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. .

2008
1

811.51
81.2
83


( 08-04-00201)

:
-. , . , .
. . ( )

..
83 - :
. .: , 2008. 370 .
ISBN 978-5-98421-044-7
- , : 1) ; 2) ; 3)
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4) ; 5) .
. ,
: , , - . (
) .
.

811.51
81.2

ISBN 978-5-98421-044-7

.., 2008.
, 2008.



.
,
(UEW), , . UEW

.
. [Collinder 1960] , , , . , . , , , , Janh., Samm., 2000, " ", . , "":
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) ,
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. . [ 2006, . 127], , -
:

*
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*

e, i, u, o,
i, e,
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e, i
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u, o,
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e, i, u, o, 0
i, e, 0
, a, e, i
e, i
a, u
o, u,
u, o,
, i
a, u

. (II, III2)

i, i//, u, , o, 0
i, 0
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a, u//
o, u//
u, u//, o, 0
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- , ,
.
... , , .
: *a 72 % , * 48 %,
*e 53,3 %, *i 34,7%, *o 51 %, *u 30%. "
- ", . .
[. 1987, c.7].
1

I ( -
), .
. , (), (), ,
(), , , - () .
2
II ( - -
). , ,
(), , - (),
() . II *a
, , e *, e,
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*, i *e.
III . ,
, , .


. , Bereczki
1988, Rdei 1988, Cscs 2000, Itkonen 1946, Itkonen 1954, Lytkin
1964, Wichmann 1915, ,

( ), .

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,
?
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7


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.
.
, .
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, (* ), [. Itkonen 1953]. .
. [. Bereczki 1969, 1971]. ,
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1972] , , ,
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(
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8


). .
. . .
:
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, .

. [. Itkonen 1971 (1)].
2.
, 60- [. , . , . ], , . . . [. Itkonen 1969 (1, 2)],
[Itkonen 1971 (1)]

(
,
, pn pon
; . , . . [. 1977].
. -/ c
, , .
- [. Plger 1982].
. , *, *, *, * ,
[. Raun 1974].
, . . 9


.
, , [. Baczerowski 1975] tenius, mediae mediae aspiratae [. Baczerowski 1972].
. .
, , [. Baczerowski 1975]. ,
.,
-- . . , ( , )
,
*, , . kuusi ~ *kt, . kieli ~
*kej.
( , , , , *),
,
*x (*kxsi , *kxli ) ,
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10

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III [, 1970] . .
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(* * , *
).

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11

( )
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; . , -, - -
.
. . .
- - . sarvi (*sarve) ''
. oar've (*sorva), : -i (< *- < *ai-) ( ) , *o > *a [Itkonen 1969 (1), 1977].

. ; ,
,
(sappi , talvi
, vaski ). .
, . . - . . .
[- 1971].
.

,
[Sauvageot 1973]. .
[Molnr 1974
(1, 2)]. ,

, -, -. ,

(. j ,
i- ) ,
12

,

(. . . . ). .

[Molnr 1974 (1)].
: 1) : - (/
/ ) ; 2) : ( ) ,
; 3) -:
,
, , , ,

[Molnr 1974 (1)]. . ,
[Batori 1980].
/
, -/- -,
. . , [Decsy 1969]

-/- > - [Decsy 1971] -/-; . . .
[ 1970 ]; .-. : - -,
, -/- ,
[ 1973]. , , -/- -
, . . [
1976]. 13

. . ,
[Ganschow 1981], [Ganschow 1971], [Ganschow 1979] ,
- , :
*a/*
[Ganschow 1980]. - ( ), - ,
-a/-, -eh, -vi -u/-y,
, -j/-k, -
-. , ,
,


, .
, .
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j-, ,
k ( : le/lek- '') j ( bor/borj'') [Ganschow 1980]. (. -i/-e-, . a ) -
, ,
, [Ganschow
1973], , .
14

- .-. [
1973].
. ,
-
( kieli, suoni ..) [Mikola 1980].
,
.
[Itkonen 1969 (1)].
. *a/- i/i-
( - ), -
), *-iw,
y [Janhunen 1977].
, -, a/ -,
, *.
.
*-/- > * j- , [Janhunen 1977]. . V, , - . n , f
, . puu , luu [Pusztay 1983].
- (
)
.
, / . . c
. . -,
[ 1971; 1972]; , ,
:
1) *o , *o
15

, , . tammi ~
. tumo3;
2) . * , , . kl- ~ . glle * ,
*kl- *kla-.
. . - , - -,
a-. ,
a
, -
. ,
[- 1971,
. XXXII].
. . kez /
keze-, in / ina4 [. 1979]. ( , ) , , , .
- - ( -)
- ,
j (. . nev/neve-
. nimi/nime- nim). ,
( . kereg, . ker . keri/keri3

, /
*/*- , . / */*-, . I ,
/ * * . * ( . I ).
.
4
*, *i .

