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WiMAX
-
,

-

2011

004.733(075.8)
32.973.20273
281
:
. .. , ..., . . ;
-
. .. , ..., . . .
. . WiMAX: . / ..
.: - . -, 2011. 179 .
ISBN
WiMAX. , . OFDM, ,
WiMAX.
-
,
. ,
.
,

- -
.
.., 2011
-
, 2011
ISBN


......................................................................................... 5
............................................................................................................... 8
1. WiMAX ............................................ 11
1.1. IEEE 802.16. WiMAX ............................................. 11
1.2. WiMAX .......................................................... 16
1.2.1. WiMAX IEEE 802.16 ....................................... 16
1.2.2. WiMAX IEEE 802.16-2009 ......................... 19
1.2.3. WiMAX IEEE 802.16-2009 ...... 27
1.2.4. WiMAX IEEE 802.16-2009 ...... 29
1.2.5. WiMAX ....................................................... 32
1.3. WiMAX. OFDM ........................ 36
1.3.1. OFDM ............................. 37
1.3.2.
OFDM ....................................................................................... 42
1.3.3. c
OFDM........................................................................................................... 45
1.3.4. OFDM................................................... 48
1.3.5. OFDM ................................................................. 50
1.4. MIMO ............................ 51
1.4.1. MIMO.............................. 51
1.4.2. . . ............ 53
1.4.3. - .................................... 58
1.4.4. - .
..................................................................................................... 62
1.5. ................................................................... 65
2. WiMAX ............................................................ 67
2.1. . ............................ 68
2.2. ...................................................................................... 70
2.2.1. - , .
OFDMA ...................................................................................... 70
2.2.2. ......................... 74
2.2.3. ...................................................................... 79
2.2.4. DLFP FCH.................................................................. 80
2.3. ................................. 82
2.3.1. PUSC ................................................. 83
2.3.2. c PUSC ................................................. 89
2.4. ..................................................................... 94
2.4.1. ............................................................................. 95
2.4.2. .................................................... 96
2.4.3. ................................................................................... 107
3

2.4.4. .................................................................................. 107


2.4.5. ............................................................ 109
2.4.6. HARQ .......................................................................... 109
2.4.7. .... 110
2.5. ..................................................... 111
2.5.1. MISO .......................................................... 112
2.5.2. 114
2.6. WiMAX ........................................ 115
2.6.1. ................................................................ 115
2.6.2. ............................................................... 123
2.6.3. WiMAX ........................ 130
2.7. ................................................................. 132
3. WiMAX ................................................... 134
3.1. IEEE 802.16 ...................................................... 134
3.2. ................................................... 137
3.2.1. MAC........... 137
3.2.2. MAC- ..................................................... 141
3.2.3. ................................ 145
3.2.4.
( PDU) ............................................................................................... 151
3.2.5. ARQ ............................................................................... 152
3.3. .................................................................... 152
3.3.1. WiMAX.......................... 152
3.3.2. ....................... 155
3.3.3. ........................................... 156
3.3.4. .................................................... 162
3.3.5. ..................................................................... 169
3.4. ................................................................. 176
............................................................................ 177
. WiMAX .............................................................. 179


3GPP

AMC
ASN
BTC
CC
CDD
CID
CP
CRC
CSN
CTC
DAMA
DL-MAP
DP
DSL
EP
FA
FCH
FDMA
FUSC
GH
HA
HARQ
IEEE
IP
LDPC
LLC
MAC
MAN
MAP
MIMO
MIP

3rd Generation Partnership Project;


Authentication, Authorisation, Accounting;
advanced modulation and coding;
Access Service Network;
Block Turbo Coding;
Convolutional Coding;
yclic Delay Diversity;
Client Identifier;
Cyclic Prefix;
Cyclic Redundancy Check;
Connectivity Service Network;
Convolutional Turbo Coding;
Demand Assigned Multiple Access;
Downlink Map;
Decision Point ( ASN);
Digital Subscriber Line;
Enforcement Point ( ASN);
Foreign Agent;
Frame Control Header;
Frequency Division Multiple Access;
Full Usage of the Subchannels;
Generic Header;
Home Agent;
Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request;
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers;
Internet Protocol;
Low Density Parity Check;
Logical Link Control;
Media Access Control;
Metropolitan Area Network;
Maximum A-posteriori Probability;
Multiple Input Multiple Output;
Mobile IP;
5

MM
MMS
NAP
NSP
OFDM
OFDMA
PHY
PDU
PMP
PTP
PUSC
QoS
SDMA
SISO
SM
SMS
SOVA
SPID
STC
STH
STTD
TDMA
TSM
TVM
WAN
WAP
Wi-Fi
WiMAX
WLAN
WMAN

Management Message;
Multimedia Messaging Service;
Network Access Provider;
Network Service Provider;
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing;
Orthogonal Frequency Multiple Access;
Physical layer;
Protocol Data Unit;
Point-to-multipoint;
Point-to-point;
Partial Usage of the Subchannels;
Quality of Service;
Spatial Division Multiple Access;
Single Input Single Output;
Spatial Multiplexing;
Short Message Service;
Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm;
Subpacket Identifier;
Space-Time Coding;
Signaling Type Header;
Space-Time block coding based Transmit Diversity;
Time Division Multiple Access;
Time-Spreading Mechanism;
Time-Variant Mechanism;
Wide Area Network;
Wireless Application Protocol;
Wireless Fidelity;
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access;
Wireless Local Area Network;
Wireless Metropolitan Area Network;
;
;
( WiMAX);
;
;

;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
- ;
.


WiMAX. ,
.
OFDM, , WiMAX.
WiMAX (PHY-)
, , . .
WiMAX (MAC-)

; , ,
, QoS,
.
WiMAX , , , ,
. , .
, , , , ,
.
WiMAX, .

WiMAX,
IEEE 802.16. , WiMAX, MIMO,

WiMAX ,
-
.
8

IEEE 802.16. PUSC.


WiMAX , ,
, , . WiMAX,
, .

MAC WiMAX,
, , MAC.
WiMAX .
,
,
WiMAX, - LDPC-,
, .
, WiMAX .
, , . ,

.
WiMAX
:
1.1. IEEE 802.16. WiMAX;
1.2.1. WiMAX IEEE 802.16;
2.1. . ;
2.2.2. ;
2.4.7. ;

3.1. IEEE 802.16;


3.2.1. MAC;
3.3.1. WiMAX.
, WiMAX
.
, - .
- ,
.
, .
. . .

10

1. WiMAX
1.1. IEEE 802.16. WiMAX

, , ,
. .

.
WiMAX 10 ,
, xDSL. WiMAX ,
,

/, (, ,
. .). , WiMAX LTE E UTRA.
:
IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009 (WiMAX) (. 1.1);
ETSI HiperMAN;
IEEE 802.20 (WBWA).
IEEE 802.16 1999 . (
2001 .)
IEEE 802.16.
1066 ,

. IEEE 802.16a ( 2003 .)
11

110 .

802.16c (2002)

,

10-66

802.16 (2001)


,
,
10 66

802.16 (2003)


,
,
2 11

802.16 (2004)

802.16 (2005)

802.16f MIB
802.16g Managment

802.16 (2009)

802.16 802.16,
, .

802.16-2004


11
802.16-2004 802.16,
.

. 1.1. IEEE 802.16


2004 . IEEE 802.16REVd, IEEE 802.16.
2005 . IEEE 802.16e, IEEE 802.16-2004.
.
2009 .
IEEE 802.16-2009, (. 1.1).
ETSI BRAN (Broadband Radio Access Networks) HiperMAN. HiperMAN IEEE 802.16-2004.
12

(MAC) . ETSI .
IEEE 802.20 Mobile Broadband Wireless Access
(MBWA), 2002 ., ,
250 /.
IEEE 802.16
WiMAX, Nokia, Harris Corp., Ensemble
Crosspan. 2005 . 230 , 400 , .
IEEE 802.16
WiMAX (. 1.2). IEEE 802.16 ,
(WMAN Wireless Metropolitan Area Network). . WiMAX (WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability
for Microwave Access) , IEEE 802.16/ETSI
HiperMAN. , , ,
-
.
IEEE 802.16
( MAC PHY, . 1.3)
166 ,

. , ,
(IEEE
802.11) (WAN),
IEEE 802.20.
IEEE 802.15 (PAN Personal Area Network) IEEE 802.17
( ) .
13

WiMAX


IEEE 802.16

IEEE 802.16-2004
IEEE 802.16e-2005

IEEE 802.16-2009

WiMAX
,

1. v.1.0
2. : TDD
3. : 5, 7, 8,5, 10
4. : 2,3, 2,5,
3,3, 3,5
5.
6.
7.


:
1. Wave 1
2. Wave 2

. 1.2. IEEE 802.16 WiMAX


1066

. . . 25 28 , 120 /.
111 .
( ,
1066 ) ,
.
( OFDM).
IEEE 802.16 . 1.3. - PHY-
(). , .

14


MAC 802.16.
MAC SDU,
, . .

,
, ,
QoS.

CS SAP

SAP

PHY SAP


,
,
. .

. 1.3. IEEE 802.16


MAC- 802.16. MAC SDU, , . .
, , , QoS.

.
, ,
. .
WiMAX . 2,

. 3.
WiMAX, IEEE 802.16-2005, 2009,
110 OFDM
15

OFDMA.
IEEE 802.16.

1.2. WiMAX
1.2.1. WiMAX IEEE 802.16
(, BS Base Station)
(, SS
Subscriber Station) (Point to Multipoint
PMP). (Mesh
PTP), () , , , . . 30 (
) 68 .
, .
, . .
: ( , uplink) ( , downlink).

.
WiMAX ,
, -
(. 1.4).

16

. 1.4. WiMAX
-
2 11 . 75 / ,
.
. 1.1.
10 66 ,
. , .
WiMAX
() .
IEEE 802.16, WiMAX Forum. , , . . ,
( , ) . . IP- IEEE 802.3-2005 (Ethernet).
, -

17

, WiMAX Forum, Network Architecture.


1.1
IEEE 802.16


, ,
,

25002530
25602570
2,5
26202630
70

26602670
26802690
34003450
3,5
100

35003550
51505350
5
56505725
975

57256425
WiMAX , IP-. , ,
IP- (SMS over IP, MMS, WAP .), VoIP . IPv4 IPv6.
WiMAX ( , ).
, , , , , . WiMAX
(3GPP, 3GPP2) (DSL) . QoS.
18

1.2.2. WiMAX IEEE 802.16-2009


() WiMAX
WiMAX. , ( ).
: () (), (ASN, Access Service
Network) (CSN, Connectivity Service
Network). ,
(R1R8), (. 1.5).
() ASN (NAP,
Network Access Provider) , - WiMAX (NSP,
Network Service Provider). , - WiMAX
, IP- WiMAX
. - WiMAX
-, , . . - ,
CSN.
ASN
IEEE 802.16
IP- (. .
). IEEE 802.16
IP-. ASN
ASN-. , ASN ,
. , IEEE 802.16 .

