You are on page 1of 56

Rupec.

ru

2 (23) 2014

 
 , 
 

02 (23) 2014

................................................................................................. 6
................................................12

16

...............................................................16
..........................................................................22
...............................................26

30

................................................................................. 30

41

? .............................................................41

. 16

36

...................................................................................... 36

42
. 26

, ...........................42

. 6

46

............................................................................ 46
......................................................................................52

. 30


.................. 17, 18, 19, 21

....................................44

....10

MANGO.............................................32

..............................14, 15

................................................. 8

BASF ............................................9, 40

MARIANI ..........................................36


...................................27


11

BEAUTY LAB ...................................49

MARKS&SPENCER ..........................31

BIGREP ............................................52

MEXX ...............................................32

BOSCH..............................................20

MITSUI .............................................40

BRASKEM ................ 36, 37, 38, 39, 40

MOODYS ..........................................10

C&A ..................................................31

ODEBRECHT ..............................36, 38


.................................27

- ..........................13

...........................10

...................................... 5

......................27, 28

18 ...................24

................................ 5, 27, 28, 29

..........................20

...................................................10

............................................27

..................................................10

....5, 7, 8, 11, 27, 28, 29

.......................... 8, 27, 28


.....................33

........................ 5
......................33
..............4, 11
.......................... 4
..........20

..50
....... 17, 18, 19, 20, 21


................................................4, 34

CALVIN KLEIN JEANS .....................31

OSTAUSCHUSS ................................. 9

CHANEL ...........................................40

NEXANT ...........................................27

CHINA PETROCHEMICAL
CORPORATION ................................. 4

NOVOZYMES ....................................40
PIRELLI ........................................5, 28

COCA-COLA .....................................40

PLASTIVIDA.....................................40

CREDIT SUISSE ................................ 8

QUATTOR ...................................36, 38

DANONE ...........................................40

....13

RENAULT NISSAN ...........................19

DOW CHEMICAL .................. 13, 38, 40

........................................ 7

RUPEC ............................................... 5

DUPONT ...........................................31

............................. 5, 11, 29

SINOPEC ........................................... 4

EXXON MOBIL .............................9, 27

............................10, 11

SISLEY .............................................32

EY .....................................................11

STANDARD & POORS ......................10


STRATEGY PARTNERS..................... 9

..... 4, 5, 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 28

FASHION CONSULTING GROUP ......31

.....................15

FAURECIA ..................................19, 21

..........................................11

SUNOCO CHEMOCALS.....................38

FITCH ...............................................10

SUZUKI PLASTICS...........................40

........ 31, 34, 35

GLENFIELD ......................................32

..5,
28

.......................................... 5

TAKATA ......................................19, 21

GOLDMAN SACHS ............................ 8

5,
28

- ......43, 44

TOPSHOP ...................................31, 34

G8 ...................................................7, 8

- ...............11

TORAY ..............................................19

GENOMATICA ..................................40

................ 9

UNITED COLORS OF BENETTON ....32

INDEXBOX .......................................32

.......................15, 27

UV-CERT ..........................................18

INTIMISSIMI ....................................31


.....................................15

UTAC ................................................18

IPIRANGA GROUP ...........................36

VERSALIS ........................................40


..........................................15

ISO ..............................................10, 19

VICTORIAS SECRET ........................31

JOHNSON&JOHNSON .....................38

VOLKSWAGEN .................................21

.......21

KOR ECOLOGIC ................................52

WONDER BRA ..................................33


..........................34

LA PERLA ........................................31

ZARA ..........................................31, 34

MAGNA.............................................21

.
4, 5, 27
..............34
.....................25
........23
................................28, 29
............................ 5
..................................... 7


, ,
.
. 14

- 25-30%
. ,
, 12%

. 24

KOMATSU:
,
, .

