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You are on page 1of 31

Variable Speed

Pumping System

Accessories and

Optional Equipment

Electric

Cable

Optimum

Size Of

Components

Pump

Type

Total

Dynamic

Head

Gas

Calculations

Production

Capacity

Basic

Data

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

9

8

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE NO.

Centrilift's Educational Development Center..................................... 1

Nine-Step Overview ............................................................. 2

Step 1 - Basic Data ............................................................... 3

Step 2 - Production Capacity ..................................................... 4

Step 3 - Gas Calculations ........................................................ 5

Step 4 - Total Dynamic Head .................................................... 7

Step 5 - Pump Type .............................................................. 8

Step 6 - Optimum Size of Components .......................................... 9

Step 7 - Electric Cable ........................................................... 10

Step 8 - Accessory & Optional Equipment ...................................... 11

Step 9 - Variable Speed Pumping System ....................................... 13

Design Example 60 Hertz ....................................................... 16

Design Example Variable Speed ................................................ 22

)KJCH=FDPC

TM

..................................................................... 28

THE 9 STEP

3

THE 9 STEP

The Centrilift Educational Development Cen-

ter (EDC) offers high quality education and

training programs, both for Centrilift associates

who design, build and service our products, and

for our valued customers.

Our modern training facility includes full me-

dia-equipped classrooms, a shop training area,

and a media development center. In addition to

a permanent staff of professional, experienced

instructors, numerous members of the Centrilift

organization are on call in their areas of exper-

tise.

There are three standard programs that are of-

fered to our customer. All have a common

objective to improve the overall reliability of the

ESP system by understanding its strengths and

limitations. This includes improving the operat-

ing life and drastically reducing maintenance

and repair costs. The three standard programs

are:

The Electrical Submersible Pumping System

Applications

This is a five day course designed for those

personnel involved in production operations,

which use electrical submersible pumping sys-

tems (ESP's) for artificial lift. The course in-

cludes an introduction to the individual compo-

nents of an ESP system, including their perfor-

mance characteristics and limitations.

This program is an in-depth technical seminar

dealing with the sizing and application of ESP

equipment in harsh environments, which in-

clude high GOR, high viscosity and variable

speed operation.

The Variable Speed Controller Technology -

Operation-Maintenance

This is a five day program designed for those

personnel directly responsible for the day-to-

day operation of Centrilift VSC systems. Each

of the major circuits, as well as the logic circuits,

will be discussed in detail. Using simulators and

actual VSC systems, participants will demon-

strate the actual start-up of a VSC system and set

all the necessary operating parameters.

The Installation, Troubleshooting and Ap-

plication of ESP Equipment

This is a five day course designed to prepare oil

field personnel for the installation of electrical

submersible pumping equipment. The course

provides instructions of the proper installation

techniques, as well as servicing and pulling of

ESP equipment. The course introduces the

student to the major ESP components and pro-

vides a brief explanation of the steps required to

size a complete ESP system.

To satisfy individual requirements, customized

programs can be developed for specific topics

and can be administered at field locations. For

a complete description of the course contents,

schedule and tuition, contact you local Centrilift

representative.

Whether our programs are for product informa-

tion, technical skills, or skills for working to-

gether, the EDC is dedicated to the same goal as

all Centrilift associates and facilities. This goal

is the pursuit of excellence.

CENTRILIFT'S EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CENTER

4

THE 9 STEP

Step 1 - Basic Data

Collect and analyze all the well data that will be

used in the design.

Step 2 - Production Capacity

Determine the well productivity at the desired

pump setting depth, or determine the pump

setting depth at the desired production rate.

Step 3 - Gas Calculations

Calculate the fluid volumes, including gas, at the

pump intake conditions .

Step 4 - Total Dynamic Head

Determine the pump discharge requirement.

Step 5 - Pump Type

For a given capacity and head select the pump

type that will have the highest efficiency for the

desired flow rate.

Step 6 - Optimum Size of Components

Select the optimum size of pump, motor, and

seal section and check equipment limitations.

Step 7 - Electric Cable

Select the correct type and size of cable.

Centrilift has established a nine step procedure to help you design the appropriate submersible pumping

system for your particular well. Each of the nine steps are explained in the sections that follow, including

gas calculations and variable speed operation. The nine steps are:

Step 8 - Accessory & Optional Equipment

Select the motor controller, transformer, tubing

head and optional equipment.

Step 9 - The Variable Speed Pumping System

For additional operational flexibility, select the

variable speed submersible pumping system.

The Electrical Submersible Pumping System

NINE-STEP OVERVIEW

5

THE 9 STEP

The design of a submersible pumping unit, un-

der most conditions, is not a difficult task, espe-

cially if reliable data is available. Although, if

the information, especially that pertaining to the

wells capacity, is poor, the design will usually

be marginal. Bad data often results in a misap-

plied pump and costly operation. A misapplied

pump may operate outside the recommended

range, overload or underload the motor, or draw-

down the well at a rapid rate which may result in

formation damage. On the other extreme, the

pump may not be large enough to provide the

desired production rate.

Too often data from other wells in the same field

or in a nearby area is used, assuming that wells

from the same producing horizon will have

similar characteristics. Unfortunately for the

engineer sizing the submersible installations, oil

wells are much like fingerprints, that is, no two

are quite alike.

The actual selection procedure can vary signifi-

cantly depending upon the well fluid properties.

The three major types of ESP applications are:

1. High water-cut wells producing fresh water

or brine.

2. Wells with multi-phase flow (high GOR).

3. Wells producing highly viscous fluids.

Following is a list of data required:

1. Well Data

a. Casing or liner size and weight

b. Tubing size, type and thread(condition)

c. Perforated or open hole interval

d. Pump setting depth (measured & verti-

cal)

2. Production Data

a. Wellhead tubing pressure

b. Wellhead casing pressure

c. Present production rate

d. Producing fluid level and/or pump intake

pressure

e. Static fluid level and/or static bottom-hole

pressure

f. Datum point

g. Bottom-hole temperature

h. Desired production rate

i. Gas-oil ratio

j. Water cut

3. Well Fluid Conditions

a. Specific gravity of water

b. Oil API or specific gravity

c. Specific gravity of gas

d. Bubble-point pressure of gas

e. Viscosity of oil

f. PVT data

4. Power Sources

a. Available primary voltage

b. Frequency

c. Power source capabilities

5. Possible Problems

a. Sand

b. Deposition

c. Corrosion

d. Paraffin

e. Emulsion

f. Gas

g. Temperature

STEP 1 - BASIC DATA

6

THE 9 STEP

The following is a simplification of procedures

for predicting well performance. This discus-

sion assumes a flow efficiency of one. A dam-

aged well or other factors will effect the flow

efficiency and could change the well's produc-

tivity.

Productivity Index

When the well flowing pressure (P

wf

) is greater

than bubble -point pressure (P

b

) the fluid flow is

similar to single phase flow, and the inflow

performance curve is a straight line with slope J,

as given by the productivity index, PI:

PI = J =

Where:

Q = the fluid test production rate.

P

wf

= the well flowing pressure

@ test rate Q.

P

r

= the well static pressure.

Note:

P

r

and P

wf

are terms which are

always referenced to the same

specific vertical depth.

Inflow Performance Relationship

If P

wf

is less than P

b

, resulting in multi-phase

flow, the IPR method should be used. The

relationship is given by the following equation:

Q

o

max =

Q

o

1 - 0.2( ) - 0.8( )

P

wf

P

wf

2

P

r

P

r

This relationship was first used by W.E. Gilbert

1

and further developed by J.V. Vogel

2

. Vogel

developed a dimensionless reference curve that

can be used to determine the IPR curve for a

particular well.