19

SN

R2

SN

R2
R3
SN

ASN

R1

CSN

R5

R3
R4

ASN

ASN

. 1.5. WiMAX
ASN
, CSN. WiMAX
ASN:
WiMAX
NSP;
IEEE 802.16;
( IP-);
;
;
ASN;
ASN;

20

ASN CSN;

;
;
;
QoS;
.
ASN
ASN ,
Release 1.0 WiMAX.
: A, B C. . 1.6 .
CSN
ASN .
, ,
. . ,
ASN-, . ,
2007 . WiMAX Forum,
.
ASN ( ) , ASN CSN. ASN
, . ASN
: (DP, Decision Point) (EP,
Enforcement Point).
ASN . ASN , ,
AAA (Authentication, Authorisation,
Accounting). AAA
EAP

21

.
AAA .
ASN

R3


RRM

R4

ASN
R6

BS

RRM

RRM

R1

. 1.6.

22

R8

ASN CSN.
,
, , .
ASN
. ASN
. ASN
ASN
.
ASN
.
ASN , , , , QoS .
IPv4/v6 , BGP, OSPFv2, PIM, IGMP . .
ASN ASN, IP.
ASN ,
(FA, Foreign Agent). ,

(. 1.7).
CSN WiMAX,
, , WiMAX IP-, , IP-, , . .
WiMAX , ASN
-, CSN. , CSN

(. 1.7).

23

. 1.7.

CSN , WiMAX IP. CSN :
IP-;
;
- AAA;

;
ASN CSN;
;
CSN ;
ASN;
WiMAX , , (LBS location based
24

services), , , . .
, , AAA-.
, ,
(
) . CSN (HA, Home Agent), -, WiMAX
.
WiMAX
. , ,
.
. 1.2. ,
,
.
WiMAX ,
IP-.
- IEEE 802.16,
ASN ASN . IEEE 802.16 ,
ASN / .
, .
, .

25

1.2
WiMAX IEEE 802.16

R1

ASN, IEEE 802.16.
R2
MC ASN CSN,
,

IP-. , , IP
.
R3
ASN CSN

. ,
.
R4
ASN- ASN-
ASN-. ASN. , R4 , ,
IP-Sec SSL VPN.
R5
.
R6
ASN.
R7
DP EP ASN-.
R8
. .
, R4, R8 , , IP-Sec SSL VPN.

26

1.2.3. WiMAX
IEEE 802.16-2009

WiMAX IEEE 802.16 WiMAX,
, . WiMAX, , , .
WiMAX
- , H-NSP V-NSP (. 1.8). NSP , WiMAX.
AAA. WiMAX NSP.
NSP , WiMAX-
. , V-NSP
AAA,
WiMAX-.
WiMAX- : - .
ASN. ASN
FA. CSN () . IP- . IEEE 802.16.
ASN ()
. ,
() ASN, IP.
ASN. CSN,
, ASN.

27


,
.

. 1.8. WiMAX
IEEE 802.16,
CSN ()
, , ASN, IP,
.

ASN. R3 .
MIP (Mobile IP) -,
IP-. ,
, ,

28

. MIP ,
IP- (HoA), , (CoA).
MIP : MIP (MIP client), FA, . MIP (CMIP,
Client MIP) CoA.
,
HoA CoA ( , ). MIP
FA ASN, MS,
MIP. , ASN, CoA IP-
. CoA FA ASN. IP-
- IP-
, ASN. WiMAX IEEE 802.16
MIP-.
IP- ( , , NSP
) IP- FA, .
, HA , FA , .

1.2.4. WiMAX
IEEE 802.16-2009
, WiMAX
, QoS .
IEEE 802.16 .
, .
QoS- , , 16- ID
(onnection Identifier). QoS

29


MAC-, IP- . QoS- :
UGS (Unsolicited Grant
Service),
( )
. , , , , , , ;
RT-VR (Real-Time Variable Rate), , ,
. ;
NRT-VR (Non-Real-Time Variable Rate) , . ,
( FTP, HTTP);

BE (Best Effort) ,
.
;

UGS RT-VT

ERT-VR (Extended Real-Time Variable Rate), , ,
.
QoS :
;
: UGS, RT-VR, ERT-VR, NRT-VR;
QoS ;

30

;
.
NSP

NSP

QoS

PF

AF

R5

R5

NSP

NSP
AF

PF

ASN
SFM

MS

R1

SFA
R6

PF

SFA
R4

SFA

. 1.9. QoS WiMAX


, IEEE 802.16 QoS
( ), QoS :

31

(PF Policy Function), (AC


Admission Control), (SFA Service Flow
Authorization). . 1.9 ,
. NSP. AAA QoS
. ASN , .
, QoS , . , ,
QoS , , .

1.2.5. WiMAX
WiMAX ,
, .
WiMAX,
WiMAX 1.5.

(Multicast Broadcast Services MCBCS) WiMAX , IEEE 802.16. ; (,
. .); ; (push-totalk); ; ;
, ;
32

( , . .);
; ; ; ; . .

IP , PIM-SM, DVMRP . ., ASN
CSN.
(. 1.10), ,
.
IGMP CID (. 1.10).


ASP

IP-

CSN

MBS1

BS1

.......

MBS1

IP CID SA

BSn

BS1

MBS2

.......

BSn

MBS2

. 1.10.
,
.
33

,
(LBS location based services)

. WiMAX LBS, , ,
(, ). LBS (Location Server
LS), (Location Controller LC) (Location Agent LA) (. 1.11).
, CSN,
LBS,
.
LBS .
, ASN,

(, ,
GPS-.
.
LBS:
. GPS-.

LBS-ADV.
.

, .
GPS-, . WiMAX 34

GPS-.
( , , RSSI Received Signal
Strength Indication),
RNG-REG.
R2

MS

R1

LA

BS1

R6

ASN

LA

R1

BS2

LC

R3

CSN
LS

iASP
PSAP

R6

LA

ASN
R4

ASN
LC

. 1.11. LBS WiMAX



,
.
CINR (Carrier-toInterference + Noise Ratio).
.

35


WiMAX (Lawful Intercept LI) .
,
, (Access Function AF),
(Delivery Function DF), (Collection
Function CF), (Service Provider
Administration) (Law Enforcement Administration).

(Intercept Access Points IAPs), ASN/CSN. IAP CALEA8 (Lawful Interception Server LIS). IAP: , ,
. IAP LIS , .

.

(Universal Services Interface USI) WiMAX (,
Google, E-Bay, Yahoo! .). WiMAX.

1.3. WiMAX. OFDM


WiMAX Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing (OFDM). .

36

1.3.1. OFDM
OFDM

, (), .

(1001000) (), , OFDM . OFDM ,
.
()
. .
. 1.12 OFDM

. 0, , 3 f0, , f3, .
1/.
k- .

OFDM . , , . 1.12, .

37

A0

A1

A2

A3

Df = 1/T

f0

f1

f2

f3

2T
3T
4T
t

. 1.12. OFDM

OFDM , .
. T.
,
.
, T, ,
Tc log2 M
Tb : Tc = Tblog2M,
( ). OFDM
-2, -4, -16 -64.

, OFDM, 38

.

, .
, ,
.
OFDM ,
:
T

sin(2fl t )sin(2f k t )dt 0, k

l,

(1.1)

T , fk, fl k l.
.
OFDM c .
0 OFDM
f :
z (t ) Re{exp( j 2f t )

N 1

yn exp( jnt )} Re{exp( j 2f t ) s (t )},

n 0

1
(1.2)
T
1 = 2/T, n n- , N
, yn , n

n1

2n

n- .
. 2.1
OFDM N = 1024 OFDM
F = 10 .
-4. 10,9 /.
OFDM

39

(. 2.1). , -
.
-
OFDM
() s(t):
max s (t )

2
T

t [0;T ]

1
2
s (t ) dt .
T0

, P

(1.3)

OFDM (1.2) ,
T

1, n m
,
0, n m

1
exp( j (n m ))dt
T0

(1.4)

1
T

T N /2 1

N /2 1

m )t )dt

yn ym* exp( j (n
0n

N /2 m

N /2

1 N /2 1 N /2 1
yn ym* exp( j (n
T n N /2 m N /2
0

N 1

m )t )dt

yn .

(1.5)

n 0

OFDM
s(t )

N /2 1

N /2 1

m )t ),

yn ym* exp( j (n
n

N /2 m

t [0; T ] .

(1.6)

N /2

- OFDM :
N /2 1

max s(t )

t [0;T ]

N /2 1

yn ym* exp( j (n

max

t [0;T ]

N /2 m

N /2
N /2 1

yn
n

m )t )
(1.7)

N /2

, , P

N 1
n 0

yn

.
(- , ) N . ,
N 1

yn
n 0

40

const( yn ).

(1.8)

. 1.13
OFDM c -2 N = 64 Fs = 11,2 .
OFDM,
. , - 78 , - . - OFDM .

. 1.13. OFDM N = 64,


Fs = 11,2
, - OFDM ,
yn, n = 0, 1, , (N 1).

41

-
, , ,
OFDM , - . -
OFDM , ,
.

1.3.2. OFDM

OFDM. /2
/2 OFDM yn
N /2 1
1
(1.9)
s(t )
yn exp( jnt ), t
T / 2;T / 2 , n n1 2n
T
n N /2

N /2 1

s(t )
k

ynk exp( jnt )a(t

kT ), t

; ),

(1.10)

N /2

1 = 2/T, n n- , N
, yn ,
n- , a(t)
.
:
N /2 1

(t )
k

ynk exp( jnt )a(t kT ), t (

; )

N /2

k- t [0;TA ] :

(t )

L 1 N /2 1

(k )
TA

k 1n

ynk exp( jnt )a(t kT ), TA

LT .

N /2

a(t)

42

{a(t )}

Sa ()

a(t )exp( jt )dt.

(1.11)

T( kA ) (t )

{ (t )}

(k )
TA

L 1 N /2 1

(k )
TA

S ()

k 0n
L 1 N /2 1
k 0n

yn k a (t kT )exp( jnt )exp( jt )dt

N /2

ynk Sa ( n )exp( jkT )

N /2

| ST(Ak ) () |2
m{| ST(Ak ) () |2 }
L 1 L 1

exp( j(k

r )T )

k 0 r 0

N /2 1
n

N /2 1

N /2 m

*
m{ ynk ymr
}Sa ( n ) Sa* ( m ),

N /2


1, n m, k r
*
m{ ynk ymr
}
0, n m, k r

m{| ST(Ak ) () |2 }

L 1 N /2 1
k 0n

| Sa ( n ) |2 L

N /2

N /2 1
n

| Sa ( n ) |2 .

N /2

, OFDM, Sa ( n )Sa* ( m ), n m , .
G ()

lim

LT

1 N /2 1
L
| Sa ( n ) |2 .
LT n N /2

,
(1.9) :
1 N /2 1
(1.12)
G ()
| Sa ( n ) |2 ,
T n N /2
. . OFDM
:
43

N /2 1

GOFDM ()
n

G ( n ) ,

(1.13)

N /2

G()
, n 2n / T n- .