. 44

02 (23) 2014


.................49


.....4



..................................................42


.......10


......................................................50


..........................................8


.............................................. 42, 43



.......................17, 18, 19, 20, 21


.................... 47, 50, 51


.............................................. 43, 45


-
.....................34


.............................................4


BASF .................................9

....................................................42


EY ...................................................11

- .........................................48

-
..............................9

................................51

.......................................................48


...........................................................50




......................................33

........................................................51


.................................. 5, 7, 28

.................................................. 24, 25


.........................................20

........................................ 23, 24

ExxonMobil ................................9

Volga Group ................................7


........................................................51


Pirelli ..................5



BigRep ......................................52



Beauty Lab .............................................49


.........................................................49


Braskem ..........................................38


........................................................49


.........34


........................................................51


3D-......................52


, ..............23


......................................4


- ............................50



.................................7



................................................25


.................................................5

....................................................32


....................................................21

.......................................................49

...........................................................49


......................................................4

Ostausschuss ...................9


China
Petrochemical Corporation .........................4


..................................12


:
igorp@rpi-inc.ru

e-mail :
info@rpi-inc.ru

:
,
www.rpi-communications.com


2 (23), 2014


...................................................32


Rupec.ru

2 (23) 2014

().

77-

39262 24.03.2010 .
,
,



. ..............24

-
Fashion Consulting
Group.................................................... 31, 33

:
2000

:
Shutterstock, ,


........................................................49


-, ..................33


:
C-

.
 
 , 
 


.............................................49


.......................48


...17


............................48

+ Sinopec


,
. , ,
: Sinopec
,


. -

.
,
Sinopec -
2
()

2,4 .
Sinopec
75% .
.
- ()
50 . .


2013 125
.
140 .


.
. . 12.


,
,



. , 20
ChinaPetrochemicalCorporation
(SinopecGroup)
.
,


.
Sinopec ,



2030 . , 2014
- 2030
,
. -

02 (23) 2014


.

Pirelli



().
. ,
-



Pirelli.

,


.
,
, ,

1,3
. .
,
-

,
. ,
,
, .

,

,

.
-



()
2015 2020
10%
, 2021
20%,

-
,



.
2020


,

.
,


(
,
, ,
. . 26).

. , ,
Rupec.
, ,

,
.
,

,
.

02 (23) 2014


.

-
.
, ,
.

32,3% ),
16 .
,

, ,
.

.
,



- ,

. .
,
-

,
G8.
,

,


.
, . ,

,
( 23,5%

17


, :
,


G8 ,

. ,
3 . .
2/3 .

.
,
, . ,

, , ,
, ,
.
, ,
, 2005
.
,
.
Credit Suisse ,
- 37 . Goldman Sachs,
2014
$130 , 2013 .

, ,
. ,
(,
). .

,
, (
).



.

. ,
, -

2013
(. )

945,6

517,4
399,1
279,6
256,8

02 (23) 2014

,
,
.

, . , , , 20 .

, .
, 3% 6,5%,

. , ,
, - , .
. ,
, , , , , ,
.

.




, ,
. , ,
.
, ,
, . ,
, .
Strategy Partners ,
( 70-80%), (65%),
(29%)
(21%).
.


,
-


,
Ostauschuss:

:
.

, BASF:
,
, ,
.

, -

:
,
,

, .
,

.

, ExxonMobil:



, ,

.

-.
,
, , ,
( ),
. ,
.


,
-

10

.

,
, ,

.
,

Standard & Poors
, , . ISO,
.
,



,
-



,
FEED,


, .
-
.

,



,

.
.
,

, , ,
, .
, ,
.
,
, ,

, . ,
: , , .
.

,
,
,

, .
,
, , ,
.
Fitch ,
.



,
,
, .
. China

, , copy
.

, , ,
, .

. , .
, ,
,
. , .
, Fitch ,
,
,
,
,
. ,
, , 2014
.
. Moody's ,

,
, 5 .
, .
, , , . , 2013 , ,
-
2-3
, ,
$2,8 . 11%
.
-

11

02 (23) 2014


. , ,

,
.


.
,
,
4

. (), ,
2018
1
,

$5 .

.
,
.
, , 2014
2015 .
EY


2020
290 .
,
, , .

, ,

, ,
,
.
, ,
,

,
,
.

-
( 500 . , 60 ).
,

,
, .
:
2025 481

12




.
,
,


.

13

02 (23) 2014

.
,
,

?

.
,
. ,
.

, , ,

. ,

25 ,
. ,

,
.
.
. ,


, %

8,9%

8,2%

6,9%

6,1%

3,1%

: NAICS, Annual Survey of Industries, Eurostat,

.
.
,
. , -
.
. ,

.
?

, .


. , ,
,
,
, ,
.
,
.


