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A Sunrise Project for a Sunshine Future

PARADEEP REFINERY PROJECT


Faculty
N R Das
SPNE-CG
Prepared by
Production-CG Team
AGENDA FOR THE PRESENTATION
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Configuration of High Efficiency/ Modern Heaters
Heater Instrumentation and controls
Introduction to Burner Management System
Heater Commissioning/ Start-up
Start-up Precautions and Monitoring
Heater Shutdown
What May Go Wrong
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CONFIGURATION OF MODERN HEATERS
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CONFIGURATION OF MODERN HEATERS
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HEATER INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROLS
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PC
TC
FC
PT
PT
FQ
FT
FT
FC
FC
FC
O2
SOx
NOx
TT
TT
TT
TT
TT
PT TT
TT
TT
TT
FT
HEATER FIRING CONTROL
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PC
TC
FC
FT
PT
FQ
FT
FT
FC
FC
FC
O2
SOx
NOx
TT
TT
TT
TT
TT
PT TT
TT
TT
TT
FIRING
CONTROL
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NEED FOR BMS
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BMS System evolved out of a need for a Separate System apart
from the control system for

Optimization of fuel consumption

Safe start-up of the furnace through programmed sequences bounded by
safety Interlocks and Start permissives

Supervising the safety limits during operation

Supervising the presence of pilot and Main flame during operation with the
help of Dedicated flame scanners

Activation of safe Shutdown in the event of any unsafe condition

Preventing the catastrophic combustion of fuel or Explosion

For providing the operating personal an environment free of Hazards
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BMS - How Burner is managed?
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Sequence Controls (Permissives)-For Startup
Pilot & Main Fuel Block Valves leak proved
Absence of Flame proved
Prepare flow proved
Prepurge Timer complete
Minimum configured pilots are lit

Trip Interlocks-For Normal Operation
Loss of Flame
Fuel pressure Low
Fuel pressure High
Loss of Combustion air
High Process Temperatures

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SAFETY CHECKS BEFORE HEATER STARTUP
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A furnace is safest when it is functioning properly.

Combustion occurs when fuel and oxygen meet a source of ignition.





If any one of these three elements is missing, ____________ cannot take
place.

Combustion can occur in an idle furnace, if fuel, oxygen, and a source of
ignition come together. Wherever there ia air, you can be sure there is
_______________.

During shutdown, flammable vapors may seep into the firebox. Anything
that can burn is ______________.
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combustion
oxygen
flammable
SAFETY CHECKS BEFORE HEATER STARTUP
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Fuel and oxygen need only a source of ignition to ________.

Even though a furnace is idle, you must assume that there may be ________
in the firebox.

Rapid ignition or combustion in a confined space is an explosion. Explosions
occur when air and fuel have mixed and come into contact with a source of
__________.

The longer an unblinded furnace has been idle, the more likely it is to lack
only a _________ of ignition.

Over the years, more than half of all furnace explosions have occurred
during startup. Most explosions happened because fuel that the operator
didnt know was there had mixed with _______ and was waiting for ignition.

A furnace is most dangerous at ______________.
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Start up
burn
fuel
ignition
source
air
PHYSICAL CHECK BEFORE STARTUP
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The furnace and the area around it must be clean and free of flammable
material.

All valves in the fuel gas and fuel oil systems and all burner valves must be
checked to see that they are closed.

Both the _________ gas valve and the pilot valve must be checked to be
sure they are _____________.
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steam
On an oil burner, you normally
have two oil valves and three
steam valves to close. All
_______ and ________ valves
must be closed.
burner
closed
oil
PHYSICAL CHECK BEFORE STARTUP
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After the damper mechanism has been checked, the stack ___________
should be fully opened.

The secondary air doors on all _____________ should be fully opened.

To purge the furnace properly later on, the purging steam or air must be
able to flow freely through the furnace. The stack damper and all secondary
air dampers must be _________ to provide this flow.
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damper
burners
open
PURGING BEFORE LIGHTING THE BURNERS
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It is dangerous to light the burner without ________the furnace first.

Purging must be thorough to make sure that no flammable __________
remain in the furnace.

