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C-20/1, Sector-62, NOIDA-201301 (U.P)
Department of I & C

[Summer Training Report On CNC Machines]

Compiled & Submitted By:-

Ashutosh Singh
(Univ. Roll No. 0509122010)
B.Tech (ICE), VII semester

We are highly thankful to B.H.E.L. engineers and technical staff

for providing us vital and valuable information about the different
facets of an industrial management system.

We express our gratitude to Human Resource and Development

department for giving us a chance to feel the industrial environment
and its working in B.H.E.L. and we are thankful to Mr. M.K.Nagaich,
Sr.Engineer for giving his precious time and help us in
understanding various theoretical and practical aspect of our project
on CNC under whose kind supervision we accomplished our project.
We are also thankful to Mr.Vijay Verma for his kind support.

Ashutosh Singh

At very outset of the prologue it becomes imperative to insist that

vocational training is an integral part of engineering curriculum.
Training allows us to gain an insight into the practical aspects of the
various topics, with which we come across while pursuing our B.Tech
i.e. vocational training gives us practical implementation of various
topics we already have learned and will learn in near future.
Vocational training always emphasizes on logic and commonsense
instead of theoretical aspects of subject.

On my part, I pursued four weeks training at B.H.E.L. Jhansi. The

training involved a study of various departments of the organization
as per the time logically scheduled and well planned given to us.

The rotation in various departments was necessary in order to get

an overall idea about the working of the organization.

Ashutosh Singh

In the post independence era when India was moving towards

industrialization, the thrust by the government was in the core sector.
With this objective BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED was setup
in Bhopal in August 1956, with a view to reach self sufficiency in
industrial products and power equipments. This plan was setup under
collaboration of M/s. AEJ, U.K.

Now more plants were setup at Tiruchy, Hyderabad and Haridwar

with Czechoslovakian and Soviet Union assistance in May 1956, Dec.
1965, and Jan. 1967 respectively. Today B.H.E.L. has become the
largest engineering plant employing approximately 72000
employees. Its headquarters are located at Delhi.

B.H.E.L. is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise

in India in the energy/infrastructure sector, today. B.H.E.L. was
established more than forty years ago ushering in the indigenous
heavy electrical equipments industry in India a dream that has been
more than realized with a well-recognized track record of
performance. It has been earning profits since 1971-72 and paying
dividends since 1976-77.

B.H.E.L. manufactures over 180 products under thirty major

product groups and caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz.,
Power Generation and Transmission, Industry, Transportation,
Telecommunication, Renewable Energy, etc. The wide network of
B.H.E.L.’s fourteen manufacturing divisions, four power sector
regional centers, over hundred project sites, eight service centers
and eighteen regional offices, enables the company to promptly
serve its customers and provide them with suitable products
efficiently and at competitive prices.

The quality and reliability of its products is due to the emphasis on

design, engineering and manufacturing to international standards by
acquiring and adapting some of the best technologies from leading
companies in the world, together with technologies developed in its
own R&D centers.

B.H.E.L. has acquired certifications to Quality Management

Systems- ISO 9001, Environmental Management Systems-ISO 14001
and Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems-OHSAS
18001 and has also adopted the concepts of Total Quality

B.H.E.L. has installed equipment for over 90,000 MW of power

generation- for Utilities, Captive, and Industrial users. It supplied over
2,25,000 MVA transformer capacity and sustained equipment
operating in transmission and distribution network up to 400 KV- AC
& DC.

It supplied over 25,000 motors with Drive Control System to

power projects, petrochemicals, refineries, steel, aluminum, fertilizer,
cement plants, etc. It also supplied traction electrics and AC/DC locos
to power over 12,000 Km railway network. Supplied over one million
valves to power plants and other industries.

B.H.E.L.’s operations are organized around three business

sectors, namely Power Industry including Transmission,
Transportation, Telecommunication and Renewable Energy and
Overseas Business. This enables B.H.E.L. to have a strong customer
orientation, to be sensitive to his needs and respond quickly to the
changes in the market.

B.H.E.L.’s vision is to become a world class engineering

enterprise, committed to enhance stakeholder value. The company is
striving to give shape to its aspirations and fulfill the expectations as a
Navratna Company.

The greatest strength of B.H.E.L. is its highly skilled and

committed 44,000 employees. Every employee is given an equal
opportunity to develop himself and improve his position. Continuous
training and retaining, career planning, a positive work culture and
participative style of management have engendered development of
a committed and motivated work force leading to enhanced
productivity and higher levels of quality.

A world class engineering enterprise committed to enhancing
stakeholder value.

To be an Indian Multinational Engineering Enterprise providing total
business solution through quality products, system and services in the
fields of energy, industry, transportation, infrastructure and other
potential areas.

 Zeal to Excel Zest for change.

 Integrity and fairness in all matters.

 Respect for dignity and potential of every individual.

 Strict adherence to commitments.

 Ensure speed of response.

 Faster learning, teamwork and creativity.

 Loyalty and Pride in the Company.


A Brief Introduction

By the end of five year plan it was envisaged by the planning

commission that the demand for power transformer would raise in the
coming years. Anticipating the country’s requirement B.H.E.L.
decided to set up a plant which would manufacture power and other
type of transformer in addition to the capacity available at B.H.E.L.
Bhopal. The Bhopal plant was engaged in manufacturing of
transformer of large rating and Jhansi unit would concentrate on
power transformer like instrument transformer, traction transformer
for railway etc.

This unit of Jhansi was established around 14 Km from the city on

the NH no. 26 on Jhansi Lalitpur Road. It was called second generation
plant of B.H.E.L. set up in 1974 at an estimated cost of Rs. 16.22 crores
inclusive of Rs. 2.1 crores for township. Its foundation was laid by Late
Mrs. Indira Gandhi, the prime minister on 9th Jan. 1974. The
commercial production of the unit began in 1976-77 with an output of
Rs. 53 lakhs since then there has been no looking back for B.H.E.L.

First Generation Units

BHOPAL Heavy Electrical Plant

HARDWAR Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant

HYDERABAD Heavy Electrical Power Equipment Plant

TIRUCHY High Pressure Boiler Plant

Second Generation Units

JHANSI Transformer and Locomotive Plant

HARDIWAR Central Foundry and Forge Plant

TIRUCHY Seamless Steel Tube Plant

Unit Through Acquisition and Merger

BANGALORE Electronic Division

Electro Porcelain Division

New Manufacturing Units

RANIPAT Boiler Auxiliaries Plant

JAGDISHPUR Insulator Plant

RUDRAPUR Component and Fabrication Plant

BANGALORE Industrial System Group


To build a high degree of customer confidence by providing

increased value for his money through international standards of
product performance superior customer service.

People Orientation

To enable each employee to achieve his potential, improve his

capabilities, perceive his role and responsibilities and participate
and contribute to the growth and success of the company, to invest in
human resources continuously and be alive to their needs.


To achieve technological excellence in operations by

development of indigenous technologies and efficient absorption and
provide competitive advantage to the company.


To fulfill the expectations which stakeholders like government as

owner, employees, customers and the country at large have from

S.No. Products Specifications

1. Power Transformer Up to 220 KVA class 250 MVA

2. Special Transformer Up to 110 KVA

3. ESP transformer 1000 KVA

4. Fright Loco Transformer 3900-5400 KVA & 6500 KVA (3


5. ACEMU Transformer Up to 1000 KVA 25 KV (single


6. Dry Type Transformer Up to 3150 KVA

7. Bus Duct Up to 15.75 KVA (Generating


8. Instrument Transformer VT and CT up to 220 KVA

9. Diesel Engine Up to 2600 HP


10. AC/DC Locomotive Up to 5000 HP (25 KV AC/1500v


11. Well Wagon 200 Tones

12. Over Head Equipment


Test Car

13. Dynamic Track Stabilizer

14. Ballast Cleaning Machine


S.No. Year Milestones’

1. 1976-77 Start of Instrument Transformer Production

2. 1977-78 Start of Traction Transformer and Power

Transformer (Up To132 KV)

3. 1978-79 Start of HFTT type freight Locomotive

4. 1979-80 Commissioning of 2,500 KV DG Set

(Due to sever power cuts)

5. 1980-81 Start of ESP Transformer

6. 1981-82 Start of 220 KV Power Transformers

7. 1982-83 Achieve Break Even

8. 1983-84 Start of Bus duct

9. 1984-85 Start of Dry Type Transformer

10. 1985-86 Repowering of Diesel Locomotive Started

11. 1986-87 Start of Diesel Locomotive Started

12. 1987-88 Manufacturing Facilities for AC Locomotive

13. 1988-89 Crossed Core Target

14. 1990-91 Successful Design and Manufacturing of 400 HP 3
Axel Diesel CCI

15. 1991-92 Manufacture of First 2600 HP Diesel for NTPC

16. 1992-93 Successful Design and Development of

5000 HP Thruster Control Locomotive

17. 1993-94 Unit has been Awarded ISO-19001

Certificate for Quality Systems

18. 1994-95 240 MVA Power Transformer Produced First Time

19. 1995-96 AC/DC Locomotives first time in India

20. 1996-97 Hundredth Locomotive Manufactured

21. 1997-98 250 MVA Transformer Produced First

22. 1998-99 Developed Over Head Equipment cum Test Car

23. 1999-00 Diesel Hydraulic Shunting


Fabrication shop is the shop which deals with the manufacturing of

transformer and locomotive components such as Tanks, Plates, and
Nuts and Bolts. Fabrication shop is divided into three parts-

 BAY-0
 BAY-1
 BAY-2


This is the preparation shop, in this shop; we cut the different

components of the different materials as per the drawing
requirements. Different processing m/s in this BAY is as follows –



By the use of this machine any shape can be obtained up to 2.5m to


Maker – ESAB Germany made

Flame – Oxy-Acetylene Flame

Feeding Language – ESSI Format, ESC Format

Capacity – 3.15mm to 300mm

b) Accuracy – 0.1mm

Cutting Tool – Copper

Materials to cut – Mild steel




This machine is used for metal sheet. Cutting range is 2mm to 6 mm.
Suitable materials for use are Al, Standard steel and Cu.


