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Jyothisha – The Eye of the Veda Purusha!

Written by Jayasree saranathan

Published in the Astrological Magazine November 2009 issue

Jyothisha means “Knowledge of Light”. The source of Light that increases our intellect is
none other than the Supreme God who is mediated upon in the Gayathri mantram.

That God is Savitur, the Sun.

The Supreme God who is seen as the Source of Light permeates all the three worlds of
Prithvi (earth), Antahriksham (atmosphere) and Dyaur loka (celestial sphere) with his
thousand crores of rays.
The Light of this deity (Bhargo devasya) is meditated upon so that He will guide us in the
right direction.

The mechanism of how this deity of the Sun guides Creation, Sustenance and Destruction
in these three worlds is understood from the Eye of Veda purushan, the Jyothisha sastra!
Vedas do not exist without the Vedangas.
Vedanga is not complete without Jyothisha.

The Veda Purushan is personified in a form as

“Chandah padoutu vedasya hastaha Kalpoudha pathyate

Jyothishmayanam Chakshushu Niruktam shrotra muchyate

Sikshaghranastu vedasya mukham Vyakaranam smrutam

Tasmat sanga madheetyeva Brahma loke maheeyate”

Jyothisha is personified as “Chakshus”, the eye that helps to see the Light of Vedas.

It is said ‘Sarvendriyaanaam Nayanam pradhanam’.

Eye is the foremost sense organ that helps in grasping the real import of the things seen.

The Jyothishic Eye aids in transcendence from Tamas to Jyothish thereby making the
seeker realize Amurtham by overcoming Mrityu.
The deity of Light – Savitur


How astrological principles evolved.

Every Vedic mantra speaks about the prevalence of Jyothi –the God of Light in some
form encircling the Creation. The prayer is for deriving maximum benefits from this
Jyothi – the ultimate benefit being – merger at His Lotus feet after overcoming the cycle
of births.

This deity is manifest as different sub-deities in different contexts. For instance, the very
first verse on Savitur is

“AGNI I first invoke for our prosperity; I call on Mitra, Varuna, to aid us here.”

(R-V- 1-35).

The primary attribute noticed in Savitur, the Sun is the Agni. The heat of Agni is felt
most when the sun travels the part of the sky that is identified with the star Krittika.

This attribute of Savitur, namely Agni is therefore a deity who is said to reign the part of
the sky identified as Krittika. Therefore the star Krittika came to be ruled by the deity
called Agni. From Krittika arises the term Karthari. Karthari is the time the Sun travels in
Krittika, burning the world. From this arose the Karthari yoga, popularly known as
‘Katthiri yoga’ of summer when the heat is unbearable.

From this perception of heat felt by mankind, arose a set of rules for the sake of reducing
the hardship thus caused by the excess heat. The Karthari-phalan is framed such that no
work on soil, wood and stones must be done during this period.

“Mrut daru sila karmaani varjayet”.

It is difficult to work with these things under the hot sun without jeopardizing one’s
health. Thus arose the Karthari rule of not doing any festivities that required setting up
Mantaps or work in the outside during this period so that people can avoid venturing out
in the hot sun.

In this way numerous other Jyothishic principles are formed by ‘seeing’ the Veda
purushan and how he influences the worlds!

Explanations and interpretations can be developed for all the Gods of the Vedas. For
example, in the above quoted first verse on Savitur, the invocation is on 2 two other
deities namely Mitra and Varuna.

Mitra follows behind Agni. Mitra means friend.

If Agni becomes unbearable, Mitra following him from behind reduces the heat by the
sub-deity in his charka, namely Varuna.

Whenever heat crosses a limit, Mitra’s blessings come in the form of accumulation of
clouds and attraction of monsoon rains.

Even if the Agni is not severe, Mitra does his job of a Friend of Nature by attracting
water molecules. Every arghyam that is given at midday and every tarpanam that is given
at midday or any water particle that escapes into atmosphere from anywhere on earth at
any time is absorbed by Mitra to be transferred to Varuna.