2030?
:
. ,
,
. , ,
.

, , ?

, ,
,
. 50%
.

. Dow
Chemical ,
.
, .
, , . ,
,
,
. ,
, .

- , ,
.

. . ,
,

,

.

,


.
.


?
, ,
,
.
. - .
.
?

-
, , .
, ,
,
, .
,
,

.

. ,

,
. ,
,
:
, ,
. ,
. ,

.
,
, ,
.

. ,

, ,
, .
, .
, .

,
, .
,
,
, , ?
, ,
.
, , , , .
, , , ,
,
. ,
,
-
. ,

. ,

.
,
, ,
. ,


,
.

2013


14
,

. ?

,
,
.
,
. , .

: , ,
, .
- . ,
, ,
.
.
,
,
.
,

.

.

. ,
, , .
,
.

, ,
. ,
,
, .
?
,
-

15

02 (23) 2014

, , , .
.
,
, ,
,
. ,
, , ,
, .
, ,

.
, . . , ,
.
, .
.
.
?
,
,
.

c . ,
. ,
.
, ?


5% 17%. , ,
,
. , ,

, /.

100

148
145
116
41
36

1,5

30

: , NAICS, OECD, Eurostat, governments of China, Japan (Ministry of Statistics)

.
.
.
,
.

,
,
.
, ,
.
. ,
, .
. ,
, .
?
.
.
, ,
,
. .

.

,
,
.

?
.
. ,
- ,
.
. ,
, .
, ,
. ,

.
,
?

, , ,
. -, . ,
.
, , ,
, ,
.

16

17

02 (23) 2014



.

.

-
,
.


,
. ,
.


, 20%.


4045%. ,

.
.
1,5 100 .
. .


,
.



.
. ,
.

, ,
. , 240 ,
$10
,
15-20% .
1997 .
, . ,
, , , ,
,
, .
, . -
, ,

. , .

,
, ().
, .

18



. ,


DATSUN

10 ,
.

, .
, , .
.
, ,
, , . . ,
, , .




. , .

. .

. , ISO.
,
. , -

, ,
,
, ,
. ,
,
. ,
.
UV-CERT 2003
.
UTAC, ,
,
. ,
2011
14001.

,
, .
, , .

,

19

02 (23) 2014

, - Toray
.

, ISO 2 . , 150 ,

850 . - ,
.
- ,
.
Renault
Nissan, ,
Faurecia ( ) Takata (
),
. ,
,
,
3-5,5 .
1-1,5 .

.
,

. ISO
, , , . ,
. ,
,
, .
, , .

- .
, .


-. .
.





. ,



,
.

.
-
,

, ,

. -
.
, ,

,


,
. -
-,
.
, .

,
, - - . , . , , . ,
. ,

20

: , , .

. -
.
. .



. , ,

, , 0,2-0,4%,

1%. ,
,
,
, , .
.

.
, , .

.
.
, . .

.

,

, .

75%
50%

47%
""


, ,
,
.
. ,
- , .
,
. ,
. - ,
.

.
, .

, 20%
Bosch.
. Bosch
. ,
,
.

. Bosch
.
, , ,
.

.
,
. -

. , , .
, , . ,
,
, , . .

21

02 (23) 2014


15 , , .
- 70%

.
,
, , .

: -
, ,
700 .
, ,
.

Volkswagen,
, 2009 ,
, ,
.
. ,
. ,


,
.
Datsun, , .

, . , ,
, Magna,
Faurecia, Takata, . ,
.
,
, .
,
! .
,
. , -

.
, , - . ,

,

.
.


. ,

%
,
,
,

.

, ,
,

, .

Volkswagen
Lada
Polo
Largus
""


,
. , . ,
, ,
, , .
-

19%

7%

OICA

2 232 000

2 175 000

2 144 000

2012

2013

2014

22

-, 2014

23

02 (23) 2014



.
.

.

2011 .

. 1,13
2 , 4 .
, .

,
.

. .

150 . , .
.

, ,
.
,
.
,
.
,
. -,


,
.
. ,
.


,
.



.
, 30%
.

+
+

70% , 30%
,

40

12

18,5

10

25

10 ..

10..


( 10)
, -,

. -


,

.

, - .
. .
" 18"

,
. ,
10 ,
.
.
.
, , .

