3q ,
, p = 2 2 , q = 3 , (p, q ) =

.
4

18.13. : P Q ,
120 , P = 7 , Q = 4 .
R .

2
, ,
3
p = a + 15b ,
q = a b .

( )

18.14. , a = 2 , b = 5 , a , b =

18.15.

AB = m + 2n , AD = m 3n ,

m = 5 , n = 3 , (m, n ) =

2
.
3

. , a = 5 ,
4
b = 8 , p = a + b

18.16. a b

q =ab.
18.17. a , b , c ,

. , a = 1 , b = 2 , c = 3 ,
3
S = a + 2 b + 3c .
18.18. x ,
a = (5;3;2 ) (a , x ) = 19 .
18.19. a = (1;1;5) b = (1;2;5) .
x , (a , x ) = 2 , (b, x ) = 3 ,

(2i + 2 j + 2k )x = 4 .

18.20.

2 e1 e2 4 e1 + 5e2 , e1 , e2
2
.
(e1 , e2 ) =
3
18.21. 3a 2 b

5a 6 b , a = 4 , b = 6 , (a , b ) = .
3
18.22. 2a + 3b + 4 c
5a + 6 b + 7 c ,

a = 1,
b = 2,
c = 3,

(a , b ) = (a , c ) = (b, c ) =

.
3

18.23. ,
a = i + j + 2k b = 2i + j + k .
18.24. a = 2i + 2 j + k b = 6i + 3 j + 2k .
x , a b
x i + j + k = 1 .

18.25. a b , ,

(2a b )2 + (a 3b )2 = 45 ,

a = 1, b = 2 .

18.26. a , b , c

90 . a = 3 , b = 4 , c = 5 ,
s = 2a + 5c 3b .

18.27. a b
, , a = 5 ,
2
b = 5 ,
np q (p + q ) ,
p = 5a 5b ,

q = 5a + 5b .
2
, , a = 3 ,
18.28. a b
3
b = 7 , (7a b )(a + 7 b ) .
18.29.

(n , p ) =

(m + 3n + 3p )2 ,

m = n = p = 2,

, (m, n ) = (m, p ) = .
2
6

18.30. ,
a = 2 p 11q , b = p + q ,

p = q = 2 , (p, q ) =

.
3

18.31. a , b , c

90 . : a = 1 , b = 2 , c = 3 ,
s = 2a + c + 3b .

19
19.1.

a1 = 4 ,

a2 = 3 ,

[a1 + a 2 ,2a1 + a 2 ] .

(a1 , a 2 ) =

.
6

19.2. ,
a = 2 p 11q , b = p + q ,

(p, q ) =

p = q = 2,

,
3

.
19.3.

a = b = 5,

(a , b ) =

.
4

, a 2 b 3a + 2 b .
19.4. ,
a = p + 2q , b = 2 p + q , p q
, (p, q ) =

.
3

19.5. ,
AB = m + 2n , AD = m 3n , m = 5 , n = 3 ,

.
3
19.6. x , a = (1;2;3) ,
b = ( 1;2;3) , OZ. ,
(m, n ) =

x = 13 , .
19.7. F = i j + k A(3;3;3) .

O(2;2;5) .

F1 = (1;2;5) , F2 = ( 2;2;2 ) ,
F3 = (0;2;3) , A(0;1;2 ) .

19.8.

O(1;1;1) .
19.9. x , ,
a1 = (2;1;2 ) , a 2 = (1;1;1) ,
i x =

2.

19.10. x ,
a1 = (5;7;1) , a 2 = (1;2;5) ,

x i + 2 j 7 k = 3 .
19.11. l , m , n
a , b , c , , l ,
m , n ,

l = 2a b c , m = 2 b c a , n = 2 c a b .
19.12. , A(5;7;2 ) , B(3;1;1) , C(9;4;4 ) ,

D(1;5;0 ) .

.
3
, 3a b , 3a + b .
19.14. AB AC ,
A(1;3;5) , B(7;0;2 ) , C(1;3;2 ) ,
19.13. :

b = 2 , (a , b ) =

a = 2,

.
19.15. a b

. , a = 5 ,
2

b = 3 , (5a 2 b ), (7a b ) .

## 19.16. A(3;5;6 ) , B(6;1;0 ) , C(3;7;8)

AM.

.
19.17. a b
6
, 7a 3b 3a 7 b ,
a = 5 , b = 1 .

