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16.1.
f : Rn Rm -
U(a, ) a Rn . xi xi
a, a = (a1 , . . . , ai1 , ai +xi , ai+1 , . . . , an ) U(a, ).
, |xi | < .
f , xi :
i f (a, xi ) = f (a1 , . . . , ai1 , ai + xi , ai+1 , . . . , an ) f (a1 , . . . , an ).
f
a xi . i f (a)
xi f (a).

i f (a)
xi 0 xi

(16.1)

lim

xi xi
xi 0,
f a xi fx0 i .

78

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J xi xi a.
f a

## f1 (a1 , . . . , ai1 , ai + xi , ai+1 , . . . , an )

f1 (a)

..
..
i f (a) =
. =
.
fm (a1 , . . . , ai1 , ai + xi , ai+1 , . . . , an )
fm (a)

i f1 (a)
f1 (a1 ,...,ai1 ,ai + xi ,ai+1 ,...,an ) f1 (a)

..
..
=
=
.
.
.
fm (a1 ,...,ai1 ,ai + xi ,ai+1 ,...,an ) fm (a)
i fm (a)

16.1. f : U(a, ) Rn Rm
a xi , ,
a xi .

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16.1. f : Rn Rm ,
a,

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, ( n = m). , .
. .
.

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16

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16.1 ,

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16.

79

i f1 (a)
xi

i f (a)
f (a)

= lim
= lim
xi 0 xi
xi 0
xi

..
.

i fm (a)

lim

f1 (a)
xi

..
= . ,
f (a)
i fm (a)
m
xi

xi

,
f (x) , f (x). ,
, .
f : Rn Rm a Rn
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , ( ,

 f1 (x), f2 (x), . . . , fm (x) f (x))
fi (a)
xj

m n, i , j .

f a

f1 (a)
f1 (a)
f1 (a)
...
x2
xn
x1

f2 (a)
f2 (a)
f2 (a)
f (a)
0
.
.
.

f (x) =
=
x2
xn .
x1
x
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

fm (x)
fm (x) fm (x)
...
x1

x2

xn

-


f (x) f (x)
f (x)
f 0 (x) =
...
x2

f (x)
1
x

..
f 0 (x) =
.

fm (x)
x

xn

(16.3)

(16.4)

16.1.
f (x, y) = xey x2 y 3 y

x y .

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(16.2)

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..
.

. I

x1

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xi 0

xi 0

i f1 (a)
xi

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f (a)

=
xi

lim

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15.1,

xi

u0x (x, y) = ey ,

## vy0 (x, y) = 3x2 y 2 ,

wx0 (x, y) = 0,

wy0 (x, y) = 1.

:
y

0
ux (x, y) u0y (x, y)
e
xey
f 0 (x, y) = vx0 (x, y) vy0 (x, y) = 2xy 3 3x2 y 2 .
0
1
wx0 (x, y) wy0 (x, y)

16.2.
f : Rn Rm

x Rn x = (x1 . . . xn ) , x + x .
f

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## u(x, y) = xey , v(x, y) = x2 y 3 w(x, y) =

= y. :

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16.

80

p
(x1 )2 + . . . + (xn )2 .

16.2. f : Rn Rm ,
x, x,

f (x) = Ax + (x)|x|,

(16.5)

A m n, x, (x)
x 0.

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f X Rn , .
m = 1 f , (16.5) A
n, .. A = (a1 a2 . . . an ), (x) x 0
. (16.5) (9.2).
.

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, , |x| =

## = (f1 (x) . . . fm (x)) x f1 (x), f2 (x), . . . , fm (x):

f1 (x + x)
f1 (x)

..
..
f (x) = f (x + x) f (x) =
. =
.
fm (x + x)
fm (x)

f1 (x + x) f1 (x)
f1 (x)

..
..
=
=
.
.
.
fm (x + x) fm (x)
fm (x)

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x x. f (x) =

f (x) = f (x + x) f (x),

J (16.5)
. ,

## (9.2) f (x) = (f1 (x) . . . fm (x)) , (x) = (1 (x) . . . m (x)) A = (aij ).

(9.2) :

f1 (x)
x1
1 (x, x)
a11 a12 . . . a1n

..
..
. . . . . . . . . . ... +

=
|x|,
.
.
am1 am2 . . . amn
fm (x)
xn
m (x, x)

(16.7)

(x) 0 x 0.
J m = 1 9.1.