, .
-
.
50 ,

, .
-
( ). ,
.
.
. - 25-30% .

,
, 12%
,
. 10% 800 ,

2011
1,13
2. 4
.
,
- ,

476,6 , , -
10 1 2,

.

-, 2014

- , .
, , 60-
.
,
, . 2009 18.
, -

, .
50%.
: .
- .

.
, -

24

-
, .
18,
, .
, ,

30%, ,
, . ,
, . ,

, , ,
.

.

. , , - .

,
,
,
- .
: , . ,
. ,
, ,
300 .


.
18

, -

25

02 (23) 2014


. -
.
, ,
. :


.
. :
( )
( ).
()
.
- . ,

,
.

.
.
-


, -

.
.
,
,
.

:

( )
, ,
,


.
-
.


,

-, 2011
. 25-.
, ,
.
2013
-
,
.
-

25

-
-*

11,4
115

24,7

18,1

184

3,6

251

*, - 10 1 2,
, 49,4 . 1 2 5 .

36,3

26

-, 2014

27

02 (23) 2014


,
.
?

, ). 600-700 .
.


200 . , 100 .
30 24 70 . 6
. 2010
.




.
Nexant,

12

,
. 3,4
,

,



2017
.
12 ,
2,6
. 450 .
,
.
, ,

, . 345


. ,


250
.
.
-
. ,
. ,
(


, ,
30 . .
.
,
EXXONMOBIL,
.
, , ,

8,5
, , , , -1, -1, 2,7

.
0,9

,

0,8

,
0,7


- 0,6

. , 2030
0,4

.

,
.

ExxonMobil.

.

() , ,
. , . ,
, , ,
, .

30

, 7,3
, 2,4
, 1,8
, 0,5 .


,
. ,


.
,
. ,
,

. ,



,

19



Pirelli

. ,
,

,
.


.



,
.
,

.
. , ,

, , ,
(
1,3 ). , . , ,

2030
-
. . ,

, ,
2020 ,

,
.

28

, ,
, , , ,
-
. $500
,

.
.
, , 2010
. ,
, .

, . - ,
,
,
.
-

Pirelli.


. , ,
Pirelli . ,

. ,
13%
Pirelli.
800 .
1
.
- ,
. ,
Pirelli
.
Pirelli .
, .
,
,
.

29

02 (23) 2014


.
.
2013
.
.
,

.
,
.
, , ,

,
2,5

.
2020 . 290 .
,
. ,
, ,

.
,

,

,
.


?



:

.

,
, . , ,
,
-

. ,
, . ,

: ,
.


;
; Pirelli

;
-


,
.

,

, . ,

, .
,
:

; ,

( ).
,

, , ,
. ,
.
majors, .

.

30

31

02 (23) 2014

. , ,
,
7%,
.

, , 1% 3%,
,
(Zara, Calvin Klein Jeans, TopShop,
Marks&Spencer, C&A), 90% .


,
- 1
.
, ,
, ,
,

.


, , ,

,
DuPont 60

. ,

. (

$4,5

, 1

).
2012 ,


6% ,
. ,
( , 90%,
. ) .
3%. ,
:
,
,
, .
.
, , ,
,
,
, , ,
, ,
,

, .

2013

, , 9%
$25
37%
, 21%
, Fashion
$50
Consulting Group -.

$120
- , Intimissimi, La Perla Victoria's
$120
33%
Secret, $60

32



FASHION WEEK RUSSIA

, .
.
IndexBox,
2005
. 2012
192,2 2
,
12,8% , 2011 .
-

.
, Sisley, United Colors of
Benetton, Gleneld, Mango Mexx,

,
30-50%, ,

. ,
-


.

, . ,

5% , 81%
97%
.
,





, ,


.

XIX

,
,
.
,

1918 .


,
,


. -,
.


,
.
, ,
,
.

33

02 (23) 2014

,
-,

. .

,


. ,
,
.

, .
. . , , . ,
, , .


$55,5 .


. 80% .
- ,


-

30-
XX
X


,
.
, ,
.

- . ,
, , ,
:
: -

1994


Wonder Bra
,
,
, .

-, . push-up

.
, .

2010
50-
XX


.
, .
.

,
,


.

.

34


.
, , .
:


,
.

.

( InCity,
Zara TopShop,
Deseo),


,

90%

,
(6 20


) , .


