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2011
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62:802.0(075.8)
81.432.1-923
753

:
, .. ;
..,
-

: .. , ..

[ ] : 753 . (432 ) / -
. , . . .-. - ;
. .. , .. . : , 2011.
ISBN 978-5-98276-467-6
:
1 DVD-R-. : PC 486 DX-33; Microsoft Windows XP; 2-
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62:802.0(075.8)
81.432.1-923

.
ISBN 978-5-98276-467-6




- , 2011


1. - ...........................
2. - ...
2.1. ......
2.2.
2.3. - ..
2.4. ..
3. - .
3.1. - ...
3.2. ........
3.3. ......
3.4. ......
3.5. with...
3.6. .....
3.7. ......
4. - .....................................................................
5. - .......
5.1.
5.2. .....
.....
. ,

4
5
5
6
10
13
14
14
15
16
17
17
18
18
18
20
20
21
26
27

1.
-
3 (, ), ( -
) ( , , , ).
() ( ,
).
.
- () , ,
: ,
, , , , , , , , .
. ,
, , , ,
, .
-
, .
:
1) ( );
2) (, );
3) ( );
4) .
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) ;
6) .
:
1. , ,
, , . , ,
16 , .
2. ,
, , .
4

2.
-
2.1.
: . 2000
2500 ,
: to offer (), ; to attack (), .
. (the)
(, ) ,
, , : in the formula
; The reinforced concrete slab was delivered to the site. .
the sooner, the better , .
(a, an) , , -,
.
. (. 1).
1
. .
phenomenon
criterion
erratum
datum
nucleus
radius
basis
crisis
formula
lamina
vertex
helix

. .
phenomena
criteria
errata
data
nuclei
radii
bases
crises
formulae
laminae
vertices
helices


(.)

:
alternative
, , ( )
approach
( , )
consideration
, ( )
end
( )
evidence
( )
experience
( )
5

instance
( )
procedure
, ( )
technique
, , ( )
. . , one (ones ..). ,
, , -.
. : 1997; 1,997; 1.997
, ,
. , : 1,295,643 ( 1 295 643).
,
, , .
, , :
8/29/49, 29.08.49.
, : 10.52.
times, fold (fivefold ).
. : however, also, again, now, thus, alternatively, on the other hand, .
() .
, . ( ): after, before, on, together with, owing to, according to, by means of, for the purpose of
and so on.
. ,
. , , ,
, () . , .

2.2.
, ,
.
,
,
. Coercivity, klystron, microsin
. Dead, ripple, rope, pocket
(pocket , ). ( ) .
6

, :
1)
;
2) .

. , ..
, .
. ,
, , ,
, .

. to say
to assert, to state, to declare, to reply. , . ,
.

, . - , .
, ,
.
, . impendance, , ,
, , : blocked impendance, vector
impendance, surface impendance, etc. , , , , .
, ..
.
:
1. .
, ().
, : , .
2. . , .
= , : . , .
7

3. , . , , : = - .
. : (.), .
:
1) , ;
2) , .
. , ,
.
.
.
. . - , , :
anti -, - (antibody, antiaircraft);
co - (-exist);
de - (demilitarize);
extra - (extraordinary);
ex - (ex-champion);
pre -, - (prehistoric, precondenser);
super -, - (superconductivity);
trans - (transatlantic);
ultra - (ultrasonic).
un-, in-, il-, im-, ir-, dis-, mis- , re- -, :
definite indefinite, legal illegal, to shape to reshape.
, , be- en- , , to belittle, to endanger, to encourage.

non-, : The proposal is a non-runner for Labour
non-runner .
:
1. -er (-or). (
, ) , : a visitor,
a roller, a reader.
,
, : the biggest exhibitor ; is a muster. . A look of respect came into the eyes of the questioner questioner , questioners at a press conference .
-er , - , : Londoner, Oxforder etc.
8

2. -able (-ible). .
able
- , : washable
wallpaper, portable device.
, , ,
, : a quotable book ,
; a climbable mountain , ;
an unswimmable river , .
-able , .
3. -ry. , , : a rocket rocketry ; a machine machinery ; a circuit
circuitry .
, - : aviary ; conservatory ; granary
.
. : to run () a run (, ).

, : to water,
to control, to cause.