STEP 2 - PRODUCTION CAPACITY

P

r

- P

wf

Q

Producing Rate (q

o

/(q

o

) max). Fraction of Maximum 0

0

INFLOW PERFORMANCE

REFERENCE CURVE

B

o

t

t

o

m

H

o

l

e

W

e

l

l

P

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

(

P

W

F

/

P

R

)

.

F

r

a

c

t

i

o

n

o

f

R

e

s

e

r

v

o

i

r

P

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

7

THE 9 STEP

The presence of free gas at the pump intake and

in the discharge tubing makes the process of

equipment selection much more complicated

and voluminous. As the fluid (liquid and gas

mixture) flows through the pump stages from

intake to the discharge and through the dis-

charge tubing, the pressure and consequently,

fluid properties (such as volume, density, etc.)

continuously go on changing. Also, the pres-

ence of free gas in the discharge tubing may

create significant gas-lift effect and consider-

ably reduce the required discharge pressure.

The performance of a centrifugal pump is also

considerably affected by the gas. As long as the

gas remains in solution, the pump behaves nor-

mally as if pumping a liquid of low density.

However, the pump starts producing lower than

normal head as the gas-to-liquid ratio (at pump-

ing conditions) increases beyond a certain criti-

cal value (usually about 10 - 15%). It is mainly

due to separation of the liquid and gas phases in

the pump stage and due to a slippage between

these two phases. This phenomenon has not

been well studied and there is no general corre-

lation describing the effect of free gas on pump

performance. A submersible pump is usually

selected by assuming no slippage between the

two phases or by correcting stage performance

based on actual field test data and past experi-

ence.

Ideally, a well would be produced with a sub-

mergence pressure above the bubble point pres-

sure to keep any gases in solution at the pump

intake. This is typically not possible, so the

gases must be separated from the other fluids

prior to the pump intake to achieve maximum

system efficiency.

There are numerous combinations of equipment

configurations and wellbore completions which

are available for enhancing the performance of

ESP's in gassy applications. Many of these are

identified in the "Gas Handling Guideline". Spe-

cifically, Centrilift offers several optional com-

STEP 3 - GAS CALCULATIONS

ponents used for separating gas from the fluid

going to the pump intake. These are listed

acccording to increasing efficiency. The first is

a reverse flow intake, which uses the natural

buoyancy of the fluids for separation. The sec-

ond is a vortex type intake, which uses the fluid

velocity to set-up a rotational flow to induce

radial separation of the gas. The last is a rotary

gas separator intake, which utilizes a mechani-

cal, rotating chamber to impart a high, centrifu-

gal force on the fluid to separate the gas.

It is essential to determine the effect of the gas on

the fluid volume in order to select the proper

pump and separator. The following calculations

yield the percent free gas by volume.

If the solution gas/oil ratio (R

s

), the gas volume

factor (B

g

), and the formation volume factor

(B

o

) are not available from reservoir data, they

must be calculated, and there are a number of

multi-phase correlations to select from. The

correlation you select will affect your design, so

select the one that best matches your conditions.

The following are Standings

3

correlations for

solution gas/oil ratio, and formation volume

factor:

Solution Gas/Oil Ratio

Where:Y

g

= Specific Gravity Gas

P

b

= Bubble-Point Pressure, psi (kg/cm

2

)

T = Bottom-hole Temperature, F ( C)

NOTE: Pump Intake Pressure (PIP) should be

substituted for Bubble Point Pressure when

calculating intake conditions.

0 0

R

s

= 0.1342Y

g

(

R

s

= Y

g

( )

10

0.00091 x T( F)

10

0.0125 x API

10

0.0125 x API

x P

b

18

0

x

10

0.00091 x (1.8T( C) + 32)

P

b

1.2048

Or in metric,

0

)

1.2048

0

0

8

THE 9 STEP

Where: Z = Gas compressibility factor

(0.81 to 0.91)

T = Bottom-hole temperature degrees

Rankine (460 + F), or in metric

Kelvin (273 + C)

P = Submergence pressure psi, or

(kg/cm

2

)

The gas volume factor, B

g

, is expressed in reser-

voir barrels/st'd mcf gas (m

3

/m

3

)

Formation Volume Factor

The formation volume factor B

o

, represents the

increased volume a barrel of oil occupies in the

formation as compared to a stock barrel.

B

o

= 0.972 + 0.000147F

1.175

Where: F = R

s

( ) + 1.25T

T = Bottom-hole temperature, F

or in metric,

B

o

= 0.972 + 0.000147 x

{5.61 R

s

( ) + 1.25 (1.8t + 32)}

1.175

Where:

Y

g

= Specific Gravity of Gas

Y

o

= Specific Gravity of Oil

t = Bottom-hole Temperature, C

0

ZT

P

or in metric, B

g

= 0.00377

ZT

P

Gas Volume Factor

B

g

= 5.04

Total Volume of Fluids

When these three variables, R

s

, B

o

and B

g

are

known, the volumes of oil, water, and free gas

can be determined and percentages of each cal-

culated. The total volume of gas ( both free and

in solution ) can be determined as follows:

Total Gas =

1,000

= MCF

Producing GOR x BOPD

or in metric,

Total Gas = Producing GOR x M

3

PD = M

3

The gas in solution at submergence pressure can

be determined as follows:

Solution Gas =

The Free Gas equals the Total Gas minus the

Solution Gas.

The volume of oil (V

o

) at the pump intake equals

stock tank barrels times B

o

, the formation vol-

ume factor.

The volume of gas (V

g

) at the pump intake

equals the amount of free gas times B

g

, the gas

volume factor.

The volume of water (V

w

) in the formation is the

same as stock tank barrels.

Total fluid volume (V

t

) can now be determined.

V

t

= V

o

+ V

g

+ V

w

The percentage of free gas to total volume of

fluids can now be calculated:

% Free Gas =

V

g

V

t

Y

g

Y

o

0.5

Y

g

Y

o

R

s

x BOPD

1,000

= MCF

0

0

0.5

0

9

THE 9 STEP

The next step is to determine the total dynamic

head required to pump the desired capacity. The

total pump head refers to feet (meters) of liquid

being pumped and is calculated to be the sum of:

1) Net well lift (dynamic lift); 2) well tubing

friction loss; and 3) wellhead discharge pres-

sure. The simplified equation is as follows:

TDH = H

d

+ F

t

+ P

d

where:

TDH = total dynamic head in feet (meters)

delivered by the pump when pumping the de-

sired volume.

H

d

= vertical distance in feet (meters) between

the wellhead and the estimated producing fluid

level at the expected capacity.

F

t

= the head required to overcome friction loss

in tubing measured in feet (meters).

P

d

= the head required to overcome friction in the

surface pipe, valves and fittings, and to over-

come elevation changes between wellhead and

tank battery. Normally, this is measured in

gauge pressure psi (kg/cm

2

) at the wellhead and

can be converted to head, in feet (meters) as

follows:

U.S.

P

d

=

or

P

d

=

Total Dynamic Head = H

d

+ F

t

+ P

d

P

d

or

P

d

=

METRIC

P

d

=

Specific Gravity

kg/cm

2

x 10.01 m/kg/cm

2

0.0999 x Sp. Gr.

kg/cm

2

STEP 4 - TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD

psi x 2.31 ft/psi

specific gravity

psi

0.433 psi/ft x sp. gr.

F

t

H

d

Dynamic

Fluid Level

Tubing

Pump

Seal

Motor

10

THE 9 STEP

Refer to the pump selection data table, in the

Engineering section of your Centrilift catalog,

for pump types and ranges. Pump performance

curves (60 Hz and 50 Hz) are included in the

"Pump Curve" section of the catalog. Based on

expected fluid production rate and casing size,

select the pump type which will, at the expected

producing rate, be operating within the pump's

operating range and nearest to the pump's peak

efficiency,

Where two or more pump types have similar

efficiencies at the desired volume, the following

conditions determine the pump choice:

1. Pump prices and corresponding motor sizes

and prices may differ somewhat. Normally,

the larger-diameter pump and motor are less

expensive and operate at higher efficiencies.