Steam is used for purging. Ensure that the steam is free of condensate.

Steam purging provides heat to start the draft.

Your unit operating instructions tell you how long to purge the furnace with
steam, and may specify a minimum draft during the purge.

Purging is used to create a _________ and remove all flammable
__________ from the furnace.
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gases
purging
gases
draft
PURGING BEFORE LIGHTING THE BURNERS
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Purging makes sure that you have the three elements of ____________
(fuel, air, and heat) under control when you light the burners.

Ensure that there are no flammable vapors mixed with air in the firebox.
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combustion
REMOVING BLINDS - BEFORE LIGHTING THE BURNERS
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Before lighting the burners, follow Standing Instructions and SOP (Standard
operating procedures).

Ensure that the blinds in the main fuel lines to the furnace are removed as
per unit operating instructions. Purge the fuel system as per the instructions.

With the blinds removed, the chances that the fuel may seep into he firebox
through any valve leakage are now increased.

Ensure that all burner valves are __________ before opening the main fuel
valve to furnace.

Drain fuel gas knockout pot to ensure that there is no presence of liquid
hydrocarbon in fuel gas.

Ensure that there is no water in the fuel oil line.
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closed
LIGHTING THE BURNERS
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On a furnace with a gas pilot, light the pilot before you light the burner.
Once the pilot is lighted, it is a steady __________ of ignition for the burner.

Establish circulation through furnace coils before the first __________ is
lighted.

A furnace burning both gas and oil is normally started with ________.

The gas burner provides a steady source of __________ for the oil.

Gas ignites and burns more easily than oil.

Begin lighting the burners immediately after you have finished __________
purging the furnace.

Automatic igniters are installed for lighting of pilot burners.
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source
burner
gas
ignition
purging
LIGHTING THE BURNERS
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Portable igniters are also used to light the pilot burners.

In earlier days, torch was used to light the pilot burners.

After lighting the burner, steady the ________ pattern by adjusting air
dampers.

If the fuel does not ignite promptly, shut off the burner.

If the fuel does not ignite at the first burner, you must _______________.

If you have to purge again, repeat the whole ___________ procedure.

One burner should never be lighted from another burner. This is a
dangerous practice. Only a _________ provides a steady and reliable source
of ignition.
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flame
purge again
purging
pilot
LIGHTING THE BURNERS
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When you are firing two fuels, one is normally base loaded and you
control temperature with the other.

Do not try to light the oil gun of a combustion burner until the _______
burners are maintaining a stable flame pattern.

Ensure draining of _____________ from atomising steam line, before
lighting up oil burner.

During startup, frequently check the individual burner flames and the
flame pattern in the ____________. Wear a face mask whenever you look
into the firebox.

Watch for irregular burning patterns. Flame impingement causes hot spots.
Watch the radiant tubes for hot spots and adjust the _________ pattern to
eliminate them.
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firebox
gas
condensate
flame
LIGHTING THE BURNERS
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Tubes should be checked from shift to shift to detect hot ________ and to
observe how much the spots are changing, and how fast.

After the furnace is on stream and lined out, check the entire operation for
draft and _________ air control.
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excess
spots
HEATER STARTUP PRECHECKS
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Check all the following conditions are satisfied
Check if all the Manual block valves in fuel lines are closed
Fuel gas control valve set at 20% on manual mode
Steam to SAPH closed
All burner air dampers are open
Stack Damper Open
ID fan inlet (IGV) closed
Flue gas analyser not in operation
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START PERMISSIVES
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Check if all the following Permissives are Healthy
All pilot flame scanners unhealthy.
All main flame scanners unhealthy.
All pilot header block valves closed and bleed valves open.
All main FG header block valves closed and bleed valves open.
All BMS interlocks are healthy/necessary interlocks bypassed.
Local Reset Push button activated.
Main stack damper open.
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FUEL GAS LINES PURGING & LEAK CHECK
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Purging of Pilot and Fuel Gas lines
Before admitting fuel gas into the line to the burners it may be
necessary when fuel gas is containing more than 15 vol. % H2 to purge
the line with nitrogen.
Connect N2 Hose in the common fuel gas line LPD downstream of Filter
pressurize and purge it through HPV in the ring headers of Pilot and Main FG