Principle – Hydraulically operated

Pressure Gauge is used to read out the pressure applied. Stopping

mechanism is used by screw to prevent the collapsing the ram blade
with bending grooves (Die).


This machine is used for decreasing the roll thickness. The roller
material used is High Carbon Steel.

It is having the two rollers and one bending roller. In this machine,
gears are used for speed reduction of the rollers to give uniform and
better thickness and good surface finish. Wedge type metal piece is
used (Manually operated) for changing the gap b/w rollers for the
required thickness.

This machine is used to straightening the job. This is hydraulically

operated. In it, flattening load is applied by hydraulic method;
hydraulic oil of suitable grade is used. The capacity of this machine is
100 tons. The shape of ram is cylindrical.


In this machine, tool can move radically. In it cutting oil mixed with
water is used to cool the drill tool as used as the material to be drilled.
Different drill tools are used from 2mm to 100mm dia.


BAY (1, 2)

These BAYS are known as assembly bays. In these bays, different

operating is to be performed.

Fitting – In this section, as the name suggests, we fit different

components as the drawing requirements.

Welding – In this section, we weld the different components of

different drawing by permanent joints.

Testing – When our tank for the transformer is completed, then we

check the leakage tests on the tanks. There are two types of leakage
tests, which we have to perform on the transformer tank.
1. AT (Air leakage test)

In this test, first we fill the tank by compressed air and dip the tank in
the soap solution for bubble test.

2. VT (Deflection test)

Shot Blasting Plant-

When we check the leakage by satisfying result then we use SHOT

BLASTING for removing the carbon layer from the surface of the tank.
In the SHOT BLASTING, we use the small rings with the high pressure
of 7kg.

Painting –

After shot blasting, we paint the tank for corrosion resistant.

BAY -3

It is split in two parts, half is consist of machine shop and the other half
is consist of winding of dry type transformer.

There is different type machines used in section. These are listed


1. Tool Cutter grinder – Used for cutting tool also grinding them.

2. Hydraulic surface grinder – It is consist of magnetic platform.

Cooling oils is used as coolant.
3. Drill sharp machine – It is used for sharp the drill bits by
means of grinding wheel.

4. Vertical grinder machine – It is used for grinding purpose.

5. Hydraulic power press – Used for straightening the material

capacity of this machine is 25 tones.

6. Resistance brazing machine – Used for overlap connections.

7. Bend saw machine – It is used for cutting circular object. In

this machine blade width is inch and thickness is ¾ inch.

8. Electric furnace – Used for heating the object.

9. Hydraulic punching machine – Used for making small pieces

of material for desire purpose. Range of this machine is
12mm to 250mm.

10. Hydraulic shearing machine – Used for cutting the material

in range between 12mm to 25mm.

11. Lathe machine – There are mainly three type of lathes are
there these are listed as below.

 Turret lathe – Used for heavy duty. Range of this machine is

250mm to 300mm.
 Capstone lathe – Used for light work, range of this machine is
20mm to 150mm.
 Center lathe – It is used for light work and range of this machine
is 20mm to 200mm.

This part is only concern with copper cutting, bending, tinning etc.
Machine used are as listed below.

a) Shearing machine: Range 4mm to 6mm and length of the blade is


b) Hydraulic power press: Used for straightening the product.

c) Tube slitting machine: This machine is developed here and is

used for cutting the tube along its length and across its
diameter. Its blade thickness is 3 mm.
d) Fly press machine: It is fully mechanical and is used to press the
job. It is operated mechanically by a wheel, which is top on the
e) Lincing belt machine: It creates a smooth surface.

BAY – 4

Here winding work of the power transformer is carried out.

The coil of transformer is of four types.

a) Low voltage coil

b) High voltage coil

c) Tap coil

d) Tertiary coil
All the winding performed by the paper insulation copper conductor
or by continuously transposed conductor it also made of copper. They
can arrange by different ways.

a) Reverse section winding

b) Helical winding
c) Interlinked winding
d) Half section winding

Figure showing Cast Resin Dry Type transformer find utilization in main power of
industrial plants

Arrangement and type of coil depends upon job requirements. Also

the width and thickness of the conductors are designed and are
decided by design department. Conductors used for winding is in the
form of very long spiral wound on a spool, conductor is covered by
cellulose paper for insulation.
For winding first the winding mould of diameter equal to inner
diameter of required coil is made. The specification of coil is given in
the drawing section that interlocks with each other. This interlocking
can be increased and decreased to adjust the inner diameter of coil.
The moulds are of following types.
a) Belly types
b) Link types
c) Cone types

BAY – 5

It is core and punch section.

Core is the basic requirements of transformer in this bay various type

of lamination of core is made, they are –

a) Side leg: - This lamination is at the extreme ends of the core

which stand vertical. They are isosceles trapezium in
shape with angle of 45.

b) Central leg: - This as the name suggests is central vertical

portion of the core. It is diamond shaped with vertical
edges longer. At the narrower edge one side is kept
longer than the other for making a well fixed joint, the
angles are kept 45.

c) Yoke: - The horizontal lamination of the core is called

yoke. They are also isosceles trapezium in shape with
angles of 45.
 Slitting machine: It is used to cut CRGO sheets in different width. It
has a circular cutter whose position can be changed as per the
 CNC cropping line pneumatic: It contains only one blade which can
rotate 90º about the sheet. It is operated pneumatically.
 CNC cropping line hydraulic: It is also used to cut the CRGO sheet it
contains two blades, one is fixed and other rotates 90º above the
sheet. It is operated hydraulically. M4 quality sheet 0.23-0.33 mm
thickness is used.


This shop is divided into two parts one is traction transformer winding
and other one consist of assembly of traction transformer.

These transformers are used in locomotive used in the AC locomotive

called freight locomotive transformer. These are mainly of two types:
Single phase (5400 KVA) and Three phase (6500 KVA).

For local train EMV (Electrical multiple unit transformers) is to be

used. These are also two type: Single phase (1000 KVA) and Three
phase(1500 KVA).

The major difference is that it has various output terminals. The

various outputs are required to supply the machine of different rating
mounted on the loco. A tape changer is also provided and is used to
obtain supply of different rating power.
Figure showing Transformer to be installed in Shatabdi Express Train.

The traction machine (DC Motor). Which provide torque to the loco
etc by changing taps from the electrical panel on the driver desk the
speed of the locomotive can be changed.

BAY – 7

In this bay various types of insulation are prepared which is to be

used in transformers.

a) Perma wood: Size 10mm to 50mm.

b) Precompressed: Size 1.5mm to 25mm.

c) Grey press board: Size 1.5mm.

d) Bakelite: Size 4mm to 25mm.

e) Fiber glass: Sixe 1mm to 3mm.

f) Epoxy glass: Size 10mm to 25mm.

g) N.B.C. sheets (Naporeniom bonded cork sheet): Size

3mm, 6mm, 10mm, and 12mm.

h) Silicon rubber: Size 1mm, 3mm, 6mm.

i) Nitric rubber: Size 3mm to 12mm.

PVA (poly vinyl alcohol) is used as additive.


1. Rolling machine: It is used to roll the press board.

2. Hard press machine: It is used to build up any

thickness plate. By heating plates and hardly
pressed on this machine.
3. Circle cutting machine : It is used for cutting the
circular objects and also used for machining

4. Scarfing machine: It is used for taper cutting.

BAY – 8
It is involved in manufacturing of instrument transformer of 132KV and
220 KV. Voltage Transformer, Current Transformer and ESP

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER: These are of two types

a) Current transformer (C.T.)

b) Voltage transformer (V.T.)

It is step down transformer. High current is not directly measured but
by the current transformer is step down to lower measurable values,
which is generally low.
• The main body is a bushing, it also act as insulator in which
winding is placed.
• The CT has a bottom and top chamber.
• The top chamber is the cylindrical tank of mild steel. It has
terminals for connection of HV coils. It has a glass window to
indicate the oil level.
• Below the top chamber there is bushing made of porcelain.
It has several folds and “rain sheds” to provide a specific
electrical field distribution and long leakage path. Some
bushings are of cylindrical while modern one is conical as
amount of oil porcelain used is reduced without any
undesirable effect.
• Bottom chamber house the secondary winding. There is
also connection box to which the connection low voltage
(LV) is made.

The primary winding consists of hollow copper/aluminum pipe bent
from of ‘U’ aluminum, used for low rating. For higher rating a set of
wire is passed through the pipe. For still higher rating, copper pipe is
used and for highest rating copper pipe with copper wire passing
through it is used. This arrangement depends on the current carrying
capacity. The bent portion of primary as in the bottom chamber
where as the free end is the top chamber. The straight portion lies
inside the bushing.