16

kor/korj-),
( . meny ~ .
mini).
-
, . .
[. 1979].
( ,
)
- , -
(, ) : 1) , * *; 2) ; 3) ; 4) . .. , , ..
[. 1980].

.. [ 1978].
. . [. 2000, . . . . 23-25
2006 ].
,
. ,
[. Helimski 2001] . .
,
A-, I-, U-,
. . . [. 2006]
,
, .
17

, [.,
, Itkonen 1955, Hajdu 1966, Redei 1968 ].
.
- :
, , ..
.
. [Szinneyei 1922] ,
. 1964, 1965, 1970 , - , .
. Raun 1974 ,
( ) , .
. . ,
- , , ( ,
) - ,

[ 1977].
,
.
, . ,
, 1989
, . . . , ,
18

. . ,
, , . .., ,
, - . - ,
- .
, .. , - , ,
., ., . [Paasonen 1903,
Itkonen 1946, Ravila 1973].
, ,
. , . ,
. ,
.., ., .,
., , - ,
( ), .

.
, , , ,
, ,
.
, , ,
.
..
19

[. 1973, 1979, 1980, 1983, 2000 ] . .



. .., ,
.

:
1) , ()
() ;
2) , ;
3) , ;
4) , ;
5) ,
.
. ..
.
,
, ,
:
1) - , , ( ) ;
2) ( ) [ 2000].
, (1983,
1989, 2000, 2005), : , , -
, - (,
20

, ,
, ,
[ 2000]).

(, ..
[ 1973, 1981, 1990]
. -: , , ). , -
, (, , 1962,

. , ,
f, , h, s b, d, g, z, ,
). , , ,
,
- , , - , .
, , .
,
-
.
-, , , ,
,
21

-
(, .. [ 1973, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1990,
2003] - , ).
-, , ,
, -
(
: .. [
1961]
, .
,
, ,
-t).
- , , , .
-
,
-.
-

, , (1989) , - . , .. , - ,
,
.
Decsy (1965).
22

, , (1989) . 22
, - . , , - .
.. ,
- , ,
, - .
(1980)
, - ( ).
, . ,

. , , . (
. . . ) .. ., .
..


.
. ., ,
, . ..
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.
.
, , (1989) ,
- , 60- .
, .., , 23

. , , .. [ 1990],
-
.
,

- .
(2008, 1) ,
. - , , -
: *paje '', *apa '', *pkV
'', *kojwa '', *lelp '', *tojma '', *sala '', *picla
'', *wa/ktVre '', *lemV (*leme-V ) '', *pkn '',
*sare ''.
, , : *pe(n) '', *ku/se ''.
- , , , , .
, - , .
:

1. (1), (2),
(3).

24

2. (1), (2), (3).


(. 1 2)
.., - , 60-
60- .
.
(2005) , VIII-VI . ..
-
.

,
. ,
, - . ,
- VI . . ., ,
.
,
25

, .
(,
.), ( . . .) VII-V . . . , , . ,
,
. . III-II . . .
. , ..
.
. -
.

.
, , - , , ,
(1989),
.

26

,
,
,
, -
[. Itkonen
1955, Hajdu 1966, Redei 1968
].
,
:
,
a [. 1988, 2006]. ,
, ,
( ) 5 ,
. ,



6 ( 8 %, . .., , 48 % ).
, , 5

. Itkonen 1946 , , , ,
. , , , .
6
16 . .
UEW .., 200 .
,
, .

27

. ,
.
-
. Mordwinische Lautlehre [Paasonen 1903].
,
,
.
1910 ...
.
1953
.. [ 1953]. . : , - -.
.


1993.