. 1.14. OFDM c N = 64
OFDM
, ,
, . :
G ()

A2T 2

sin 2 (T / 2)
,
(T / 2) 2

(1.14)

, .
(1.14) (1.13), OFDM
:

44

N /2 1

Grect ()
n

N /2

An2T 2

sin 2 ((T 2n) / 2)


,
((T 2n) / 2) 2

(1.15)

n n- , , OFDM, , .
OFDM 64 , -2 . 1.14.

, ,
. , , (1.15). OFDM
.

1.3.3.
c OFDM

,
30 .
, 30 () 0 .

,
1, , .
40, 50
60 () 0 .
F F
(. 1.15).

, .
1

45

G(f)

F
0

-60

F
f

. 1.15.

,
.
F
. (
), , () 0 .
60 . , , F
F.

IEEE 802.11 b, g, n (Wi-Fi) IEEE 802.16-2005
(Mobile WiMAX).
, Wi-Fi WiMAX, [10].
46

, [10]

, .
, , OFDM . 1.3.
1
10 50 .
1.3

,
A
B
C

1,25
0,625 0,625 0,893
1,5
0,750 0,750 1,071
1,75
0,875 0,875 1,250
2,5
1,250 1,250 1,785
3
1,500 1,500 2,142
3,5
1,750 1,750 2,499
5
2,500 2,500 3,570
6
3,000 3,000 4,284
7
3,500 3,500 4,998
8,75
4,375 4,375 6,248
10
5,000 5,000 7,140
12
6,000 6,000 8,568
14
7,000 7,000 9,996
15
7,500 7,500 10,710
17,5
8,750 8,750 12,495
20
10,000 10,000 14,280
24
12,000 12,000 17,136
28
14,000 14,000 19,992

1,321
1,586
1,850
2,643
3,171
3,700
5,285
6,342
7,399
9,249
10,570
12,684
14,798
15,855
18,498
21,140
25,368
29,596

2,500
3,000
3,500
5,000
6,000
7,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
17,500
20,000
24,000
28,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
48,000
56,000

3,125
3,750
4,375
6,250
7,500
8,750
12,500
15,000
17,500
21,875
25,000
30,000
35,000
37,500
43,750
50,000
60,000
70,000

60
OFDM. ,
47

. , OFDM ,
, ,
,
(1.15). , ,
.

1.3.4. OFDM
OFDM .
- .
OFDM
,
(. 1.16).
.
.
() ; , .
.
, Fs.
()
F. -

OFDM , .

48

. 1.16.
OFDM
OFDM
, ,
, .
, ,
OFDM IEEE 802.16-2005 WirelessMAN, :
N = 256;
200 (192
8 -);
Fs
. 1.4.
1.4
OFDM IEEE 802.16-2005
F
F,
1,75
3,5
7
14
28
Fs,
2
4
8
16
32
T = N/ Fs,
128
64
32
16
8

49

1.3.5. OFDM
OFDM () .

. . 1.17
OFDM. ,
, F .
, (), .

OFDM . . , OFDM ,
.

. 1.17.
OFDM
, . 1.17, OFDM,
50

,
.
( (1.24)),
()
. , OFDM . :

Cn
xk

srk

1
N

N /2 1
k

xk exp( j 2kn / N ) ,

(1.24)

N /2

nk , Cn

n- ,
. , OFDM .
,
.

.
, , .


.
. .

1.4. MIMO
1.4.1. MIMO

,
, 51

. - ,
, , , :
.

(, , ).
, ,

. , .
MIMO
(Multiple Input Multiple Output,
), , , , , , . , .
MISO (Multiple Input Single Output,
). Wi-MAX ,
MISO .
,
- , SISO (Single Input Single Output,
).
MIMO
.
1. -
, .
.
2.
.

52

MIMO , , .
3. , . SISO,
MIMO.

. , . ,
, . , . ,
.
, . , . ,
, , SISO.

.
MIMO-.

1.4.2. . .

MIMO, , Nt ,
, Nr , , . 1.18.

53

h ji
MIMO

MIMO

. 1.18. -
MIMO
hji i- j- .
MIMO- :
h11
h1i
h1Nt
H = h j1

h ji

h jNt .

hN r 1

hN r i

hN r Nt

s {s1, s2 , ..., sNt } ,


r {r1, r2 , ..., rNr } , :
Nt

rj

h ji si

nj ,

i 1

nj , j- ,
(). :
h11

r1

h1i

h1Nt

r2

rN r

h j1

h ji

h jNt

hN r 1

hN r i

hN r Nt

54

s1

n1

s2

n2

s Nt

nN r

n,

Hs

(1.25)

n {n1, n2 , ..., nNr } .


MIMO ,
, 1 . SISO -:
C

log 2 (1

Pc

| h11 |2 ) [//],

(1.26)

(/) - ; h11 SISO-. MIMO :

Pc /

HH t ) [//],

(1.27)
T
IR NrNr, (/) -

C log 2 ( I R

- , H t
- H. , (1.27)
(1.26) Nr = Nt = 1. MIMO- (1.27) ,
:

m11

F log 2 ( I R

Pc /
T

HH t ) [//],

(1.28)

m11{}
H.
R () T, (1.27) (1.28)
. , MIMO-
SISO-. ()
,
MIMO,
SISO.
, (/) = 10 SISO
2,95 //, MIMO 44 (4
4 ) 10,9 //, MIMO 88 29,7 //.
55

MIMO ; , . , ,
: ,
/ , .
MIMO-:
- (Space-Time Coding,
STC);
(Spatial Multiplexing, SM);
(Beamforming).
STC , , , . .
, . . , .
STC :
- (STTC, Space-Time
Trellis Codes);
- (STBC, Space-Time
Block Codes);
- (STTTC, Space-Time Turbo
Trellis Codes);
- (LSTC, Layered
Space-Time Codes).
STC-
. ,
,
, SISO . STC

56

,
, WiMAX.
() , .
, . , .
,
,
. SM ,
. SM , , MIMO- .
- .
STC SM ,
MIMO- ,
. .
SISO, MIMO-
.
MIMO-
. STC -
, . SM , . -

57

, .
MIMO-, .
1. (Maximum Likelihood,
ML) ,
- .
. , ,
.
2.
(Zero Forcing, ZF).
,
,
. , ,

, .
3. BLAST (Bell Labs Layered Space-Time) (Nulling and Canceling) (Decision Feedback).
.

1.4.3. -
, STC-
. STC- , ,
.
, STC-.

58

bk

bi .

Nt m :

bk {bk1 , bk2 , ..., bkmNt } , k , 2m


. i- (1 i

Nt )

m , ski .
{s1k , sk2 , ..., skNt } sk Nt

. sk -

- (). K - (1 k K ).
, (. . ).
:

S {s1 , s2 , ..., sK }

s11

s1k

s1K

s1i

ski

sKi ,

s1Nt

skNt

sKNt

.
MIMO- K
H , ,
. (1.25)
S :
Y HS N ,
Y , N , . , (1.25) .
STC (pairwise error probability, PEP). P( S , S ) ,
S {s1 , s2 , ..., sK }
S {s1 , s2 , ..., sK } S .

59

, ( ) ,
,
Es 2
d H ( S , S ) ,
2 N0

P ( S , S | H ) Q

d H2 ( S , S ) S
S , Es , N0
, Q (...) Q-:

1
2

Q( x)

exp( t 2 / 2)dt .
x

,
1
exp( x 2 / 2), x 0,
2

Q( x)

1
P( S , S | H )
exp
2

Es 2
d H ( S , S ) .
2 N0

(1.29)

MIMO-
:

B ( S , S )

s11 s11

s1k

s1k

s1K

s1K

s1i

s1i

ski

ski

sKi

sKi

s1Nt

s1Nt

skNt

skNt

sKNt

sKNt

A BBT , A
Nt
A r
1

, ...,

Nt , B t - B. -

rank( A) STC-.
r

, (1.29)

:
P ( S , S )

Nr

r
i
i 1

Es
4 N0

rN r

1/ r

r
i
i 1

rN r

Es
4 N0

STC.
60

rNr ,

.

1/ r

r
i

i 1

P( S , S ) ( rNr ).
MIMO- (1.29) :
P( S , S ) d

2 Nr

H Nr

Es
4 N0

, S S

( ), d 2
t

( S , S ) t, st

st

( S , S )

st

st ,

0 .

STC:
H N r .

d2
d

1/
2
u

du2 -

.
, MIMO- -
Pc /

1 -

, .

(Nr) (Nt).
61

(Nr) ( H ), STC.

.
STC-, r A H . ,
Pc /

1.

1.4.4. - .

STC- - (STTC) -
(STBC). STTC
, , .
STBC. (Siavash Alamouti). ,
, MIMO .

, .
STBC. , . STBC .
- (Super
Orthogonal Space-Time Trellis Codes).
OFDMA . 62

bi
bk (k ). :

bk

{bk ,1 , bk , 2 , ..., bk , N } ,

bk , i

{bk1, i , bk2, i , ..., bkm, i } ,

N
OFDM, i , m ,

2m .
, . , OFDMA- sk

{s1k , sk2 , ..., skN } .

-
M OFDMA
Nt K :

{s1, s2 , ..., sM }

S,

K , , . .,
- , M Nt K . S
M

Re( si )Ai

j Im( si ) Bi ,

i 1

{ Ai , Bi }iM1 Nt K STBC.
si ,
S .
. OFDMA- ,
- , .
OFDMA-
. . 1 s2i 1 ,
2 s2i .
63

1 ,

s2i* ,

2 s2i 1* .
.
, : s1 s2i 1 s2 s2i .

s1 s2*
.
s2 s1*

,
, , , .
,
, , , .
, , .

,
r1 s1h1 s2 h2 n1
,
r2
s2*h1 s1*h2 n2
h1 h2 MIMO- ( ),
: h [h1, h2 ] , n1 n2 ,
,
: n [n1, n2 ] ,

hS n ,

r [r1, r2 ] . (1.25) r , h , n , .

64

.
n1 n2 , , :
s1
s2

r1h1*
h1

r2*h2
h2

r1h2* r2*h1
h1

h2

, Z.
, Z ,
, . :

s1

arg min d 2 ( s, s1 )

s2

arg min d 2 ( s, s2 )

s Z

s Z

s1 , s2
.

1.5.
1. IEEE 802.16.
2. WiMAX
IEEE 802.16?
3.
IEEE 802.16?
.
4. WiMAX.
5. ASN CSN?
6. ASN CSN.
7. ASN?
8. ASN ?

65

9. IP- CSN ?
10. QoS, WiMAX.
11. LBS? LBS WiMAX?
12. OFDM,
-.
OFDM.
13. ?
14. OFDM.
15. MIMO?
16. - ?
17. MIMO/
18. -
. ,
?