2. When the wells capacity is not known, or

cannot be closely estimated, a pump with a

"steep" characteristic curve should be cho-

sen. If the desired volume falls at a point

where two pump types have approximately

equal efficiency, choose the pump type

which requires the greatest number of

stages. Such a pump will produce a capacity

nearest the desired volume even if the well

lift is substantially more or less than

expected.

3. If gas is present in the produced fluid, a gas

separator may be required to achieve

efficient operation. Refer to Step 3 to

determine the effect of gas on the produced

volume. The adjusted volume affects pump

selection and the size of the other system

components.

4. In wells where the fluid is quite viscous

and/or tends to emulsify, or in other ex-

traordinary circumstances, some pump cor-

rections may be necessary to ensure a more

efficient operation. In such cases, contact a

Centrilift sales engineer for recommenda-

tions.

The VSSP System and Pump Selection

Under the above, or other pumping conditions,

also consider the Variable Speed Submersible

Pumping (VSSP) system. For instance, in item

2 above, if a well is not accurately known, a

VSSP system is ideal. An Electrospeed vari-

able speed controller effectively converts a

single pump into a family of pumps. So, a pump

can be selected for an estimated range and

adjusted for the desired production level, once

more data is collected.

The VSSP system with the Electrospeed im-

proves pump operation under other conditions

as well, including gassy wells, abrasive wells,

low volume wells, etc. It provides soft starts,

eliminates intermittent operation, breaks gas

locks, isolates equipment from power tran-

sients, minimizes downhole heating, and more.

Review Step 9when considering the VSSP sys-

tem. Variable frequency performance curves

are included in the "Pump Curve" section of the

Centrilift catalog. The VSSP System with

Electrospeed may provide additional econo-

mies of capital expenditure and operating

expenses, and should be considered in Step 6,

"Optimum Size of Components." The

Electrospeed variable speed controller and trans-

formers for the VSSP system are discussed in

Steps 8 and 9.

STEP 5 - PUMP TYPE

11

THE 9 STEP

Centrilift components are built in a number of

sizes and can be assembled in a variety of

combinations. These combinations must be

carefully determined to operate the submersible

pumping system within production requirements,

material strength and temperature limits. While

sizing components, refer to the Engineering

section of your catalog for each of the following

tables and charts:

Equipment Combinations in Various Casings

Maximum Loading Limits

Maximum Diameter of Units

Velocity of a Fluid Passing a Motor

Shaft HP Limitations at Various Frequencies

A fluid velocity of 1 foot per second (0.305

meters per second) is recommended to ensure

adequate motor cooling. In cases where this

velocity is not achieved, a motor jacket may be

required to increase the velocity. Contact your

sales engineer under such conditions.

Pump

Refer to the Centrilift performance curve of the

selected pump type and determine the number of

stages required to produce the anticipated ca-

pacity against the previously calculated total

dynamic head. Performance curves for 60 Hz,

50 Hz and variable frequency performance are

located in the catalog. Note that the pump

characteristic curves are single stage perfor-

mance curves based on water with (specific

gravity of 1.00) . At the intersection of the

desired production rate (bottom scale) and the

head-capacity curve (vertical scale), read the

head value on the left scale. Divide this value

into the total dynamic head to determine the

number of stages.

Total Stages =

Separator

Refer to your catalog for gas separator informa-

tion. Make the necessary adjustments in horse-

power requirements and housing length.

Motor

To select the proper motor size for a predeter-

mined pump size, you must first determine the

brake horsepower required by the pump. The

horsepower per stage is obtained by again refer-

ring to the performance curve for the selected

pump and reading the value of the right scale.

The brake horsepower required to drive a given

pump is easily calculated by the following for-

mula:

BHP = Total Stages x BHP/Stage x Sp. Gr.

Refer to your catalog for motor specifications.

Seal Section

Refer to your catalog for selection of the proper

seal section. Series 338 seals are recommended

for 338 series pumps using 375 series motors.

Series 400 seals are recommended for 400 series

pumps using 450 series motors. When 544 or

562 series motors are used with a 513 series

pump, the 513 series seal is required. A 513-400

series adapter is required whenever a 513 series

seal section is run with a 400 series pump.

STEP 6 - OPTIMUM SIZE OF COMPONENTS

Total Dynamic Head

Head/Stage

12

THE 9 STEP

Centrilift electric cables are normally available

from stock in conductor sizes 1, 2, 4, and 6.

These sizes are offered in both round and flat

configurations as shown in your catalog price

section under Centriline Power Cable.

Several types of armor and insulation are avail-

able for protection against corrosive fluids and

severe environments.

Cable selection involves the determination of:

1) cable size;

2) cable type;

3) cable length.

Cable Size

The proper cable size is dependent on combined

factors of voltage drop, amperage and available

space between tubing collars and casing.

Refer to the Cable Voltage Drop curve (see

engineering section) for voltage drop in cable.

At the selected motor amperage and the given

downhole temperature, the selection of a cable

size that will give a voltage drop of less than 30

volts per 1,000 ft. (305 meters) or less than 15%

of motor nameplate volts is recommended. This

curve will also enable you to determine the

necessary surface voltage (motor voltage plus

voltage drop in the cable) required to operate the

motor.

Finally, refer to the Equipment Combination

table (see engineering section) to determine if

the size selected can be used with the proposed

tubing and well casing sizes. Cable diameter

plus tubing collar diameter will need to be less

than the inside diameter (I.D.) of the casing.

In determining the optimum cable size, consider

future equipment requirements that may require

the use of a lager size cable.

If power cost is a major concern, the Kilowatt-

Hour Loss Curve (see Engineering section) can

be used to justify the cable selection. Although

power rates vary widely, this data is valuable in

determining the economics of various cable

sizes.

Cable Type

Selection of the cable type is primarily based on

fluid conditions, bottom-hole temperature and

space limitations within the casing annulus. Refer

to your catalog price pages for cable specifica-

tions.

Where there is not sufficient space to run round

cable, use electric cable of flat configuration.

See Equipment Combinations table in Engi-

neering section of your catalog for round cable

limitations based on various casing and tubing

sizes. Consult your Centrilift representative

when temperature or gas is a critical factor.

Cable Length

The total cable length should be at least 100 ft.

(30M) longer than the measured pump setting

depth in order to make surface connections a

safe distance from the wellhead. Refer to curve

on Recommended Maximum Cable Length (see

Engineering section) to avoid the possibility of

low voltage starts.

Cable Venting

In all wells, it is necessary to vent gases from the

cable prior to the motor controller to avoid

explosive conditions. A cable venting box is

available to protect the motor controller from

such gases.

STEP 7 - ELECTRIC CABLE

13

THE 9 STEP

1. DOWN HOLE ACCESSORY

EQUIPMENT

Flat cable (motor lead extension):

Select a length at least 6 ft. (1.8m) longer than

pump, intake (standard or gas separator) and

seal section for the motor series chosen. Refer to

your catalog for dimensions.

Flat cable guard:

Choose the required number of 6 ft. (1.8m)

guard sections to at least equal the flat cable

length. Do not use guards for installation of 400

series pump and seal section in 5-1/2" O.D., 20-

pound casing and for installation of 513 series

pump and seal section in 6 5/8" O.D., 26-pound

casing.

Cable bands:

Use one 30 in. (76 cm) cable band every 2 ft. (60

cm) for clamping flat cable to pump. The 22 in.

(56 cm) length can be used for all tubing-cable

combinations through 3-1/2" O.D. tubing. For

4- 1/2" and 5-1/2" O.D. tubing use 30 in. (76 cm)

bands. One band is required for each 15 ft. (5 m)

of setting depth. Refer to your catalog for

dimensions.

Swaged nipple, check valve, and drain valve:

Select these accessories on basis of required

outside diameters and type of threads.