, Szinneyei 1922, Ravila 1973,
1987, 1937, 1953, 1936, Itkonen 1946,
1948, 1964, 1970, 1970, 1974,
1988, 1997, .. 1989, 2006
.
- ..
[ 1997], .. [ 2000], .. [ 2006].
Bereczki 1988, Itkonen 1946

. 28


7:
*a > . a ;
*o-a > . u; *o-e > . o ;
*u > . o ;
* > . (M), e (E);
*e- > .i ; *e-e > . e ;
*i-a > . o ; *i-e, > . e ;
* > . e .
, , . , , , *lkte- '' (Samm. *lkti-) 8 239 9 > . livte-, lifte- (E) '',
lite-, liJte- (M) ', ', *sikse (*skse) ''
(Samm. *s'ks'i) 443 > . soks, soks, soks (E), soks, oks (M).
.
30% UEW
. .
*a-
Ravila 1929. . , *a-
(*a- *-).
*- 10 . 7

.
Itkonen 1946.
8
.. *jat-.
9
, , UEW.
10
1997 ,
*:
I ( .- );
II ( ) : - ( .-. ) - ( . );
III - .- ( .- );

29

* > E -o11, M -a (a ). , *kalma ', ' 119 >


. kalma ', '; . kalmo (E), kalma (M) [Paasonen
1992, c. 582].

12 . , *kala '' (Janh., Samm. (8)
*kala) 119 > . kala ''; . kal (E), kal (M) [Paasonen 1992,
c. 574].
. *, , --. , *amta- '' (Samm. *mta-) 8 >
. anta- ''; . ando- (E) and- (M) '' [Paasonen
1990, c. 42].
*

.
, 1997,
:

IV - ( - );
V .- ( . . ).
11
1997 II IV, V * > -u.
12
1988 () () . * .
: .
(, -t
1 2 )
( ) .
, .
. , ,
.
* ( -p-, -t-, -k-,
) -ks- -k-, *
( ). .
, , ( ) .

30

.
o()()V
. ( (2),
(3), (4))
2) o()voC
o()foC
3) o()CV
4) o()C(C)a
5) ()()V
. ( (6))
6) |u()()a
7) u()()V
. ( (8))
8) u()v|f|mV

I II III IV V V
. . .
.
.
.
. .

o
o
o

o
o
u

o
u
o

u
u
u

o
o

u
u

o|u
o

u
u

., *
13, : *muja '' 284 > . muista- ', '; . muje- (E),
muj- (M) '' [Paasonen 1992, 1292].
*a- .
-a- .
, *sala ', , ' (Janh., Samm. (10) *sala)
430 > . sala ', ', salaa ', '; . sala(E M) '' [Paasonen 1996, 1937].
. .. , *o, *u
13

, . ,
: .
,
, , *orpa 722 > . urva (E), rv (M)
(E), (M)', urvaksto- (E), Paasonen 1996, 2476.

31

- (-) *a ,
*a * 14.
. "o- ":
. I-o- ( *u): . u-a; . o (u//o)- (
, *u > . o * -,
-);
. II-o- ( *o *): . u- (<*a); .
o-a (< *).
., - ,
,
, .
, I-- u (
.) o ( u//o) ( )
-a-
. , . , -a . *,
*u *-. . , .
II-o-
. . .
*o *, , , a,
* *a .
, .
, ,
14

, , .,
. , .
., *o *- E M u, *u E M o,
, *tokka 796 > . tokkaa- , , . toka- (E), toka- (M) , , [Paasonen 1996,
c. 2302]. *kunta , 207 > . kunne (. kunteen) , , , , kunti- , , , . kunda- (E), kunda- (kunda-)
(M) , [Paasonen 1992, c.956]. *lua , 694 > .
luhi, luho , , luhista-, luhistu- , , .
luavto- (E), luaft- (M) , [Paasonen 1992, c. 1090].

32

- (-) ,
.
, .
1929 .
.
Bereczki 1988
., , ,

, ,
:
*ina ', ' 786 ( < *siksna-) > .
hihna, . hiihna ''; . na (E M), kna (E).
*krs '' 679 > . ki ke (E), ki, . kin (M)
[Paasonen 1992, c.907].
.
*a * .
, .,
.

/ / / *a, *o15, *u, *.
(-,
-, -)
,
16 17
[. Paasonen 1992-1996, UEW].

15

*, *u
.
u, *, *u . , . *, *u .
16
, . , *
-
,
, .
17
. , , ,
.