This is not just an interpretative logic. This is made out in Vaastu pada vinyasa!

The Sun with his sub-ordinate deities praised in Veda mantrams are depicted as a charka
in Vastu sastra. The primary depiction of the Sun god surrounded by 8 deities on 8
directions is depicted as below. Varuna follows Mitra in the West.

Rudra PrithvIdhArA Apah


Mitra Surya Aryama

W Brahmasthaan E

Imdra VivasvAn SavitA


It is not an exaggeration to say that almost all the Gods praised or worshiped in Veda
mantrams are physically or symbolically identified with some entity in Jyothisha sastra.
The deities of the Vedas are identified with some part of the sky and Suryan’s soujourn in
that part gives rise to certain ‘climate’ or varthamaana, which is extracted by the Vedic
mantras for some benefit.
The basis of astrology.

The travel of the Sun is in the sky is perceived from different angles – in the background
of the stars, the zodiac and the planets. The basic grasp of these stars (who are identified
by their lords in the Vedas), the zodiac with 12 signs and 12 bhavas and the grahas is
what Jyothisha is all about.

It is said that one must know a thing if by knowing that thing, everything of it can be
known. In Ramanuja Bhashyam on Brahama sutras we hear of the analogy of knowing
the nature of clay so that one can know about everything made of clay. This is analogous
to knowing the nature of Brahman to know everything of His creation which is nothing
but Himself in manifest form. Similarly by knowing the above said basics (stars, signs,
bhavas and planets), one can understand any application in astrology. What is to be
remembered in this context is that these basics are part and parcel of the Sun and the
travel of the Sun seemingly around the world.

This is analogous to the protection given to Pareekshit in the womb of Utthara. Like
Sriman Narayana who protected the baby by going round and round the baby as a Chakra
of Light, this world is protected by the Sun that is tirelessly going round and round the
earth. This Sun is the Prathyaksha God of this world. The worship of this God was
brought to the notice of mankind by sage Vishwamitra - the friend of the Universe - in
the name of Gayathri mantra.

The Supreme mantra for release from all diseases.

No wonder almost all the sages who have been recognized as Jyothisha pravarthakas
(pioneers) have prescribed Gayathri mantra as the prime medicine for any cure – karmic
or of the body.

They further simplified by introducing one mantra in their samhitas, for persons of any
background. They recommend ‘Achyutha, Ananada, Govinda’ as a cure for all diseases.
All the other pariharas are of secondary nature only!

What all the sages have said was again reiterated by Veda Vyasar by handing out a triple
Promise of Satyam.

“Achyudananda Govinda nAmOcchaaraNa bhEshajaath

nasyanthi sakalaa rOgaa satyma satyam vadamyaham.
Satyam satyam punar satyam”

This is the mantra for kaliyuga for any ailment ranging from bad dreams to unbearable

This mantra has been promised by the sages.

This mantra also bears the stamp of promise by the Lord Himself who calls “maam ekam
sharanam vraja”.

However, the sages have also handed down the utility of worshipping other attendant
devatas of Sun.
It is like how the Light of the sun is not always used directly as it is – but derived through
other means. The benefit of the Sun God is derived through his attendant deities.
These deities have selective relevance and so selective benefits are derived from them.
This is found in Veda mantras too in the form of different verses on different deities.
This rationale is applicable to planetary deities too.

The relevance of Planetary devatas.

The journey of the Sun across the sky with its attendant deities is explained in Aruna
Prasnam in Yajur vada. The Deities or Devathas are seen as Light Forces that occupy all
the three worlds. The planets that receive the Devathas in the form of Light reflect back
the light to the earth. The planets are perceived as the 7 grahas (5 planets + Moon + sun)
controlling the 3 forms of life on earth, namely sthavara, jangama and manushya.

There may be any number of planets in the solar system at present or discovered later.
But according to sage Parashara, only those planets whose light reaches earth must be
considered as Grahas in astrology. Only those planets whose light reaches the earth are
said to guide Life on earth by means of the deity present in the light they reflect.