(, , ), : to doctor ; to motor ; to wire .
, .. : to fall out a fallout (); to build up a buildup ; to make up a make-up , .
, : empty to empty.
. , : ghost
, .
: sputnik , clearing
- ( ).
. , , .
. : broadcast
; televiewer .
, : radioactivity, lightweight, thermostable,
flame-proof, etc.
9

.
, , -, : d.c. (direct current) ; e.m.f. (electro-motive force)
; radar (radio detection and ranging) ; laser (light
amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation) ; cat (carburetor air
temperature) ; EVA (electronic velocity
analyser) .
. -,
, . ,
, , : Theyve decided to introduce CAPE (Computer Aided Production Engineering) ().
:
1. : .
2. c , : WIFE (Water Injection Fume Exhaustion)
.
3. : , ..., : HELP (High energy leadless package). :
, ,
.
.
, .. (): positron = positive electron =
; motel = motor hotel = ; transistor = transfer
resistor = ; modem = modulator demodulator = ; plench =
pliers and wrench = .
, ,
: ad = advertisement, , , ,
, , H-bomb = hydrogen bomb.
. , : wow-wows
, ; click-click , .
. ,

, : hit-and-miss method ; knowhow , .

2.3.
-
:
1. . ,
10

. . , , , , : hand of curve
.
- , , : walk-up building .
( , ), : can , ,
( ), : lead , .
2. . (),
. (, , ).
, : -ability buildability .
landscape, seascape,
, .
townscape, ,
, .
3. .
,
.
,
, ,
.
, , ,
.. , , : , , , ..,
, , , , ..
, ,
, . . , revolution , .
, (, ) . sputnik .
progress , ,
, , ,
: disease progress . .
4. .
. .
11

:
resin , ;
actual , ;
accurate , ;
lunatic , ;
complexion , ;
hospital , ;
prospect , ;
cabinet , ;
cession , ;
fabric , ..
5. , . ,
, : ,
,
. .
,
, : bank ( ) shore ( ) .
6. .
, (. 2).

British English
accumulator
sleeper
trapezium
tender
lorry

2
American English
storage battery
tie
trapezoid
bid
truck

7. , . -

, .. . , .. : ... ,
Newton .
, : London, Washington, Monaco, etc. , : Marshall Islands
Map .
,
.. : Newton .
Greenwich , .

:
[w] , , , (Washington, Wales);
[,] , , (Thunderbolt, Galsworthy);
12

[h] , (Black Hills, Harry);


[] (Silver Spring).
, , , , : First National Bank
.
.
, , : The Bank for Foreign Economic Affairs of Russia .

,
( ), : Cape of
Good Hope ; New South Wales
. .
, , ,
: Great Britain, United States of America, U.K., etc; Congress of Industrial Organizations , United Electricals
.
. - ,
, -.

, , , . ,
.
8. . : the voltage
is applied ; the magnetic field is set up
; the switch is closed ; force of gravity
; combustion of chamber .
-
: in full blast ;
the wire is alive ; the wire is dead .

2.4.

oxygen, ionosphere .
, , : switch , ,
. .
Most of the modern radio-transmitters can communicate both telegraph and
telephone signals. ,
13

,
:
, .
: , .
.
- .
,
.
,
.
, , , , ..
,
. title ,
-. His title is Professor title
. , .
(), :
The cold wind very quickly caused a in temperature.
- ,
, : hostage ,
In an atomic war women and children will be the first
hostages .

3.
-
3.1.
-
,
: to do post-welding cleaning (
to clean after the welding).
,
.
2 , .

. , , ,
.
14

,
(). : Unless immediately stopped, the environmental pollution may become irreversible / Unless it is immediately stopped ,
; At that time little, if any, use was found for his discovery.
(.:
, - ).

( -ible,
-able, -ive), : the materials available.
: the properties to be expected.
,
-
, : it was decided, it is to be noted, care must be taken, it is
necessary
, . , , .. , : in such
fields as work study; mechanical engineering; telecommunication etc.

:
1) .. , : fats,
oils, steels, sands, wools, etc;
2) .. : clippers, trammers, dividers, etc;
3) - : the fuel
of kerosene etc;
4) - : since, therefore, leads to, results in, etc.

3.2.
- , .
.
, ,
. , ,
, : on the table ; under the table
.
15

- : on and under the table. -


: , .
.
, : Water was flowing into and out of the chamber.
.

3.3.
, ..
, , , : a clean room
( ); the room of my mother
( ).
.
,
. . ,
, . , , , .
, :
the first man-made digital computer.
() , ,
, : A luminous sign consists of a panel on which letters
are formed by an arrangement of juxtaposed discreet radioluminescent glass bulbs.
? bulbs ().
? glass .
? radioluminescent .
? discreet , .. .
? juxtaposed .
: ,

.

, , : new
fuel research method.
New fuel method, .
, .
, , .. , : gas turbine ;
high voltage , , : burning time ; expansion ratio .
16

, ,
, : The worlds first push-button
controlled solid fuel central heating system. , .
.
.
, , ,
, : office of destination .