19.18. ,
a = 6 m 3n b = m + 11n , m = n = 5 ,

(m, n ) =

2
.
3

19.19. a = (3;4;5)

b = (2;2;2) , .

19.20. ,
a = 6 m 3n b = 3m 6n , m, n
,

.
6

19.21. a b . ,

[(

)(

a = 3 , b = 7 , 11a b , 5a + b

)] .

19.22. ABCD,
, OZ.
v = 3 .. A (1;2;3) , B(0;1;3) , C(2;1;3) .
19.23. ,
a = p 11q , b = p + 11q , p = q = 2 ,

(p, q ) =

.
4

19.24.

F = (3;4;2)

A(2;1;3) .

,
.
19.25. A(1;3;1) , B(2;7;0 ) ,

C(3;1;1) BD.

F = i 3 j + 5k A(3;3;3) .
O(1;1;1) .

19.26.

19.27. ,
3e1 4 e2 , 3e1 + 5e2 , e1 , e2

.
4
19.28. x , ,
a1 = (4;2;3) a 2 = (1;1;1) ,
j x = 13 .
(e1 , e2 ) =

19.29. x ,
a1 = (2;5;6 ) a 2 = ( 1;3;7 )

x 3i + 2 j + 3k = 13 .
19.30. a , b , c , a = 2 , b = 1 ,

( )

2 x + y 5z = 0

19.31. x a1 = (1;1;1)

a 2 = (2;3;4 ) x (2i j + k ) = 12 .
x .

20
20.1. ,
, A (1;2;3)
x y 2z 4 = 0 .
20.2. , OY
3x 4 y + 5z 12 = 0 .
20.3. M ( 5;16;12 ) :
OX, OY.

.
20.4. ,
M1 (2;3;1) M 2 (1;5;3)
3x y + 2z + 15 = 0 .
20.5. ,
B(3;4;2 ) OX OZ ,
a = 2 , c = 5 .
20.6. ,
A(1;2;4 ) , B( 1;3;2 ) , OX OY
.
20.7. ,

3.

.
3

20.9. , OX
y = x =

c = 2 , a b = 60 , c a , c b . ab c .

x + y + z 1 = 0

20.8. , OZ

.
3

20.10. ,
M1 (2;3;5)
2 x + y 2z + 1 = 0 , x + y + z 5 = 0 .
20.11. ,
M 0 (2;3;1) a ( 3;2;1) b (1;2;3) .
20.12. M (3;2;5) ,

M 3 (2;3;7 ) .

M1 (0;1;1) , M 2 ( 1;1;3) ,

20.13. , , P(1;1;1)
,
.
20.14. ,
M1 (1;1;1) , M 2 (3;2;1) a (3;2;1) .
20.15. ,
M1 (2;0;3)

7x + z 1 = 0 , x = 0 .
20.16. ,
M (1;1;1)

x + 3y z + 5 = 0 z = 0 .
20.17. ,
OZ M1 (1;2;1) .

20.18. ,
N(1;2;3) XOY.

20.29. ,
A(1;1;1) , B(0;2;4 ) , C(1;3;3)

2 x y + 2z + 5 = 0

.
20.30. ,
6

a : b : c = 1: 3 : 2 .
20.31. ,
M1 (0;1;1) M 2 (2;0;1)
2x y + z + 1 = 0 .

20.19.

3x + y + z 8 = 0

x + y 2z + 5 = 0 x 6 y + 4z + 8 = 0 ?

20.20.

20.21.
4x + 3y 5z 8 = 0 4 x + 3y 5z + 12 = 0 .
20.22. , OX
60 y = x .
20.23. A(1;2;3) ,
a = 1 , b = 2 , c = 3 .
20.24. ,

2x y + 5z 3 = 0 , x + 3y z 7 = 0 .
20.25. ,
M1 (1;1;1) M 2 (0;2;1) a (2;0;1) .
20.26. ,
M1 (1;2;0 ) , M 2 (2;1;1)
x + y 1 = 0.
20.27. ,
A(3;1;0 ) , B(0;7;2 ) , C( 1;0;5) ,

D(4;1;5) .

.
20.28. x y + 2z 5 = 0
YOZ.

D(4;0;3) .