,
.
, ,

$5-5,5

3%. , ,
,
: , ,
. InCity . ,

, ,
, 8
, , 23 .

1625
.
200 500 -

. , , . .
, . , , . ,
. . ,
,
. , .

35

02 (23) 2014

.
10 ,
, InCity
,
Budget ( $25) Middle
($55),

, .
, , ,
, , . , 30
- ( ,
), ,
,
, .

,

, ,

.
. ,
,

.
, :
.
, , .

.
,
. . ,
, , . 100%
( ), ,
,
. ,
,
, 30%.

.


,
.
, ,
,

4 , .

.

.

.
,
,
10% .

,

-

-, 30-50%,
,

.

,

.

25-35%,
25-3

3%.

,


. ,

DuPont

. ,



. Braskem
Odebrecht,
.
70- (

), 80-
.
90-,
.
80-

,
, .
$103 .
.
4% .
2002 Odebrecht
Mariani, Braskem.
13
.
2006-2007 $800
Ipiranga Group major Petrobras,
.
Petrobras
. Braskem ,
.
,
, , 2008

350 .
. M&A . 2010
$420 Braskem
Quattor,

36

37

02 (23) 2014


Braskem

.




. Braskem

,
,
.
.

38

Sunoco Chemicals,




.
Braskem :
.

,
(
).
Braskem,

, Braskem
.
. 2010



Sunoco Chemicals,
20

,
Dow
Braskem
.


.

Braskem

,
.
$690 . - ,
.

, . Braskem
45%. 2010


: Quattor,
, 66%

, 10
, 44%.

$690



,
.
Braskem
,
100%- .

, .

.
Braskem .

,
.
, , .
Odebrecht

Marcellus.
Braskem -


. BRASKEM
2% *

: Braskem

77

6,7

3 2,8

39

02 (23) 2014

M & A

Ebitda

: Braskem


Solvay Indupa ($ 283 )

20

Dow ($ 340 )

17,4 17,7 17,3


Quattor ($ 417 )
Sunoco Chemicals () ($350 )

15,4

15

USD

Ipiranga ($ 805 )

10

Politeno Industria ($ 146 )

9,3

9,9
7,8

6,1
4,7

5,6

1,1
2004

1,0
2005

3,5
0

2,1
0,4
2002

0,7
2003

, ,

. Ethylene XXI,
2015 . -

0,8
2006

1,5
2007

1,0
2008

1,4
2009


,
. Braskem ( )
( - ).

Braskem
:

.

Pemex, , ,
.
.
, -

, Braskem
,
,
, , . , ,
,

2,3
2010

1,9

1,7

2,0

2011

2012

2013

. Braskem
. ,
,

.


, Braskem
.
70- .
.
Braskem
2007 , 2010
Triunfo.
Braskem ,

.

40

2010 Plastivida, Suzuki


Plastics Braskem - -1 . -
Interlagos. , - - Suzuki
Plastics. ,
. , 22 , 400
, - 155 . .
2008 , Braskem
-,
. 2009
. 2010

Braskem.

200 .
. , ,
Johnson & Johnson Chanel,



.
, -

Braskem ,

.

, Danone CocaCola, ,

.

Braskem .
Novozymes
2009 . , -


. 2013
.

.
2013 Genomatica .
BASF Versalis.

.
,
. ,
1
2,5 . ,
(270
)
,
,
,
,
700
,
.
,
, .
2011 Dow Chemical

Mitsui, . 2013
-
.

, Braskem .

41

02 (23) 2014


, .


.


.
,
,
- . ,
-


,
- ( The Dow Chemical Company, Shell
Chemical .),
25%
412 .
. -


$4,4 ,

$16,1 ,
$132 .
, ,
.

35,6

6,5

3,2
0,7

0,8
/

0,8

42

,
?
? .
, -
,
,
,
.
?
, . . , , ,
,
.
. ,

?

, .
, -
, .
,
.
?
.

, , .
. .
,
,
.

,
?
,
. , , ,
,
. .

?
,
. , ,
, .
,
.

43

02 (23) 2014


, . ,
. 76-
.

.

. ,
,
,
, , , , , , .
- , .
, .
?

,

,
.
.
, , ,
Komatsu.
,
.
, ?
!
, , ,
,
.
,
.
, . - .