33


/ / / *, *o,
*u- , , , .
(-) *a-
: 1) *-a-; 2) *-a-;
3) *-1-; 4) *-2-18. *- . *-
. , ,
*1 , *-, *2 , *a-.
.
/ / / *, *o, *u-
/ / /
.19
18
,
,
, .
19
,
1) . kilej (E), kelu, . keluvn (M) [Paasonen 1996, c. 758] , ,
*kojwa [Janh., Samm. (84) *koxj 169].
2) *orja 721 (< *ryo- ?) > . ure (E), ur (M) [Paasonen 1996, c. 2473].
3) *wasara 815 (< *vazra-) > . uzer vizir (E), *uzr / *uzer (M)
[Paasonen 1996, c. 2498].
4) *jew ( > *jw) 633 (< *ieua-) > . juv (M) , juvn (M)
[Paasonen 1996, c. 555].

, . ,

, [. 1988, 2006].
.
- .
-
. . 1937.

34

*V (2 )

*a

a
o

a
o
o

-a

//
/

*V (1)

*a
*o
*u
*i

o21

u//-(//i//)(M),u//-(//i//o)(E)20
u//-(//i//)(M), u//-(//i//o)(E)
u//-(//i//)(M), u//-(//i//o)(E)

o/e( _C, C _ ) o/e( _C, C _ ) u//-(//i//)(M), u//-(//i//o)(E)

u
u
u

- , , .
5) *wala 812 > . vala-, . valo- (E M) , , valks, valf (E), valfk
(M) .
6) *sala (Samm. *s'liw) 458 > . salava, salaja, (? halava, hala) , salix fragilis,
. selej, sele (E), sli < seli (. salen) (M) [Paasonen 1996, c. 2126].
, () *- .
, , *-,
P.Sammallahti *i (
UEW *e).
20
, 2006
* *-. *
. .. * . u
i,
. . ..
,
, .
, 2006 II ,
, , (),
, - (), () : sur
vs. srne , siz- vs. szan , szndan .
.., ,
. , -r- *
. II *
, I III ( .
). * .
21
, *, *u *-
, . ., .

35

/ / / *a-
I. -a ( )

/ / / * 22:
*apa '' 54 > . hapan (. happamen) '',
happo '', happane- ' '; . apamo (E),
apama (M) '' ? [Paasonen 1990, 210].
*sala ', , ' (Janh., Samm. (10) *sala) 430 >
. sala ', ', salaa ', '; . sala- (E, M)
'' [Paasonen 1996, 1937].
*tappa ' , ' 509 > . tappa- ' , ', tappele- ', '; . tapa- (E, M) ''
[Paasonen 1996, 2264].
*waka '' 548 > . vatka-a-, vtk--23 ' '; . vaka- (E), vatk- (M) '' [Paasonen 1996, 2503].
*jaa ', ' 631 > . jauha- '', jauho '';
. jaa- (E, M) '' [Paasonen 1990, 510].
*mata '' 699 > . mata-, matele- ''; .
madamo (Eg), madama, . -n (M) ' (
), ( )' ?
[Paasonen 1992, 1155].

*pucka (*packa) ,
396 > . paska , , paskanta- , . *peke
(Lehtiranta 871) ba^i'ka^ -ik- , (N), pai'hka (L) , pake (T) ,
. pskino (E), pskin . pskinn (M) [Paasonen 1996, 1824].
*kojwa , , (Samm. *ka/ojwa-) 170 > . kaiva- ,
, , kaivo , . goai'vo- -iv- (N) , kaivo- (L) ,
, koajva- (T), koajve- (Kld. Not.), kojv- (A); goai'vo -iv- (N) , ,
kai'v (L) , koajva (T), koajv (Kld. Not.) , , . kojme kojm (E),
kajm . kajmn (M), kajm (M) [Paasonen 1996, 820], ,
UEW ( ) Sammallahti ( )
.
23
--, -- [. 1953, 249].
22

36

/ / / *o:
*koka (*koke) '' 668 > . kotka-s24 (. kotka-ksen)
'gebogenes od. genietetes Ende eines Nagels' 25 ; kotka-a- ',
'; . kokara (E), kokr (M) ',
' [Paasonen 1992, 788].
*tokka ', ' 796 > . tokka-a-26 'stechen, picken; etw. pltzlich machen'; . toka- (E), toka- (M) ',
' [Paasonen 1996, 2302].
/ / / *u:
*jupta- 27 '' 104 > . juttela 28 ', ', juttu ', '; . jofta- jovta- (E), jofta- (M)
', ' [Paasonen 1992, 533].
*muna ', ' (Janh., Samm. (19) *muna) 285 > . muna
''; . mona (E, ) '' [Paasonen 1992, 1282].
*puna '' (Samm. *pu/ana) 402 > . puna ',
'; . pona (E, M) ', ' [Paasonen 1994, 1743].
*sula '' (Samm. *sula) 450 > . sula '', sulaa''; . sola (E), sola (solan) (M) '', sola(E, M) '' [Paasonen 1996, 2008].
*mua *mua '' 705 > . muta ''; . moda (E, M)
'' [Paasonen 1992, 1271].
*uma-re ' ' 789 > . huhmar (. huhmaren), . huhmari, huhmaro, huuhmar ''; . ovar (E),
ovar . -n (M) [Paasonen 1990, 288].