Each graha reflects light of a selective wavelength in such a way that the deity
represented by them becomes the ruler of a specific set of significances. The Sun as the
source of all light is the Foremost Graha among others. The 8th and 9th grahas are the
nodes which influence life on earth by association with other grahas.

The Uniqueness of the Navagraha mantras is that they are placed after the Aruna prasnam
in Yajur Veda- as a continuation of the depiction of the way that Sun rules the world.

The Sun is manifest as graha devathas at Dyaur loka.

At the level of Prithvi, it is manifest as Vastu Purusha with attendant deities.

According to Vastu satra, the sun light falling on the earth comes with 32 deities.
In that way, the entire earth is filled by Surya and 32 deities. Just as how the image of
sun captured in water kept in a million cups will show a million suns, the sun light falling
on any object and every object on earth will capture the Sun with its deities. In this way
the Sun God dominates all life and non-life forms on earth.

The Sun God is surrounded by 8 primary deities in a specific order. Wherever Sun light
falls, these deities also descend along with the Sun light in the specific pattern.
This is depicted as below.
Rudra PrithvIdhArA Apah

Mitra Surya Aryama


Imdra VivasvAn SavitA

Aryama in the east,

Mitra in west,
Prithvidhara in the north and
Vivaswan in the south.
The 4 corners are occupied by other deities.
The central region Brahmasthaan is always occupied by the Supreme lord Surya
Narayana Himself.

These deities possess the power to create certain energies.

Apah in NE is the creator of Life.
Savita in SE destroys hunger. Savita is eulogized in Savittri Upanishad as the twins
Balai- ati balai in whose presence one feels full at stomach.
The east is for growth and prosperity.

The North is ruled by Prithvidhara.

The deity of this part makes the person follow the Purusharthas with perfection.
Though the South is identified with Yama, the Vastu deity of this part ensures a safety
net from losses.

The NW is ruled by the deity who gives protection from diseases.

The SW is ruled by the deity who gives protection from any danger, particularly against
danger to crops.
The west is ruled by a deity who makes one supreme with good qualities and thwarts all
opposition from enemies. It gives a resting place from enemies and troubles.
The spread of these 8 deities is further supported by other sub-deities who occupy any
object or area on the earth.

The systematic spread of these deities is deduced as VAstu pada VinyAsa by ancient
works such as Mayamata, ManasAra, AparAjitha prIccha and Shilpa tratnAdhi grantha.

There are 32 types of Pada VinyAsa depending on the application and purpose.
For residential purpose, EkashIti pada vastu is suitable. This is done by dividing the site
into 9 X 9 equal parts.

For Mantaps and yaaga shalas, shata-pada vastu is applicable whereby the area is divided
into 10 X10 .

For installation of Navagraha deities, PItha vastu is done whereby the area is divided into
3 X 3.

The Navagrahas are Dyaur devathas and their installation is in tandem with the spread of
VAstu devathas on the ground.

The navagraha mantras coming after Aruna Prasnam, are about how these grahas take
position in accordance with the spread of Sun and his VAstu devathas.

Ketu Guru Budha

Rudra PrithvIdhArA Apah
9 6 5

Sani Surya Shukra

Mitra Brahmasthaan Aryama
7 1 3

Rahu Kuja Chandra

Imdra VivasvAn SavitA
8 2 4

The Brahmashaana is in the Centre – the place of the Supreme God.

Surya is praised in this position.
Soon after installation of the Main deity, the first action is to take care of the direction of
South. It is because the South is the way to the other world. Since the desire is to live for
long, the South is first guarded by the warrior or Commander of the sun, namely Kuja

From South, the next step is the east. East stands for Prosperity. The Imdra-pada of the
east is the best door way to have in any house. So that direction is taken care of by
installing Shukra or Venus, the giver of Prosperity.