?
,


, . , , - .
: .
, , , . ,
1991
.
, , :
, . , .

-.

.
,

.
.
,
. :


:
.
, . , , ,
.
, , -

. , ,
, ,
.
.
? ?
,
.
,
.

, - -.
,
. ,
.
, , , ? ,
.
,
, , .
. ,
, ,
, , . ,
.
.

,
,
.
,
.
-,
.
,
.

?
. ,
.
, , .
, ,
.
, , .
,
, , - ,
, .
, ,
, , . .
, ,
, , . , - , .
, ,
, , ,
.
, ,
, .


, , ,
.

,
.

.

, , .
,
, -

44

Komatsu:
, , . .

.
, , .
,
.
. ,
. ,
, .
, . , : , , , ,
. , , .
.
,
,
,
,
, , .
, .

, , ,
.
?
, ,
. :
, .
, 90- -
, ,
- .
, ,
.
,
.
.

45

02 (23) 2014

, , .
, ,
- .
. , , , ,
, , , , .
.
,

.
, , ,
,
,
.


. .
, , ,
,
?
, ,
.
.
, . -

? , ,
. .

, ,
, ,
. ,
, . .
?
.
,
. , ,
,
, , .
. , ,
, , .
, .
,
?
,
.
, - , ,
street avenue
. , .
: -

, ,
, ,
. , . , , ,
, - .
,
, .
, ,
.
,
, ,
, .
,
, . .

.
,
, ?
-
. ,

, .
,
.
,

.

, .

.
: ?
, ,
.
?
, . : , , !

46

47

02 (23) 2014

,

,
, .
, 25 35, , . ,
, ,


.





. ,
, ,

.
, , .
. , -

-5
(
(ISAPS)

18,8%

17%

13,5%

( )

9,4%

( )

7%

( )
(ISAPS)


. ,
. , .
. -
: -
,
? ,


( , , ,
)
50. ,
.

- ,
.

,
: -


- ,


500 ,
, ,
. , - ,

- .
. ,
.



.

, ( ),
( ),
,
,
,
. ,
,
,
.


, ,

, ,
, ,
, ,

. . : ,
, .

, -

48

.
, , Nail Gels
Hight Gloss,
. - : ,
. ,
, . .
.

? ,
,
, , ,
.

.
-
The Outdoor Beauty
and Fitness Book
magic polymers,
. ,
Hair Talk. -

,
,

49

02 (23) 2014

,
,
. 1980 .
-, 2014

,
,
BeautyLab
.


, .
,
. ,

, , ,

!

. IX

, . VI


, . ,
,

-5 -

1 300 000

1 000 000

400 000

1 200 000

(ISAPS)

700 000



,
.
1814 , ,
. :

, ,
: , !

, .



1962 . ,



. ,
.
,
,
. , , .

50

,
.
, .

, ,
c ,

2011 .
,
, , , ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
.
-

, .
, .
,
,
.
: , .
, . ,

. 2012


, . -


. -

37%

25%


18 25

30 49

50

38%

(ISAPS)

-
PEG30
-,
.
, , ,
.


, , 50
. 50-
,
, ,
. 80 , PlayBoy ,
-

,
.
1985
,
, .

51

02 (23) 2014

1926


. , .

1917

,
.

1917



.

1917 .

1918
,
.

1918 .

2010

.
,
, , .

1946
,
.

1926 .

.
, .
, , .
.

. , . ,
. .
40 . ,
18 , .
, . ,
, ,
.

. , , ,
- . . .

, .
. ,
, , . ,
. , . ,
.

1962
, .
.

1946 .

1962 .

2010 .

1

-

(
).

24% ,
39 .


for
beauty
,
320
,

18 .

.
3,5 .

(ISAPS)

52

3D- 1986

,
.
90- 3D Systems
Actua 2100.


,
. 3D-
,
.

3D-

3


3d-


. 3D-


.
,
3D- .


. 3D

.

,
, BigRep.
-,
,
,
. , 3D-, ,


. ,


.
.
,
.


100-200 .
, .

-,
. ,
3D-, .
, ,
. 3D- ,

. , 2013
.

. Kor Ecologic
Urbee 2,
3D.
Urbee 2, 7
,
110 /.
,
, (540 ),
,
.
3D-,
(, , ),
,
,
.