The primary is wound with crepe paper insulation goes in increasing

as we go downwards in the bottom chamber. The free ends are
provides with ‘ferrules’, which are small hollow cylinder through
which wires can pass connection to the primary are made through
these ferrules. The secondary is divided in a number of coils for
different set of tapings. Connections are different taping are made in
connection box. Each coil has an annular core of CRGO (silicon
This is also step-down transformer the out of construction is the same
as that of C.T. It has also a top chamber, bushing and a bottom
chamber. The difference is only in windings.
The primary winding is of thick wire having a few turns. The winding
is heavily insulated with paper insulation. It has a hollow cylinder
passing centrally through it, which houses the secondary winding.
The clean and painted with either enamel or epoxy paint. The
costumer gives the choice of paint. Epoxy paint is generally used in
chemical plant and seashore installation. Terminals are then mark and
rating and diagram plate is fixed.
The job is sent to shipping department which takes care of its
dispatch by packing in the wooden boxes.

DIFFERENCE: - In current transformer, primary has less turns then

secondary and vice versa.

 ESP TRANSFORMER: -The Electro static precipitator rectifier

transformer is used for environmental application. It is used to
filter the suspended charged in the waste uses of an industry.
They are of particular use in thermal power station and cement

The ESP is a single ø phase transformer. It has

primary and secondary windings. The core is laminated and is
made up of CRGO sheet. It is a step up transformer. An AC
reactor is connected in series with primary coil. The output of
the transformer must be DC which is obtained by rectifying AC
using a bridge rectifier (bridge rectifier is a combination of
several hundred diodes). A radio frequency chock (RF chock) is
connected in series with the DC output for the protection of
secondary circuit and filter circuit. The output chosen the
negative because the particles of carbon are positively charged.
The dc output from the secondary is given to a set of plate
arrange one after the others. Impurity particles being positively
charged stick to these plates, which can be jerked off by
hammer. For this a network of plant has to be set up all across
the plants .This is very costly process in comparison with the
transformer cost. A relevant is also provided to prevent the
transformer from bursting it higher pressure develops, inside it.
It is the weakest point in the transformer body. An oil
temperature indicator and the secondary supply spark detector
are also provided. One side of the transformer output is taken
and the other side has a “marshalling box” which is the control
box of the transformer.

BAY – 9

Three types of transformer are fabricated in this bay:

1. Power transformer.
2. Dry type transformer.
3. Rectifier type transformer.


Power transformer find their wide use in electrical power system.

Actually these are the transformer, which have made A.C.
transmission very easy. These are step up or down transformer. The
primary and secondary voltage of power transformer comprises
material for magnetic circuit terminals, tanning switches, tank oil as
well as cooling devices.
A power transformer undergoing testing in BAY-9 is shown in above figure.


The cast resin dry type transformer consists of high voltage and low
voltage winding made of Cu conductors which are completely
impregnated and cast under vacuum. The glass fiber epoxy insulation
of very good electrical and mechanical quality is used. Both HV and
LV windings are separately as one solid coil, the iron coil is made
from lamination of CRGOS. Bushing of cables boxes are provided for
HT and LT connections.

These transformers are used in under substation, high building and

hotels under the roof installation power plant etc.

In some industries electrical energy is supplied in the form of the

direct current. Rectifier transformer along with other equipments is
used to convert AC to DC. The advantages of using the rectifier
transformer along with rectifier unit efficiency are that it can be
connected to the supply lines. This being static unit efficiency is high.

It may appear to be power transformer, but it differs in many

respects, power transformer is used to step up or down the voltage
where rectifier, secondary of which corresponds to the output DC

The quality that makes a rectifier transformer unique is:

The LV of a rectifier transformer carry very high current busher has to

be used for the connection winding and terminals.

Other associated equipment of rectifier transformer is also housed in

the same tank. A rectifier transformer is basically a constant current
transformer and consequently KVA rating changes with output

The rating of a transformer is in watts greater than the rated DC

power output is required to provide for the harmonic current of
distorted waves.



In this shop testing on the transformer is carried out in one section

and for loco in other section. In transformer testing section there are
for MG. sets. The electrical specification of the entire test is already
given. These tests are done on demand of customer on transformer
manufactured, in this unit there are basically of test.

1. TYPE TEST – This test is done in a single unit of that type.

2. ROUTINE TEST – Bach and every unit has to be tested

(a) For power transformer – routine test

 Ratio test: Special equipment transformer from

routine meter.
 Resistance test: Special equipments – Kelvin and
Wheatstone bridge.
 Insulation resistance test: Special equipment megger.
 Separate source voltage withstand test: Special
equipments – HV transformers with associated control
and measuring desk, standard capacitance potential
 Iron loss measurement test : Special equipment :
• Electro dynamometer
• RMS voltmeter
• Average voltmeter
• Precision class measuring VT
• Variable frequency sine wave generator



• INSTRUMENT USED: Polarity meter analog multimeter

One of the winding is supplied with 1.5V D.C supply and other is
connected to ammeter. If the direction of the deflection is correct
implies the connections are correct else it is wrongly connected.


It is the test for checking the turn ratio steps:

 A standard transformer primary is connected across
the primary of the job.
 As the no. of turns of the secondary transformer is
known the no. of turns of secondary of job is
 The ratio is taken and the max permissible error
should be not more than that specified by the design.
 Even the phase angle is checked for this max
permissible limit.


Checks for the insulation of the transformer

 Current is given to primary and secondary is open

 Either of the rated primary current or the 4.5KV peak
secondary voltages whichever appears first is
allowed to withstand for 1 min.
 Then if the insulation can withstand then it is said to
be okay.


Error in winding resistance appears if the conductors of different

length are used if the conductors are joined in between to check this
winding resistance is checked and if it appears then the internal
points of connections is changed.


The objective of this department is to interact with the customers. It
brings out tenders arid notices and also responds to them. It is
department that places the contracts of building the transformer and
after delivery further interacts with the customer regarding faults,
failure and maintenance is done by this department. All such snags
are reported to them and they forward the information to the
concerning department.

The works of the commercial department are:

 Tenders and notices

 Interaction with design department

 Place of work

 Approximate cost of the work

 Earnest money

 Place and time where contract document can be seen.

 Amount if any to be paid for such document


The department response to the tenders calls of companies or

organization which requires transformer. Contracts are bagged
through negotiations.

The department also invites tenders and notices. Before inviting

tenders it must be sure that BHEL is ready to undertake the contract
and before full knowledge of scope of work is essential.

The transformer manufactured in BHEL Jhansi range from the 10MVA

to 240MVA and up to 200 KV. The various transformers manufactured
in this unit are:-

Power transformer

 Generation transformer.

 System transformer.

 Auto transformer

Special transformer

 Freight loco transformer.

 ESP transformer

 Instrument transformer

 Dry type transformer

All above types are oil cooled except dry type, which are air-cooled.
The generation voltage stations are 6.9KV, 11KV and 13.8KV but due
to certain advantages like economical generation 11KV is the most
widely used. For this voltage needs to be stepped up. Transmission at
high voltage is desirable because it results in lesser losses, needs
thinner wire and hence is economical. If the current kept high the
copper losses become very high but iron losses are practically
In certain cases the required voltage may be less than the output
voltage, so in order to obtain it were required a tapping circuit. The
output may have a certain percentage variation, which may be tapped
in 4 or 6 equal steps. The type of tap changer depends on the
application of the transformer. Where a continuous power supply is
not required an Off Circuit Tap Changer (OCTC) may be used. Where
a continuous power supply is must e.g. at substation in cities etc. On
Load Tap Changer (OLTC) is used.


This department analyses the changes taking place in the world and
suggest changes accordingly. This is very important because the
product must not get obsolete in the market otherwise they will be
rejected by customer.

Function: Technology function can be classified as:

 Processing sequence: The sequence of process of

manufacturing is decided for timely and economic
completion of the job.
 Operation time estimate: It includes incentive
scheme management.
 Allowed operation time: It includes incentive
 Facilities identification: It includes looking for new
equipment, plant or tools to increase productivity.
 Special process certification: Special processes are
the once required expertise for example identifying
errors, cracks, air bubble in winding.
 Special tool requirement: Special tools are allotted
if possible. When required else the design has to be
 Productivity projects compilation: It includes the
initial analysis of the problem and their appropriate
solution to enhance productivity.

The principle of working is that “IF YOU DON’T MAKE CHANGES IN



Bus duct is used as connection between generators and

transformer. Bus duct are used in power connection over 150 M V.
The question now arise that why are bus duct preferred over normal
conductors. In high power application, insulations are the major
problems and frequent insulation breakdown occurs. If this does
happens then possibility of shorting of conductor’s and hence serious
damage may occur to both transformer and generators.

Bus duct are hollow pipes made of aluminum the cross section of
these ducts depends on requirements of the customer and is done by
the design department.

The cross section may have different shapes, circular, square

hexagon, octagon. The casing is also made of aluminum sheets.
Although aluminum is not a good conductor as copper still is preferred
over it because it is lighter than copper. Moreover, it is cheaper than

Bus duct are of two types:

a. Segregated Bus Duct(SBD)

b. Isolated Bus Duct(IBD)

In segregated bus duct one casing is divided into three separate

chambers for the three phases. In isolated bus duct is provided into
separate casing. The conductors i.e. duct is separated from the casing
by proclaim or epoxies (chemical) insulators.

Bus duct assembly contains three cubicles

 P.T. and S.P. cubicles

 N.G. cubicles
 L.A.V.T. cubicles

These cubicles have the circuit and the controls of the bus duct
assembly. The connection may be star or delta. The lines enter
from the top of the chamber. The top chamber has the neutral side
and the line side. The aluminum conductor in bus duct is not solid
because of ac has skin effect i.e. it flows only on outer surface of
conductor then why to waste money on the remaining conductor,
so we simply remove that part so it is hollow conductor.