21
21.1. ,

x 2 y + z = 4,
A ( 4;3;0 )
2x + y z = 0.
21.2. ,
A( 1;3;2 ) OX.
21.3. ,
B(3;0;2 ) OZ.
21.4. ,
C(1;2;4 ) OY.
21.5. ,
B(3;2;1) ,
45 , 120 , 60 .
21.6. , A(1;2;3) ,

B(10;8;4 ) , C(3;0;2 ) .

2x 2 y z + 8 = 0,

x + 2 y 2z + 1 = 0

21.7.

x = 3t + 1,

y = 6 t 2,
z = 2 t + 4.

x + 2 y + 3z 13 = 0,

3x + y + 4z 14 = 0

21.8.
.

x y + 3 = 0,

21.9.
2 x + y + z = 0
x y+2 z+2
=
=
.
2
3
4
21.10.

x y 2 z 3 x + y = 0,

=
=
1
1
1
x y + z + 1 = 0.
21.11. ,

x y z = 1,
M(1;3;2 )
x + y + 2z = 2.
x 1 y z 2
21.12.
,
=
=
5
1 3
x y + 2z = 0,

x + 2 y + z + 3 = 0.
x y z 1
21.13.

= =
1 3
3
x + 3y + 3z + 1 = 0,

2x y z = 0.

21.14. ,
XOZ,

x 2 y +1 z 5
.
=
=
3
1
2
x 3y + 2 = 0,

21.15.
2 y z + 1 = 0

.
21.16.

x + 1 y + 11 z + 6
=
=
1
2
1

.
21.17.

x 1 y + 2
z
=
=
2
1
2

x + 2 y 1 z
=
=
3
2 1

x + y z = 0,
.

x y 5z 8 = 0
21.18. ,

x = 2,
A( 1;2;3)
y z = 1.
21.19. ,
A(2;7;1) OY OZ 120
45 .
21.20. ,
A( 1;3;4 ) OX OZ 120
60 .
21.21.
A(3;0;2 ) , B(1;2;4 ) C(0;7;2 ) .

21.22. YOZ ,

2x y = 2,

x + 2z = 2.

x
y
z 1
.
=
=
5 5
3

21.23. A B
Ax + By + 6z 7 = 0

x2 y+5 z
=
= ? .
2
3
4
x 1 y + 2 z
=
= ? .
4
3
1
21.25. ,

x = 1,

A( 2;3;0 ) y = 2 + t ,
z = 2 t.

x = 2 t 3,
x = t + 5,

21.26. , y = 3t 2, y = 4 t 1,
z = 4t + 6
z = t 4

. .
21.27. ,

x 2 y +1 z
= .
=
5
3
2

x 1 y z 1
= =
3
3
2

21.28. ,

x = t + 5,

y = t + 1, M(1;3;2 ) .
z = 2 t

## 21.30. A(1;1;1) , B(2;3;3) C(3;3;2 ) .

, A
AB AC .
AP.

21.24. A
Ax + 3y + 5z + 1 = 0

21.29. ,
M1 (1;1;0 ) ,
M 2 (3;0;1)

22

22.1. 4 x y + 3z 1 = 0
x 5y z + 2 = 0 ,
A (1;1;1) .
22.2. ,

x = 1,

A( 2;3;0 ) y = 2 + t ,
z = 2 t.

22.3. ,

x 2 y + 4z 3 = 0 OXZ.
22.4. ,

x + y = 0,
x = y = z .
x y z 2 = 0

22.5.

y = 2x + 9,
3x 4 y + 7 z 33 = 0 .

z = 9x 43
x 3 y +1 z 2
22.6.
,

,
=
=
5
2
4
x 8 y 1 z 6
,
=
=
3
1
2
, .

22.7. ,
2 x + y 3z + 1 = 0

x 3 y 5 z +1 x 5 y 3 z + 4
,
.
=
=
=
=
5
1
2
2
4
6
x 2 y 3 z +1
,
22.8.
=
=
5
1
2
x + 4 y 3z + 7 = 0 .

x = 3t + 2,

22.15. y = t + 4,
z = 2 t + 1

x +1 y 8 z + 3
.
=
=
3
2
1
22.16.

22.9. ,

x 3 y+4 z2

=
=
2
1
3
x+5 y
z
.
= =
4
3 1

22.10. ,
M (1;1;1) 2x + y z + 1 = 0
.

x + y z = 0,
22.11.

2 x y + 2 = 0
OXZ.
22.12.

x 7 y 2 z 1
=
=
3
2
2

x 1 y + 2 z 5
,
=
=
3
2
4

.
22.13.