Once the area or mandala is made secure by a front door, the attention is turned to the
next immediate requirement of food. That is the SE corner endowed with savita and
savitri who can make one free of hunger. Food grows in the place where Savita resides.
That is why kitchen is established in the SE corner of a house. Moon is responsible for
the growth of crops and food. Soma fulfils all thirsts. So Chandra is installed next in this

Once the food needs are taken care of, the attention is diverted into the vital functions of
the body. The vital functions are controlled by Fluids. The fluids can be anything from
nervous fluids to the fluids found in cells and glands. The Deity that bestows benefits to
fluids is ‘apah’ found in the NE. Mercury or Budhan is installed there so that he can
always help in keeping the fluid systems of the body in good stead. Mercury is
considered as one who works in accordance with the graha he is associated with. This
tendency is understood from the fluid that moves all over the body and in all organ
systems. The characteristic of the fluids is such that it works along with organ system
where it is found.

After bodily requirements are taken care of, it is time for spiritual growth. This can
happen with proper adherence to the 4 Purusharthas. The North with the deity
Prithvidhara is a place for shower of all riches with reference to Dharma and arttha. So
Guru is installed here next.

Once this is done, it is time for rest. The West is the place of Mitra and also deities like
Varuna who provides freedom from enemies and gives comfortable resting place. Saturn
is installed here.
Saturn in its positive end confers good relaxation.

Relaxation and rest are not possible if one is suffering from ailments. The two sides of
the West (Saturn) are occupied by Ketu in NW and Rahu in SW. There is a difference in
the location of these 2 nodes in some places. But the above depiction is as per Vastu

The NW is ruled by Rudra with sub-deities that control Roga or diseases.

The SW is ruled by Imdra whose sub deities Nairtti and Mrga control one from dangers
and protects crops respectively.
Crops and cultivation are connected with Rahu. Even a small digging of the earth invites
the wrath of Rahu. Any abuse of earth or harm to the lives found inside the earth will
attract the wrath of the deities of this direction. That is why is why Rahu is installed here
to relieve one from the troubles of this nature.

NW is ruled by Rudra with attendant deities who control diseases of different kinds. Ketu
is signifactor of peculiar diseases and also the Karmic diseases. He is one who guides one
from the affliction of Karma-phala. He is installed in this location as the Final deity.

Significance of Colour & Gems.

The sun light reflected by the planets is of selective nature.

For instance Mars reflects red while Saturn reflects blue and Jupiter yellow.
The wisdom of Jyothisha sastra is such that it has recognized numerous attributes or
significances attached to light that is reflected.

Colour is the easily understood attribute.

With colour comes mood.
Blue color relaxes. Blue lamp as night lamp is proved to be good for bedtime.
Red in heavy shades irritates one while the same red in particular wavelength heals.

Blue is reflected by Saturn, the slow moving planet.

A slow movement can be perceived either as laziness or a relaxed movement. The main
attribute of Saturn varies from slowness or laziness at one end to relaxation at the other
end. Affliction by Saturn in the horoscope makes one dull and lazy whereas Saturn in
benefic places and transits makes one enjoy a relaxed life.

Light and colour enter our moods, impulses and everything in nature. The entire world is
exposed to the light of these planets, stars and the two luminaries (sun and Moon). Every
part on the surface of the earth and beneath is constantly being exposed to this light.

The light rays are not constant at all times. They change with change in the position of
planets in their movement with respect to every other planet and the earth. At times they
are harmful and at times they are beneficial. The objects on earth exposed to their light
also behave in accordance with their nature. Some receive their benefic or positive rays
while some receive their malefic or negative rays.
It is similar to what Ramanuja has said in Sri Bhashyam. God is the operative Cause of
all beings. Just as rain helps different seeds to sprout, but in accordance with the nature of
seeds, the planetary light falling on earth is grabbed by many things in their own ways.

One such item that grasps all that is good of a planet is the ratna or the gem.

