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I.

TRADITIONAL
1 Lecturing
2. Discussion
3. Questioning
4. Using Audio-visual
PURPOSES OF
LECTURES
1. Efficient means of introducing learners to new topic
and sets the stage of learning
2. Stimulates learners interest
3. Helps to integrate and synthesize a large body of
knowledge
4. For clarification of difficult parts
5. To advance knowledge when textbooks are not
available
ADVANTAGES OF LECTURING
1. It is economical. Great deal of information
shared.
2. Supplies and textbooks become true to life
theater
3. Teacher serves as model students see a
creative mind at work
4. Helps students develop their listening abilities.
DISADVANTAGES OF LECTURING
1. Puts learners in the PASSIVE ROLE of a sponge
2. Focuses on the TEACHING OF FACTS with little focus
on analytical thinking or transfer of learning results
in SURFACE learning
3. Does not meet students individual learning needs
4. Students have little attention time span
(15 minutes)
DISCUSSIONS
1. FORMAL DISCUSSIONS
Announced topic
Reading, watching movie done in advance



2. INFORMAL DISCUSSIONS

Spontaneous
PURPOSES
and
ADVANTAGES
Learns problem
solving method
(groups)
Opportunity to
apply principles,
concepts and
theories
Clarifies
information and
concepts
Assists to
evaluate
beliefs/positions
(professional,
societal or
ethical issues)
Change in
attitudes and
values
Takes a lot
of time
One
person/few
participants
(monopolies)
Gathering of
uninformed
opinions
QUESTIONING

Can be a teaching
strategy
Ask questions higher
order thinking
FUNCTIONS OF QUESTIONS
1. Places the learners in an active role
Simple recall
Helps students analyze concepts
Evaluate worth of ideas
Speculate if
2. Assesses baseline knowledge
retention

3. Helps review content enlightens gray
areas
4. Motivates students
Stimulates thinking & curiosity
5. Guides learners thought process
According to BARDEN

A. LOWER-ORDER QUESTIONS
Recall information, read or memorize
B. HIGHER-ORDER QUESTIONS
> Requires comprehension and critical
thinking
HOW TO ENGAGE?
Pair work give ideas
USING VISUAL AIDS
Can enhance
teaching
Can add interest
to the classroom
ACTIVITY BASED TEACHING
STRATEGIES
1. Cooperative learning
2. Simulations
3. Problem based learning
4. Self-learning modules
ROLE
PLAYING
CASE
STUDIES
PROBLEM
BASED
SOLVING
DIFFERENCES
PBL CASE STUDIES
> Conducted in small groups > Used by individuals/groups
> Students have little backgrounds
knowledge of subject matter
> Students hve most of the background
learning theory to apply to the case
> Cases are usually brief & presenting
problems are ill-structures
> Cases are often long & detailed, and
their problems are well-defined
COMPUTER-AIDED INSTRUCTION
COMPUTER-MANAGED
INSTRUCTION
Any system of record keeping
Use of authoring systems
pre-developed software packages that
guide the educators process.
THE INTERNET
A mammoth complex of computer
connections across continents,
connecting many millions of
computers.
EMAIL (electronic)
Greater collaboration between teachers vs.
students and between students vs. students
Source of peer support
Means to seek referrals, for consultation and for
post-discharge follow-up

EX. LIST SERVS a group of people who have similar
interests and want to share information and experience
regarding their interest in a type of discussion groups
NEWS GROUPS
Discussions groups of people with same interest
Messages appear in general mailbox

Ex. group discussing all kinds of issues.
Also used for online support groups

3. World Wide Web
A collection of documents found on Web pages
A place to find specialized knowledge and multimedia presentations


Criteria to choose WWW site
1. Purpose audience?
2. Currency
3. Credibility
4. Content accuracy
5. Design



Provides home-based support.
Tool for student management part of
information system
Provides student teaching
Supports mastery learning

> Maximizes time on task and helps develop
overlearning (beyond mastery, responses becomes
automatic)
> Provides instant feedback
> Develops cognitive residues (skills in researching
skills in managing information)
> Promotes interactivity, institutional consistency,
individualized instruction, time efficiency and
cost-effectiveness (savings)
High-cost initial
outlay for
hardware and
software
Negative effect
personal and
professional
communication
21
st
Century Learning Design

UMG 2014
Teaching Techniques II
Learning Design Learning Goals
Deepen understanding of innovative teaching practices

Collaborate in analyzing and advancing our own
Learning Activities

Plan how to use this project for educator collaboration
in our schools


What does innovative
teaching mean to you?
20
th
Century 21
st
Century

Educator
Delivery of content and
information
Guiding students creation of
knowledge-based products

Student
Content and information
consumption
Creation of knowledge-based
products
Change and The Learning Process
ITL Research
Innovative Teaching and Learning

A global research program that investigates how
schools and systems can encourage innovative teaching
practices and the impact innovative teaching practices
have on students learning.