A locomotive is a rail vehicle that provides the motive power for a

“Loco” means from a place
“Motive” means causing motion.
A locomotive has no payload capacity of its own. It is used to move a

The trains which have self propelled pay load carrying vehicles are
called Multiple Units (MU) or rail cares.


By their use:

 Passenger Locomotive
 Fright Locomotive
 Shunting (switcher) Locomotive

By their source of energy

 Steam Locomotive
 Diesel Locomotive
• diesel electric
• diesel hydraulic
 Electric Locomotive
 Magnetic Levitation
 Hybrid Locomotive
Steam Locomotive

 Less efficiency in comparison to electric and diesel locomotive

 Requires more manpower to operate.
 Use in countries where coal is much more abundant source than
diesel fuel.
 Use at mountains and high attitudes rail lines as they are less
affected by reduced air pressure.

Diesel Locomotive

 Powered by internal combustion engine.

 Power Transmission-output of prime mover to driving wheels.
• By coupling Alternator/Generator to prime mover. (Diesel
• By coupling torque converter to prime mover. (Diesel
 Requires less maintenance as compared to steam locomotives.

Electric Locomotive

 Electric power supplied extremely through an overhead pickup

(centenary) or through a third rail.
 High performance and low operation cost.
 Capital cost of electrifying track is high.
 Speed up to 575 km/hr.
 Can also operate on battery power.
 Battery locomotives which are used in mines and underground

Magnetic Locomotive

 New technology in train.

 It floats the train above the rail without wheels.
 Reduce friction.
 Cost is very high.

Hybrid Locomotive

 Used on board rechargeable energy storage system.

Locomotives manufactured at BHEL

 Electric Locomotives

 Main customer: INDIAN RAILWAYS

Diesel Shunting Locomotive

 Diesel Eclectic
1150 DESL
1350 DESL
1400 DESL
2600 DESL
 Main customer: Power plants, Steel Plants, Cement Plants, Coal

Mine, Port trust and Fertilizer plants.

Figure showing a 25 KV AC/1500V DC AC/DC locomotive type WCAM-3

Diesel Hydraulic Locomotive

 800 HP DHSL

Customer: IFFCO, Kandala

Battery Locomotive

 450 HP
Customer: DMRC, New Delhi

New Products

 OHE recording test car.

 200MT well wagon.
 Rail cum Road Vehicle (RRV).
 Utility Vehicle.
 Diesel Electric Tower Car (DETC).
 Battery Powered Road Vehicle (BPRV).
 Synchrolift Hoist Assembly.
 Dynamic Track Stabilizer (DTS).
 Ballast Cleaning Machine (BCM).

Figure demonstrating 700 hp twin power-pack DESL.

Main Parts of Diesel Locomotives

 Under Frame: The one on which a locomotive is built.

 Super Structure: The body of locomotive is called superstructure
is made of sheet of mild steel.
 Bogie: The wheel arrangement of loco is called bogie. A bogie
essential contains.
• Bogie frame
• Wheel and axle
• Traction motor
• Gear and pinion
• Brake shoe
• Pull rod
• Sand box
• Springs
• Brake cylinder

Main Equipment of DESL

 Traction Alternator/Generator.
 Traction Motor.
 Blower.
 Compressor or Expresser.
 Switchgear Equipments
 Drive Desk.
 Fuel Tank.
 Batteries
 Radiator

Brake System

 Simple Air Brake System.

 Air Brake System with MU operation
 Air Brake System with MU Operation and air break on trailing
 Dual Break System-Air and Vacuum.

Energy Transmission

Mechanical Energy Mechanical Energy

Electrical Energy Hydraulic Energy

Mechanical Energy Mechanical Energy

Traction Transformer: It is fixed on under frame and gets supply from

an overhead line by equipment called pantograph. The type of
pantograph depends on supply. This transformer steps down voltage
and is fitted with a tap changer. Different taps are taken from it for
operating different equipment. One tap is taken rectified into DC
using MSR and is fed to the DC motor.


There are three sections in store :

 Control Receiving Section

 Custody Section
 Scrap Disposal Section

Functions: A list of material coming in store is prepared and Quality

Control people are called for inspection. If material is found as par
standard SRV (Store Receipt Voucher) is issued for each material. A
total of 08 SVR’s are prepared. Some materials such as Silicon oil,
Transformer oil, insulating material etc are directly stored in the Bays.

First we get acquainted with a few terms concerning this department.

Quality: It is the extent to which product and service satisfy the

customer needs.

Quality assurance: All those plants and systematic action necessary to

provide adequate confidence that the product or the service will
satisfy the given requirement is called quality assurance.

Quality control: Activity such as measuring testing, gauging one or

more characteristics of product or service and comparing these with
specified requirement to determine conformity are termed quality


As the name suggest this section deals with services and


It has following Sections:

 Plant Equipment: This has electronics and electrical/mechanical
 Services: This section deals with air, steam and power

 Telephone Exchange:

 Township Electrical Maintenance:

 WE & S Planning

This section deals with stores and new machines

procurement and others general things. There are three maintenance
centers at Bay 2, Substation and LOCO. This section is also
responsible for power distribution is of two types:

 HT POWER DISTRIBUTION: This is at 11 KV, OCB are used for

protection. There are four substations for this distribution.

 LT DISTRIBUTION: This is for the auxiliary in each shop and other

section of BHEL. It uses OCB/OVB/ BHEL (Bhopal), 800 KVA, 11
KVA 45 V transformer and ACB (English Electro).Transformer
Supplied with enclosure of IP 23 class of protection. Bushing of
cables boxes are provided for HT and LT connections.

These transformers are used in underground substation, high

building and hotels, under the roof installation, power plant etc.

CNC machine tools have been widely accepted as time proven

manufacturing technique all over the globe. In India too, CNC
machine have picked up momentum and Indian Industries are going
for more and more CNC machine.

Numerical control turns machine tools into a flexible production unit

with a multitude of possible application. Although at first they were
mainly used for manufacture of geometrically complicated parts,
numerical control were later used for added enhanced efficiency in
the medium batch production of turned and milled parts. The next
step is the introduction of numerical controls in all sections of
productions. The aim in all the cases is to combine high productivity
with flexible possibilities of NC technology.

Other machine processes are being added to turning and milling

which may be already described as classical NC applications.
Conventional methods are being replaced by NC for sheet metal-
working processes of punching, nibbling and cutting. Productivity
increases multifold using numerical control with grinder, gear
hobbers and spark erosion.


Modern day computerized numerical control system (CNC) is the

result of advancement and sky rocketing microelectronics with every
day breaks its own record and grow by leaps and bounds. Initially NC
machines had as many as 280 printed circuit board (PCB) and quite
extensive wiring which consequently made maintenance very difficult
and reliability was poor. First generation NC system had transistor
With advent of integrated circuits only 40 PCBs were used with
reduced wiring for the system. Further integration called ‘Medium
Scale Integration’ (MSI) replaced nearly 10 ICs and system involved
only 5 to 10 PCBs. With arrival of what is known as age of
“Microprocessors and Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technique”
,modern day CNC machines use only 2 to 4 PCBs. The trend with
microprocessors helps in lowering cost of jobs and increment in
reliability to appreciable label.

Flexibility as inherent feature of minicomputer and microcomputer

gave new technology –“Software Oriented System”.

Unlike rigid hardwire system which had been used hitherto, this new
system comes to market as COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL
(CNC) system.

With this latest technology, hardware cost of CNC system lowered

considerably whereas flexibility increased multifold due to software


Electronic industries association defines numerical control as “A
system in which action is controlled by direct insertion of numerical
data. The system must automatically interpret at least some potion of

In simple word numerical control means control by numbers. In NC

machine tools the main function is to control the displacement and
positioning of slides, spindle, speed, feed rate, selection of tool and
many other auxiliary functions. NC directs the machine tool to achieve
all these function in a very controlled and systematic manner .The
major elements that comprises NC machine tools are :-

 Control system – CNC

 The machine tool
 Servo drive units
 Feedback devices
 Operator control
 Electrical cabinet

Schematic diagram representation of NC machine tool

In CNC system, tape instructions are read by tape reader. These

instructions undergo electronic processing and system gives output
in the form of electrical signal to servo drive of the machine tool to
determine the length of movement and feed rates. System also directs
commands to various relays, solenoids etc to initiate operation of the
machine tools such as spindle motor starting and stopping , coolant
supply , auto tool change and other miscellaneous functions.

Once the machine tool has commenced its operation and operative
element and moving , it become necessary to ensure that required
lengths of movements have taken place or a particular function has
been accomplished. This is done by feedback devices. Position
feedback devices like linear scales, encoder, resolvers, inductosyn
feedback status of actual position of slides to control system. A
velocity feedback transducer known as ‘Tachogenertor’ is used for
velocity control as warranted during contouring operation . Feed
back of auto tool change function etc are taken from proximity
sensors or limit switches. Thus all operations of machine are
monitored continuously with appropriate feedback devices. In case of
failure or adverse feedback received by system , machine stops and
system displays ‘Fault message’ in clear English text.

Based on feedback, NC system can be broadly classified in two types
as ‘Open loop’ and ‘closed loop’. The open loop system has no
feedback, whereas closed loop system utilizes feedback transducers
which continuously monitor the position of slides. This enable
machine to achieve a very high degree of accuracy in slide

Figure above showing open loop system.