66

2. WiMAX
WiMAX
, ,
.
IEEE 802.16-2005, 2009 ,
(. 2.1).
2.1
IEEE 802.16-2005, 2009


WirelessMAN-SC
1066
,
WirelessMAN-Sca
< 11
,

WirelessMAN-OFDM < 11 ,

WirelessMAN< 11 , OFDMA

WirelessHUMAN
< 11

WirelessMANOFDMA.
WirelessMAN-OFDMA

11 . OFDM c 2048,
1024, 512 128 ( ).
, ,
.
WiMAX, , ,
67

, , , , ARQ (HARQ).
.

2.1. .
IEEE 802.16-2009 WirelessMAN-OFDMA OFDM. OFDM,
(), N :
s (t )

N /2

Re exp( j 2f t )
k

ck exp( j 2k f (t Tg )) ,

(2.1)

N /2
k 0

k , N ,
ck k- ,
f = Fs/N , Fs , Tg , f ,
0 < t < TOFDM, TOFDM = + Tg OFDMA-
, = 1/f OFDMA-
.
, OFDM
. . 2.1 OFDM
N = 1024
OFDM F = 10 . -4.
OFDMA-
(. 2.2), OFDMA-
.
: Tg = 1/4, 1/8, 1/16,
1/32.

68

. 2.1. OFDM N = 1024, Fs = 11,2

OFDMA-

Tg

T
T

. 2.2.
, .
. .
OFDMA- N .
: , .
, 69

, , .
,
.
,
,
. ,
, , .
, .
().

WiMAX IEEE 802.16-2005 Yota OFDM :


: N = 1024;
: BW = 10 ;

):
Fs = 8/7BW =11,2 ;
: f = Fs/N = 10937,5 ;
: = 1/f = 91,43 .

2.2.
2.2.1. - , .
OFDMA
, , ,
,
WiMAX
Orthogonal Frequency Multiple Access (OFDMA).
OFDMA ,
.
70

OFDMA WirelessMAN-OFDMA IEEE


802.16e-2005, 2009.
WiMAX
- ().
(. 2.3), OFDM , - .

.
WiMAX ( . 2.3)
. OFDMA
(PUSC, FUSC, TUSC1, 2 .), (
) ( ). :
1 1 OFDMA- ( FUSC ,
);
1 2 OFDMA- ( PUSC ,
);
1 3 OFDMA- ( PUSC ,
TUSC1, 2 , );
1 2, 3 6 OFDMA- ( AMC,
).
,
,
.
N , N
OFMA- (. 2.4).
DL-MAP UL-MAP
(. 2.2.2).
, .
, ,
(. 2.5).

71


OFDM

OFDM

. 2.3. - OFDMA

. 2.4. OFDMA

72

....

k+1 k+2 k+3

OFDMA

0
1
2
3
4
5

.
s

)
0

....

k+1 k+2 k+3

OFDMA

0
1
2
3
4
5

.
s

)
. 2.5. PUSC:
) ; )
73

(. 2.5, ).
, , (. 2.5, ).
(. 2.5, ).
, , , .

(. 2.2.2) ( . 2.5,
), , UIUC = 0, 11 ( Type 8, 12,
13).
( . 2.5,
), .
. 2.5 OFDMA-,
.
-
, .

2.2.2.
IEEE 802.16-2005, 2009
.
( ).
. WiMAX
, .
74

75

DL-MAP

FCH

10

FUSC

....

TTG

. PUSC.

,
ACK

RTG

k+1 k+2 k+3

. 2.6. WiMAX IEEE 802.16-2005, 2009

PUSC ()

2 5

DL-MAP,
UL-MAP

OFDMA

( ) ( ). ,
. TTG.
RTG.
WiMAX IEEE 802.16-2005 . 2.6.
OFDMA, ,
FCH (Frame Control Header),
DL_Frame Prefix ( PUSC, DL-MAP , -,
DL-MAP).
/
.
.
, , . , HARQ,
.
.
144- CDMA ,
-2. . 15 x15 + x7 + x4 + x1 + 1.
WiMAX , (. 2.7 2.8).

. PUSC, FUSC, TUSC1,2 AMC,
76

- , .
. , , ,
.
DL-MAP Zone_switch_IE.
.

Optional
PUSC

AMC

Optional
FUSC

FUSC
(IDcell 0)

FUSC
(IDcell Z)

PUSC
(IDcell Y)

PUSC
(IDcell X)

FCH
DL-MAP (IDcell X)

PUSC

. 2.7. WiMAX.

WiMAX
FCH

UL-MAP

Segment 0
BSID 1

Segment 0
BSID 1

UL-MAP

Segment 1
BSID 2

Segment 1
BSID 2

UL-MAP

Segment 2
BSID 3

Segment 2
BSID 3

DL-MAP
FCH
DL-MAP
FCH
DL-MAP

. 2.8. WiMAX

77

WiMAX .

, ,
. -
WiMAX ( ) ( 2.8
2.9).

f, s1

f, s1
f, s2
f, s3

f, s1

f, s2
f, s3

f, s1

f, s1
f, s2
f, s3

f, s1

f, s3

f, s2
f, s1

f, s3

f, s1

f, s1
f, s2
f, s3

f, s1

f, s3

f, s3

f, s2

f, s1

f, s2
f, s1

f, s2

f, s2

f, s2

f, s3
f

f, s3
f

f, s2
f, s3

f, s1

f, s3

f, s2
f, s1

f, s2

f, s3
f

f, s2

f, s3

. 2.9. WiMAX,
: ) ;
) , ,
,

2.9 WiMAX, . , .

78

, , .

2.2.3.
OFDMA- . -2 , IDcell. OFDMA- , , , . n = 0, 1, 2 . P{k,n}
n:
P{k ,n} n 3k ,
(2.2)
n , k = 0, 1, , 283 1024. 0 ,
, . Nfft = 1024 . 2.10.
, 0

...

,
86

, 0

,
86

. 2.10. Nfft = 1024



(2.3):

Ak

4 2(1/ 2 k )

(2.3)

79

Ak k- , k = 0, 1, , 283
1024-, k k- .
OFDMA-.
, IDcell
, .

2.2.4. DLFP FCH


FCH OFDMA- .
FCH DL_Frame Prefix .
. 2.2 FCH.
2.2
FCH



QPSK
4


1/2


(171, 133)

PUSC
DL_Frame Prefix , FCH, DLMAP, UL-MAP Compressed-DL/UL-MAP. . 2.3
DL_Frame Prefix.
2.3
DL_Frame Prefix

DL_Frame_Prefix_format
{
80


Used subchannel bitmap

Repetition_Coding_
Indication

1
2

Coding_Indication

DL_MAP_Length

8
4

0: 0.
1: 1.
2: 2.
3: 3.
4: 4.
5: 5.
0
0b00: DL-MAP
0b01: DL-MAP 2
0b10: DL-MAP 4
0b11: DL-MAP 6
0b000: DL-MAP CC
0b001: DL-MAP BTC
0b010: DL-MAP CTC
0b011: DL-MAP ZT
CC
0b100: DL-MAP CC

0b101: DL-MAP
LDPC
0b1100b111 .
0

Used subchannel bitmap , PUSC PUSC,


STC_DL_Zone_IE() use all SC 0. 1

81

, 0
(. 2.4).
Repetition_Coding_Indication , DL-MAP. 0
, 1 , 2
, 3 .
Coding_Indication , DL-MAP. DL-MAP QPSK 1/2.
DL_MAP_Length DL-MAP .
2.4


0
05
1
69
2
1015
3
1619
4
2025
5
2629
24- DL_Frame Prefix FCH. 48
.

2.3.
, OFDMA-
, . , , , .
-: PUSC (PUSC partial usage of the subchannels,
) FUSC (FUSC full usage of the
subchannels, ) 82

,
,
. , , ( ), , .
FUSC
, PUSC (. 2.3.1).
PUSC ,
. , , - , , .
, , PUSC FUSC,
: TUSC1 2, AMC, PUSC .
, . ( ). , , .

2.3.1. PUSC
PUSC
OFDMA- , . . 24 . , PUSC
.
N = 1024 OFDMA-
( 512) 183 83

(92 91 ). ,
,
; . 840 60 14 .
PUSC
. , (,
PUSC , ). 1024- . , .
, . 2.14,
. ( ) :
b0b4 IDcell;
b5, b6 ,
;
b7b10 0b1111.
,
. .
PUSC . 2.11.
14 , 12 . . . 2.11 .

84

. 2.11. PUSC
, . 2.6.2.
( ), .
, , .
. LogicalCluster
PhysicalCluster :
Use_All_SC = 0:
LogicalCluster = RenumberingSequence(PhysicalCluster);
(2.4)
:
LogicalCluster = RenumberingSequence((PhysicalCluster) +
+ 13DL_PermBase) mod Nclusters,
(2.5)
RenumberingSequence (. 2.5), DL_PermBase , IDcell
DL_MAP .
6 ,
. . 2.6. , , 12 , .

85

2.5


PUSC, N = 1024


1
92

91

, 841


6, 48, 37, 21, 31, 40, 42, 56, 32,
(RenumberingSequence)
47, 30, 33, 54, 18, 10, 15, 50, 51,
58, 46, 23, 45, 16, 57, 39, 35, 7,
55, 25, 59, 53, 11, 22, 38, 28, 19,
17, 3, 27, 12, 29, 26, 5, 41, 49,
44, 9, 8, 1, 13, 36, 14, 43, 2, 20,
24, 52, 4, 34, 0

14

60
- 24


30
PermutationBase6 ( 6 )
3, 2, 0, 4, 5, 1
PermutationBase4 ( 4 )
3, 0, 2, 1
. , 1024, OFDMA 30 24 .

:
subcarrier (k , s) Nsubchannels nk

ps [nk mod Nsubchannels ] DL _ PermBase mod Nsubchannels


86

(2.6)

N subchannels , s
, s [0, ..., Nsubchannels 1] , subcarrier (k , s ) k- s- , nk

(k 13s)mod N subcarriers , Nsubcarriers

, ps [ j ] j- PermutationBase, = 6, 4 (. 2.5), s
, DL_PermBase 0 31, IDCell
DL-MAP , [.]
x , X mod k X/k. (2.6)
PermutationBase6 PermutationBase4 .
30 .
, s OFDMA- :
, .
PUSC WiMAX IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009
. 2.12,
. 2.13.
2.6
PUSC


0
011
12
1
1219
8
2
2031
12
3
3239
8
4
4051
12
5
5259
8

87

24
2

...

...

...

60

...


24

,

OFDMA

30

. 2.12. PUSC

OFDMA

2i-

...

2(i + 1)-

...

...

...

...

. 2.13. PUSC


. , 88

,
. ,

,
.
,
-
. PUSC
. 2.6.2.