## m > 1. 16.2, f (x) = (f1 (x) . . . fm (x))

x fi .
(16.6) aij
fi x :
fi (x) =

fi (x)
fi (x)
x1 + . . . +
xn + i (x)|x|.
x1
xn

(16.8)

,
,
.
16.3. ,
.

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16.2. ,
, , .

, (16.5) A ,
x, .. f 0 (x),
(x) i (x). i (x)
x 0, (x)
x 0. I

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16.1. f : Rn Rm x,
,
f 0 (x) f (x)

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i (x) 0 x 0.
, (16.5) (16.6), (16.5) f (x), (16.6) fi (x), i = 1, m. I

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(16.6)

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i = 1, m,

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## fi (x) = ai1 x1 + . . . + ain xn + i (x)|x|,

16.2. f : Rn Rm x
, .

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16.

81

## J f (x) = (f1 (x) . . . fm (x)) a.

16.2 fi (x) a,
a
fi (a) =

n
X
fi (a)

xk

xk

x0

x0

, fi (x), i = 1, m, a. , x = x a,
, x 0 x a , , fi (a) 0. ,
fi (x) fi (a) x a, fi (x) a.
fi (x) a, 15.3 f (x) a. I
16.3.
, .
16.4. f
a, a,
a.
J , fi
f a , a. ,
fi a. 16.2, f
a. I
X Rn C 1 (X, Rm )
f : X Rm , X .
f X , C 1 (X, Rm ). C 1 (X, Rm )
X.
, . .

## (g f )0 (a) = g 0 (b)f 0 (a).

(16.9)

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J g U(b, ) b. f a,
a. , ,
U(a, ) f , f (U(a, )) U(b, ).
U(a, ) g f .
x U(a, ) y = f (x), z = g(y). x = x a,
y = y b, z = z c, c = g(b). f a

y = f 0 (a)x + (x)|x|,
(16.10)

16.4. f : Rn Rm
a, g: Rm Rk b = f (a),
b Rm , a g f : Rn Rk ,
a

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k=1

x0


lim xk + lim i (x)|x| = 0,

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lim fi (a) =

n
X
fi (a)

x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) i (x) 0 x 0. ,

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xk + i (x)|x|,

k=1

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16.

82

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## (g f )(x) = g(f (x)) f : Rn Rm g: Rm Rk

z = g(y), y = f (x), y = (y1 , y2 , . . . , ym ) Rm .
f1 , f2 , . . . , fm g1 , g2 , . . . , gk
f g, (16.9)
m

X gi fs
gi f1
gi fm
zi
=
=
+ ... +
,
xj
y
x
y
x
y
x
s
j
1
j
m
j
s=1

i = 1, k, j = 1, n.

(16.13)

,
z1
g1 f1 g1 f2
=
+
,
x2
y1 x2 y2 x2

z2
g2 f1 g2 f2
=
+
,
x1
y1 x1 y2 x1

z2
g2 f1 g2 f2
=
+
,
x2
y1 x2 y2 x2

fj zk
g
,
(x1 , x2 ), k
xi xi
yj

## (y1 (x1 , x2 ), y2 (x1 , x2 )).

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g1 f1 g1 f2
z1
=
+
,
x1
y1 x1 y2 x1

n = m = k = 2, .. f : R2 R2 , f = (f1 f2 ) , g: R2 R2 , g = (g1 g2 ) .
z = g(f (x1 , x2 )) (16.9)
z = g(y), y = f (x1 , x2 ), y = (y1 , y2 ) :
!
!
!
(g1 )0y1 (g1 )0y2
(z1 )0x1 (z1 )0x2
(f1 )0x1 (f1 )0x2
=
.
(g2 )0y1 (g2 )0y2
(z2 )0x1 (z2 )0x2
(f2 )0x1 (f2 )0x2

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,

0

(f (a)) f (a)(x) + (x) . ,
(x) 0 x 0. 16.2, (16.12) , g f a. g 0 (b) f 0 (a)
, (16.12), g f , ..
(16.9). I

(y) y 0, (16.11)
y = 0. , (0) = 0 (y)
y = 0. (f (a)) x = 0
, , x 0.
(x) : |(x)| = 1. ,

(f (a)) f 0 (a)(x) + (x)

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x
.
|x|

(x) =

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(x) = g 0 (b)(x) + (f (a)) f 0 (a)(x) + (x) ,

## (y) 0 y 0. (16.10) (16.11),



(g f )(a) = z = g 0 (b) f 0 (a)x + (x)|x| + y |y| = g 0 (b)f 0 (a)x + (x)|x|, (16.12)

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(x) 0 x 0. g b

(16.11)
z = g 0 (b)y + (y)|y|,

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16.