There are navanidhis available as padma, mahApadma, zankha, makara, kacchapa,

mukunda, nanda, nIla and kharva. The navaratnas, capturing planetary rays of the 9
planets are among them

The Padma is the Supreme gem that has grasped the positive energies of none but Sun
God Himself. Known as Ruby it is available in 6 variations depending on the kind of
light rays with which it is formed. Of them Padmaraga Mani is the supreme one as per
Ratna sastras. Rama, the King of Solar dynasty was wearing Ratna-amuguliam, the ring
embedded with Ruby as his Royal seal. This was brought by Hanuman to show to Sita to
inspire confidence in her.

Like Ruby or Padmaraaga, there are 8 other planetary gems that capture the positive rays
of the respective planets. They were considered as Nidhi or wealth because they are none
but the planets themselves available on earth! This again means they are none but the
planetary deities themselves available on earth for worship.

That is why the very first hymn of Rig Vedas begin with a salutation to gems along with
other deities such as Agni, Purohit, the deity of the yajna, the hOta (who recites the vedic
slokas) and ratnas.

“Agnimelee Purohitam, Yajnasya Deva

Mrutvijam, Hotaaram Ratnadhaatamam.” (RV-1-1)

As with gems, so with other factors that are manifest as themselves by the planetary
One is colour. Colour and Light go hand in hand.
It also goes by the dictum of Chandogya Upanishad ( 8-14-1) that
Name, Form and Attribute go together and they are similar to similar things.

The name by which a thing is understood is connected with its form and the works it does
or it is associated with. When we find these three resembling in another thing, we must
know them as being similar to each other.

The colour, the light rays, the ratna (mineral), the dhanya (grains) the metals and so on
that go with similar colour or form are of the same name and attribute.

In this context let us see how the dhanya (grains) fits in.
Significance of grains.

The planetary grain for Sun is wheat whereas for moon it is rice.
Anything that is golden coloured is of the sun.
Anything that is white tinged is of the moon.

Wheat is of golden colour and is said to have been formed by absorbing the positive rays
of the sun. Rice is grown with the positive rays of the moon.
By knowing this basic knowledge of astrology about these two grains, let us explain an
important factor in the Upanayana ceremony. This is done to show how astrology works
as the eye of the Vedas.

The grain offered to the Brahmachari who seeks alms (bhiksha) is wheat. This is told so
in the texts. But we find many people, particularly in Tamilnadu using rice instead. The
proponents of this change in practice claim that the choice of grain is to do with
availability. Since wheat is grown in plenty in the North, the seers who spent their life in
the North near Himalayas must have recommended wheat.
But rice is grown in plenty in the South. Therefore those in the south can use them for
Bhiksha. This is commonplace logic.

Jyothisha however finds a greater relevance in the use of wheat for Bhiksha because the
initiation is into the worship of Sun! What the Brahmachari sees or eats or drinks or
thinks must be of the Sun only. Wheat is the only grain identified as the grain of Sun and
it is not a surprise that the seers had seen relevance in donating wheat to the young boy so
that he will absorb the energy of sun through wheat.

To further explain this, let us see the food used in Pithru kaaryam. It is the rice ball!
If we say that the use of wheat in bhiksha was due to the abundance of wheat in those
areas, why did they recommend wheat balls for the pithrus? It is because the pithrus go in
the lunar path and they become offerings to Soma, the Moon god. Rice is planetary grain
of Moon that has imbibed the positive energy of moon. So it is the right choice in that

It may be argued that Rama offered different food stuff to his departed father during
Vana vaasam. The deviations are allowed only when one can not follow the prescribed
rules. The same Rama, back in Ayodhya would not have offered an assortment of forest
products to his pithrus. It must have been the same rice balls.

In this way, Jyothisha brings out clarity in the grasp of issues and also recommends lot of
issues of importance to human welfare.

Significance of sound and music

Sound is also an attribute connected with planets.

OM is the sound of the movement of the planets and the universe.
Ga is the sound attributed to Sun in astrology. The sound comes along with colour.
Here is the list of sound-colour connection to planets.