2. MOTOR CONTROLLERS

The Vortex

TM

is a state-of-the-art digital control

consisting of two components:

System Unit

This unit performs all the shutdown and

restart operations. It is mounted in the low-

voltage compartment of the control panel.

Display Unit (Optional)

This unit displays readings, setpoints and

alarms. It is normally mounted in the amp

chart enclosure for easy access.

It provides all the basic functions, such as

underload, overload, phase imbalance, phase

rotation, etc. and over 90 other parameters

including password and communication

protocols.

3. SINGLE-PHASE AND THREE-PHASE

TRANSFORMERS

The type of transformer selected depends on the

size of the primary power system and the required

secondary voltage. Three-phase isolation step-

up transformers are generally selected for

increasing voltage from a low voltage system,

while a bank of three single-phase transformers

is usually selected for reducing a high-voltage

primary power source to the required surface

voltage.

On existing systems, some of Centrilift units

will operate without the use of an additional

transformer. For new installation of units with

higher voltages, it is usually less expensive to

install three single-phase transformers, connected

wye, to eliminate the auto-transformer.

STEP 8 - ACCESSORY& OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT

14

THE 9 STEP

where:

KVA = Kilo-Volt-Amp or 1,000 Volt-Amp

V

s

= Surface Voltage

A

m

= Motor nameplate current in amps

4. SURFACE CABLE

Choose approximate length required for con-

necting controller to primary power system or to

transformer. Two pieces are generally required

for installations using an auto-transformer. Size

should equal the well cable size except in the

case of step-up or auto-transformer, where the

primary and secondary currents are not the same.

5. WELLHEADS AND ACCESSORIES

Select the wellhead on the basis of casing size,

tubing size, maximum recommended load, sur-

face pressure, and maximum setting depth. Elec-

tric cable passes through the wellhead where

pressure fittings are not required.

Electric Feed Through (EFT) mandrels are also

available. The electric cable is spliced to pig-

tails. The EFT wellheads seal against downhole

pressure and prevent gas leaks at the surface.

Refer to your catalog for specifications.

KVA =

1,000

In choosing the size of a step-up transformer or

a bank of three single-phase transformers the

following equation is used to calculate total

KVA required:

V

s

x A

m

x 1.73

6. SERVICING EQUIPMENT

Cable reels, reel supports and cable guides:

Select size of cable reel required to handle

previously selected cable size. Select set of

cable reel supports based on cable reel size.

Cable guides are designed to handle cable sizes

1 through 6.

Normally, customers retain one cable reel, one

set of reel supports, and one cable guide wheel

for future use.

Shipping Cases:

Select type and length of case required to ac-

commodate previously selected motor, pump,

gas separator and seal.

7. OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT

Bottom-hole pressure (PHD) sensing device:

The PHD provides continuous measurement of

bottom-hole pressures.

Automatic well monitoring:

Motor controllers are available for continuous

monitoring of pump operation from a central

location. Contact your Centrilift representative

for details.

15

THE 9 STEP

where BHP = Brake Horsepower

New Efficiency = 60 Hz efficiency (there is

negligible loss)

A set of curves can be developed for an arbitrary

series of frequencies with these equations, as

shown in the variable frequency performance

curves at the end of this step (figure 1). Each

curve represents a series of points derived from

the 60 Hz curve for flow and corresponding head

points, transformed using the equations above.

Suppose we are given the following data at a

frequency of 60 Hz:

Rate = 1,200 BPD

Head = 24.5 ft. (from FC-1200 curve @ 1,200

BPD)

BHP = 0.34 BHP (from FC-1200 curve @ 1,200

BPD)

If a new frequency of 50 Hz is chosen:

New Rate = x 1200 BPD = 1000 BPD

New Head = ( ) x 24.5' =17'

New Head = ( ) x 60 Hz head

New Rate =

60 Hz

x 60 Hz rate

New Frequency

New BHP = ( )

New Frequency

60 Hz

3

x 60 Hz BHP

2

New Frequency

60 Hz

2

60

50

50

60

( )

The ESP system can be modified to include an

Electrospeed variable frequency controller so

that it operates over a much broader range of

capacity, head, and efficiency. Since a submers-

ible pump motor is an induction motor, its speed

is proportional to the frequency of the electrical

power supply. By adjusting the frequency, the

variable speed submersible pump (VSSP) sys-

tem offers extraordinary potential for boosting

production, reducing downtime, and increasing

profits. The VSSP can be used to boost effi-

ciency in many cases, including highly viscous

wells, waterflood wells etc. It extends the range

of submersible artificial lift to less than 100 BPD

(16 M

3

PD) and up to 100,000 BPD (16,000

M

3

PD).

It is necessary to understand the effects of vary-

ing the speed of a submersible pump, in order to

apply the VSSP system. The VSSP system can

be analyzed in terms of varying frequency or in

terms of maintaining constant head. Sales engi-

neers have computerized pump selection pro-

grams to assist you in VSSP system selection;

what follows is a basic explanation of the prin-

ciples involved.

Variable Frequency

The effects of varying frequency can be seen by

preparing new head-capacity curves for the de-

sired frequencies, based on the pump's known

60 Hz performance curve data. The Electro-

speed controller is commonly used to generate

any frequency between 30 and 90 Hz.

Curves for frequencies other than 60 Hz can be

generated by using the centrifugal pump affinity

laws. The equations derived from these laws

are:

STEP 9 - VARIABLE SPEED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPING SYSTEM

16

THE 9 STEP

New BHP = ( ) x 0.34 BHP = 0.20 BHP

50

60

3

By performing these calculations at other pro-

duction rates, a new curve for 50 Hz operation

can be plotted. Start by locating the existing

points on the one-stage 60 Hz curve:

60 Hz

X

1

Rate (BPD) 0 950 1200 1550 1875

Y

1

Head (Feet) 32' 28.6' 24.5' 15' 0'

Efficiency (%) 0 63.5 64 49 0

Following the above equations, calculate the

corresponding values at 50 Hz:

50 Hz

X

1

Rate (BPD) 0 792 1000 1292

1563

Y

1

Head (Feet) 22.2' 19.9' 17' 10.4' 0'

Efficiency (%) 0 63.5 64 49 0

Plotting these coordinates gives the one-stage

FC-1200 head-capacity performance curve for

operation at 50 Hz. Similar calculations will

provide coordinates for curves at other frequen-

cies, as seen below in the FC-1200 variable

speed performance curve. The vortex shaped

window is the recommended operating range for

the pump. As long as your hydraulic require-

ment falls within this range, you are within the

recommended operating range of the pump.

Figure 1

17

THE 9 STEP

3

3

3

3 3

3

3

300

0

100

NAME DESIGN EXAMPLE DATE NOV. 20, 1991

COMPANY

ADDRESS

WELL NO. AND FIELD NAME

WELL LOCATION (COUNTY, STATE, OTHER)

INSTALLATION: NEW ( X ) OR REDESIGN ( ) PRIMARY POWER SUPPLY: 12,470 VOLTS THREE

PHASE 60 HZ

PRODUCING FORMATION

FORMATION TYPE (SANDSTONE, LIMESTONE, OTHER) SANDSTONE

WELL DATA

API CASING 7 IN. O.D. 32 #/FT. 0 FT. TO 6,900 FT. M. TO M.

LINER NONE IN. O.D. #/FT. FT. TO FT. M. TO M.

OPEN HOLE FT. TO FT. M. TO M.

TOTAL DEPTH FT. M.

PERFORATION INTERVALS 6,750 FT. TO 6,850 FT. M. TO M.

FT. TO FT. M. TO M.

FT. TO FT. M. TO M.

API TUBING 2 - 7/8 IN. O.D. EUE 8 RDTHREADS

RESERVOIR DATA (FROM TEST AND PRODUCTION DATA)

PRESENT PRODUCTION 850 BFPD. M

PD PUMPING ( X ), SWABBING ( ), FLOWING (

)

BOTTOM HOLE STATIC PRESSURE 3,200PSI G@ 6,800 FT. Kg/Sq. Cm. @ M.