2x + 2 y + z 1 = 0,

x y z 22 = 0

x +7 y5 z9

=
=
3
4
1
.
22.14. ,

2x y + 5z 3 = 0 , 2x 10 y + 4z 2 = 0 .

22.17.

y+z+2 = 0.
,

x+4 y2 z
=
=
3
1
1
22.18.

x y +1 z 1
.
=
=
2
1
3

A(2;1;0 )

x + 3 y +1 z +1
=
=
1
2
1

x 1 y +1 z 2
=
=
1
3
2

x = 3 + 5t ,

22.19. y = 1 + t ,
z = 4 + t

2 x 2 y + 3z 5 = 0 .
22.20.

A(1;2;3)

,
5x 2 y + 5z 10 = 0

x 4 y 8z + 12 = 0 .
4
22.21. P(2;1;3)
x +1 y + 2 z 1
.
=
=
3
4
5

22.22. ,
2 x + y z = 0 .

x +1 y +1 z + 3

=
=
2
3
1

x = 3t + 1,

22.23. y = t + 5,
z = 2 t

x + y + z + 5 = 0.
22.24.

,
M(1;0;2 )
4 x + 7 y + 3z = 0 , .
22.25. ,

x 3 y3 z
= M(1;7;3) .
=
1
1
1

22.26. ,

x = t + 3,

M1 (2;3;3) , M 2 (1;1;1) y = 2 t + 4,
z = t 1.

x 1 y z 2

22.27.
= =
3
7
1
x y + 3 = 0 .
x 1 y 1 z
22.28.
= ,
=
5
3
3
x
y
z
0
,
+
+
=

2 x y z + 5 = 0.
22.29. ,

x = t + 3,
x 1 y z +1

y = 2 t + 1,
.
= =
2
5

1
z = 3t 3

x+5 y2 z
,
=
=
3
1
4
x + y z + 15 = 0 .
x 2 y +1 z 3
22.31. ,

=
=
3
2
2
x 1 y 2 z + 3
,
=
=
3
2
2

22.30.

.
23
23.1. M1 ,
4 x + 6 y + 4z 25 = 0 .

M(1;0;1)

23.2. A(2;3;4 ) x = y = z .

23.3. B, C( 1;2;0 )
4 x 5y z 7 = 0 .
23.4. ,
M(0;2;1)

## a = (1;2;2 ) , b = (0;3;0) , c = (0;0;3) .

23.5.
2 x + 3y z 5 = 0 .
23.6.

A,

x+2 y+3 z2
=
=
3
1
2

B(2;1;1)

x 4,5 y + 3 z 2
.
=
=
0,5
1
1
23.7. M (0;3;2 )
x 1 y +1 z
=
= .
1 1
1
23.8. A( 1;0;1)
2 x + 6 y 2z + 11 = 0 .

23.9.

A,

x = 0,5,

y = t 1,5,
z = t + 1,5.

23.10.

A(1;1;1)

A,

x = 2,

y + z + 2 = 0.
23.13.

A(1;3;5)

2x + y + z 1 = 0,

3x + y + 2z 3 = 0.

B(2;1;0 )

A(4;3;10 )

x 1 y 2 z 3
.
=
=
2
4
5

x = 2 t + 1,5,

23.14. A(0;2;1) y = t ,
z = t + 2.

23.15.

x 2 y +1 z x 7 y 1 z 3
.
=
= ,
=
=
3
4
2
3
4
2

23.16.

A(0;2;1)

23.18. , A (2;7;1)
x 4 y + z + 7 = 0 .

x + y z = 0,

2 x y + 2 = 0

23.19.

23.11.

23.17.

x + 2 y 1,5 = 0,

y + z 2 = 0.

x = t + 2,

y = 2 t 1,5,
z = t + 1.

23.12.

B(1;2;3)

A,

x = 5t + 6,

y = 4 t + 3,5,
z = 0,5.

OXY.
23.20.

B(3;3;1)

y = 1,
x + y + z 1 = 0
,
z + 1 = 0
.
23.21. ,

x 2 y 1 z
x y 2 z +1
.
=
=
= =
1
1
2
3
0
1
23.22. M (3;2;5)
x y z5
.
= =
2 5
1

23.23. ,
A(2;3;1)

x +1 y z 2
.
=
=
1
2
3
23.24.

x y + 3z + 8 = 0 .

x y 4 z +1

=
=
4
3
2

23.25. ,

M 0 (3;2;0)
XOY.

x +1 y z 2
=
=
1
2
3

23.26.

x + y z + 4 = 0,

2 x 3 y z 5 = 0

x + 3 y + 3 z 1
,
=
=
4
1
2
.

x = 3t + 2,

23.27. y = t + 1,
z = 1

x = t + 3,

y = t + 5,
z = 2 t + 3.