From metal removal point of view, the classification can be made as

point to point, straight cut and contouring system. In point to point
system, the machine performs machining operations at specific
positions and does not affect work piece while moving from one point
to another. An example of this type is NC drilling machine.
Figure showing closed loop system.

Straight cut or straight line system provides movement at controlled

feed rate in one axis direction at one time. The examples of this are
face milling, pocket milling etc.

Figure demonstrating NC system’s some of different paths and cut.

The continuous path control system calls for co-ordinate movement of

the tool and work piece along different axes. This enables machining
of complex profiles, contours and curved surfaces.
In a NC machine certain design features are desirable on machine
tool. Simultaneous movement of 2 or more axes and high removal
capability of NC machines demand high dynamic stiffness in drives
and also stiff structural elements. The structure of NC machines should
be very rigid to withstand heavy cuts and it must be maintained for
long time to obtain high accuracies.

High positioning accuracy needed in NC machine make it essential to

have backlash free screw and nut and slides with a very low friction of
co-efficient. This is achieved by ground re circulating ball screw and
nut, tachoway bearings, hardened and ground guideways and friction
reducing linears such as Turcite and PTFE.

Electronic spindle drives on NC machines facilitate step less speed

over a wide range of RPMs.

All axes are driven by powerful DC Servo drives controlled by PWM

or SCR controllers through preloaded ball screw and nuts.

Automatic tool changer, centralized lubrication system, index table or

fourth axis is common features on NC machines.

CNC machines ensure better and consistent accuracies on job
compared to conventional machines. Positioning accuracies to be
extent of +10 or -10 microns and repeatability of +5 or-5 microns can
be achieved in NC machines depending on the elements used.

Parts Suitable For CNC Machines:-

To utilize the CNC machine effectively and economically the
suitable pats selection is very important, the following guidelines
should be observed:

 High number of operation per component.

 Complexity of operation.
 Size of batches medium.
 Repetitions of batches are often.
 Labor cost of component is high.
 Requires substantial tooling.
 Requires 100% inspection.
 Setup and inspection time is high.
 Ration of cutting time to non-cutting time is high.
 Varieties of components produced are more.
 Skilled required by operator is high.


When a company or organization first decides to buy CNC machine,
Orientation at all material level is required to get maximum return out
of huge investment made. It is not sufficient that management
understands the benefit of machine and decided to buy one, instead a
deep insight of CNC technology is must and will quite obviously helps
in buying suitable one and keeping its idle time minimum. Following
Are few point for effective utilization of CNC machine.

 It is vital that time taken for machine to become productive is

as short as possible. The key to good CNC machine lies in
prior planning, which should start the day management
decides to buy CNC machine.

 Programmers, maintenance people and operators should be

selected and trained before CNC arrives.

 Foundation and electric supply requirement should ready

before machine arrives.
 For small organizations where experts and maintenance staffs
are generally not available, proper support from supplier
should be ensured.

 It should be ensured that suppliers of NC machines provide with all

relevant technical documents for the machine.

 While NC can be out product its manual counterpart 3 to 4 times,

you can just easily loose this multi machine capacity during
breakdown. To keep downtime minimum, sufficient quantities of
spare are recommended by suppliers of machine should be
maintain. Also it is always make sure that supplier of machine
stocks critical parts and accessories.

 Sufficient thought should be given to tooling, accessories and all

other peripherals that surround CNC.

 CNC machines must be placed at convenient places in the shop

considering work flow and material handling. We can’t keep NC
machine waiting while we are searching for tools or waiting for
availability of raw materials.

 Future expandability should always be in decision making while

buying a CNC machine.

 Clean and dust free environment should be ensured in shop in

order to minimize breakdown efficient working and consequently
longer life of CNC machine.




1. Re-circulating linear roller bearing (Tychoways)

Good performance, high precision and high efficiency are quite
obvious requirements which CNC machines are required to fulfill.
Preconditions are basically good performance; high precision and
high efficiency are minimum wear rigidity and low friction. These
conditions are fulfilled by re circulating linear roller bearings.

The main characteristics of these bearing are continuous roller

circulation which follows unlimited linear movement and
elimination of the stick-slip effect which makes accurate
positioning of machine, possible.

Tychoways consists of hardened, high precision machined,

supporting elements, head pieces which are screwed on to the
front face, and a number of cylindrical rollers. As with cylindrical
roller bearings, the rollers are guided between the shoulders of
the supporting elements with a very close tolerance. Therefore
skewing the roller and resulting the additional friction as well as
the forces acting at the right angle to the rolling direction can be
avoided to a large extent. The retaining element made from the
plastic material and situated between the rollers not only prevents
the roller from falling out and sliding against each other but also
results in smooth return of rolling element to the return zone.

Elastic strippers which are built into head pieces provide the
bearing with effective protection from foreign matters.

Tychoways are suitable for grease and oil lubrication and can be
used in temperature range from – 30 degree to 90 degree.

2. Torsionally stiff coupling

These flexible coupling without backlash are specially designed

for servo or variable speed drives. They guarantee an accurate
transmission for angle of rotation even in presence of alignment
errors e.g. between motor shafts and ball screw of machine tools.
The special design for metal body allows a high torsional stiffness
which frequently exceeds the motor shaft itself. The bearing load
is kept low due to low lateral spring load stiffness. The conical hubs
provide a positive detachable connection between coupling and
shaft, without use of additional elements. Since there are no parts
subject to wear, couplings are maintenance free.

3. Angular contact ball bearings for spindle

Ball bearings for machine tools must support radial loads

combined with thrust loads in either direction. For this reason
preloaded, angular contact ball bearing are generally used. These
bearings are available with high (25 degree) and (15 degree)
contact angles. In selecting the proper sizes and type bearing,
consideration is given to size and construction of spindle and the
kind of mounting, since the latter relates directly to the contacts
spindle rigidity and deflection characteristics.
In general where the operating load is principally radial, low contact
angle type bearings are selected, but where the loading is chiefly in
thrust and high degree of axial rigidity is required, higher contact
angle type of bearings are recommended.
Also three bearings are preloaded to reduce axial and radial
deflection and may be mounted in three different arrangements

i) Back-to-back
ii) Face-to face
iii) Tamdem
In back-to –back (D3) mounting, the most commonly used the
stamped faces of the bearing outer ring project beyond the
inner ring and about each other. The angular line of contact of
these bearing diverges in direction of rotation of axis, resulting
in both axial and radial rigidity of the shaft and providing
maximum rigidity to the deflection. Upon clamping the inner
ring together by tightening the inner ring locknut, a load is
imposed through a ball and the outer rings. This takes up the
internal clearance and places these members in compression.
The initial amount of offset or clearance between the inner ring
faces, therefore, determines the amount of preload.
When bearings are mounted face-to face (DF) that is with the
unstamped faces of four rings together, the angular lines of
contact of bearing converge in direction of rotational axis and
the inner rings project beyond the narrow faces of the outer
rings. When the outer ring is clamped together, the initial
clearance between the outer rings is taken up, preloading the
Different mounting arrangement for angular contact ball bearing

Duplex preloaded bearings mounted in the tandem (DT) divide the

work load between the bearings. So arranged, with the angular lines
of contact of bearing parallel and in tandem, they must be opposed
by another bearing or a pair of bearings, to provide axial stability to
the mounting.
4. Ball and screw nut

In ball screw, a screw runs on bearing balls, the screw thread is

actually a hardened ball race. The nut consists of series of bearing
balls circulating in similar race and carried from one end of the nut to
other end by return tubes. The balls provide the only physical contact
between screw and nut, replacing the sliding friction of conventional
screw with a rolling friction.


4.1 High efficiency and reversibility
The high mechanical efficiency (over 90%) of ball screws results from
rolling contact of precision bearing balls and precisely ground
threads of screws. As compared to relatively low speed sliding
friction of conventional Acme screw, the power requirement for ball
screw is low because of high efficiency of ball screws are reversible
which makes it possible to back drives the unit by applying the axial
force to either nut or screw then rotating member is not restrained. In
this way, the unit can be used to convert a axial force into a rotator
4.2 No Stick Slip

Substituting rolling contact for sliding metal to metal contact

minimizes starting friction, eliminates the static slip tendency where a
slow speed linear motion is required.

4.3 Wear and Life

The balls rolling in the hardened grooves reduce wear to minimum,

eliminating any need for frequent compensating arrangement and
adjustment. Ball screws therefore, for years without any detectable
change in accuracy of system.

4.4 High Stiffness and Little Axial play

When axial is minimized in conventional nut screw assemblies, the

actuating torque becomes excessive and operation is not smooth. This
axial play in ball screws may be reduced to zero preloading and a
light smooth operation is still possible. Therefore both low torque and
high stiffness can be achieved simultaneously.

In view of life and efficiency, ball screws require adequate lubrication
which may be either greasing or oiling.

For greasing, grease based on lithium soap is usually recommended

and for oiling, turbine oils with viscosity from 38 cst to 90 cst are


This valve is used to control the direction of flow with the help of valve
spool. A cylindrical spool moves back and forth in machine bore and
in valve body. Cored or machined passages from the port
connections in the valve body are interconnected through annular
grooves (undercuts) in the spool or blocked by spool lands.

The valve spool is shifted by energizing a solenoid at one end of the

spool. When the solenoid is de-energized the spring at the opposite
end of the spool returns the spool to its original position. This is a two
position valve and a spring returns the valve to one extreme position.
That’s why the valve is called spring offset.