BOTTOM HOLE FLOWING PRESSURE 2,600 PSIG @ 850 BFPD Kg/Sq. Cm. @ M PD

PSIG @ BFPD Kg/Sq. Cm. @ M PD

PRODUCING GOR S.C.F./S.T.B. M /M

WATER CUT 75 %

OIL API GRAVITY 32

BOTTOM HOLE TEMPERATURE 160 F C

WATER SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.085

GAS SPECIFIC GRAVITY 0.7

OIL VISCOSITY (1) CP. OR SSU@ F C

(2) CP. OR SSU@ F C

PVT DATA SOLUTION GOR FVF. PSIG Kg/Sq. Cm.

SOLUTION GOR FVF. PSIG Kg/Sq. Cm.

SOLUTION GOR FVF. PSIG Kg/Sq. Cm.

SOLUTION GOR FVF. PSIG Kg/Sq. Cm.

BUBBLE-POINT PRESSURE 1,500PSIG Kg/Sq. Cm.

CENTRILIFT SPECIFICATIONS

DESIRED PRODUCTION 2,300 BFPD. OR BOPD FLUID M PD, OR OIL M PD

DESIRED PUMP (INTAKE) VERTICAL SETTING DEPTH 5,500 FT. M.

DESIRED PUMP (INTAKE) PRESSURE PSIG Kg/Sq. Cm.

REQUIRED WELL HEAD PRESSURE PSIG Kg/Sq. Cm.

GOR THROUGH PUMP %

CASING VENTED TO ATMOSPHERE ( ) TO PIPELINE ( X ) NONE ( )

ELECTRIC POWER VOLTS CYCLES

DESIRED PUMP SERIES

DESIRED PUMP TYPE

CASING PRESSURE PSIG Kg/Sq. Cm.

SPECIAL PROBLEMS SAND( ), SCALE( ), CORROSION( ), PARAFFIN( ), H2S( ), POWER SUPPLY( )

18

THE 9 STEP

Step 1 - Basic Data

See Centrilift well data sheet on previous page

for well data.

Step 2 - Production Capacity

Determine the well productivity at the test pres-

sure and production. In this case, the desired

production rate and pump setting depth are

given. The pump intake pressure at the desired

production rate can be calculated from the present

production conditions.

Since the well flowing pressure (2,600 psi) is

greater than bubble-point pressure (1,500 psi)

the constant PI method will most probably give

satisfactory results. First, we can determine the

PI using the test data.

PI =

The pump intake pressure can be determined by

correcting the flowing bottom-hole pressure for

the difference in pump setting depth and the

datum point and by considering the friction loss

in the casing annulus. In the given example, as

the pump is set 1,300 feet above the perfora-

tions, the friction loss due to flow of fluid

through the annulus from perforations to pump

setting depth will be small as compared to the

flowing pressure and can be neglected.

Because there is both water and oil in the pro-

duced fluids it is necessary to calculate a com-

posite specific gravity of the produced fluids.

To find the composite specific gravity;

Water cut is 75%;

0.75 x 1.085 = 0.8138

Oil is 25%;

0.25 x 0.865 = 0.2163

The composite specific gravity is the sum of the

weighted percentages:

Composite Sp. Gr. = 0.8138 + 0.2163 = 1.03

The pressure due to the difference in perforation

depth and pump setting depth (6,800' - 5,500' =

1,300') can be determined as follows:

PSI =

PSI = = 580 PSI

Therefore, the pump intake pressure will be1,580

psi - 580 psi = 1,000 psi.

2.31 Ft/PSI

1,300 Ft x 1.03

Head (FT) x Specific Gravity

2.31 Ft/PSI

PI = = 1.42 bpd/psi

850 bpd

3,200 psi - 2,600 psi

Next, we can determine the new well flowing

pressure (P

wf

) at the desired production rate

(Q

d

).

P

wf

= P

r

- ( )

Q

d

PI

P

wf

= 3,200 psi - ( ) = 1,580 psi

2,300 bpd

1.42 bpd/psi

The well flowing pressure of 1,580 psi is still

above the bubble-point pressure of 1,500 psi,

therefore, the PI approach should give good

results.

DESIGN EXAMPLE

Q

P

r

- P

wf

19

THE 9 STEP

Step 3 - Gas Calculations

In this third step we need to determine the total

fluid mixture, inclusive of water, oil and free gas

that will be ingested by the pump.

3. Determine the Gas Volume Factor (B

g

) as

follows:

B

g

=

5.04 x Z x T

P

Assuming 0.85 Z factor;

B

g

= = 2.62 bbl/mcf

4. Next, determine the total volume of fluids and the

percentage of free gas released at the pump intake:

a. Using the producing GOR, and oil volume,

determine the total volume of gas (T

G

) ;

T

G

=

or

T

G

= = 172.5 mcf

b. Using the solution GOR (R

s

), at the pump

intake, determine the solution gas (S

G

);

S

G

=

or

S

G

= = 103.5 mcf

c. The difference represents the volume of free

gas (F

G

) released from solution by the de-

crease in pressure from bubble-point pressure

of 1,500 psi, to the pump intake pressure of

1,000 psi.

F

G

=172.5 mcf - 103.5 mcf = 69 mcf

1,014

5.04 x 0.85 x (460 + 160)

1. Determine the Solution Gas/Oil Ratio (R

s

) at

the pump intake pressure with Standing's nomo-

graph (see figure 2 ), or by substituting the

pump intake pressure for the bubble point pres-

sure (P

b

) in Standing's equation;

R

s

= 180 scf/stb

2. Determine the Formation Volume Factor (B

o

)

using the R

s

from above and Standing's nomo-

graph (see figure 3) or use Standing's equation as

follows:

B

o

= 0.972 + 0.000147 F

1.175

where;

F = R

s

( ) + 1.25T

0.5

Y

o

Y

g

F = 180 ( ) + 1.25 x 160 = 361.92

0.865

0.5

0.7

B

o

= 0.972 + 0.000147 (361.92)

1.175

B

o

=1.12 reservoir bbl/stock tank bbl

Therefore;

BOPD x GOR

1,000

1,000

(2,300 x 0.25) x 300

1,000

BOPD x R

s

(2,300 x 0.25) x 180

1,000

R

s

= 0.7( )

10

0.00091 x T( F)

R

s

= Y

g

( )

10

0.0125 x API

18

0

x

P

b

1.2048 0

1.2048

18

x

1000

10

0.00091 x 160

10

0.0125 x 32

20

THE 9 STEP

d. The volume of oil (V

o

), at the pump intake:

V

o

= BOPD x Formation Volume Factor B

o

V

o

= 575 bopd x 1.12 = 644 bopd

e. The volume of free gas (V

g

), at the pump

intake:

V

g

= Free Gas x Gas Volume Factor B

g

V

g

= 69 mcf x 2.62 bbl/mcf = 181 bgpd

f. The volume of water (V

w

), at the pump

intake:

V

w

= Total Fluid Volume x % Water

V

w

= 2,300 BPD x 0.75 = 1,725 bwpd

g. The total volume (V

t

) of oil, water, and gas,

at the pump intake, can now be determined:

V

t

= V

o

+ V

g

+ V

w

V

t

= 644 bopd + 181 bgpd + 1,725 bwpd

V

t

= 2,550 BFPD

h. The ratio, or percentage of free gas present

at the pump intake to the total volume of

fluid is:

% Free Gas =

or

% Free Gas = x 100 = 7%

As this value is less than 10% by volume,

it would have little effect on the pump

performance, therefore, a gas separator is

not required. Although, there is significant

gas to effect the well fluid composite spe-

cific gravity at the pump intake.

i. The composite specific gravity, including

gas, can be determined by first calculating

the total mass of produced fluid (TMPF)

from the original data given:

TMPF ={ (BOPD x Sp. Gr. oil+ BWPD x

Sp. Gr. water) x 62.4 x 5.6146} + (GOR x

BOPD x Sp. Gr. Gas x 0.0752)

or

TMPF = {(575 x 0.865 + 1,725 x 1.085) x

62.4 x 5.6146} + (300 x 575 x 0.7 x

0.0752) = 839,064 lbs/day

Composite Sp. Gr. =

Composite Sp. Gr. =

Composite Sp. Gr. = 0.939

5. Now that the total volume of fluid entering the

first pump stage is known (2,550 BFPD) and the

composite specific gravity has been determined

we can continue to the next step of designing the

ESP system.