3.4.
: The agender being exhausted, the meeting was closed.
: , , .
: , . : , .
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
:
1. , .
2. , .
3. . .
. . ,

, : ,
. .
:
A new technique having been worked out, the results improved considerably.
technique,
results.
, , ,
.
.. : , , ,
.

3.5. with
,
with. . ,
17

, , : A number of compounds
were prepared and tested with the results being very nice.
, with
, , : They tested various methods, with no results
meeting the requirements. ,
, ; The pump worked hard, without
the water level decreasing considerably. , .

3.6.

. , , ,
. ,

, .
,
, .

3.7.

, : Youll have to quickly do it.
; It is necessary to strongly reprimand him.
.

4.
-

-
. ,
, , , : ( ).
, , , : .
(
): , , , , , ; -: , ;
:
18


( 50 % ). . ,
.
.
, , , , , , , .
, .
,
, : It is performed in
a given direction. - . , : throughout this paper .
-
, :
1. ,
- , : You might ask why engineers have generally chosen to supply us with a.c.
rather than d.c. for our household needs. , ,
; We know the primary coil in the ordinary transformer to have more turns than
the secondary one. , , .
2.
. ,
, ,
, : Fig. 10 gives a drawing of a bulb;
the filament will be seen in the centre. . 10 ; .
3. -
, . ,
,
. : This question was
discussed at the conference :
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
4. , :
d.c. (direct current) ;
a.c. (alternating current) ;
19

s.a. (sectional area) ;


b.p. (boiling point) .
.
5.
. , ..
, , , : We have learned to manufacture dozens of construction
materials to substitute iron. :
, .
,
, . , . , :
( - is).
, .
6. ,
.. , (
). , dramatic, successful, excellent, etc.

5.
-
5.1.
, ,
:
1. .
, , , , .
2. . ,
. , , , , - ( ). , ,
, .
,
,
. , ,
20

,
,
.
. ,
() .
. , .
3. .
()
, , , .
,
.
, , , .
4. .
. ,
,
. , , , , , .
, ,
.

5.2.

, .
:
1) ;
2) , .. ;
3) .

.
, , ..
.
:
1) ();
2) ();
3) (, ).
. . , . ,
21

( , )
, .
( ).
, .
() ,

.
. . . , , , - .
. .
, , , ..,
.
,
.
:
1. . , .
, ,
.
, .
2. . , .
:
)
;
) , , ;
) ;
) .
3. . , .
4. .
.
,
, .
22

;
5. . , , -
, - (
,
, ..). , .
.
, :
1. . , .
, , -, , -, , , -, .
:
) (- ) , ,

;
) ,
(.. , );
) , -
, ;
) ;
) , ;
) .
,
, .
, , . ,
, , .
, .
.
Porcelain tiles
Porcelain tiles, as decoration material, became widespread relatively recently. Up to 70 years of the last century ceramics produced by some
European, mostly Italian companies in a small range, nonglazed version and
has been used almost exclusively for the finishing of technical facilities, which
are important to have moisture resistance and increased strength.
Porcelain has a very low porosity and, as a consequence low water
absorption. Absorption of 0,05 % belongs only porcelain stoneware and not
available ceramic tiles and natural stone. Therefore, porcelain tiles are now
widely used in exterior cladding of buildings every climatic zone.
23

Porcelain has the highest degree of resistance to aggressive media and wear
(wear on a scale of PEI up to 5). Porcelain does not lose its color over time and
does not fade in the sun. Modern public buildings, stations, airports, shops prefer
it for these reasons.
Porcelain is resistant to shock loads and pressure. This property of the porcelain is frequently used in its application as a floor covering industrial premises.
Huge selection of porcelain on the market today makes it suitable for construction
or repair of virtually all types of buildings and premises.
Disadvantages of porcelain it is only the investigation of its merits. First of
all, the increased hardness. It can be noted, perhaps only two. This is relative
fragility of transportation and complexity in processing and cutting of porcelain
tiles. But these shortcomings can easily be addressed with proper and professional
approach to work with granite, and are, rather, the inevitable costs.


. 70- , ,
, , .
, ,
. 0,05 % , .

.
( 5,
,
, ).
. , , ,
.
.
.

.
. , . , ,
. . , , .
24

, ,
. ,
1000 , .. . , , - .
2. . ,
, .
,
, , :
Bionic architecture is a movement for the design and construction of expressive buildings whose layout and lines borrow from natural (i.e. biological) forms.
The movement began to mature in the early 21st century, and thus in early designs
research was stressed over practicality. Bionic architecture sets itself in opposition
to traditional rectangular layouts and design schemes by using curved forms and
surfaces reminiscent of structures in biology and fractal mathematics. One of
the tasks set themselves by the movement's early pioneers was the development of
aesthetic and economic justifications for their approach to architecture.
- , .
21 . , .
. , ,
, ,
.