2.3.2. c PUSC
PUSC
OFDMA- , . . 24 . , PUSC .
N = 1024
, , .
840 , , , (tile , IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009). 12 , OFDMA-.
, 35 6 .
PUSC .
WiMAX ,
OFDMA-. 1024- , , .

89

, . 2.14,
. ( ) :
b0b4 IDcell;
b5, b6 0b11;
b7b10 ,
.
,
. .
LSB
1

MSB
2

10 11

. 2.14. x11 + x9 + 1
, . 2.6.2.
( ), .
, , .
PUSC . 2.15.
, . ,
i- (i + 2)-
OFDMA-, (i + 1)- OFDMA- . . 2.15
.
90

i- OFDMA-
(i + 1)- OFDMA-

(i + 2)- OFDMA-

. 2.15. PUSC
.
PUSC . 2.7. Tiles(s, n)
n = 0, 1, , 5
s = 0, 1, , 34 :

Tiles(s, n) Nsubchn ( Pt[(s n)mod Nsubch ] UL _ PermBase)mod N subch ,


(2.7)
Nsubch = 35 ,
Pt(j) j- Pt ,
UL_PermBase , MAC-.
,
OFDMA-, , .

, , . 48
, :
Subcarrier(n, s) = (n + 13s) mod Nsubch,
(2.8)
Subcarrier(n, s) n- s-
, n = 0, 1, , 47 .
91

, 1 (s = 1) (n = 0)
Subcarrier(0, 13) = 13.
UIUC.
2.7


PUSC, N = 1024


1
92

91

, 841


11, 19, 12, 32, 33, 9, 30, 7, 4, 2,
Pt
13, 8, 17, 23, 27, 5, 15, 34, 22,
14, 21, 1, 0, 24, 3, 26, 29, 31, 20,
25, 16, 10, 6, 28, 18

4

210

6

35
.
,
, MAC- UIUC .
.
1. , , ,
0,
temp1_subchannel_number,

92

OFDMA-. old_subchannel_number
0 34.
2. f
:
temp1_subchannel_number = f(old_subchannel_number).
3. , , Sidx = 0, Sidx 1. .
4.
temp2_subchannel_number = (temp1_subchannel_number + 13Sidx) mod Nsubch.
(2.9)
5.
:
new_subchannel_number = f-1(temp2_subchannel_number), (2.10)
f 1 , f, . 2.
35 , . PUSC
WiMAX IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009 . 2.16,
. 2.17.
,
MIMO-SDMA.
, .


. ,
PUSC
.

93

i-

(i + 1)-

(i + 2)-

...

...

210

...

35

35

. 2.16. PUSC

OFDMA

i-

...

(i + 2)-

...

...

...

. 2.17. PUSC

PUSC . 2.6.2.

2.4.
WiMAX
(. 2.14): 94

(), , ,
. ARQ .


HARQ

. 2.18.
, /
.
. (. 2.3),
OFDMA .

2.4.1.
,

95

x15 + x14 + 1 (. 2.19).


0b011011100010101.
0

10 11 12 13 14 15

LSB

MSB

. 2.19. WiMAX

FCH. , ,
.
.
, .
.

2.4.2.

IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009 : (CC, Convolutional Coding), (BTC,
Block Turbo Coding), (CTC, Convolutional
Turbo Coding)
(LDPC, Low Density Parity Check). ,
, , .

WiMAX 7, . 2.20, . ( ) G1 = 1718
G2 = 1338 Y. 96

NASA.
R = 1/2, R = 2/3
R = 3/4 ( HARQ R = 5/6).

. 2.20.
, . 2.20, R = 1/2. . . 2.8
X Y
.
2.8

X
Y
XY

WiMAX
1/2
2/3
3/4
1
10
101
1
11
110
X1Y1
X1Y1Y2
X1Y1Y2X3

. 2.8 1 , , 0 .
.
. 2.9 2.10.
: j , -

97

,
n = floor(NslotsNSTC/(repetition_factorRSTC_layers)), Nslots , RSTC - , repetition_factor ,
RSTC_layers c STC, k = floor(n/j), m = n mod j.
2.9



n
n j
if (n mod j = 0)
n>j
k j
else
(k 1) j ,
ceil((m + j)/2)
floor((m +
j)/2)
2.10
j


j
-4, 1/2
6
-4, 3/4
4
-16, 1/2
3
-16, 3/4
2
-64, 1/2
2
-64, 2/3
1
-64, 3/4
1

BTC , , , . , 98

.
x4 + x1 + 1, x5 + x2 + 1 x6 + x1 + 1. : R = 1/2, 2/3 3/4.

, ,
WiMAX .
IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009
. 2.21.
. :
: x3 + x1 + 1;
Y: x3 + x2 + 1;
W: x3 + 1.
k
(N , 8 N/4 1024). , .
Sc1 (
. 2.11), , Y1 W1.
Sc2 , , Y2 W2. : , , Y1, Y2, W1, W2,
, . ,
R = 1/3.
Sc1 Sc2 . 2.11 .
1. 0. Sc1 Sc2. S0N1, N .
2. N . 2.11 Sc1 Sc2.
99

S S = 4s1 + 2s2 + s3,


si, i = 1, 2, 3 ,
. 2.21.

A
B

1
2

C1

Y1W1

C2

Y2W2

S1

S2

S3

. 2.21. WiMAX
WiMAX , :
1. u0 = {(A0, B0), (A1,
B1), , (AN1, BN1)}.
u0 :
if (i mod 2) then (Ai, Bi) (Bi, Ai).
u1 = {(A0, B0), (B1, A1), , (BN1,
AN1)}.
2. P(j),
u1.
u2 ,
u2(j) = u1(P(j)).
100

. P(j) :
for
j = 0, 1,, (N 1)
switch (j mod 4):
case 0: P(j) = (P0j + 1) mod N
case 1: P(j) = (P0j + 1 + N/2 + P1) mod N
case 2: P(j) = (P0j + 1 + P2) mod N
case 3: P(j) = (P0j + 1 + N/2 + P3) mod N
end
end
(. 2.4.3) .
2.11


S0N1
N mod 7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
0
6
4
2
7
1
3
5
2
0
3
7
4
5
6
2
1
3
0
5
3
6
2
7
1
4
4
0
4
1
5
6
2
7
3
5
0
2
5
7
1
4
4
6
6
0
7
6
1
3
3
5
2
2.12
WiMAX
-
- -

,
,

-4
6
12
1/2
-4
12
24
1/2
-4
18
36
1/2
-4
24
48
1/2
-4
30
60
1/2

P0

P1

P2

P3

24
48
72
96
120

5
13
11
7
13

0
24
6
48
60

0
0
0
24
0

0
24
6
72
60

101

-
- -

,
,

-4
36
72
1/2
-4
48
96
1/2
-4
54
108
1/2
-4
60
120
1/2
-4
9
12
3/4
-4
18
24
3/4
-4
27
36
3/4
-4
36
48
3/4
-4
45
60
3/4
-4
54
72
3/4
-16
12
24
1/2
-16
24
48
1/2
-16
36
72
1/2
-16
48
96
1/2
-16
60
120
1/2
-16
18
24
3/4
-16
36
48
3/4
-16
54
72
3/4
-64
18
36
1/2
-64
36
72
1/2
-64
54
108
1/2
-16
24
36
2/3
-16
48
72
2/3
-16
27
36
3/4
-64
54
72
3/4
-64
30
36
5/6
-64
60
72
5/6

P0

P1

P2

P3

144
192
216
240
36
72
108
144
180
216
48
96
144
192
240
72
144
216
72
144
216
96
192
108
216
120
240

17
11
13
13
11
11
11
17
11
13
13
7
17
11
13
11
17
13
11
17
13
7
11
11
13
13
13

74
96
108
120
18
6
54
74
90
108
24
48
74
96
120
6
74
108
6
74
108
48
96
54
108
60
120

72
48
0
60
0
0
56
72
0
0
0
24
72
48
60
0
72
0
0
72
0
24
48
56
0
0
60

2
144
108
180
8
6
2
2
90
108
24
72
2
144
180
6
2
108
6
2
108
72
144
2
108
60
180

, , ,
.
. 2.13 2.14. 102

: j , , n = floor(NslotsNSTC/(repetition_factor
RSTC_layers)), Nslots , RSTC - , repetition_factor
, RSTC_layers c STC,
k = floor(n/j), m = n mod j.
2.13



n
n j
n7

nj

n=j

if (n mod j = 0)
n>j
k j
else
(k 1) j ,
Lb1
Lb2 ,
Lb1 = ceil((m + j)/2),
Lb2 = floor((m + j)/2),
if (Lb1 = 7) or (Lb2 = 7)
Lb1 = Lb1 + 1; Lb2 = Lb2 1
, {, , Y1, Y2, W1, W2},
(). , , Y1, Y2, W1, W2 .

103

2.14
j


j
-4, 1/2
10
-4, 3/4
6
-16, 1/2
5
-16, 3/4
3
-64, 1/2
3
-64, 2/3
2
-64, 3/4
2
-64, 5/6
2
, , Y1, Y2, W1, W2

, . 2.22. , Y1, Y2, W1, W2 Y1, Y2 W1, W2.
-

- Y1

- Y2

- W1

- W2

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

. 2.22.
WiMAX

.
1. m J . 2.15.
104

2. i, k = 0.
3.
Tk = 2m(k mod J) + BROm(floor(k/J)),
BROm(y) , m y, .
BROm(6) = 3.
4.
:
if Tk < N
ADi = Tk;
k = k + 1;
i = i + 1;
else
k = k + 1;
end
5. 3 4 , ADi i = 0, 1, 2, , (N 1).
,
, .

.
NEP ,
NSCH . 2.13, m , (m = 2 -4, m = 4 -16
m = 6 -64). u3, ,
. u3, Si = i mod (3NEP), i = 0, 1, ,
(48 NSCHm 1).
, ,
, , Y1 Y2, W1
W2 .
IR HARQ.
105

2.15



N
NEP,
m
J
48
24
3
3
72
36
4
3
96
48
4
3
144
72
5
3
192
96
5
3
216
108
5
4
240
120
6
2
288
144
6
3
360
180
6
3
384
192
6
3
432
216
6
4
480
240
7
2


IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009
LDPC ( ). LDPC H. m n, m , n . , k = n m. -
:

Pi,j z z, n = znb, m = zmb.



LDPC- 1/2, 2/3, 3/4 5/6.

106

2.4.3.
, . , .
,
, .
Ncpc , (Ncpc = 2 -4, Ncpc = 4 -16
Ncpc = 6 -64), Ncbps
, s = Ncpc/2, k
, mk
jk ( ), d = 16.
(2.11):
mk = [(Ncbps/d)k mod d] + floor(k/d), k = 0, 1, , (Ncbps 1), (2.11)
(2.12):
jk = s floor(mk/s) + [mk + Ncbps floor(dmk/Ncbps)] mod s, k = 0, 1, , (Ncbps 1).
(2.12)
. Ncbps
, j
,
mj kj (
).
(2.13):
mj = s floor(j/s) + [j + floor(dj/Ncbps)] mod s, k = 0, 1, , (Ncbps 1), (2.13)
(2.14):
kj = dmj (Ncbps 1)floor(dmj/Ncbps), k = 0, 1, , (Ncbps 1).
(2.14)

2.4.4.
(-2),
(-4, -16, -64 . .) .
()
, 107

,
. , , , .
WiMAX IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009
-2 ( ), -4, -16 -64.
IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009
: -4, -16 -64.
.
. 2.23. .