23.28.

24.3. A(3;3) ,
24.4. A(4;1) ,

24.5. A(5;0 ) ,
24.6. A(3;1) ,

24.7. A(4;2 ) ,

24.9. A(0;3) ,

A(2;1;1)

24.10. A(1;2 ) ,

24.11. A (1;4) ,
24.12. A(2;1) ,

23.29. ,
M (3;3;5)

x 1 y 4 z 5
3x y + 2z 5 = 0 .
=
=
3
1
4
23.30. ,

x y+2 z3
.
=
=
1
2
8

24.2. A(2;1) ,

24.8. A(2;5) ,

x2 y2 z
=
= .
1
3
1

A( 1;2;3)

) , C;
) B.
24.1. A(1;4 ) ,
B(7;4 ) ,
C(3;7 ) .

x2
y
z5

=
=
4
3
6

M1 , M( 1;0;1)
x y 1,5 z 2
=
.
=
1
0
1

23.31.

24.
ABC.
: ) BC;
) , A;

24.13. A(3;3) ,

24.14. A(4;1) ,

24.15. A (5;0 ) ,

24.16. A(3;1) ,

24.17. A(4;2 ) ,

24.18. A(2;1) ,

24.19. A(0;2 ) ,
24.20. A(1;3) ,

24.21. A (0;0 ) ,

24.22. A(1;1) ,

24.23. A ( 1;1) ,
24.24. A(1;3) ,

24.25. A(2;4 ) ,

24.26. A(4;0 ) ,

B( 7;13) ,
B(10;21) ,
B( 4;5) ,
B(1;3) ,
B(15;17 ) ,
B(12;4 ) ,
B(9;19 ) ,
B(4;6 ) ,
B(7;10 ) ,
B(17;16 ) ,
B(14;8) ,
B(9;11) ,
B( 12;11) ,
B(8;4 ) ,
B(15;17 ) ,
B(13;10 ) ,
B(9;23) ,
B( 16;10 ) ,
B( 3;0 ) ,
B(7;24 ) ,
B(13;17 ) ,
B(11;10 ) ,
B(7;11) ,
B(6;7 ) ,
B(1;4 ) ,

C( 1;21) .
C( 2;5) .
C( 20;7 ) .
C( 6;21) .
C(6;29 ) .
C(8;1) .
C(21;3) .
C( 8;22 ) .
C(31;17 ) .
C(5;32 ) .
C(22;2 ) .
C(5;14 ) .
C(12;18) .
C(16;2 ) .
C(6;29 ) .
C(19;2 ) .
C(13;20 ) .
C( 24;4 ) .
C(5;6 ) .
C(13;32 ) .
C(9;20 ) .
C(23;6 ) .
C(19;2 ) .
C( 18;14 ) .
C(13;20) .

24.27. A (3;1) ,

24.28. A (2;3) ,

24.29. A(1;2 ) ,
24.30. A(1;1) ,

24.31. A(2;4 ) ,

B(10;25) ,
B(14;13) ,
B(7;10 ) ,
B( 3;4 ) ,
B(7;16 ) ,

C(1;13) .
C(26;4 ) .
C(31;3) .
C(13;16 ) .
C( 5;21) .

25.7. A( 2;1)
x + 2 y 1 = 0 .
.
25.8. A( 3;5) ,

F( 1;4 ) ,
x 2 = 0 . .

25. 2-
25.1. ,

, M1 4; 3 M 2 2 2 ;3
.
25.2. ,

2
= ,
3

F(2;1)

x 5 = 0 .
25.3. ,
,
M1 ( 5;3)

= 2.
25.4. ,

5
,
4

F(5;0 )

5x 16 = 0 .
25.5. . F( 7;0 )
x 7 = 0 .
25.6. ,
,

M1 ;1
2
2
y = x .
3

25.9. ,

, M1 5 ;2
10.
25.10. M(1;2 ) ,

F( 2;2 ) ,
2x y 1 = 0 . .