These direct operated solenoids are kept in DC4 series by Vickers.

Ports connections are made by means of sulphate permitting any easy
removal of valve body for service and replacement. The solenoid is
self contained and self controlled push type unit which bolts to the
end of the valve body. These valves are rated in the 10-20 gpm range.

Graphical symbol for valve

Since there are two operating position and 4 connections this is also
known as 2/4 directional valve.

A schematic representation is shown below:

In this type of valve there are three positions of valve spool. Control
spring acting on the both ends of the spool keeps it to the central
position when both solenoids are energized. To hold on extreme
position one solenoid should be continuously energized.

These valves are also kept in DG4 series by Vickers. The schematic
representation by this valve is shown in figure below:
And its graphical symbol is:

The valve in the figure shown above is in central position. In this

position the central port is closed and port A and B are open to tank.

Since there are 3 positions and four connections it is also called ¾

directional valve.

In all solenoid electric energy supplied to the coil create magnetic

field by virtue phenomena of electromagnetic induction, which
consequently draws armature into the coil. The armature motion in
turns push rod or can be seen as transmitted via push rod which in
turns moves the spool.


These modules contain a check valve in both cylinder portion check

valve allows free flow of oil in one direction. They are arranged for
free flow out of the directional valve.

For return flow one check can be unseated by a common striker

piston, mounted co-axially between two checks. This happens when
internal pressure on one side is sufficient to cause the striker piston to
open the check valve on the other side. At neutral position,
compression spring will seat the check and machine actuator will be
held stationary.

Within each poppet piston, is a small decompression poppet which

opens before the main check valve.
Flow control valves are used to regulate the speed of actuator by
controlling the flow of oil from the pump. There are three basic
methods of applying volume control valve in a circuit

a) Meter-in

b) Meter-out

c) Bleed-off

In meter-in operation, the flow control valve is placed between the

pump and the actuator. In meter-out it is located in the tank line. In
bleed-off arrangement the flow control valve is kept in the pressure
line and diverts excess flow to the tank, thus permitting only require
flow pass through actuator.

Meter-out control finds advantage over the others in the NC

machines. If the load turns to “run away” it will it will regulate
actuator speed because it restricts exhaust flow from actuator. Other
advantage is that being in a low pressure line losses are less.

A check valve is incorporated for free flow in reverse direction.

The figure above demonstrates the meter-out flow control……

Graphical symbol along with the internal construction of non-compensated flow
control valve.



It regulates flow rate between DG 4 (4 way valve) and hydraulic


Graphical representation of this valve is shown in figure….

Dual valve construction permits free flow to both actuator port and
adjustable independent flow regulation in each return line from


Since the flow through an orifice is essentially proportional to the
square root of the pressure drop∆p across it. This means that any
appreciable change in the work load would affect the speed.

To overcome this problem one is made of pressure compensation

device. A hydrostatic is utilized to maintain a constant pressure drop
across an adjustable throttle.

Since flow through a pressure compensated flow control valve is

subject to change with variation in oil temperature, so a temperature
compensating rod which lengthens when hot and contracts when cold
is incorporated in valve. The throttle is simpler plunger that is moved
in and out of the control port. The compensating rod is installed
between the throttle and its adjuster. Viscosity of oil decreases with
temperature tending to flow freely, but the throttle opening is also
reduced with the help of compensating rod.

A reverse free-flow check valve is also included in the valve. A

schematic representation and internal construction is shown in the
given figure…..

The pressure relief valve limits pressure in the system to a preset

maximum by diverting some or all of the pump’s output to tank when
the pressure setting is reached. It is a infinite positioning valve i.e. the
valve can assume various position between fully closed and fully
open, depending on flow rate and pressure differential.

It consists of a ball held seated in the valve body by a heavy spring.

When pressure of inlet is insufficient to overcome the force of spring,
the valve remaining closed. Then the preset pressure is reached, the
ball is forced off its seat and allows throw out the outlet to tank for as
long as pressure is maintained. An adjusting screw is provided to
vary the spring force. Thus the valve can be set to open at any
pressure within its specified range. The valve is shown in the given

Pressure reducing valves are normally open pressure controls used

to maintain reduced pressure in certain application. They are
actuated by pressure sensed in the branch circuit and tend to close as
it reaches the valve setting, thus preventing further build up.

It is self operated type valve. The spring force on one side is opposed
by a pressure on the other side. Rising system pressure acts against
the spring to close the flow path. The leakage oil is internally vented
to tank with all valves. If the valve closes completely, leakage past
could cause pressure to build up in the branch circuit, so a continuous
bleed to tank is permitted to keep it slightly open, and prevent
downstream pressure from rising above the valve setting. A drain
passage is provided to return this leakage flow to tank.
A direct acting pressure reducing valve is shown in the above figure...


Hydraulic motor converts hydraulic energy (pressure * oil flow) into

mechanical energy (torque * speed). Hydraulic motors are of various
designs. One type is gear motor. This consists of following main

1. Gear wheel set

2. Commutator valve with shaft

3. Drive

4. Housing
The gear wheel set has an outer ring which is built together with the
housing with (n+1) internal teeth and an internal rotor with external
teeth. The teeth of the ring and rotor are meshing together. The rotor
has one tooth less then the ring, and this result in the so-called gear
wheel spaces between the ring and rotor. One half of these spaces
are connected to the delivery side of motor. A simpler rotary flow
divider valve guides the liquid in such a way that the delivery and
return spaces rotate synchronously with the rotor. The drive forms the
mechanical connection between the commutator valve and the rotor.

The rotor movement is the combination of rotation and translation.

The drives have splines at either end and allow only rotary

Pressure required in hydraulic motor depends on the torque load and

displacement. A large displacement motor will develop a given
torque with less pressure than a smaller unit.


Cylinder is a linear actuator i.e. output of a cylinder is straight line

motion. It is classified as single or double acting. Single acting
cylinder has only one fluid chamber and exerts pressure in only one
direction. It is mounted vertically and retracts by the force of gravity.
Head counterbalanced cylinders are of this type.
A cylinder consists of a barrel, a piston and rod, end cops and seals.
Barrel is seamless steel tubing and piston is made of C.I. or steel.
These cylinders also have provision for adjustable cushioning at both
ends for smooth beginning and end of the stroke.

Pressure switches are used to make or break electrical circuits at

selected pressures to actuate solenoid operated valves or other
devices. They can be used to provide ON/OFF signal which can be
fed into an electronic control system.

Movement of piston under pressure against a spring operates a micro

switch. The spring is of corrugated diaphragm type. A restrictor is
usually fitted in the pressure inlet to reduce the effect on the switch of
any hydraulic shock loading in the system.

The pressure setting of the switch can be adjusted by turning an

adjusting nut. A switching differential is provided in pressure switch.
It means that switch will operate at certain pressure and above when
pressure is being raised, but when pressure falls it will not operate at
certain pressure lower than operating pressure. Difference is called
switching differential and is essential to avoid tripping of machine


1. Proximity Switches

Proximity switches are solid state switching device which required no

physical contact to actuate them. These are use for control and
positioning signals because of long life, high switching speed, no
touch, zero operation force, wear and maintenance free operation,
bounce free signal and reliable switching under extreme conditions.
It comprises of three principle parts

i) Oscillator
ii) Trigger stage and

iii)Amplifier stage

To obtain a switching signal at given voltage and temperature,

sensing distance (Sn) is the main factor. Sensing distance is the
maximum distance between the target and the sensing face. Sensing
face is the surface from which the electromagnetic field radiates.

Sn depends upon material, thickness and area of target.

Target diameter = Oscillator Unit Diameter

2. Limit Switch

Limit switches are used to make or break control circuit when

mechanically actuated by a moving member. Moving member might
be a dog mounted on the moving component, as in the case of travel
or over travel limit switches, or may be of plunger actuated type as in
case of filter clogged limit switch. The limit switch type may be of
normally open type (NO) which will close when switch is actuated or
normally close type (NC) which will actuated.
3. Circuit Breaker

A device designed to open and close by non automatic means and to

open the circuit automatically on the predetermined overload of
current, when properly, applied within its rating. Two types are there:

1) Thermal

2) Hydraulic

Thermal circuit breakers responds only to temperature change in the

bimetallic element. Heat is generated in the element because of i2r
losses. The element bends or deformed to open the contacts and
unlatch the mechanism. Mainly used MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker)
offer dual protection i.e., protection against overload and short

MCBs are preferred over fuses as it disconnects supply

instantaneously, and requires seldom replacement.
Some of the technical features of Circuit Breakers are:

 Long mechanical and electrical operational life

 High breaking capacity

 Overload tripping through accurately

calibrated bimetal strip.

 Short circuit tripping through magnetic coil.

Circuit breakers gives protection to the equipments such as motors,

transformers, air conditioners, refrigerators, geysers, mixers etc. and
cables/wires in electrical distribution system.

4. Overload Relays

It can be defined as the device which is operative by variation in the

conditions of one electrical circuit to affect another device in same or
another electric circuit. Relays provides overload protection over
control circuits when used in conjugation with contactors and other
motor control equipments, they provide accurate and reliable control
and protection under overload condition.
5. Contactors

Device used for repeatedly establishing and interrupting an electric

power circuit. The contactors are suitable for controlling electrical
circuit of all kinds e.g. capacitor, lighting, heating, switching A.C.
circuit as well D.C. circuits Also suitable for use in control panel for
machine tools, motor control centers and other applications where
high frequency requirement is must.