1 – ‘ma’ (madhyam) -Moon – white or yellowish tint.

2- ‘ga’ (gandharam) - Sun - Golden colour

3- ‘ri’ (rishabham) - Mars - red

4- ‘sa’ (shadjam) - Mercury - green

5- ‘ni’ (nishadham) - Venus - multi colour

6- ‘dha’ (dhaivatam) - Jupiter - Yellow.

7- ‘pa’ (panchamam) - Saturn - blue

The resonating sound of a particular planet is capable of enhancing its attribute.

I am not an expert in music to give the connection but a cursory look at the name,
Nilaambari which is sung as a lullaby to put one to sleep, makes me inclined to see
Saturine connection.

The colour neelam (blue) and sleep are enough to say that panchamam plays a role in the
lullaby effect. Only if ‘pa’ becomes a resting note, the relaxing effect of Saturn can be

This is an area of research for musicians taking cue from astrology.

Music has really moved mountains – Ravana did it.

Music has cured and brought rains.

It is possible to do anything with music including bringing God to appear before oneself.

This is possible through the technique of Light-colour-swara combination of planets.

Devatas & Pariharas

The effect of sound of planets is trapped in chanting of planetary mantras.

The planetary mantras cover three deities for each planet. They are the planetary devatha,
athi-devatha and Pratyadhi devatha.

They are as follows:

1) Graha: Soorya/ Sun

Ati dEvata: Agni;
Pratyati dEvata: Rudhran

2) Graha: AngAraka/SevvAi/ Mars

ati devata: BhUmi,Pratyati dEvata: KshEtrapAlar

3) Graha: Sukra/ Venus

ati dEvata: IndhrANi and pratyati dEvata: Indhra

4) Graha: Soman/Moon,
ati dEvata: Jalam and Pratyati dEvata: Gouri

5) Graha: Budhan / Mercury,

ati dEvata: Trivikraman and Pratyati dEvata: VishNu

6) Graha: Bruhaspati / Guru/ Jupiter

ati dEavta: Sooryan and pratyati dEvata:BudhnyA:

7) Graha: Sani/ Saturn

ati dEvata: Prajapati and pratyati dEvata: Yaman

8) Graha: Raahu,
Ati dEvata: Durgai and Pratyati dEvata: Nirrudhi dhig Paalakan

9) Graha: Ketu,
Ati dEvata: BrahmA and Pratyati dEvata: Chitraguptan

Japa, dana (of grains, gems, metals, animals, trees, herbs etc), Homa and worship based
on the planetary attributes are perceived as propitiatory or Parihara actions.

Worship of Surya covers all the planets since he is the giver of Light to the planets.

Worship of planetary devatha ensures smooth life with reference to the attributes of that

When the horoscope indicates a need to boost up the energy of a planet, the ati devata of
the planet is worshiped.
When the indication is that of malefic effect from a planet, then Pratyadhi devata of that
planet is worshipped.

The ati devatha works on the positives and enhances them.

The pratyathi devatha works on the negatives and removes them

To understand this, let us look at the Navagraha manthra for Sun.

Sooryan is the devatha for Athma (Sun is the atma karaka in Jyothisha), for Light, for
radiation, for luster and for doing any karma. By devatha we mean that he is the Ruler or
lord of all these and many other things that are derived from these or connected with
these. He lords over the Athma and leads the athman to do karma (or any work) like how
the Sun drives the chariot and moves across the sky thereby doing its karma of lighting
the world.

In the Surya manthra, Agni is the atidevatha.

(ati stands for excess. Here the ati devatha works to add the positives)
If any issue signified by the Sun is needed to be boosted up in the gochara or the running
dasa - bukhthi of the Sun, then ati devatha must be worshiped. It increases the power of
the significance. Homa, dana and pooja of the ati devatha is done to boost up the

If the significance is weak due to malefic position or afflictions caused by other planets,
that is, if there are combinations in a horoscope that make the significance of the sun
weak or un-manifest, then pratyathi devatha is worshiped.