25.11. ,

1
,
2

F( 4;1)

y + 3 = 0 .
25.12. ,
,

M1 (6;1) M 2 8;2 2 .
25.13. ,
F(2;1) x y 1 = 0 .
25.14. ,
,
y =
x =

3
x
4

16
.
5

25.15. ,
,
, M1 (8;12 )
r1 = 20 .

25.16. ,
,

x =

M 3;
2

4
.
3

25.17. ,
,
, , y =

12
x
5

48.
25.18. , ,
F1 (1;3) , F2 (3;1)

12 2 .
25.19. ,
,
, , ,
7

1
7
= .
7
5

12
.
=
13
25.22. ,
,

2
.
5

4
x
3

8
3
= .
3
2

25.24. ,
, ,
, 2c = 6
16

2
.
3

25.25. ,

, ,

2c = 10 =

5
.
3

25.26. ,
,
, ,

25.20. ,
F(4;3) y + 1 = 0 .
25.21. ,
.
2c = 24

, y =

25.23. ,

, ,

32
2b = 6 .
5

25.27. ,
F(7;2 ) x 5 = 0 .
25.28. ,
,
, 10
=

3
.
4

25.29. ,

, ,
2c = 10 2b = 8 .
25.30. ,
,

, 10,
2c = 8 .
25.31. ,

, , y =
2c = 20 .

4
x
3

## 26.18. 14 x 2 + 24 xy + 21y 2 4 x + 18y 139 = 0

26.19. 2 x 2 + 3xy 2 y 2 + x + 5y 2 = 0
26.20. 5x 2 + 4 xy + 8 y 2 32 x 56 y + 80 = 0
26.21. x 2 2 xy + y 2 6 x 2 y + 9 = 0
26.22. 2 x 2 + 4 xy + 5 y 2 6 x 8 y 1 = 0
26.23. 6 xy 8 y 2 + 12 x 26 y 11 = 0

26
,

.

26.1. 5x 2 + 4 xy + 8 y 2 32 x 56 y + 80 = 0
26.2. x 2 4 xy + 4 y 2 + 4 x 3y 7 = 0
26.3. x 2 12 xy 4 y 2 + 12 x + 8 y + 5 = 0
26.4. x 2 2 xy + y 2 10 x 6 y + 25 = 0

26.24. x 2 4 xy + 4 y 2 2 x 6 y + 2 = 0
26.25. 7 x 2 24 xy 38x + 24 y + 175 = 0
26.26. 5x 2 + 8xy + 5y 2 18x 18 y + 9 = 0
26.27. 7 x 2 + 16 xy 23y 2 14 x 16 y 218 = 0
26.28. x 2 4 xy + 4 y 2 5x + 6 = 0
26.29. 4 xy + 3y 2 + 16 x + 12 y 36 = 0

26.5. x 2 + xy + y 2 + x + 2 y 2 = 0

26.30. 5x 2 + 6 xy + 5 y 2 16 x 16 y 16 = 0

26.6. 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 + 50 x 100 y + 25 = 0

## 26.31. 2 x 2 + 3xy 2 y 2 8x 11y = 0 .

26.7. 8x 2 + 6 xy 26 x 12 y + 11 = 0
26.8. 9 x 2 4 xy + 6 y 2 + 16 x 8 y 2 = 0
2

26.9. x + 4 xy + 4 y + 8x + 6 y + 2 = 0
2

26.10. 5x + 12 xy 22 x 12 y 19 = 0
2

26.11. x 2 xy + y x 2 y + 3 = 0
26.12. 2 x 2 4 xy + 5 y 2 + 8x 2 y + 9 = 0

27
,
.
( < 0 , = 0 , > 0 ).
.

26.13. 12 xy + 5 y 2 12 x 22 y 19 = 0

27.1. x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4

27.2. y 2 + z 2 = x

26.14. x 2 4 xy + 4 y 2 4 x 3y 7 = 0

27.3. x 2 + y 2 z 2 = 5

27.4. x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2

26.15. 5x 2 + 6 xy + 5y 2 6 x 10 y 3 = 0

27.5. x 2 + y 2 = 3z

27.6. z 2 x 2 y 2 =

26.16. 6 xy 8 y 2 + 12 x 26 y 11 = 0

27.7. x 2 + y 2 + z 2 =

27.8. 2 x = y 2 z 2

26.17. 3x 2 4 xy 2 x + 4 y 5 = 0

27.9. x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2

27.10. y 2 + x 2 + z 2 =

27.11. x 2 + y 2 = 4z
2

27.12. 3y 2 = x 2 + z 2

27.13. x y z = 4
2

27.14. 4 y = x + z
2

28.8. ) r = 3 sin + 2 ;