Contactors should have following design features:

 Long Life: Bounce free contact system contributes to long

contact life.

 Modern techniques of arc quenching: In case of A.C. contactor,

double breaking contact divide the arc into two. For contactors
of higher size, deionization chamber split the arcs into
numerous short arcs.
 Contactors are designs for very high frequency operation

 Compact Size

 Installation: Some contactors can be mount in any position and

some with maximum inclination, from vertical surface, of 22 ½

 Auxiliary Contact: For control a interlocking purposes,

contactors can be provided with a number of auxiliary contacts.

6. Fuses

A device used for protection of equipments. A wide range of fuses is

available for protection of transformer, cables, capacitors and motors
for application in Air or Oil.

HRC fuses are used for the interruption of fault current in indoor and
outdoor high voltage system and also protection of distribution power

7. Pressure Switch

The function of pressure switch is to break or make the control circuit

whenever the pressure actuates the switch contacts. The switch
contacts may be normally open type which closes on increasing
pressure or of normally close type which open on increasing
pressure. Pressure switches use single pole double throw (SPDT)
micro switches as switching element.

These switches are use with water, oil, air, nitrogen, inert gases,
steam, mineral oil and natural gas etc.
8. Introduction to NC

Automation has been associated with advancement in technology.

The problem of automation of small lot production have been
overcome by numerical control (NC) machine tools have great extent.
NUMERICAL CONTROL (NC) is defines as “A system in which
actions are controlled by direct insertion of numerical data at some
point. The system must automatically interpret at least some portion of
this data.”


In CNC system, a dedicated computer is used to perform all the basis

NC functions as per the control program also called executive
program stored in the memory of the computer. It is this executive
program, which makes it flexible/soft wired. Unlike NC systems,
machine control data comes directly from the computer memory.
Because of the memory availability user can store part programs also
in computer. The capability to edit this part program is a real
advantage to the part programmer right at the machine station.
Additional features such as tape punching option, user oriented sub
routine programs etc are also possible on CNC.

9. Feedback device

CNC system requires a measuring device and measurement can be

done with feedback system. Basically feedback allows the control
system to compare the machine’s actual position with command
valve. The result of this comparison provides the ability of velocity
and position control. Encoders, resolver or inductosyn are used as
feedback devices.

Incremental rotary encoder is most commonly used feedback device.

The rotary encoder is a shaft-driven device delivering electrical
pulses at its output terminal. The pulse frequency is directly
proportional to shaft speed. Encoder consists of glass disc marked
with a precise circular pattern of alternate clear and opaque segments
on its periphery. The disc is mounted on the shaft. A fixed source of
light is on one side and a photo cell is placed on other side of the disc.
As disc rotates, light is permitted to fall on photo cell, to produce the
output signal which is approximately sinusoidal. Internal or external
amplifier is used to amplify the photocell output to a level suitable for
feeding logic circuits. Amplified signal is fed to a circuit which
converts the signal to a proper square wave with suitable rise and fall
times. To sense direction of rotation a two photocell system is used.
Photocell is arranged so that output signals have 900 shifts to each
other. External logic circuitry is used to determine the direction of
10. Drives

Drives refer to the system package compared to servo amplifier and

servo motor.
10.1 Spindle drives

The spindle drives on modern NC machines is DC/AC drive. It is used

in combination with three or four step gear boxes to get full power in
the entire cutting speed range. These drives are controlled by
SCR/Transistor controllers.
10.2 Axes Drive

All axes are driven by DC/AC servo drives controlled by

SCR/transistors through pre-loaded balls screw and nuts. Vertical
slides are normally equipped with hydraulic counter balance to
provide smooth servo action. As cent percent counter balance will not
always be possible, spring set disc brake is used on servo motor to
hold the position of the vertical slide during shut down of machine.
10.3 D.C Motor

A D.C. motor can be thought of made up of two parts:

1) A stationary field either of permanent magnet or electromagnet

2) An armature which is allowed to rotate.

The armature consists of series of coils which are connected to

motor’s commutator and brushes. The commutator serves to switch
the power to successive coils as the armature rotates so that magnetic
armature poles remain in the same position relative to the field poles.
As the armature rotates in the magnetic fields the motion of its
conductor generates a voltage. This is true whether motor is
delivering the power or driven by some external means.
10.4 D.C. Drive

D.C. drive controls motor speed through control of armature current

by varying DC voltage applied to the motor. This is accompanied by
controlling the point on AC input sine wave at which an SCR begins to

Block Diagram description of DC drive

From diagram, speed, integrators regulator motor speed by summing

both velocity reference and tachometer signals. An error signal
between reference and feedback is then amplified and compensated
for optimum controller response. Current regulator regulates the
armature current by outputting a voltage signal to both the forward
and reverse three phase firing circuits. This is accomplished by
summing the current reference signal from output of the speed
integrator with the current feedback signal from the motor armature.
The resultant error signal is amplified and compensated for the
electrical parameters of the motor.

Forward and reverse three phase firing circuit control SCR gating.
The SCR gate pulse is phase is pulse shifted and synchronized relative
to the AC line so that gated SCR produces a variable output voltage
from the power bridge.

The regenerative power bridge converts three phase AC power to a

controlled DC voltage capable of powering the motor armature. It’s
out is fully controlled by forward and reverse three phase firing

Forward and reverse three phase synchronizers controls the time

during the AC cycle when the forward and reverse three phase firing
circuits can turn –ON an SCR.

Current limiter restricts limits the level of armature current reference.

The level of restriction generally depends upon motor speed.

10.5 A.C Drives

Block Diagram description of AC drive

DC thyristor Leonard control system driven by the DC motor is

essential to perform the high precision-speed or torque control
requiring quick response. Performance of AC variable drive system
could not be equal to the Leonard system. But, it is necessary to
maintain the for DC motors, because they have brushes and
commutator. AC variable speed drive system consists of squirrel cage
induction motors and inverters are maintenance free and easy
operation. Recently high performance AC drive system which is
frequency control on basis of vectrol was developed in order to
realize the same quick response and high-precision speed control as
Leonard System.


The mechanism of torque generation is the same in the D.C. motor
and squirrel cage induction motors. Excellency of performance of the
D.C. motor (separately-excited and shunt winding type) is due to the
fact that magnetic flux and armature current are supplied separately,
that the armature current is held always in such a relation as to be
perpendicular to flux by a commutator and brushes and also that
torque and armature current are in proportion to each other under the
condition of constant magnetic flux at any moment.

However, in squirrel cage motor, primary current is only supplied to

the stator winding from power supply. The torque is produced by
magnetic flux caused by this and torque current component
(corresponding to armature current of D.C. motor). Although the
mechanism of torque generation is stable under the steady state
condition, the induction motor cannot quickly obtained the stable
response at the moment that load or reference value are suddenly
changed, that is, under the transient condition.

10.6 Advantages of brushless A.C. motor over D.C. motor

 No commutator, so maintenance easier, electronic inverter

serves the purpose of commutator.

 Low inertia due to high flux permanent magnets.

 Wear and tear less.

 A.C. motor weights 35% to 65% less than D.C. motors are 20%
to 30% shorter and 10% to 20% smaller in diameter.
 Information is stored in digital form as drive is micro-processor
based, so better control over tuning the drive.

 Inside fixed encoders for both position as well as speed

feedback signal.

 Size of transformer is reduced as power supplied required is

line voltage.

 High peak/continuous ratio. High torque at full speed.

 High rate of speed and acceleration.


1) A.C. induction motors generally are not suitable for precise motor
control. A tendency to cog at lower speeds is limiting factor.

2) Torque is not directly proportional to a current, a requirement for

good dynamic performance.


1) Axes position and velocity control
2) Spindle speed

3) Miscellaneous functions.
1.1 Various functional codes

1) Preparatory function: these are commands which prepare

the machine for different modes of movements like position
countering, thread cutting etc.
2) Dimensional Data: Movement of machine tool slides in one
or more axes is determined by dimensional data entered in
the program.

3) Miscellaneous Function: Some of the important

miscellaneous function which worth to be considered here
are coolant on or off, Spindle CW or CCW, program stop

4) Speed Function(S): this function pertains to speed of


5) Feed Function (F): It pertains to feed rates of the slides.

6) Tool Function (T): this function pertains to the selection of

required tool for the particular operation.


G-code is the name of any word in a CNC program that begins with
the letter G and generally is a code telling machine tool what type of
action to perform. Such as: Rapid Move etc.

Controlled feed move in straight line or are series of controlled feed

moves that would result in whole being bored, a work piece cut
(routed) to a specific dimension, or a decorative profile shape added
to edge of work piece.

There are other codes; the type codes can be thought of registers in
the computer

X absolute position

Y absolute position

Z absolute position

A position (rotary around X)

B position (rotary around Y)

C position (rotary around Z)
U Relative parallel axis to X

V Relative parallel axis to Y

W Relative parallel axis to Z

M code (another “action” register or machine code (*))

(Otherwise refers to as miscellaneous function)

F feed rate

S spindle speed

N line number

R arc radius

P dwell time

T tool selection

I arc data X axis

J arc data Y axis

J arc data Z axis

D cutter diameter

H tool length offset.

(*)M codes control the overall machine, causing it to stop, start, turn
on coolant, etc., whereas other code pertain to the path traversed by
cutting tool may use same code to perform different functions; even
machines that use the same CNC control.