2,550 x 5.6146 x 62.4

839,064 lbs/day

BFPD x 5.6146 x 62.4

TMPF

V

t

V

g

181 BGPD

2,550 BFPD

21

THE 9 STEP

Step 4 - Total Dynamic Head

Sufficient data is now available to determine the

total dynamic head required by the pump.

TDH = H

d

+ F

t

+ P

d

H

d

= The vertical distance in feet between the

estimated producing fluid level and the surface.

H

d

= Pump depth - ( )

H

d

= 5,500 ft. - ( )

H

d

= 3,040 ft (926.6m).

F

t

= Tubing friction loss. Refer to Friction Loss

Charts in the engineering section.

Friction loss per 1,000 ft. of 2-7/8" tubing (new)

is 49 ft. per 1,000 ft. of depth at 2,550 BPD (405

M

3

PD), or 4.5 meters per 100 meters. Using the

desired pump setting depth:

F

t

= = 270 ft. (82.3m)

P

d

= Discharge pressure head (desired wellhead

pressure). Using the composite specific gravity:

P

d

= = 246 ft. (75 m)

TDH = 3,040 ft. + 270 ft. + 246 ft. = 3,556 ft.

or

TDH = 926.6 m + 82.3 m + 75 m = 1,084 m

5,500 ft. x 49 ft.

1,000 ft.

Step 5 - Pump Type Selection

Refer to Pump Selection Table in Engineering

section of catalog . Select the pump type with

the highest efficiency at the calculated capacity,

2,550 BPD (405 M

3

PD) that will fit in the

casing. Select the 513 series GC2200 pump and

locate it's performance curve.

The head in feet (meters) for one stage at 2,550

BPD (405 M

3

PD) is 41.8 ft. (13 m). The brake

horsepower (BHP) per stage is 1.16.

To determine the total number of stages re-

quired, divide the total dynamic head by the

head/stage taken from the curve.

Number stages =

Number of stages = = 85 Stages

Next, refer to your catalog for the GC2200

pump. The housing number 9 can house a

maximum of 84 stages, 93 stages for a housing

10. Because the 84 stage pump is only one stage

less than our requirement, it will be our selec-

tion.

Once you've decided on the maximum number

of pump stages, calculate the total brake horse-

power required as follows:

BHP = BHP/Stage x No. Stages x Sp. Gr.

BHP = 1.16 x 84 x 0.939 = 91.5 HP

Step 6 - Optimum Size of Components

Gas Separator

If a gas separator was required, refer to your

catalog to select the appropriate separator and

determine its horsepower requirement.

TDH

Head/stage

PIP x 2.31ft/psi

Specific Gravity

1,000 psi x 2.31 ft/psi

0.939

100 psi x 2.31 ft/psi

0.939

3,556 ft.

41.8 ft.

22

THE 9 STEP

Seal Section

Normally the seal section series is the same as

that of the pump, although, there are exceptions

and special adapters are available to connect the

units together. We will select the 513 series

GSB seal section.

The horsepower requirement for the seal de-

pends upon the total dynamic head produced by

the pump. The Horsepower vs TDH curves in

the Engineering section show a requirement of

3.0 horsepower for the 513 series seal operating

against a TDH of 3,556 ft. Therefore, the total

horsepower requirement for this example is 91.5

HP for the pump, plus 3.0 HP for the seal, or 94.5

HP total.

Motor

A 500 series motor (544 or 562) should be used

with the 513 series pump. In this example we

will select the 100 HP 562 series motor from the

catalog. The motor voltage can be selected

based on the following considerations:

a. The high voltage, consequently low-cur-

rent, motors have lower cable losses and

require smaller conductor size cables.

High voltage motors have superior start-

ing characteristics: a feature that can be

extremely important if excessive voltage

losses are expected during starting.

b. Although, the higher the motor voltage,

the more expensive the motor controller

will be.

In some cases, the savings due to smaller cable

may be offset by the difference in motor control-

ler cost and it may be necessary to make an

economic analysis for the various voltage mo-

tors. However, for this example, we will select

the high-voltage motor (100 HP 2145 volts, 27

amps).

Referring to the Engineering section, it can be

seen that all operating parameters are well within

their recommended ranges (e.g. thrust bearing,

shaft HP, housing burst pressure and fluid veloc-

ity.

Step 7 - Electric Cable

Determine Cable Size

The cable size is selected based on its current

carrying capability. Using the motor amps (27)

and the cable voltage drop chart in the catalog,

select a cable size with a voltage drop of less than

30 volts per 1,000 ft. All conductor sizes 1

through 6) fall in this category. The #6 cable has

a voltage drop of 18.5 x 1.201 = 22.2 volts/1,000

ft. (305 m) and is the least expensive. This will

be the cable size used in our example.

Cable Type

Due to the gassy conditions and the bottom-hole

temperature, the CPN cable should be used.

Check to be sure the cable diameter plus tubing

collar diameter is smaller than the casing I.D.

(see Engineering section ).

Cable Length

The pump setting depth is 5,500 ft. (1676.4 m).

With 100 ft. (30.5 m) of cable for surface

connections, the total cable length should be

5,600 ft. (1,707 m). You will also find that the

cable length is within the recommended maxi-

mum length (see Engineering section).

Cable Venting

A cable vent box must be installed between the

wellhead and the motor controller to prevent gas

migration to the controller.

23

THE 9 STEP

Step 8 - Accessory and Miscellaneous

Equipment

Flat Cable - Motor Lead Extension

Pump Length = 14.8 ft. (4.51 m)

Seal Length = 6.3 ft. (1.92 m)

Plus 6 ft. = 6.0 ft. (1.83 m)

= 27.1 ft. (8.26 m)

Select 35 ft. (10.7 m) 562 series flat cable.

Flat Guards

Cable guards are available in 6 ft. sections,

therefore, 6 sections will be sufficient.

Cable Bands

The pump and seal section are approximately 20

ft. (6 m) long. Twenty-two inch (56 cm) bands

will be required to clamp to the housing, with

bands spaced at 2 ft. ( 61 cm) intervals (10

bands).

Above the pump, banding of the tubing plus

cable, the twenty- two bands can also be used.

The bands should be spaced at 15 ft. (4.5 m)

intervals. The setting depth of 5,500 ft. would

require 367 bands.

Downhole Accessory Equipment

Refer to your catalog for the following:

Swaged Nipple

The pump outlet is 2-7/8 inches, as shown on

table 5, so no swaged nipple is required for the

2-7/8 inch tubing.

Check Valve

The 2-7/8 inch EUE 8 round thread check valve

will be required.

Drain Valve

The 2-7/8 inch EUE 8 round thread drain valve

will be required.

Motor Controller

The motor controller selection is based on its

voltage, amperage, and KVA rating. Therefore,

before selecting the controller we must first

determine the motor controller voltage. We will

assume the controller will be the same as the

surface voltage going down-hole. The surface

voltage (SV) is the sum of the motor voltage and

the total voltage loss in the cable.

SV = 2,145 volts + ( )

Surface Voltage = 2,269 Volts

The motor amperage is 27 amps, the KVA can

now be Calculated:

KVA =

KVA =

KVA = 106

The 6H-CG motor controller suits these require-

ments.