Leak Check of Pilot Gas line Automatic Block Valves
Line-up all the block valves in Pilot and Main FG lines (except burner
globe and ball valves)
Initiate Pilot & Main burner leak check by pressing Start leak test
Push Button
Pilot leak test in progress lamp glows in LCP and a preset timer starts
which will be reset only if Start purge button
Pressurisation step: Pilot gas line bypass block valves open and bleed valve
closes. The system checks if the downstream pressure reaches the upper
leak check set point within the pressurisation period (1 min and
adjustable).
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FUEL GAS LINES PURGING & LEAK CHECK
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Depressurisation Step: Pilot gas line bypass block valves closes and bleed
valves open. The system checks if the downstream pressure reaches the
lower leak check set point within the depressurisation period (1 min and
adjustable)
If Pressurisation and depressurisation steps are completed successfully
Pilot Leak test clear appears in LCP. If during pressurisation or
depressurisation tests, the set value checks fail Pilot leak test failed
appears in LCP.
If leak check fails rectify the problem and start leak test again.

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FUEL GAS LINES PURGING & LEAK CHECK
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Leak Check of Main Fuel Gas line Automatic Block Valves
Once the Pilot leak check is cleared, the BMS will automatically initiate
Main FG leak check.
Burner leak test in progress lamp glows in LCP.
Pressurisation step: Main FG gas line bypass block valves open and bleed
valve closes. The system checks if the downstream pressure reaches the
upper leak check set point within the pressurisation period (1 min and
adjustable)
Depressurisation Step: Main Fuel gas line bypass block valves closes and
bleed valves open. The system checks if the downstream pressure reaches
the lower leak check set point within the depressurisation period (1 min
and adjustable)
If Pressurisation and depressurisation steps are completed successfully
Burner Leak test clear appears in LCP. If during pressurisation or
depressurisation tests, the set value checks fail Burner leak test failed
appears in LCP.
If leak check fails rectify the problem and start leak test again.
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FUEL GAS LINES LEAK CHECK
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PT
PT
O2
SOx
NOx
TT
TT
TT
TT
TT
FT
FURNACE BOX PRE-PURGING
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Heaters must be purged with air before burners are lighted to evacuate all gas
that could have been sent to the firebox during the test
Now start FD fans (at least one) as per the start-up procedure and open
the discharge damper
Reach a maximum air flow or flow recommended by vendor.
Activate Start Purge Push button.
All the above steps are to be completed before timer that got activated
during burner leak check (Depends upon the vendor)
Minimum Purgiging time should be such that it should renew 5 times the
volume of heater or 15 Minutes





PILOT GAS BURNERS LIGHT-UP
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Pilot gas burner light-up Preparation
Reduce the air flow from FD fan to say 25% of capacity
Adjust the stack damper so that the proper draft level for furnace operation is
achieved.
Close the burner air control dampers to the 25% open position.

Pilot gas burner light-up can be started once the Open pilot block valves
push button is pressed
Open the main pilot fuel supply valve making fuel gas available upto all of the
individual pilot valves
Keep the pilot mixer air door is of the pilot to be first lit-up to say 50% open.
Insert the igniter, Press the Open push button for that pilot to be lit-up and
activate the igniter.
The pilot should light instantly. If the pilot does not light after 10 seconds
automatic block valve will get closed.
If lit-up adjust the pilot valve and air door for a stable flame.
Light up all pilots in the same manner.
MAIN GAS BURNERS LIGHT-UP
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Main gas burner light-up Preparation
Adjust the draft such that there is sufficient air pressure drop across the burner
Set the burner air control dampers at 50% open.