By the name, it is understood that pratyathi devatha keeps off or drives off the forces that
hinder the manifestation of the significance.

In the case of sun, Rudra is the pratyathi devatha. Rudra is one who destroys evil. As
pratyathi devatha he removes the obstacles or hindrances to the significance of the Sun in
one's horoscope.

In this way, the relevance of devathas and pooja to them must be understood for other

It must also be understood that behind any planetary parihara, it is Sriman Narayana who
exists as Adhyatmika and receives the offerings.

To recall an incident in Mahabharata, just before the dialogue of Bhagawad Gita, Krishna
asks Arjuna to pray to Durga Devi seeking victory in the war.

Arjuna prays by Durga sthuthi at the end of which Durga appears. She grants the boon of
victory in war in the presence of Krishna with Narayana amsam receiving the prayers
through her.
Through the eyes of Veda purushan, that is, Jyothisha, we can explain this episode in this

Prayer to Durga means that it is an effort to increase the positive energy of Rahu.

The Navagraha mantra identifies Durga as the ati devatha of Rahu whose presence is felt
on Bhoomi!

Maataram asanan = She pervades the Mother-like BhUmi.

Any obeisance to Mother earth pleases Rahu and any abuse to earth invites the wrath of
Rahu. Vastu satara recommends a number of dos and donts with reference to Rahu when
it comes to digging the earth for construction of a house or a well or a tank or even for
removal of some dirt from the ground. Gain of earth therefore requires Rahu’s blessings.
That is why Krishna advised Arjuna to pray to the Ati devata of Rahu. (In any earth
quake, Rahu’s malefic aspect will be there on the place)

At the other extreme, the abuse of earth in any form including spitting in areas where it
must not be done invites the sarpa dosha of Rahu. It is compensated by offer of milk to
the snake hole as a token of making earth pure by milk. Sarpa is the Pratyadhi devata of

On Lagadha Vedanga Jyothisha and Jyothisha of Maharishis:-

At the time of Lagadha’s Rig Jyothisha, Uttarayana started at the beginning of Dhanishta.
(Verse 6- “Prapadyete sravishta..)
This was at 23-2 degrees Capricorn.

Later Varahamihira says that Uttarayana started in the 2nd pada of Uttrashada in his times.
This was at 0 degrees Capricorn.
Today Uttarayana starts at 6 degrees Sagittarius.
Adding up these we get the period of Laghada Jyothisha dated at 1399 BC (at the rate of
72 years per degree).

This time period for the 39 verses that we have today on Rig Jyothisha shows that they
were not compiled by Krishna Dwaipayana (Veda Vyasa). They were later to him.

This means Vedanga Jyothisha is a continuing thing. Perhaps it evolved as Panchanga

about 2000 years ago by sage Vararuchi at the beginning of Vikrama epoch.

Sages (Vediks) have been time and again making corrections as the zodiac shifts. This is
necessary, for, Vedanga Jyothisha has the prime purpose of noting down the time and
climate on a continuous scale so that the Rig and Yajusha rituals / homa can be done in
proper Muhurtha. Phalitha Jyothisha (predictive) type of principles is found in Atharvana
Jyothisha because Atharvan homas are ‘kaamya’- oriented ones of mundane nature for
which finer details about the Yajaman are also necessary. That is why we find a detailed
exposition on Tara balam and Chandra balam in Atharvan Jyothisha. These are necessary
even for digging a plot.

Tara balam is a very old concept found as early as Ramayana times. Coronation of Rama
was fixed on the sampat tara of Rama and Rama started his army on his Saadhaka –tara.
What is noted from this is that Jyothisha as Predictive, hora sastra is timeless and had
been there at all times, while Vedanga Jyothisha was only about keeping a tab on time
and climate – something which any purohit of today also does by keeping a note on the
Panchanga (vara, tara. Thithi,Yoga and karana) information based on the movements of
Sun and moon only. Ask him about predictive astrology. He need not necessarily know.
That is different from knowledge of panchanga.