3. -.
. , (, , ..). ,
, , - , , .., :
Elevators are so well-contained that even people who use them daily may not
realize how they operate. When someone pushes a button to call an available elevator on another floor, the safety doors (frequently double doors) close and
an electric lifting motor switches on. The motor turns a drum, around which
the cable system is wound. Counterweights are used to balance the weight of
the elevator car and relieve the tension on the cables, so that when the car is going
up, the weights are going down, and vice versa. A guiding rack keeps the elevator
moving smoothly in the shaft, and the floor buffers prevent the car from bouncing
when it comes to a stop. A safety breaking system (located just below the car) and
touch-sensitive doors prevent potential injuries to passengers.
: , . ,
25

. - . , .
4. . (), , .
The most compact 4-story home in the world
While large investors and large architectural companies compete among themselves to see who will make the building higher, wider, more expensive, the little
people and small companies their concerns. Here, for example, the company CSD
Archtecten built in Antwerp, four-story house, which quite possibly is the smallest
modern four home in the world. Place is quite suitable for normal living house on
a piece of land three of four meters not a trivial task. This is not the slums of
Mumbai, where people live in much more cramped conditions. This the center
of Antwerp. There needs modern approach to the construction of modern housing.
But the company CSD Archtecten coped with the task became to her, the highest
rating. She turned four-story building with total area of 50 square meters
(12.5 square meters per floor). Here is all that is necessary for modern man to life.
On the ground floor there is a garage for the car, on the second bedroom, toilet
and shower, on the third the kitchen, on the fourth a living room, combined
with the Cabinet.
.
, .
4 , 5 .


1. , .. / .. . . : . ,
2006. 528 .
2. , .. - - / .. // ( ). . :
. ., 1990. 253 .
3. , . / . , . . : : , 2003. 136 .
4. , .. (, , , ) / .. . : , 1997. 231 .

26


,
/, , , /, (account current)
ADE (automated design engineering)


,
ADOCS (automated design and optimiza- tion of control system)

adsd (addressed)

adse (addressee)
,
ad (advertisement), . . ads

a.f. (as follows)

alky (alkalinity)

a.m. 1. (above mentioned)

2. (ante meridiem)

(appendix)

Attn (attention)
(-)
BC (building code)

/ (bill of exchange)

B/L (bill of lading)

CEO (chief executive officer)



f (compare)

C/M (concrete masonry)



Co. (company)

cont, contr. (contract)

CONTR (contractor)

Corp., Corpn (corporation)

cur 1. (currency)

2. (current)

CV (curriculum vitae)

dd 1. (dated)

2. (delivered)

Dept. (department)
;
doc, dct (document), . . docs.

doz., dz (dozen)

EAON (except as otherwise noted)



e.g. (. exempli gratia)

enc, encl (enclosed, enclosure)


, , , ( ..)
exc, excl. (except, excluding, exception, ,
exclusion)
expn (expiration)
()
fig. (figure)
; ,
FY (fiscal year)

h.a. (. hoc anno)

hf (half)

Hp, .., h.p., H/P (hire purchase)



HTM (high-temperatures materials)

HV (high voltage)

IB (I-beam)

27

.
ID 1. inside diameter
2. inside dimensions
id. (. idem)
i.e., ie (. id est)
incl. (including)
inv. (invoice)
IOU (I owe you)
iss. (issued)
l.a. (letter of advice)
L/A (letter of authority)
L.C., L/C (letter of credit)
Ld, Ltd. (limited)
LOC (letter of commitment)
mdse (merchandise)
memo (memorandum)
M/P (mail payment)
M.T. 1. (mail transfer)
2. (metric ton)
MV (merchant (motor) vessel)
N/A (not applicable)
NB (. nota bene)
o/l (our letter)
, /, .. 1. (personal assistant)
2. (power of attorney)
.. (per annum, .)
par., para. (paragraph)
Plc, PLC (public limited company)
(post office)
p.p. (pages)
, p.p. (. per pro)
qv (quod vide)
R&D (research and development)
ret, rept (receipt)
re (regarding)
ref. (reference)
shipt (shipment)
sig. (signature)
tn (ton)
urgt (urgent)
v., vs, vers. (versus)
VAT, V.A.T. (value-added tax)
V.I.P. (very important person)
v.s. (vide supra)

-

( )
,




()
(., )

( )


, ,


(-)
- - ()
,

28

..
. ..
..
..
14.11.2011
. .-. . 1,7. 432


-
-
400074, , . , 1
http://www.vgasu.ru, info@vgasu.ru

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