Transformer

The transformer selection is based on the avail-

able primary power supply (12,470 volts), the

secondary voltage requirement (2,269 volts),

and the KVA requirement( 106 KVA). Chose

3 37.5 KVA single phase transformers as shown

in your catalog.

Surface Cable

Select 50 ft. (15.2 m) of #1 cable for surface

connection to transformers.

22.2 volts x 5,600 ft.

1,000 Ft

1,000

2,269 volts x 27 amps x 1.73

1,000

SV x Motor Amps x 1.73

24

THE 9 STEP

P

wf

= P

r

- ( )

We will now take the previous example and

design a new system using a Variable Speed

Controller. To help justify the use of a variable

speed controller, I have added two new condi-

tions. Those conditions are:

1. First, assume we need to maintain a con-

stant oil production (575 BOPD), although,

reservoir data indicates we should see an

increase in water cut (75% to 80%) over

the next few months.

2. To satisfy our economic justification in

using the variable speed controller, we

need to reduce the initial cost and size of

the downhole assembly.

In order to maintain oil production as the water

cut increases, we need to determine the maxi-

mum desired flow rate with 80% water.

Maximum Flow Rate = x 100

Max. Flow = x 100 = 2,875 BPD

Step 2 - Production Capacity

We can now calculate the pump intake pressure

at the maximum rate of 2,875 BPD. First, we

will make the assumption that even though the

water cut changes, the well's PI will remain

constant. We can now determine the new well

flowing pressure (P

wf

) at the maximum desired

production rate (Q

d

).

P

wf

= 3,200 psi - ( ) = 1,175 psi

1.42 bpd/psi

The new well flowing pressure of 1,175 psi is

slightly below the bubble point pressure of 1,500

psi, therefore, the PI approach should still give

good results.

The pump intake pressure can be determined the

same as before, although, first we must calculate

a new composite specific gravity.

Water cut is 80%;

0.80 x 1.085 = 0.868

Oil is 25%;

0.20 x 0.865 = 0.173

The composite specific gravity is the sum of the

weighted percentages:

Composite Sp. Gr. = 0.868 + 0.173 = 1.04

The pressure due to the difference in perforation

depth and pump setting depth (6,800' - 5,500' =

1,300') can be determined as follows:

PSI =

2.31 Ft/PSI

Head (FT) x Specific Gravity

PSI = = 585 PSI

Therefore, the pump intake pressure can now be

determined; 1,175 psi - 585 psi = 590 psi.

2.31 Ft/PSI

1,300 Ft x 1.04

575 BPD

20%

% oil

PI

Q

d

2,875 bpd

BOPD

DESIGN EXAMPLE - Variable Speed Pumping System

25

THE 9 STEP

Assuming 0.85 Z factor;

B

g

= = 4.40 bbl/mcf

4. Next, determine the total volume of fluids, and the

percentage of free gas released at the pump intake:

a. Using the producing GOR, and oil volume,

determine the total volume of gas (T

G

) ;

T

G

=

or

T

G

= = 172.5 mcf

b. Using the solution GOR (R

s

), at the pump intake,

determine the solution gas (S

G

);

S

G

=

or

S

G

= = 54.05 mcf

c. The difference represents the volume of free gas

(F

G

) released from solution by the decrease in

pressure from the bubble point pressure of 1,500

psi, to the pump intake pressure of 1,000 psi.

F

G

=172.5 mcf - 54.05 mcf = 118.5 mcf

Step 3 - Gas Calculations

Next, we need to determine the total fluid mix-

ture that will be ingested by the pump at the new

maximum desired flow rate (2,875 BPD).

..

3. Determine the Gas Volume Factor (B

g

) as

follows:

B

g

=

5.04 x Z x T

P

604

5.04 x 0.85 x (460 + 160)

1. Determine the Solution Gas/Oil Ratio (R

s

) at

the pump intake pressure with Standing's nomo-

graph (see engineering section ), or by substitut-

ing the pump intake pressure for the bubble

point pressure (P

b

) in Standing's equation;

R

s

= 94 scf/stb

2. Determine the Formation Volume Factor (B

o

)

using the R

s

from above and Standing's nomo-

graph (see Engineering section) or use Standing's

equation as follows:

B

o

= 0.972 + 0.000147 F

1.175

where;

F = R

s

( ) + 1.25T

0.5

Y

o

Y

g

F = 94 ( ) + 1.25 x 160 = 284.56

B

o

= 0.972 + 0.000147 (284.56)

1.175

B

o

=1.08 reservoir bbl/stock tank bbl

Therefore;

BOPD x GOR

1,000

(2,875 x 0.20) x 300

1,000

BOPD x R

s

(2875 x 0.20) x 94

1,000

R

s

= 0.7( )

10

0.00091 x T( F)

R

s

= Y

g

( )

10

0.0125 x API

18

0

x

P

b

1.2048 0

1.2048

18

x

10

0.00091 x 160

10

0.0125 x 32

585

0.7

0.865

0.5

1,000

26

THE 9 STEP

d. The volume of oil (V

o

), at the pump intake:

V

o

= BOPD x Formation Volume Factor B

o

V

o

= 575 bopd x 1.08 = 621 bopd

e. The volume of free gas (V

g

), at the pump

intake:

V

g

= Free Gas x Gas Volume Factor B

g

V

g

= 118.5 mcf x 4.40 bbl/mcf = 521 bgpd

f. The volume of water (V

w

), at the pump

intake:

V

w

= Total Fluid Volume x % Water

V

w

= 2,875 BPD x 0.80 = 2,300 bwpd

g. The total volume (V

t

) of oil, water, and gas,

at the pump intake, can now be determined:

V

t

= V

o

+ V

g

+ V

w

V

t

= 621 bopd + 521 bgpd + 2,300 bwpd

V

t

= 3,442 BFPD

h. The ratio, or percentage of free gas present

at the pump intake to the total volume of

fluid is:

% Free Gas =

or

% Free Gas = x 100 = 15%

5. As this value is greater than 10% by volume,

there is significant free gas to affect pump per-

formance, therefore, it is recommended that a

gas separator be installed. Next, we will have to

assume a gas separator efficiency. At 15% free

gas, we will assume 90% efficiency of separa-

tion.

a. Percent of gas not separated is 10%:

V

g

= Volume of gas at PIP x % ingested

V

g

= 521 BPD x 0.1

V

g

= 52 BPD

b. Total volume of fluid mixture ingested

into pump is:

V

o

= 621 BPD

V

g

= 52 BPD

V

w

= 2,300 BPD

V

t

= 2,973 BPD

c. The amount of free gas entering the first

pump stage as a percent of total fluid

mixture is:

% Free Gas =

% Free Gas =

As the free gas represents only 2% by

volume of fluid being pumped it has no

significant effect of the well fluid compos-

ite specific gravity and may be ignored for

conservative motor sizing.

6. Now that the total volume of fluid entering the

first pump stage is known (2,973 BFPD) and the

composite specific gravity has been determined

we can continue to the next step of designing the

ESP system.

V

g

V

t

52 BPD

2,973 BPD

x 100 = 2%

V

g

V

t

521 BGPD

3,442 BFPD

27

THE 9 STEP

Step 5 - Pump Type Selection

We have now determined both hydraulic re-

quirements for our variable speed pumping sys-

tem. Those requirements are:

Minimum Hydraulic Requirement

Flow Rate 2,550 BPD

Total Dynamic Head 3,556 ft.

Maximum Hydraulic Requirement

Flow Rate 2,973 BPD

Total Dynamic Head 4,746 ft.

In our economic justification for using the vari-

able speed controller, we elected to reduce the

size on the down-hole unit. To accomplish this,

we can follow these guidelines:

1. As the operating frequency increases, the

number of stages required to generate the

required lift decreases.