. 2.23. , -4, -16 -64, IEEE 802.16e-2005


WiMAX
-4 -16, -64 108

. ,
+1 1, . 2.14.
,
.

2.4.5.
, ,

(BTC, , LDPC) (, ).
WiMAX -, - . Q- R , .

[Q W; Q W + (Q 1)], W , .

2.4.6. HARQ
WiMAX . ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) .
.
, .
IEEE 802.16e-2005 2009
ARQ HARQ (Hybrid ARQ). , , . .
,
, . HARQ: 109

(Incremental Redundancy, IR)


(Chase Combining, CC). IR ,

, SPID.
,
SPID, . . . C .
(LLR) , . LLR ,
.

2.4.7.
. 2.15
WiMAX.
2.15
WiMAX

x15 + x14 + 1
:

mk = [(Ncbps/d)k mod d] + floor(k/d), k = 0, 1, ,
(Ncbps 1),
jk = s floor(mk/s) + [mk + Ncbps floor(dmk/Ncbps)]
mod s, k = 0, 1, , (Ncbps 1)
:
mj = s floor(j/s) + [j + floor(dj/Ncbps)] mod s, k =
0, 1, , (Ncbps 1),
kj = dmj (Ncbps 1)floor(dmj/Ncbps), k = 0, 1, ,
(Ncbps 1)
- (171, 133),
, LDPC

1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6
110

1, 2, 4, 6
-2, -4, -16, -64,
1024
840 PUSC

2.5.
IEEE
802.16e-2005, 2009 ,
- / . , ,
. , MISO
.
MISO 21 -
.

MISO

MISO

. 2.24. ) ) WiMAX
MISO 21

111

. 2.24 WiMAX MISO 21. , ,


, , , , , .

2.5.1. MISO
WiMAX MIMO
STC MIMO- 21 . ,
, , . 1
xi, 2 xi+1. , , 1

xi* 1 ,

2 xi* . ,
IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009 , :
A

s1

s2 *

s2

s1*

(2.15)

: H = [h1, h2].
,
,
. , ,
, , . r1
r2,
:

r1 h1 xi h2 xi 1
.
r2
h1 xi 1 h2 xi

112

(2.16)

, ,
.
IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009
, . PUSC , (. 2.25). ,
, . . 2.25 ,
PUSC - .

(2.17):

r1h1

xi
xi

r2 h2
2

h1
h2
.
r1h2 r2 h1
1

h1

h2

(2.17)

i-
(i+1)-
(i+2)-
(i+3)-


. 2.25. MISO 21
OFDMA- -
113

OFDMA- PUSC
, . 2.3.1.
. - , 4 OFDMA- (
. . 2.6.2),
STC- .

2.5.2.
WiMAX IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009
SDMA
(Spatial Division Multiple Access). , ,
, .
,
, . 2.3.2, . (. 2.26).

SDMA MAC- UL-MAP. . ,
,
SDMA. .

114

OF
DM

A-

A-
2)

(i +

1)-

A-

(i +

OF
DM
i-

O
FD
M

A-

OF
DM

(i +

2)

O
FD
M

1)-

A-

OF
DM
i-

(i +

. 2.26.
SDMA
( ). , . 2.3.2, . UL-MAP
, ( ) , SDMA SDMA,
, SDMA
. .

2.6. WiMAX
2.6.1.
WiMAX
. .
115

IEEE 802.16-2005, 2009


WirelessMAN-OFDMA , .
OFDMA- (. 2.10).
.
1. (0, 1 2)
. . .
, . 86 86

(
). .
2. 284 ,
. -2 (BPSK). (
0,12). .
3. 1024
.
4. .
114 , , (.
). , , - .
WiMAX
.
1. .
2. .
3. ().
4. .
116

5. IDcell.
, , OFDMA- , FCH DL-MAP. IDcell

,
, , IDcell. ,
,
, , ,
IDcell , .
.
1. ,
, 1/8 OFDMA-.
OFDMA- .
2. ,

. WiMAX .
3. 1 1
( )
( ).
4.
.
.

117

,
.
(~20 ) , ,
.
5.
.
(284
, ). .
6. .
IDcell .
. :
;
;

().

(2.15):
CP _ L 1

rCP [d ]

x[d

k ] x *[ d

Nfft ] ,

(2.15)

k 0

x[d] d-
11,2 , Nfft ( WiMAX/Yota 1024).
CP_L Yota 128 .

118

. 2.24.

(2.15)
128 , 1024 (. 2.24).
. 2.25. OFDMA-.
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

. 2.25.
OFDMA-

119

( )
(2.16):
Nfft /2 1

ras [d ]

x[d

k ]x[d

k] ,

(2.16)

k 1

. 2.26.

. 2.27.
.
120

(2.16)
511 (. 2.26).
. 513-
, .
, 128 .
. 2.27 WiMAX/Yota
.

( )
(2.17):
floor( Nfft /3) 1

rT [d ]

x[d

k ] x *[ d

k floor( Nfft / 3)] ,

(2.17)

k 0

. 2.28.

(2.17)
[1024/3] (. 2.28). ,
.


(. 2.29) .
121

1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

. 2.29.
OFDMA
. 2.29
.

,

:
2

Rf

122

min rf

i 0,1,2

rf

i , i 0, 1, 2 ,

(2.18)

rf

r0 , r1 , ..., rN fft

, -

, , i

i 0 , i1, ..., i N fft

T
1

, i 0, 1, 2 ,

, i j

0, 1 -

j- i- , x x .
(2.18)
.

.

1. : ,
, OFDMA (
, ), .
2. : , , , , .
3. : , , , .
4. : ,
, .
5. : , .

2.6.2.
.
. .
(least squares), (.:
least minimum mean square error), , ,
123

. (
, )
( ).

/ , , . .
, ,
.
PUSC , .


.
( ).
,
.

,
, . ,
-
. ,
.

,
.

OFDMA-
124

OFDMA-,
. , OFDMA-,

. .

,
.
OFDMA-

OFDMA- .
, .
, , ,
.

P 8 10 3 . , ,
. , ,
, ,
,
.
OFDMA-

: .

WiMAX PUSC .
1 13
, 5 9 . -

125

, , . . (
).

3 /, 60 /. ,
-
.
60 /
,
.

N-
, N-. ,
, , .
(
).

.

.
,
.

126

. ( ).
,
, (
)
. ,
3 / . WiMAX PUSC
, , ,
.
, . ,
, .

,
.
OFDMA-

, . N-
[N 3, N] N 4, [0; N] N < 4. ,
, . ,
- .
(
).


, .
127


,
.
OFDMA-

, . WiMAX PUSC. 1 13 ,
5 9 . ,


OFDMA-. N-
, , (N 1)- (N + 1)-
. (N 1)- (N + 1)- . .
(
).

, , , 2n, n = 1, 2, . , .
.

128



.

( ). i-
M , ,
2iM
i
,
Nfft
Nfft . , i = ki, k = 2M/Nfft . k, M:

kN fft
2

k M . k
i
, (
):

i 3
i
.
(i 3) i
:
M

N fft
2( N pp 1)

i 3
i
,
(i 3) i

N pp
. M
. i-

corr(i ) exp

j 2(i SI ) M
,
Nfft

129

1 , SI .

N- corr
N 1, N N + 1.
N- (N + 1)-
(N + 1)- .
.

.
.

,
/.

2.6.3. WiMAX
(
WiMAX) . 2.30.
, 10. , .
,

-.

, . ,
. ,
, -

130

. .
,
.

. 2.30.
WiMAX
WiMAX. SOVA ,
(MAP,
Maximum Aposteriori Probability). , .
SOVA , MAP-.
, . , , SOVA-,
(
131

), -
. -,
SOVA
.
MAP, (BCJR, Bahl
Cocke Jelinek Raviv), .
.
Log-. , Max-Log-, . Max-Log- SOVA , , Max-Log-, , SOVA.
-
Max-Log-.
IEEE 802.16e
, ,
,
. MAC- SPID (Subpacket Identifier).
- .
. 2.4.2 A, B, Y1, Y2 , W1, W2 .

2.7.
1.
WiMAX ( OFDM).
2. - , .
3. , (
) WiMAX?
4. WiMAX .
5. WiMAX?
6. DLFP/FCH ?
132

7. FCH?
8. ? PUSC ?
9.
PUSC ?
10. .
WiMAX?
11. HARQ?
12. WiMAX? .
13.
WiMAX.
14. - WiMAX?
15. .
16. PUSC
- ?
17. ? WiMAX?

133

3. WiMAX
3.1. IEEE 802.16
. 3.1 WiMAX,
ASN CSN, ASN, DHCP,
,
. 1. . 3.1, : .
(PHY- MAC- ), . , .
- IEEE 802.16, ,
(. 3.2): , ()
.
(Convergence Sublayer,
CS) ,
,
CS (Service Access Point, SAP).

,
MAC- MAC SDU (Service Data Unit).
SDU (MAC Common Part Sublayer, CPS)
(MAC SAP).
, .
IEEE 802.16

WiMAX, IPv4, IPv6, , Ethernet . .
SDU (Connection Identier, CID)

134

(Service Fow Identier, SFID). IEEE 802.16 .


1. ATM.
2. IPv4.
3. IPv6.
4. Ethernet (802.3).
5. VLAN (802.1/Q).
6. IPv4 Ethernet.
7. IPv6 Ethernet.
8. IPv4 VLAN.
9. IPv6 VLAN.
10. 802.3 VLAN
ROHC.
11. 802.3 VLAN
ERTCP.
12. IPv4 ROHC.
13. IPv6 ROHC.

.......

MS1

R1

SN
ASN
BS1

R6
AAA

MSn

R3

R8

.......

MS1

MSm

ASN
BS2

R6
DHCP

. 3.1. WiMAX

135


, , . - WiMAX
.
. 3.1 R1 WiMAX, R3
ASN CSN, R6
ASN , R8 .

CS SAP

MAC

MAC SAP

WiMAX

PHY

PHY SAP

IEEE 802.16

. 3.2. IEEE 802.16


()
, QoS.
MAC SDU (Payload Header Suppression index, PHSI). ,
136

,
SDU.
(Packet Header Suppression, PHS)

(
),
. ,
IP- IP-
. .
, , VoIP.
, IEEE
802.16, WiMAX. WiMAX
RObust Header
Compression (ROHC).
.
,
(VoIP,
HTTP, FTP .)
, SDU SFID CID . , . SDU PHSI.
PHSI .