27.15. x + 3y = z

27.16. x + 2y z = 2

27.17. x 2 y 2 + z 2 = 2

27.18. y 2 z 2 = 3

27.19. x 2 + y 2 z 2 = 3

27.20. 2 y = x 2 + z 2

) = z
+ (y z ) = 3
2

27.21. x + y

27.23. x 2

27.25. x 2 + y 2 = 3z

;
3

28.10. ) r = 3 cos ;
2

28.9. ) r = 3 sin 3

27.22. z + x + y

)=

28.11. ) r = 3 cos 3 ;

27.24. x 2 2z = y 2

28.12. ) r = 4 sin 4 ;

27.26. x 2 y 2 + z 2 = 2

28.13. ) r = sin 3 ;

27.27. x 2 y 2 = 2

27.28. y 2 + z 2 = 3x

28.14. ) r = 2 cos + 5 ;

27.29. x 2 y 2 + z 2 =

27.30. x 2 3y 2 = z 2

28.15. ) r 2 = 4 cos 2 ;

27.31. x + y

)+ z

= 3 .

28.16. ) r = 4 sin

28.

28.17. ) r = 4 4 cos ;

)
(r 0 ) ;
) , .
28.1. ) r = 3 sin 2 ;
28.2. ) r = e

28.3. ) r = 2 sin + 2 ;
28.4. ) r 2 = 2 sin 2 ;

1
28.5. ) r = ;
2
4
28.6. ) r = ;

28.7. ) r = 4 cos ;

) = 9(x + y )
4 y ) = 25(x + y )
) + 6xy = 0
3y ) = 9(x + y )
+ 2x ) = 25(x + y )
+ 3x ) = 4(x + y )
) 8(x y ) = 0
2

) 4 x + y x

(
) (x
) (x
) (x
) (x
) (x

+ y2

+ y2

) x + y

+y
+y

+ y2

;
3

28.18. ) r = 3 2 sin ;
28.19. ) r =

e4 ;

28.20. ) r = 3 sin 3
28.21. ) r =

(
) (x

) x 2 + y 2
2

+ 2 x 2 y2 = 0

+ y2 + 2y = 9 x 2 + y2

) x 2 + y 2 = 2 x

(
) (x
) (x
) (x
) (x
) (x
) (x
) (x

) x 2 + y 2 2 x

= 2 x 2 + y2

+ y2 y = 3 x 2 + y2

+ y2

)
)

+y

+ y2

+ y2

+ y2

+ y2

4xy = 0

(
)
+ 2 y ) = 9(x + y )
) 6(x y ) = 0
) = 8xy
) + 8(x y ) = 0

2 2

2 x 2 y2 = 0
2

) x 2 + y 2 = 8 y

;
3

8
;
3

(
) (x

) x 2 + y 2
2

+ 4xy = 0

+ y2 x

= x 2 + y2

1
28.22. ) r = e 3 ;
2

) x 2 + y 2 = 4 y

28.23. ) r 2 = 3 cos 2 ;

) x 2 + y 2 + 3y

28.24. ) r = 2 cos + 3 ;
28.25. ) r =

3
;

(
) (x
) (x

2
2

) = 16(x + y )
+ y ) + 10(x y ) = 0
+ y 2x ) = 9(x + y )
2 2

28.26. ) r =

1
;
3

28.27. ) r = 2 cos 2 ;
28.28. ) r = 3 + 3 cos 2 ;
28.29. ) r = 3 cos 4 ;
28.30. ) r = 4 cos 2 ;
28.31. ) r = 2 sin

(
) (x
) (x
) (x
) (x
) (x

) x 2 + y 2

;
2

= 6xy

+ y 2 + 3y = 3 x 2 + y 2

2 2

+y

+ y 2 3x

= 4 xy

+ y2 + x

+ y2

= 16 x 2 + y 2

= 16 x 2 + y 2

4 x 2 y2 = 0 .

. .
.
2
:

..
..
12.03.09. 60 84 1/16.
. . . . . 2,5.
. - . . 2,5. 300 .
.
390005, , . , 59/1.
- .

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