83

16.3.
f : Rn Rm
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) . , 16.1,

x x = (x1 . . . xn )

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16.

84

## dx = (dx1 dx2 . . . dxn ) .

(16.14)

f (x) = df (x) + (x)|x| = f 0 (x) dx + (x)|x|,

(16.15)

(x) 0 x 0.

f 0 (x) : f 0 (x) = fx0 1 fx0 2 . . . fx0 n ,
(16.14) :
df (x) = fx0 1 (x) dx1 + fx0 2 (x) dx2 + . . . + fx0 n (x) dxn .

## dz = (g f )0 (a) dx = g 0 (b)f 0 (a) dx = g 0 (b) dy

16.1. . ,
f, g: Rn Rm c
d(cf ) = cdf , d(f g) = df dg.

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, dz z = g(f (x)) dy , ,
.

## fx0 i dxi f (x) x. fx0 i dxi

i f (x) f (x) .
,
, , .
f : Rn Rm a Rn , g: Rm Rk
b = f (a). 10.1, g f
a. y
z = g(y), y = f (x). (16.9)

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## df (x) = f 0 (x) dx,

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, , x, , : df (x) = f 0 (x)x.
, f 0 (x) , .
, (10.1)
, - .
xi , i = 1, n, ,
: dxi = xi .
f

df (x).

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## y = (y1 , y2 , . . . , ym ) (a, b) Rn+m ? Fx0 (x, y) =

f1 (x, y)
y1
f2 (x, y)
y1

f1 (x, y)
y2
f2 (x, y)
y2

y1

y2

xn

...

f1 (x, y)
ym
f2 (x, y)
ym

...
0
Fy (x, y) =

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

fm (x, y)
fm (x, y) fm (x, y)
...

ym

Fy0 (x, y)

,
m, F 0 (x, y)

Fx0 (x, y) Fy0 (x, y) .
, (
) .

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16.5 ( ( )). m
F (x, y) = 0, x Rn , y Rm , :
1) (a, b) Rn+m , .. F (a, b) = 0;
2) F (x, y) V
(a, b), .. F C 1 (V );
3) F (x, y) (a, b) y , ..
det Fy0 (a, b) 6= 0.
Rn+m U (a, b), |x a| <
< x , |y b| < y , F (x, y) = 0

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x2

x1

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Fy0 (x, y) =
F
y
x y, ..

f1 (x, y)
f1 (x, y)
f1 (x, y)
...
x2
xn

x1

f2 (x, y) f2 (x, y)
f
(x,
y)
2

...
0

Fx (x, y) = x1
x2
xn

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

f (x, y) f (x, y)
fm (x, y)
m
m
...

F (x, y)

F (x, y)
x

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## f1 (x), . . . , fm (x) X Rn+m .

(16.16) m = 1, .. , .
(16.16), .
(16.16) .
F (x, y) = 0, x Rn ,
( ), y Rm , ( ), F : Rn+m Rm ,
, .
: F (x, y) = 0 -

(. 11.1) ( )

f1 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn+m ) = 0,

f (x , x , . . . , x
2 1
2
n+m ) = 0,
(16.16)

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

fm (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn+m ) = 0,

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16.4. ( )

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16.

85

y=(x)

y=(x)

y=(x)



0 (x) = Fy0 (x, y)

1
y=(x)

Fx0 (x, y)

,
y=(x)

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16.2. , 16.5 ( ) ,
.
(16.17)
, 16.5 : y = (x), F (x, y), a. ,
U (a) a F (x, (x)) 0.
,

0 (x) = 0.
+ Fy0 (x, y)
Fx0 (x, y)

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y y = (x), x Ux = {x Rn : |x a| < x }.
y = (x) Ux , (a) = b,
0 (x)


1 0
0
0
(x) = Fy (x, y) Fx (x, y)
. #
(16.17)

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16.

86

R4 F (0, 1, 0, 0) = (0 0) .
:


2v 2y
2u 2x
0
F (x, y, u, v) =
.
2x 2u 2y 2v
(0, 1, 0, 0)


0 2 0 0
0
F (0, 1, 0, 0) =
.
0 0 2 0

, 16.5, (0, 1, 0, 0)
(16.18) y u, .. x = 0, v = 0 y = y(x, v), u = u(x, v),

## F (x, y(x, v), u(x, v), v) (0 0) . , 16.5, ,

, .