3.2.
3.2.1.
MAC

, . . , ,
. ,
137

,
. ( ,
, ).
, - .
, DL-MAP (. ) , , .
CID, PDU , , .
, . .
. QoS,
.
48- -, 16- (CID).
,
CID. ,
CID, .
(CID) .
, ,
CID: , .
, , .
, 138

. , (, DHCP, TFTP, SNMP . .).


,
.
.
( ) .

,
.
,
(),
. .
,
, .
.
IEEE 802.16
.
QoS . ,
. QoS PDU.

, .

- IEEE 802.16.
139

. ,
.

( ),
.
.
. ,
1 ,
.
T1
, . IP-
, IP- , .
, . , , , .
, IEEE 802.16
48- -, .
- ,
. 16- (CID).
QoS.
.
,
.
, CID
. ,
TCP/IP , , TCP-
140

,
WiMAX .

3.2.2. MAC-
-
(Protocol Data Unit, PDU). PDU (. 3.3)
(Generic Header, GH), (Signaling Type Header, STH). GH , , (CID), ,
PDU, .
PDU
(GH STH)


(
)

CRC-32

. 3.3. PDU


(Generic MAC Header, GMH) (. 3.4).
. 3.4 HT , CI PDU
CRC-32, CID , EC
, EKS , ESF
(
), HCS .
: GMH MAC ( ,
). .

141

(
(Type 1). CID , .

( ).
,
.
CINR ( ). CINR .
CQICH ( ). CINR , , , .
,
, ( ).
/ ( ).
(
).

( Type 2).
CINR ,
, MIMO . .
MIMO- ( ). MIMO.
, , - ,
. .

142

CI

ESF

EC=0

HT=1

EKS

LEN (LSB)

CID (MSB)

CID (LSB)

HSC

LEN
(MSB)

. 3.4. MAC PDU


IEEE 802.16 .
GH ,
, , .
PDU ( ) MAC (Management Message, MM). 59
MM. DCD UCD, (, ), ,
.
TTG RTG,
, (PUSC, FUSC
AMC) . . (. . 2).
,
.

143

STH MAC.
. STH.
-
. STH ,
, MIMO. STH MAC-,
.
,
DL-MAP UL-MAP, WiMAX.
PDU DL-MAP, UL-MAP 32- CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check).
CRC
.
MAC- IEEE 802.16 TLV (Type/Length/Value). ,
,
, .
: (Type), (Length), (Value). 8- ,
( Type). 8
(Length) ,
256 , .
Length . 0, 7 , Value. TLV ,
, .
TLV , , (, DCD UCD).
, Type 256,
144

TLV , .

3.2.3.
, , . MAC PDU , , .

(Management Message Type, )
. , , ,
, . , , , , . ,
. . 3.5 .
, , MMT, , .

()

. 3.5.


.

.
UCD . , , ( )
, .
145

DCD . , , , .
DL-MAP , .
UL-MAP , .
DL-MAP UL-MAP , , . . ,
,
, MIMO-,
- . . DL-MAP UL-MAP : , , (Compressed), , , ,
. DL-MAP
UL-MAP .
DL-MAP UL-MAP ,
DL-MAP . 3.6.

146

. 3.6. DL-MAP UL-MAP


(), DL-MAP ()

.
RNG-REQ/RSP . ,
. .
SBC-REQ/RSP
; .
PKM-REQ/RSP (PKMv2, RSA . .);
.
REG-REQ/RSP
. ,
IP, .
.
TFTP-CPLT/RSP ; .

147

, .
DSA-REQ/RSP/ACK , ,
, . ,
(Service Fow ID, SFID). .
DSC-REQ/RSP/ACK , ;
.
DSD-REQ/RSP ,
; .
MCA-REQ/RSP
, /
/ . .
DBPC-REQ/RSP , , .
DSX-RVD DSx-REQ, DSx, , DSX-RSP;
.

.
ARQ-feedback/discard/reset ARQ ; ARQ ARQ; ARQ ARQ . .
REP-REQ/RSP
; .

148

FPC , ;
.
CLK-CMP , ; .
MIMO
(Adaptive Antenna System, AAS).
AAS-FBCK-REQ/RSP
; , .
.
AAS-Beam-Select ,

; .
AAS-BEAM-REQ/RSP
; .
PRC-LT-CTRL / ; .
IEEE 802.16
( ,
, , ).
MOB-SLP-REQ/RSP /
. / , . .
MOB-TRF-IND ,
, , . .
MOB-NBR-ADV , ,
149

.
.
MOB-SCN-REQ/RSP
; .
MOB-BSHO-REQ/RSP
, MOB-MSHO-REQ, .
MOB-MSHO-REQ , .
MOB-HO-IND
, ; .
MOB-SCN-REP ; .
MOB-PAG-ADV , CID
; .
MBS-MAP .
PMC-REQ/RSP
( ); .
MOB ASC-REP , , , (. .
)
; .

.
RES-CMD , ,
;
.
150

DREG-CMP ,
. :
, , , ,
,
. .
DREG-REQ .
, ,
, ()
. .
MSH-NCFG/NENT/DSCH/CSCH/CSCF (Mesh).
,
, , .
3.2.4.

( PDU)
, .
MAC SDU
, MAC PDUs.

-
QoS. , ARQ, , ARQ ,

.
MAC PDU . MAC PDU
CID,
MAC PDU .
151

MAC SDU PDU.


, SDU ,
SDU -. SDU , SDU
.

3.2.5. ARQ
(ARQ),
IEEE 802.16, . MAC SDU
, ARQ BLOCK SIZE.
, , PDU.
, , ,
.
IEEE 802.16 ARQ (Hybrid ARQ, . . 2), , , ,

.

3.3.
3.3.1. WiMAX

.
, . .
IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009 .
- (NSP, Network Service
Provider),
. , . NSP
152

. , ,
, ,
.
, IEEE
802.16e-2005, 2009

, , .


RSA

/
SA

EAP Method

EAP
/

EAP

PKM
/

IEEE 802.16e-2009
IEEE 802.16e-2009

. 3.7.
OSI. :
EAP (Extensible Authentication
Protocol) RSA (Rivest, Shamir Adleman)
;
,
, ,
MAC-;
153

PKM (Privacy and


Key Management protocol) .
. 3.7.
PKM:
. PKM
WiMAX.
/ : / , .
:
MAC-, PKM.
: MAC-.
RSA:
.509 ,
RSA.
/ EAP: EAP , EAP.
/ SA: (. . 3.3.4).
EAP EAP Method: IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009.
PKM PKMv1
PKMv2. IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009,
. ,
RSA PKMv1 PKMv2.
PKM
MAC-: PKM-REQ ( ) PKM-RSP ( ).
PKM.

154

3.3.2.
, MAC PDU
(Security Association, SA), (payload)
MAC PDU .
TEK (Traffic Encryption
Key), PKM.

(. . 3.3.3).
MAC PDU (Generic MAC Header)
CRC ( ) (. 3.8).
Generic MAC Header , EKS, CID
MAC PDU. MAC PDU, SA, .
Generic MAC

MAC PDU
( )

CRC
( )

MAC PDU

. 3.8. MAC PDU


EC , MAC
PDU. 1, MAC PDU
, ,
, .
EKS (Encryption Key Sequence)
TEK. , TEK, SA, .
. MAC PDU TEK,
Generic MAC EKS 1 4.
SA.
, .
.
155

3.3.3.
,

TEK

(Cryptographic Suite). IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009


. 3.1.
3.1
IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009


TEK



CBC, DES

3-DES 128-
56-



RSA 1024-
CBC, DES

RSA 1024- 56-

CCM, AES

ECB, AES
128-
128-


TEK
CCM, AES
CCM, AES ECB, AES
128-
128- 128-
CCM, AES
CCM, AES AES 128- 128-
128- ,
CBC, AES

ECB, AES
128-
128-
CTR, AES

ECB, AES
128-
128-
MBS c 8-
ROC

156

CTR, AES
128-
MBS c 8-
ROC


TEK
AES 128- ,

. 3.1, WIMAX
: ECB, CBC, CTR CCM.
, ( ) .
ECB
ECB (Electronic CodeBook)
(. 3.9). ,
.


1
2

TEK

AES

AES

1
2

TEK

AES

AES

. 3.9. ECB
CBC
CBC (Cipher-Block Chaining) , , 2
. (. 3.10).
.
157

-
2

1

AES/DES

AES/DES

-
TEK

TEK

AES/DES

AES/DES

. 3.10. CBC
DES
2
, TEK, , MAC PDU. AES
(. 3.11).

Generic MAC

MAC PDU
( )

CRC
( )

Generic MAC

MAC-
XOR
PDU

48

32

48

XOR
, TEK

TEK

AES

CBC

. 3.11. CBC
AES

158

. 3.11,
PDU.
CTR
CTR (CounTeR) ,
2 (. 3.12). CTR . .

TEK

AES/DES

AES/DES

TEK

AES/DES

AES/DES

. 3.12. CTR
(Rollover ounter, ROC). 8 , 3 ( 8), 5 MAC
PDU. :
1). 32- , 8
ROC, 24 8-
, 3 .
2). 4 , 128-
.

159

128- 1. ROC
MAC PDU (. 3.13).

Generic MAC

ROC


MBS

CRC
( )

. 3.13. MAC PDU CTR


CCM
CCM (Counter with CBC-MAC)
CTR CBC-MAC.
MAC PDU :
(Packet Number, PN),
TEK;
MAC PDU.
MAC PDU CCM
. 3.14.
L

MAC PDU
L+12
4

PN

MAC PDU

. 3.14. MAC PDU CCM


MAC PDU
CBC-MAC (. 3.15).

160

AES/DES

AES/DES

-
TEK

AES/DES

. 3.15.
MAC PDU CBC-MAC

,
CTR.
. 13- (. 3.16),
5 Generic MAC ( HCS) PN. 1-
,
.

0x19
1

Generic MAC

0x00000000

PN

13

0x01

13

. 3.16. CCM

161

3.3.4.

. 3.17.

ASN-

IP-

. 3.17.
WiMAX Forum

ASN (Access Service Network).
PKM PKM-REQ, PKM-RSP.

Authentication Relay Protocol. , , CSN (Connectivity Service
Network), RADIUS (Remote Authentication in DialIn User Service). , , . 3.18.

(BS)

(ASN)

(CSN)

EAP- (EAP-TLS, EAP-AKA, EAP-TTLS)


EAP
PKM

Authentication Relay

RADIUS

802.16

Authentication Relay

UDP/IP

. 3.18. ,

162

WiMAX Forum . 3.19.


NSP

NAP

IP-

ASN

IP-

ASN1

CSN

ASN2

CSN2

. 3.19.
PKMv1
Authentication
Information. .509,
. ,
, MAC- (
, ).
Authentication Information Authorization Request,
(Authorization Key,
AK), (Security
Association, SA).
,
.
, SA
, , TEK .
, TEK , SA
. SA SAID (Security
Association Identifier). , AK,
Authorization Request. :

163

.509;
;
CID , , ,
SAID.
NAP (Network Access Provider) NSP (Network Service
Provider) , . . . , AK,
Authorization Reply, :
AK;
4- AK;
;
SAID, SA.

