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AP European History/Neiffer

Reading Guide:
Chapter 15: Society and Economy Under the old Regime
in the Eighteenth Century

Major Features of Life in the Old Regime


Maintenance of Tradition

Hierarchy and Privilege

The Aristocracy
What privileges and lifestyle had the Nobility gained by the 18th century?

Varieties of Aristocratic Privileges


• British Nobility
• French Nobility
◦ ...of the sword
◦ ...of the robe

◦ hobereaux
◦ vingtieme
• Eastern European Nobility
◦ Poland
▪ szlachta
◦ Austria and Hungary
◦ Prussia
◦ Russia

Aristocratic Resurgence
• Russia
• What did nobles so to protect their social position
in Russia?

The Land and Its Tillers

Peasants and Serfs


• banalites
• signeurs
• corvee
Emelyan Pugachev has a cool, Russian
• robot
• barshchina
beard...
• Peasant Rebellion
◦ Pugachev's Rebellion
◦ Other Peasant Rebellions

Aristocratic Domination of the Countryside: The English Game Laws


• What were the English game laws?
• How did they highlight aristocratic privilege?

Family Structures and the Family Economy

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Households
• Northwestern Europe
• Eastern Europe

The Family Economy


• What is the family economy?
• How did the family economy look in rural areas? … in urban areas?

Women and the Family Economy


• What role did women take in the family economy?
• What was the role of women throughout their development ages?
• How did women's life change after marriage?

Children and the World of the Family Economy


• How did children impact the family life during this time?
• Foundling hospitals

The Agricultural Revolutions

What was the goal of traditional agriculture?


What were the perils of traditional agriculture?

New Crops and New Methods


• Yay for the Dutch!
• Cornelius Vermuyden
• Jethro Tull
• Charles “Turnip” Townsend
• Robert Bakewell
• Arthur Young
• The Enclosure Movement
◦ What was the impact of the enclosure
movement?
◦ How did the enclosure movement
impact various social classes?
• Eastern Europe? Left behind...

Expansion of the Population Whoops... wrong Jethro Tull!


• What factors cause the population to
expand?
• What impact does the population expansion have on Europe?

The Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth Century


A Revolution in Consumption
• How was consumption changed to market goods to larger varieties of customers?

Industrial Leadership of Great Britain


• Why does Great Britain take the lead in the Industrial Revolution?
• What favors makes Great Britain so competitive in the international marketplace?

New Methods of Textile Production


• domestic system of textile production... or the putting-out system
• spinning jenny

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• water frame

The Steam Engine


• Thomas Newcomen
• James Watt

Iron Production
• What factors changed to increase production of iron?
• Henry Cort

The Impact of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on Working


Women
• How did the role of women change in the household?
...workplace?
• How were women treated in the evolving workplaces?

The Growth of Cities


Patterns of Preindustrial Urbanization
• What were the population trends that dominated Europe in
the Preindustrial age?

Urban Classes The steam engine changes


• What separated the rich and poor in increasingly urban everything!
Europe?
• How did the upper classes, middle class and artisan classes change in the new urban environments?

The Urban Riot


• What caused the urban riots in the growing urban areas of Europe?

The Jewish Population: The Age of the Ghetto


• What caused movement of Jews throughout Europe in this age?
• ghetto

Review Questions
1. What kinds of privileges separated European aristocrats from other social groups? How did their privileges
and influence affect other people living in the countryside? What was the condition of serfs in central and
eastern Europe?
2. How would you define the term family economy? How did the family economy constrain the lives of women
in preindustrial Europe?
3. What caused the Agricultural Revolution? How did the English aristocracy contribute to the Agricultural
Revolution? Why did peasants revolt in the eighteenth century?
4. Why did Europe’s population increase in the eighteenth century? How did population growth affect
consumption?
5. What was the Industrial Revolution and what caused it? Why did Great Britain take the lead in the
Industrial Revolution? How did consumers contribute to the Industrial Revolution?
6. How did the distribution of population in cities and towns change? How did the lifestyle of the upper class
compare to that of the middle and lower classes? What were some of the causes of urban riots?
7. Where were the largest Jewish populations in eighteenth-century Europe? What was their social and legal
position? What were the sources of prejudices against Jews?

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