ITL is the foundation for 21
st
Century Learning Design

Individuals
with skills for
life and work
today
Education
System Change
School
Leadership
and Culture
Innovative
Teaching
Practices
2009-2012
Innovative Teaching
and Learning
Research

2012-future
From Research to
Practice
(todays work)

SKILLS FOR LIFE
AND WORK TODAY
Knowledge
building
Self-regulation
& assessment
Collaboration
Skilled
communication
Problem solving
& innovation
Global
awareness
ICT use
www.itlresearch.com
Innovative Teaching Practices
Personalized
Collaborative
Knowledge
construction
Self-regulation
Problem Solving
24/7 learning
opportunities
Global and cultural
understanding
Skilled
communication
By educators
By students
Basic usage vs.
higher-level usage
Student
Centered
Pedagogies
Extending
Learning
ICT
Integration
Schools from over 46 countries using these
methods to build innovative teaching
capacity
What school factor do you
think is most associated with
innovative teaching practices
in schools?
Low frequency Medium frequency High frequency
Innovative
Teaching
Practices
What we learned

Collaboration about teaching among educators in a school
Strongly associated with Innovative Teaching Practices

What type of professional
development builds
innovative teaching
practices?
Practice a new teaching method
Conducted research
Planned or practiced using ICT in teaching
Reviewed and discussed student work
Observed a demonstration of a lesson
Developed or reviewed curriculum materials
Received or delivered one-on-one coaching
or mentoring
Planned a lesson or a unit
Observed a demonstration of ICT use
Listened to a lecture
Professional Development and
innovative teaching practices
Learning Design: Project goals
Develop shared understanding of important 21st Century
skills, and how learning activities can provide opportunities
to build them

Use detailed definitions and rubrics as a collaborative
framework to discuss and analyze learning activity designs

Explore the link between learning activity design and the
work that students do


Learning Design: 21C Skills Framework
Rubric Key Question
Collaboration
Are students required to share responsibility and make substantive decisions with other
people?
Knowledge construction Are students required to build knowledge? Is that knowledge interdisciplinary?
Use of ICT for learning
Do students use ICT to support knowledge building? Is ICT necessary to that knowledge
building?
Self-regulation Is the learning activity long-term? Do students plan and assess their own work?
Skilled communication
Did the student produce extended communication? Was the communication well-developed
and organized around a thesis?
Real-world
problem-solving
and innovation
Does the learning activity require solving authentic, real-world problems? Are students
solutions implemented in the real world?
Learning Design: Lets Do It
For each 21
st
Century skill, we will:
Learn and discuss common definitions and a rubric
Apply these ideas to sample learning activities how strong
are the opportunities they give students to build this skill?
Use the rubric to strengthen a learning activity
Look at the relationship between learning activity design
and student work

What does
collaboration mean?
Collaboration
In todays interconnected world, real project work often requires collaboration
across organizations (e.g. a collaboration between a pharmaceutical company
and a chemical engineering company to produce a new vaccine), or with
people in a different part of the world. This type of working requires strong
collaboration skills to work productively on a team and to integrate individual
expertise and ideas into a coherent solution.
Do your learning activities model this today?


This rubric examines whether students are working with others on the learning
activity, and the quality of that collaboration. (Research rubrics)

At higher levels of the rubric students share responsibility for their work, and the
learning activity is designed in a way that requires students to make substantive
decisions together. These features help students learn the important collaboration
skills of negotiation, conflict resolution, agreement on what must be done,
distribution of tasks, listening to the ideas of others and integration of ideas into a
coherent whole. The strongest learning activities are designed so that student
work is interdependent, requiring all students to contribute in order for the team
to succeed.

Knowledge
Construction.?
Info and ideas
Solution
What is knowledge work?
Creating
Social Programs
Policies & Laws
Web apps &
Software
Strategies
Design

Knowledge Construction

We often hear the term knowledge. More and more, people are
expected to not only be intelligent consumers of information, but also to
create information and ideas. Students are asked to do the same: to
evaluate, synthesize, analyze and interpret information. We have
overwhelming access to data so we must prepare students to be informed
consumers and smart producers who can integrate information from
multiple sources across multiple disciplines in order to further expand
their learning and make sense of the world.

Do your learning activities model this today?

Knowledge construction activities require students to generate ideas and
understandings that are new to them. Students can do this through
interpretation, analysis, synthesis or evaluation. In stronger activities,
knowledge construction is the main requirement of the learning activity.

The strongest activities require students to apply the knowledge they
constructed in a different context, helping them to deepen their
understanding further, and to connect information and ideas from two or
more academic disciplines (for example, integrating learning from both
science and literature).
Knowledge Construction

Review example learning activities