Main gas burner light-up can be started once the Open main FG block
valves push button is pressed
Now the automatic block valves will open and charge the FG upto individual block
valves
The burners can now be ignited manually by opening the burner isolation valve
(ball valve) slowly while observing the flame.
If flame is not established within 3 secs of valve being fully open, it should be
closed immediately. Further attempts shouldnt be made for 5 minutes.
All main burners can be lit up in similar fashion.
Adjust the operating conditions as required by the process. But the minimum
firing rate prescribed by the vendor should be respected.
Adjust the conditions for optimum O2 level in the Stack
OIL BURNERS LIGHT-UP
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Oil burner light-up Preparation
Reset the Oil supply and return automatic block valves
Lineup supply and return line valves upto the individual burner block valves
Establish oil circulation

Light-up Sequence
The burner which is going to be taken in line should already be lit-up with fuel gas
Open the steam valve and cross over valve (purge) to the oil gun until both oil and
steam lines to each burner and also the oil gun are completely warmed up with
steam only.
Close cross over valve and adjust steam valve to 3.5-4.0 Kg/cm2g steam pressure.
Open oil valve gradually until ignition is established.
Isolate fuel gas to that Burner
Adjust oil valve for capacity required and adjust steam valve to achieve proper
flame pattern.
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START-UP PRECAUTIONS
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The following Precautions needs to be exercised during furnace start-up
Quick heating-up is likely to cause excessive stresses on tubes and supports
Over pressure in the fire chamber can cause personnel injury or material damage
as hot flue gas would leak out of sight doors, not blanked-off connections,
unpacked tube seals, etc
Ensure Flow through the coils as it is a certain way of protecting the tubes from
excessive temperature.
Too low a flow rate through the passes with respect to heat flux can be the cause
of tube overheating or hydrocarbon coking.
Possibility of condensation in the fuel lines must be checked with respect to
atmospheric conditions and avoided. Line must be drained frequently checking for
water or condensates.
Burner operation shall also be carefully and constantly watched to identify any
abnormal occurrence: flame impingement, wrong shape, instability, nozzle
plugging, coke formation, etc
During start-up, heater draught must be watched as it increases progressively with
the heat released
START-UP MONITORING
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During start-up, heater draught must be watched as it increases progressively
with the heat released, using for that the draught gauges installed locally and
comparing them to the values transmitted to control room. Operation of the
draught dampers when there is one must be smooth and draught must be
effectively controlled.

During first start-up, all devices and instruments being used for the first time
in real conditions, it is of paramount importance to check their actual
operation and response constantly, until sufficient confidence is gained. Quick
material and thermal balances will help to detect abnormal recordings.

It comes naturally up that first start-up must be conducted slowly and if
possible stepwise to allow timely checking and observation.

In case of abnormal occurrence, it is of paramount importance that operators
can react in the right way within the shortest time.


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CONTROLLED SHUTDOWN
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Controlled Shutdown Sequence
Reduce fuel pressure slowly from control panel and simultaneously reduce the
combustion air flow
Once fuel pressure downstream of Pressure control valve reduces to a minimum
value or PCV opening reduced to minimum, start cutting off burners one by one.
Individual burner air dampers needs to be throttled as CA duct pressure reduces.
If oil burners are in line, isolate them and flush with atomizing steam
When main fuel gas is to be tripped, close the PCV completely and automatically
the block valves will get closed
Open Stack damper fully.
Actuate Pilot gas trip by isolating the main pilot line isolation valve. This action will
trip FD fan also.
Bypass Pilot gas low low pressure trip and Restart FD fan
Allow cooling of the furnace box with FD fan running
SHUTDOWN
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The flow rate of the charge and the heat of the furnace are reduced together.
The charge rate and temperature are gradually ____________ over a period
of several hours.

When the charge rate and temperature have been reduced to a fraction of
normal, all furnace __________ are shut off.

The entire unit is circulated down. The oil left in the unit is circulated within
the unit oil system, including the ____________ tubes.

Circulation is continued through most equipment for several hours to cool the
unit. When the unit is cool enough not to vaporise the oil anywhere in it,
circulation is __________.
stopped
reduced
burners
furnace
SHUTDOWN
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Reduction in the transfer temperature automatically ____________ the burner fuel
supply. While reducing transfer temperature, cut off burners as per requirement.

When the charge rate and temperature are down to the desired level, all
____________ are shut off by closing each burner fuel valve individually.

Each gas pilot is shut off by closing the pilot _______.