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, F 0 (0, 1, 0, 0) ,
y u:


2 0
0
F(y, u) (0, 1, 0, 0) =
.
0 2

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## (x, y, u, v) = (0, 1, 0, 0).

 2

u 2xv + y 2 1
F (x, y, u, v) =
v 2 2yu + x2

(16.18)

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16.2.
(
u2 2xv + y 2 = 1,
v 2 2yu + x2 = 0

(16.17).

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(0, 1, 0, 0) du = dy = 0. (16.20)
(
2dxdv + d2 y = 0,
dv 2 d2 u + dx2 = 0.
y(x, v) u(x, v) (0, 0):
d2 y = 2dxdv,

d2 u = dx2 + dv 2 . #

16.6 ( ). G: Rn Rn :
1 . G(x) V a, ..
G C 1 (V ).
2 . G(x) a , .. det G0 (a) 6= 0.
U b = G(a), :
1 . U
G1 (y), G(x), .. G1 (y) V y U

G G1 (y) = y, y U .
2 . G1 (y) U ( , U ),
G(x)
0
1
.
G1 (y) = G0 (x)
(16.21)

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, G: Rn Rn G1 , , .

.

, y(x, v) u(x, v) x = v = 0.
(16.19), , dx dv
, dy du .
(
du2 + u d2 u dxdv dvdx + dy 2 + y d2 y = 0,
(16.20)
dv 2 dydu y d2 u dudy u d2 y + dx2 = 0.

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x, y, u, v. (0, 1, 0, 0)
(
dy = 0,
du = 0.

## y(x, v) u(x, v) (0, 0). , 2

(
u du x dv v dx + y dy = 0,
(16.19)
v dv y du u dy + x dx = 0.

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16.

87

## J F : R2n Rn , F (x, y) = G(x) y.

(a, b) R2n , n F (x, y) = 0 G(x), .. (x, y), y = G(x). , F (a, b) = 0.
det G0 (a) 6= 0, Fx0 (a, b) = G0 (a) . ,

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x=G1 (y)

## F (x, y) (a, b) 16.5 . , F (x, y) = 0 W W =

= {(x, y) R2n : |x a| < x , |y b| < y } x, .. (y), |y b| < y b,
F ((y), y) 0,

(16.22)

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16.

88

(16.23)


F (x, y) = G(x) y, (16.22) , G (y) y, ..
(y) G(x). , Fy0 (x, y)
E, E. (16.23)
1
0 (y) = G0 ((y)) , (16.21) I
16.3. . G: R2 R2 , z1 = x1 +ex2 ,
z2 = ex1 x2 . R2 .
(x1 , x2 ) R2


1 ex2
J(x1 , x2 ) =
,
ex1 1

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1
0 (y) = Fx0 ((y), y) Fy0 ((y), y).

(y) ,

z2 = 2x1 ,

(16.24)

,
G1 . . G R2 ,


1 2x2
J(x1 , x2 ) =
.
2 0

{(z1 , z2 ): z1 = x1 , z2 = 2x1 } ,
z2 = 2z1 .
, G1 (z1 , z2 ), G z2 = 2z1 .

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## : det J(x1 , x2 ) = 4x2 . , (x1 , x2 ), x2 6= 0. ,

(x1 , x2 ), x2 6= 0, . (x1 , x2 ), ,
x2 = 0 Ox1 .
G. (16.24) G x2 = 0.
Ox1 :

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z1 = x1 + x22 ,

R2 . ,
b R2 , b = G(a), ,
G1 , G1 (b) = a.
. G: R2 R2 ,

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## det J(x1 , x2 ) = 1 ex1 +x2

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, G
z1 > z2 /2. z = (z1 , z2 )
G a = (a1 , a2 ) e
a = (a1 , a2 ), . z = (z1 , z2 ), z1 > z2 /2,
, G1 (z) = a, G1 (z) = e
a.
z1 > z2 /2.
z 0 = (z10 , z20 ) z1 = z2 /2 ,
G1 , . -,
G. -, z 0
x0 ,
x0 , G .

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, G1 - z2 = 2z1 .
. (16.24) x1
x2 G1 :

z2
x1 = ,
2q
x = z z2 .
2
1

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16.

89

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78
78
80
84
85

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.
.
.
.

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.
.
.
.

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.
.
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. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .

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16.
16.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.4. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .

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