Rasi is not an imported concept from Yavanas.

There is a notion that Rasi (12 signs of the Zodiac) is a modern concept, developed first
by Yavanas (Greeks). It is nor so because Astrology and is based on the Zodiac which is
personified as Kalapurusha – the Supreme God Himself. Without rasi, grahas, their
aspects and the Zodiac, there is no astrology - no prediction can be made.

As early as Ramayana we find mention of planets in the zodiac at the time of Rama’s
birth. It can not be done without the 12 rasi system of the zodiac. Dasharatha tells about
the affliction caused to his births star by Rahu, Sun and Mars. How could he say that if
they are not located in signs and their aspects are a well developed concept by then?
Today we can discuss Rama’s horoscope threadbare and establish how it tallies with his
life events. So all these are old concepts and are just timeless.

Vyasa noted in Bheeshma parva many terms of terrestrial, atmospheric and celestial
indications (the three worlds). The mention of sighting a planet (graha) or star or a comet
(Dhooma ketu which is mistaken as a comet whereas it is the satellite or upa-graha of
Ketu as per astrology) can not happen without locating it in the Zodiac. By location we
mean the sign where it is posited. The Zodiac is nothing but Kala purusha (Time or God
Himself as Time) which has been divided into bhavas and signs in consonance with the
significances that are distinct for each of them. The rasi division is not a later or modern
concept borrowed from Mlechas (Greeks). This is another influence of a colonial trick
that fed Aryan Invasion theory.

Utility of Jyothisha.

Many astrological factors such as navagraha mantras are found in Vedas.

But not every dictum of Jyothisha is found in Vedas, giving rise to an opinion in modern
thinkers that astrology is partly borrowed from outside the Vedic culture.
This is an erroneous understanding.

Vedas are not a treatise on Astrology. Astrological information is found only where it is
required in the context. For instance most of the astrological information is about ‘time’
at the moment the mantrams were recited. The basic purpose of Vedanga Jyothisha that
comes along with each Veda is to help identify the proper time to do yajnas. Most of
Veadanga Jyothisha deals with Siddhantha of Time that helps in tracking down time and
climate so that the yajnas can be done at the most appropriate time.

There have been many Vedas and many rules of Vedanga Jyothsiha in the past. What is
left with us now constitutes 39 verses of Rig Jyothisha authored by Lagadha, 49 verses of
Yajusha Jyothisha and 162 verses of Atharvana Jyothisha. The predictive astrological
principles are found in Atharvana Jyothisha for the purpose of releasing fruits of
mundane nature through yajnas. .

Apart from these almost all the puranas give Jyothisha information through the mouths of
rishis. Jyothisha as was found in this land had no beginnings. Almost all the Rishis have
said or written something on Jyothisha (This is not Vedanga Jyothisha).

18 maharishis have been identified exclusively as Jyothisha pravarthakas (pioneers) by

Kashyapa, Narada and Parahara. All the works by rishis state that Jyothisha was given as
Upadesa by the four-faced Brahma or Surya to the rishis. That means it was not
developed like western sciences by trial and error methods or by human efforts.

What we have as 5 folded Jyothisha sastra (Siddhartha, Hora, Samhita, Sakuna (omens)
and Prasna) had been contributed by many rishis and had been there since the time of
inception of manava kula.

They too are like eternal principles of Vedas. The Eye of the Veda purusha is such that it
is like the map of Operating system of the Creator God by which events are executed in
Time-Space map of the Universe. The jIvas that are destined to undergo specific events
are born in this set up at those times suitable for experiencing the events. Time, Space,
events and Karma – are all born of Prakruthi.

Therefore all of them must be surrendered at the feet of Lord.

Tat sakalam parasmai Sriman Narayanaya iti samarpayaami!

That is the Final wisdom taught by Jyothsiha!