Steam is left on in each oil gun as the oil regulating valve is closed. It is used to
_____________ the oil gun.

After all the burner gas valves are closed, the gas header valve is closed. Then all block
valves and bypass valves are closed.

If the furnace is to be out of service for some time, blinds should be installed in the
_________ lines.
fuel
reduces
burners
valve
purge
EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN
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Emergency shutdown is called for when furnace operations becomes
seriously abnormal.

In order to act wisely, you must know the maximum allowable temperature
and pressure of the _________ metal.

You must know the maximum allowable _____________ for the firebox,
breeching, and the stack.

You must be ready to stop combustion by removing one or more of the three
elements of combustion, ___________ air, or heat.

You must know in advance that emergency block and blowdown valves are in
working order and how to reach them in an emergency. These emergency
controls are located in a protected area where they can be reached with
_________________ risk.
fuel
tube
temperature
minimum, or little
REVERSING THE PROCESS OF COMBUSTION
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You can ordinarily keep fuel oil and gas out of the firebox by closing the
burner _____________. You may have to go back to the block valves or the
header block valve. These valves stop the fuel to all _________.

In normal operation, you do not think of the charge as fuel. In the event of a
tube rupture, the charge enters the firebox from the ruptured tube and
burns. Then you must think of charge as ____________.

Since the charge is under pressure, a tube rupture may dump large amounts
of the charge into the firebox. Shutting off the charge and dumping it from
the furnace does not get rid of what is in the _____________.

The oil is best disposed of by burning it where it is, since the firebox is built to
support the heat of burning. To keep temperatures from running too high
during this combustion, you may need to control the __________ supply.
air
valves
fuel
burners
firebox
REVERSING THE PROCESS OF COMBUSTION
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You may have to choose which of the three elements of combustion to
control or get rid of, or try to eliminate all the three at once.
Stop or control the __________
Restrict the _______
Cool and put out any source of ____________ that is present

A tube rupture may suddenly admit a large amount of fuel into the firebox.
Your action will depend upon how serious the situation is and how well you
can control temperatures. If the leak is small, the charge may be left in the
____________ tubes while the unit is circulated down.

The furnace must be isolated and depressured if the rupture is large. Shut off
the burner fires. Dump the furnace and cool the tubes by turning steam into
them. Then ___________ the firebox with steam.
purge
fuel
air
ignition
furnace
REVERSING THE PROCESS OF COMBUSTION
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Improper operation of oil burners could lead to large amounts of oil burning on the
floor of the furnace. Correct the burner operation. If temperatures become excessive,
restrict the input of ______ by adjusting the stack damper.

Flammable liquid in the fuel gas line may fill the firebox with uncontrolled flames.
Drain the fuel gas system. If temperatures become excessive, adjust the stack damper
to restrict the input of ______.

Cool the firebox with steam. If temperatures still rise in the tubes beyond the
maximum, block off the furnace and dump the ___________. Put steam into the
tubes.

An operator who has worked successfully through an emergency shutdown has new
knowledge of himself and his _______________________.

By deliberately applying your knowledge and measuring your actions by the severity
of the emergency, you turn each ___________ into experience that prepares you
better for all furnace operating situations.
emergency
air
air
charge
equipment, or furnace
WHAT MAY GO WRONG?
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Furnace Explosions can occur with any or a combination of the
following

Loss of Flame in one or more burners while the others are in operation
Accumulation of Combustible gasses inside the furnace followed by
formation of explosive mixture inside the box
Complete Flame-out followed by an attempt to light a burner
Accumulated Hydrocarbons inside the furnace after Flame-out forms
explosive mixture and explodes while re-ignition
Fuel Leakage into an idle furnace ignited by a source of ignition
Fuel leakage into the Idle furnace due to passing of fuel gas block valves
leading to formation of Explosive mixture
Repeated attempts to light-off the furnace without properly purging the box
Accumulation of Hydrocarbons due to delay in ignition of burners due to
problem of igniter or flow of excessive combustion air
Momentary loss of flame followed by delayed ignition
After burn causes sudden rise in pressure in the convection section or the
flue gas duct causing damages
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QUERIES
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