Code Description

G00 Rapid positioning

G01 Linear interpolation

G02 CW circular interpolation

G03 CCW circular interpolation

G04 Dwell

G10/G11 Data writing/Data write cancel

G17 X-Y plane selection

G18 X-Z plane selection

G19 Y-Z plane selection

G20 Programming in inches

G21 Programming in mm

G28 Return to home position

G31 Skip function

G33 Constant pitch threading

G34 Variable pitch threading

G40 Tool radius compensation off

G41 Tool radius compensation left

G42 Tool radius compensation right

G81 Simple drilling cycle

G82 Drilling cycle with dwell

G83 Peck drilling cycle

G84 Tapping cycle

G90 Absolute programming

G91 Incremental programming

G94/G95 Inch per minute/Inch per revolution feed

G96/G97 Constant cutting speed/Constant rotation speed

M00 Program stop

M01 Optional stop

M02 Program stop

M03 Spindle CW

M04 Spindle CCW

M05 Spindle stop

M08 Coolant/Lubricant on

M09 Coolant/Lubricant off

M30 Program end

M98 Subprogram call

M99 Subprogram end

G96 Constant surface speed

G97 Constant spindle speed

G50 Maximum spindle speed

G95 Feed mm per revolution

G94 Feed mm/min

G00 Rapid movement

G01 Linear interpolation

F Feed

S Spindle speed.

Roughing is already done.

Depth of cut is 1mm.


N435 G54 (I SET UP)

N440 G92 S300

N445 M25

N450 G0 X700 Z10

N455 T0707 (FINISH TOOL)

N460 G96 S160 M04

N465 M46

N470 G0X170 Z10

N475 G01 X155 Z2 F9

N480 X145.1 F.3
N485 Z-244.899
N490 X144.55
N495 G02 X179.1 Z-276.75 I38. F.15
N500 G01 Z-287.075 F.3
N505 X178.6
N510 G02
N515 G01

N520 Z-496

N525 G02 X184.1

N530 G01 Z-740

N535 G02

N540 G01 Z-953

N545 X215

N550 Z-1460 F9

N555 Z-244.899

N560 X144.55

N565 G02 X179.1 Z-276.75 I38. F.15

N570 G01 Z-287.075 F.3

N575 X178.6

N580 G02

N585 G01

N590 Z-496

N595 G02 X184.1

N600 G01 Z-740

N605 G02

N610 G01 Z-953

N615 M24

N620 M30


(2nd Set up)

N305 G54

N310 M25


N315 G96 S200 M04
N320 G01 X146 Z5 F9

N325 X142.5 Z0 F.3

N330 X144.5 Z-12.7

N335 X135 F.4

N340 Z-245.292

N345 G96 S200 M04

N350 G01 X146 Z5 F9

N355 X142.5 Z0 F.3

N360 X144.5 Z-12.7

N365 X135 F.4

N370 Z-245.292

N375 X-287.075

N380 G03 X185.15 Z-297 I16

N385 G01 X186.7 Z-302

N390 X186.75

N395 Z-245.292

N400 G96 S200 M04

N405 G01 X146 Z5 F9

N410 X142.5 Z0 F.3

N415 X144.5 Z-12.7

N420 X135 F.4

N425 Z-245.292

N430 X-287.075
N435 G03 X185.15 Z-297 I16
N440 G01 X186.7 Z-302

N445 G01 X600

N450 Z50

N455 M24

N460 M30


There are different CNC machines in Jhansi unit, which serve some
special purposes.


This machine is in bat-0 & is used for M.S sheet. This machine can cut
up to 300mm thick sheet. It has four burners, which can work

• Control system : ESAB German (NCE-510)

• Axes: There are two axes in machine X and Y axis. In X axis tool
can move up to 7 meters and in Y axis tool can move up to 3.5

• Drive: D.C.

• Feedback rotary encoders


There are two cropping line CNC machine in bay-5. These are used to
cut CRZO sheets for construction of core of transformer.

First machine has been made by George German with control system
from Siemens 810D. This machine mainly consists of two tools: punch
and swing shear for cutting lamination as required by program.
The other machine has been manufactured by Sooner Company. It
has two punches. One fixed shear and one movable shear, which can
shear straight as well as 45 degree. It consists of one tip cut and one V
cut also.

(a) Control System 810D

(b) Axis: One axis

(c) Drive Way

(d) Feedback linear Scale


This machine is in boogie shop. it is used for all operation in boogie

manufacturing like milling, drilling and boring. All the operation can
be done in the single machine.


 Axis: It works three axis X, Y and Z axis. It can travel up to 8000

mm in X-axis. 4000 mm in Y-axis and 800 mm in Z-axis.

 Feedback linear scale.

It has auto tool changer, which can change tools automatically.

According to program its spindle diameter is 180 mm and 40 KW
power is required to operate the spindle.


This is used for turning the job.

1) Control system: Sinumeric 3T

2) Axis: It works in two axis X and Z axis. Tool can traverse up to 1000
mm in X-axis and 300 mm in Z-axis.

3) Drive D.C.
4) Feedback: Rotary Encoder.


This machine is used for milling purpose.

1) Control system : Sinumeric 800 M

2) Axis: it works in three axes X, Y and Z axis. Tool can travel 1200
mm in X-axis, 600 mm in Y-axis, 400 mm in Z-axis.

3) Drive D.C.

4) Feedback rotary encoder.


This machine is used for boring purpose.

1) Control System: Cruceder

2) Axis: Tool can move in two axes: X and Z- axis. It can move 600 mm
in X- axis and 400 mm in Z-axis.

3) Drive D.C.

4) Feedback : Linear Sale


1. Productivity
Since cutting tool is brought to its machining position much more
efficiently than it was done manually by the machine operator, NC
machine is spending much more time per shift cutting than in past.
Conventional machines very seldom remove metal for more than 15%
of total available time under normal batch production conditions.
Whereas CNC machine tools should be capable of removing metal for
between 50% and 75% of available time. When working on medium
batch production, CNC machining has around 4 to 1 productivity
advantage over conventional machine. The actual productivity
advantage may vary from batch to batch depending upon the
complexity of components to be produced and is normally
proportional to the number of conventional operation required to
produce the components.
2. Flexibility in design and production

Machine can switch over to different job as set up times are low and
sudden changes in sales requirement are much more easily catered
for. This enables the formulation of more aggressive marketing plans.
The use of CNC machines also give designers freedom to design
components which, by conventional means, are often impossible to
produce. Change of design can also be easily incorporated as it
means change of tape.

3. Inspection

High position accuracies and repeatability are inherent features of

CNC machines and reduce inspection time considerably.

Normally a 100% inspection of the first component produced by a

new tape is all that is necessary to prove the tape and tooling.
Subsequently it is required to have only sample inspection. In process
gauging and inspection is also provided on modern CNC machines.

4. Floor space

One CNC machine can replace five to six conventional machines.

Thus manufacturing activities of a company can be expanded without
increasing the floor area proportionately.

5. Inventory
By using CNC machine, procurement sizes and batch sizes can be
reduced because of shorter lead time’s .This results in substantial
saving. Lead time is time taken to progress a batch of component
through a batch of production shop and is proportional to number of
operation required by conventional methods. For example a
component which requires 112 set ups by conventional methods may
requires only 1 or 2 set ups in CNC machining center reducing total
product flow times.
6. Material Handling

Handling of component from machine to machine which is necessary

on conventional machine is significantly reduced on CNC machine, as
all the operations are performed on one machine. This obviously
reduces labor cost.

7. Tooling

This ability to complete machine part in a single setup means that

fewer and simpler fixtures are required, which in turns requires
less storage space and maintenance. The simpler a fixture is, the
less expensive is to manufacture it.

8. Operator’s Skill

Dependence on skilled labor can be dispensed with. The accuracy

of part produced with CNC machines machine depend upon
accuracy and ability of machine and tape – and not on individual

9. Scrap and Rework

Drastic reduction in scrap is achieved because of the inherent

accuracy and repeatability of CNC machine.
10. Costing

Time required to produce a component is a function of machining

cycle of CNC machines and is not influenced by operator’s
efficiency or variation in labor’s rate, a great stability of prices can
often be achieved throughout the life cycle of the respective
product. Also cost accounting becomes very precise.

11. Better Management Information and Control

With various advantages of CNC machines, decisions effecting unit

cost, delivery and quality are firmly placed in the hands of
management and not of the machine operator.
It is true that CNC machine costs more to install initially. But higher
initial cost is set off by the direct and indirect gains resulting from
various advantages of CNC machines. In most cases, careful techno-
economic evaluation of a given manufacturing situation will clearly
bring out that unit cost of production is definitely less tools with that of
so called conventional machines.

To conclude numeric control is the most sophisticated form of

automatic control of machine tool. It has high degree of precision and
reliability. The control system has undergone several stage of

Some of the special features offered by CNC machine manufacture


 Thermal stabilization
 Axis calibration
 Lost machine compensation
With the various above qualities of CNC machine there are numerous
advantages. They are

 High accuracy
 High reliability
 Less scrap and network
 Better machine utilization
 Computer control of manufacture capability of integration into
distribution numeric control (DNC) etc.
The programs written for CNC are easy to write and understand.
These programs use either G-cod or M-code that runs the program.
The codes are simple to understand.

No wonder CNC machines tools are becoming more and more

popular day by day in modern industries. In longer run CNC machine
pays for itself with such outstanding qualities.

1. CNC Programming handbook by Mr. Peter


2. Managing CNC operations by Mike Lynch

3. Wikipedia.

4. B.H.E.L. official website


5. CNC information and easy CNC by Mr.

David Benson.

6. http://www.cnccncmachines.com