/
Authorization
Info,
Authorization
Request

/
Authorization Info,
Authorization Request

Authorization
Reply,
[TEK]

/
[TEK]

/
Authorization Request
/
Authorization Request,
[TEK]

/
[TEK]

/
[TEK]

Authorization Request
/
Authorization Reply,
Authorization
[TEK] , [TEK] ,
Request
[TEK]

. 3.20. PKMv1

164


Authorization Reject,
,
( ,
,
. .).
AK , ( )
AK, Authorization
Request. SA ,
AK , .
AK, AK (
) Authorization Request AK.

(. . ), Authorization Invalid .
, 6 8 (. 3.20).
, , ; , TEK EAP, [TEK] [EAP].
,
,
. , . ,
(, CID). , . SAID, .
PKMv2
PKMv2 :
165

RSA ( );
EAP ( :
);
RSA EAP ( : ).
RSA- PKMv1. EAP,
RSA-EAP.
: EAP (3-way handshake). .
1). ASN PKMv2 EAP Start.
ASN. , PKM.
2). EAP Request Identity,
-, . EAP Response Identity. -.
3). - EAP
RSA-EAP.
4). - 512-
- (Master Session Key, MSK). , ,
RSA, EAP.
5). MSK -
AK,
. ,
PKMv1.
6). ,

SA.

MAC .
166

(CMAC_KEY_D, CMAC_KEY_U) (HMAC_KEY_D, HMAC_KEY_U).


.
1). PKMv2 SA-TEK-Challenge, BS_Random. (. . )
CMAC_KEY_D (HMAC_KEY_D).
2). PKMv2 SA-TEK-Challenge CMAC_KEY_U (HMAC_KEY_U).
CMAC_KEY_D CMAC_KEY_U
(HMAC_KEY_D HMAC_KEY_U). ,
PKMv2 SA-TEK-Req, PKMv2 SA-TEK-Challenge ,
S_Random. CMAC_KEY_U
(HMAC_KEY_U).
3). PKMv2 SA-TEK-Req, CMAC_KEY_U CMAC_KEY_D
(HMAC_KEY_U HMAC_KEY_D). PKMv2 SATEK-Req , BS_Random S_Random
, .
PKMv2 SA-TEK-Rsp SA.
. 3.4.2.
, ,
PKMv1, ,
(. 3.21). 6 16 . , EAP,
[EAP]. EAP
IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009 , , .

167

[EAP] EAP/
[TEK]

SA_TEK/
SA_TEK_Rsp
[TEK]

;
SA_TEK_Rsp


/
[TEK]

[EAP]
EAP/

[TEK]

/
[TEK]

;
SA_TEK_Rsp
;

,

SA_TEK_Challenge/ SA_TEK/
SA_TEK_Req
SA_TEK_Req

[EAP] /
[TEK]
EAP

SA_TEK_Challenge/
SA_TEK_Req


SA_TEK_Challenge/
SA_TEK_Req

SA_TEK_Rsp

SA_TEK_Rsp

HO

SA_TEK/
SA_TEK_Rsp/

SA_TEK_Req
[TEK]

SA_TEK_Rsp

SA_TEK_Challenge/
SA_TEK_Req

[EAP]
EAP


EAP/
EAP Start

/
EAP Start

. 3.21. PKMv2

MAC-, CID,
, CMAC_KEY_U (HMAC_KEY_U)
CMAC_KEY_D (HMAC_KEY_D). SA-TEK-Rsp

.
, - /,
, (Handover, HO).
RNG-RSP, , ,

168

.
.
EAP
EAP. SA_TEK , SA_TEK_Req,
SA_TEK_Req. ,
SA_TEK.
EAP ,
PKMv2 EAP Start ASN
.
.

3.3.5.
PKMv1
PKMv1
SAID,
Authorization Reply, TEK. , TEK, AK, . , AK, SAID TEK
.
Key Request,
SAID. Key Reply, :
TEK ( )
SAID;
;
.
SAID , Key Reject .
, TEK Invalid.
TEK .
TEK (Key Encryption
169

Key, KEK). KEK AK


, .
,
TEK
TEK, 6 9 . . 3.20, PKMv1 TEK PKMv1 :
[TEK] : TEK;
[TEK] :
TEK;
[TEK] :
TEK ;
[TEK] : TEK .

/
Key Request

/
Key Request

Key Reject/

TEK
Key Reject/

Key Request
TEK/ Key Reply
Key Request
TEK/
Key Request


/
Key Request

TEK/
Key Request
Key Request

Key Reply

. 3.22. TEK PKMv1


170

TEK PKMv1 . 3.22.


, ,
SA.
TEK :
,
;
, TEK TEK
.
PKMv2
PKMv2 PKMv1
TEK
.
. Dot16KDF.
RSA- PKMv2
RSA-Request, PKMv2 RSA-Reply, PKMv2 RSA-Reject PKMv2 RSAAcknowledgement ,
AK (pre-Primary AK, prePAK). Dot16KDF pre-PAK 160- PAK,
, , Dot16KDF AK.
RSA- . 3.23.
Pre-PAK (256 )

Dot16KDF

Dot16KDF

EIK (160 )

PAK (160 )

Dot16KDF
AK (160 )

. 3.23. RSA-

171

EAP-, , 512- - (Master Session Key,


MSK). MSK 160
- (Pairwise Master Key, PMK). PMK
Dot16KDF AK, PMK
, . , .
PKMv2 EAP Start.
EAP- . 3.24.
MSK (512 )

(MSK, 160)
PMK (160 )

Dot16KDF
AK (160 )

. 3.24. EAP-
RSA EAP , . PAK, PMK,
Dot16KDF AK.
pre-PAK 160- EIK EAP. RSA-EAP- . 3.25.
IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009 MAC- EAP.
MAC- 15 . :

172

( SHA-1), HMAC_KEY_D HMAC_KEY_U ;


( AES
128- ), CMAC_KEY_D
CMAC_KEY_U .
Pre-PAK (256 )

MSK (512 )

Dot16KDF

Dot16KDF

(MSK, 160)

EIK (160 )

PAK (160 )

PMK (160 )

Dot16KDF
AK (160 )

. 3.25. RSA-EAP-
.
. 3.26.
HMAC_KEY_D HMAC_KEY_U Dot16KDF AK. CMAC_KEY_D CMAC_KEY_U
. Dot16KDF AK CMAC_PREKEY_D CMAC_PREKEY_U. AES :
CMAC_KEY_U AESCMAC_PREKEY_U(CMAC_KEY_COUNT);
CMAC_KEY_D AESCMAC_PREKEY_D(CMAC_KEY_COUNT),
CMAC_KEY_COUNT 16- PMK,
, CMAC_PREKEY_D
CMAC_PREKEY_U AES.

173

EAP , CMAC_KEY_U, CMAC_KEY_D HMAC_KEY_U, HMAC_KEY_D


Dot16KDF EIK.

Generic MAC

MAC

CRC
15

Generic MAC

MAC

CMAC TLV CRC

13

Type

Length

Value

. 3.26. MAC-
TEK SAID PKMv2
PKMv1. SAID
PKMv2 RSA-Reply ( RSA-)
PKMv2
SA-TEK-Rsp
(
EAP-

EAP-RSA-). SAID
PKMv2 Key Request TEK .
, PKMv2 Key Reply,
PKMv2 Key Reject PKMv2 TEK
Invalid. Dot16KDF
( AES- ) - SHA-1 (
3-DES- ).
PKMv2
.
(Group Traffic Encryption Key,
GTEK). GTEK, , 174

(Group Key Encryption Key, GKEK).


GTEK GKEK
TEK KEK. (
) MTK (MBS Traffic Key,
: Multicast and broadcast service Traffic Key).
MTK
IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2009.

/
Key Request

/
Key Request

Key Reject/

TEK

Key Request

Key Reply

TEK/
GKEK
GTEK
Key Request
M&B


/
Key Request

Key Reply
GTEK
Update
Command

Key Reject/

GTEK/
Key Request

Key Request

. 3.27. TEK PKMv2


, PKMv2
TEK TEK,
175

7 11 . TEK PKMv2 . 3.27. , , SA.


TEK PKMv2 :
,
;
, TEK TEK
.
M&B (multicast and broadcast) .
GTEK.
GTEK Update Command
GTEK.

3.4.
1. IEEE 802.16.
2.
?
3. CID?
4. MAC PDU.
5. ?
.
6.
WiMAX?
7. WiMAX?
8. PKMv2?
9. IEEE
802.16.

176


1. . .
: [. .] / . . 2- ., . . : , 2003. 1104 .
2. . . : [. .] / . . ; . . . . . . : , 1979. 304 .
3. . .
/ . . , . . . . :
, 1988. 304 .
4. . IEEE Std
802.16-2009.
5. . . . /
. . [ .]. 2- ., . . . : ,
1988. 344 .
6. Lawrey E. Multiuser OFDM / Fifth International Symposium on Signal
Processing and its Applications, ISSPA `99, Brisbane, Australia, 1999.
7. . .
/ . . [ .]. . : , 2005.
592 .
8. Wang L. An Overview of peak-to-average power ratio reduction techniques for OFDM systems / L. Wang, C. Tellambura. Signal Processing and
Information Technology, 2006 IEEE International Symposium on,
Aug. 2006. Page(s): 840 845.
9. Antoine D. Novel Turbo-Equalization Techniques for Coded Digital
Transmission : Thesis presented for the Ph. D. degree in Applied Sciences /
D. Antoine. B 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve Belgique, 2004. 216 c.
10. 19 ()
. I. 30
66 19 2007 .
11. 1 2003 .

177

12. . . : [. .] / . . . : , 2000.
502 .
13. . . / . . , . . . . : , 1988. 239 .
14. . . /
. . [ .]. : , 2003. 293 .
15. . . / . . . 2-
., . . . : , 1982. 624 .
16. . . / .. . . : , 2005 205 .

178

. WiMAX
2007 . WIMAX Holding Ltd , Mobile WiMAX . -. ,
Mobile WiMAX , ,

, NAP NSP.

$20 . $300 . 2 2008 . - Mobile WiMAX
Yota.
2000 1 2009
, 1 2009 .
Mobile WiMAX Yota - 2,52,7 , 10 . 80 Samsung
Electronics, .
-
(, , , , . .) 10,7 ( , ,
). Yota
200 /. 10 / 3 / . 5 / 1,5 / .
, .
USB-, express-,
( ) Yota.
WiMAX/Yota 6 .

179

WiMAX

020593 07.08.97
005-93, . 2;
95 3005
23.06.2008 . 6084/16. .
. . . 9,3. .-. . 9,3. 100.
-, ,
.
195251, -, ., 29.
.: (812) 550-40-14
./: (812) 297-57-76

180