2. The closer you operate to the best effi-

ciency point, the lower the power require-

ment, and the power cost.

3. A fixed frequency motor of a particular

frame size has a maximum output torque,

provided that the specified voltage is sup-

plied to its terminals. The same torque can

be achieved at other speeds by varying the

voltage in proportion to the frequency. This

way the magnetizing current and flux den-

sity will remain constant, and so the avail-

able torque will be constant (at no slip rpm).

As a result, power output rating will be

directly proportional to speed, since power

rating is obtained by multiplying rated torque

times speed.

Step 4 - Total Dynamic Head

Sufficient data is now available to determine the

total dynamic head required at the maximum

desired flow rate (2,973 BPD). The total dy-

namic head for the minimum desired flow rate

(2,550 BPD) was previously determined to be

3,556 ft.

TDH = H

d

+ F

t

+ P

d

H

d

= The vertical distance in feet between the

estimated producing fluid level and the surface.

H

d

= Pump depth - ( )

H

d

= 5,500 ft. - ( )

H

d

= 4,190 ft (1,277m).

F

t

= Tubing friction loss. Refer to Friction Loss

Charts in the engineering section.

Friction loss per 1,000 ft. of 2-7/8" tubing (new)

is 60 ft. per 1,000 ft. of depth at 2,973 BPD (405

M

3

PD), or 4.5 meters per 100 meters. Using the

desired pump setting depth:

F

t

= = 330 ft. (100.6m)

P

d

= Discharge pressure head (desired wellhead

pressure). Using the composite specific gravity:

P

d

= = 226 ft. (68.9 m)

TDH = 4,190 ft. + 330 ft. + 226 ft. = 4,746 ft.

or

TDH = 1277 m + 100.6 m + 68.9 m = 1,446.6 m

5,500 ft. x 60 ft.

100 psi x 2.31 ft/psi

1.04

Specific Gravity

1,000 ft.

1.02

PIP x 2.31ft/psi

590 psi x 2.31 ft/psi

28

THE 9 STEP

Using the variable speed performance curves,

select a pump that will fit in the casing, and the

maximum flow rate (2,973 BPD) falls at its best

efficiency point (BEP). The GC-2200 satisfies

these conditions at 81 Hz (see below).

Next, select the head per stage from the curve on

the vertical axis, should read 86 ft. With the

maximum total dynamic head requirement of

4,746 ft., we can determine the number of pump

stages required.

No. Stages =

No. Stages = = 55 stages

Referring to the pump selection tables in the

catalog, you will find that a housing number 6

will support 55 stages of the GC-2200 pump.

Therefore, this 55 stage GC-2200 meets our

maximum hydraulic requirement.

To determine if it meets our minimum hydraulic

requirement, divide the minimum total dynamic

head requirement by the number of stages.

Minimum Head/Stage = = 64.7 ft.

Plotting the minimum head/stage (64.7 ft.) and

the minimum flow rate (2,550 BPD) on the

curve below indicates an operating frequency of

70 Hz. Note, the minimum hydraulic require-

ment is also near the pump's BEP.

55 stgs.

3,556 ft.

Maximum Total Dynamic Head

Head/Stage

86 ft.

4,746 ft.

29

THE 9 STEP

or

60 Hz. BHP = 170.4 x = 126.2 HP

Select the appropriate model seal section and

determine the horsepower requirement at the

maximum TDH requirement. Select a motor

which is capable of supplying total horsepower

requirements for the pump, gas separator and

seal. In this example, we will select a 562 series

motor, 130 HP 2,145 volt and 35 amps.

Next, using the VSC curve for the GC-2200 find

the BHP/stage at the 60 hertz BEP (1.12 HP). To

calculate the BHP at the maximum frequency:

BHP @ Max. Hz. =

BHP/Stg. x No. Stgs. x ( ) x Sp. Gr.

or

1.12 x 55 x ( ) x 1.04 = 157.6 HP

In this example we decided to use a rotary gas

separator, which is a centrifugal machine. The

HP requirement also changes by a cube func-

tion. Referring to the catalog, the 513 series

rotary gas separator requires 5 HP at 60 Hertz.

Separator HP = 5 x ( ) x 1.04= 12.8 HP

Total BHP for pump and separator = 170.4 HP

To calculate the equivalent 60 Hertz BHP for

both the pump and gas separator:

60 Hz. BHP = BHP @ Max. Hz. x

3

Max. Hz.

60 Hz.

Next, select the power cable and calculate the

cable voltage drop. Based on the motor current

(35 amps) and the temperature (160 F), number

6 cable can be used. Adding 200' for surface

connections, the cable voltage drop is:

Cable Drop = =164 volts

We can now calculate the required surface volt-

age (SV) at the maximum operating frequency

as follows:

SV = Motor Volts x ( ) + Voltage Drop

SV = 2,145 x ( ) + 164 = 3,060 volts

Note: Surface voltage is greater than standard

3KV cable. Should select 4KV or higher cable

construction.

Sufficient data is available to calculate KVA.

KVA =

KVA = = 185 KVA

Referring to the price section of the catalog, we

will select the model 2200 - 3VT, 200 KVA,

NEMA 3 (outdoor enclosure) Electrospeed vari-

able speed controller. All other accessory equip-

ment would be selected as the previous example.

o

24 v x 1.201 x 5,700'

1,000

Max Hz.

60 Hz.

60 Hz.

81 Hz.

SV x Motor Amps x 1.73

1,000

1,000

3.060 x 35 x 1.73

Using the technical data provided in the engi-

neering section determine if any load limitations

were exceeded (e.g. shaft loading, thrust bearing

loading, housing burst pressure limitations, fluid

velocity passing the motor, etc.).

60 Hz.

3

81 Hz.

60 Hz.

81 Hz.

Max. Hz.

60 Hz.

60 Hz.

81 Hz.

3

30

THE 9 STEP

After the creation of the well model, the pro-

gram will allow you to integrate it with a pump

model to graphically represent the system per-

formance. This is accomplished on the Pump

Sizing Screen (see figure 4).

There are several additional screens available

that allow you to select the appropriate sizing

method, as well as, the selection of the individual

components that make up the ESP system.

This concludes the Nine-Step Sizing Procedure.

Conceived specifically for Centrilift sales engineers as an aid when sizing pumps,

)KJCH=FDPC

TM

is a computer software program that runs on IBM compatible

computers.

)KJCH=FDPC

TM

is useful for both fixed speed (50 or 60 Hz) and variable speed

applications, and makes it practical to produce a unique performance curve for each

sizing.

Understanding the basic theory of sizing submersible pumps is considered a prerequisite

to using the computer software; contact your Centrilift sales engineer for details.

The complexity associated with designing

Variable Speed Electrical Submersible Pumping

Systems, along with the introduction of numerous

multiphase flow correlations, has made them the

ideal candidate for microcomputer applications.

Each application is unique and detailed

information on well completion, production

history and reservoir conditions is extremely

important during the initial design phase.

)KJCH=FDPC

TM

is a computer software program

that runs on IBM compatible PC's

designed to

greatly simplify the ESP sizing process. The

program approaches the sizing by first creating

a pictorial representation of the well performance

based on specific hydraulic requirements. This

is accomplished on the Well Information Screen

(see figure 3), which is the input document for

all the critical well data. 3

Standing, M.B. "Volumetric and Phase Behavior of Oil

Field Hydrocarbon Systems", Reinhold Publishing Corp.,

New York (1952).

1

Gilbert, W.E. "Flowing and Gas-Lift Well Performance."

API Drilling and Production Pratice. 1954, API, p. 143.

2

Vogel, J.V. "Inflow Performance Relationship for Solution

Gas Drive Wells." J. Pet. Tech., Jan 1968, pp. 83-93.

31

THE 9 STEP

Figure 4 - Pump Sizing Screen

Figure 3 - Well Information Screen

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