-s-, -kse- [. 1953, 119].


, , UEW.
26
--, -- [. 1953, 249].
27
UEW *jukta- , .. *jpt- , *jupta-.
28
1953, 238 , . juttela -ele-
*juttaa, .
24
25

37

*tuppa ', ' 800 > . tuppa-a- 29 ',


'; . topavte- (E), topafto- 30 (M) ', ,
' [Paasonen 1996, 2322].
*utare '' 806 > . udar (. utaren), . utare, utara,
utaro ''; . odar (E, M) [Paasonen 1994, 1424].
/ / / *i 31:
*nila '- , , ' (Samm. *n'ila) 318 > .
nila '- , '; . nola (E), nola (M) ''
[Paasonen 1992, 1343].
*ia ' ' 629 > . hiha, (SKES .) hia, hija '';
. oa (E), oa (M) ' ' [Paasonen 1994, 1489].
*kia ', ' 661 > . kitsakka
(.) 'het, hftig, amper, ondsint, vresig; hei, heftig, scharf, bitter,
bse, mrrisch'; . keca- (E) '', kec (M) ', , , ', kecakado', ' [Paasonen 1992, 670].
II. 1 ()

/ / / * :
*aka '' 3 > . ahka '', haahka, hahka, hahkea, haahkea ''; . ao (E), aka aka . akn (M) ',
' [Paasonen 1990, 76].
*akta ', (, )' (Samm. *kta) 5 >
. ahta- ', , '; . avto- avte- afte(E), aft- (M) ' , ' [Paasonen 1990, 94].
29

--, -- [. 1953, 249].


-vt(o)- (E), -ft()- (M)
[. 1967].
31
, *picla (Samm. *pis'la) 376 > . pihlaja, pihlava , Sorbus
aucuparia, . pizol (E), pizel . pizeln (M) [Paasonen 1996, 1697].
30

38

*ala ' -' (Janh., Samm. (38) *la) 6 >


. ala '', alla ''; . al (M) ', ', alo (E), ala (M) ', ' [Paasonen 1990, 22].
*amta- '' (Samm. *mta-) 8 > . anta- ''; .
ando- (E) and- (M) '' [Paasonen 1990, 42].
*jaka- '' (Samm. *jeka) 87 > . jaka- '',
jako ', '; . javo- java- (E), jav- (M) [Paasonen 1990, 503].
*jalka '' (Samm. *jlka) 88 > . jalka ''; . jalgo
(E), jalga (M) '' [Paasonen 1990, 491].
*kala '' (Janh., Samm. (8) *kala) 119 > . kala '';
. kal (E), kal (M) [Paasonen 1992, 574].
*kalma ', ' 119 > . kalma ', '; . kalmo
(E), kalma (M) '' [Paasonen 1992, 582].
*kanta ', , ' (Samm. *knta) 123 > . kanta
(. kannan) '', kantap 'Ferse', kannas (. kannak-sen)
'Baumstamm; Ende der Schlittenkufe'; . kando (E), kanda, .
kandn (M) ' , ' [Paasonen 1992, 595].
*kaswa ', ' 129 > . kasva- ',
', kasvot ''; . kaso- (E), kas- (M) [Paasonen 1992,
637].
*maksa '' (Janh., Samm. (41) *mksa) 264 > . maksa
''; . makso (E), maksa (M) [Paasonen 1992, 1162].
*marja '' 264 > . marja ''; . mar (E, M) ', (in comp.)' [Paasonen 1992, 2453].
*mata (*mata) ' , ' 265 > . mahta'', mahtu- ', '; . mato- (E) mat(M) [Paasonen 1992, 1195].
*paka ', ' 350 > . pahka ', ,
, '; . pak (E), pak (M) ', , '
[Paasonen 1994, 1509].
39

*pala ', ' (Janh., Samm. (9) *pala) 350 > .


pala ''; . pal (E) ' ( )', pal, . paln (M)
'' [Paasonen 1994, 1510].
*pala '' 352 > . pala- ', '; . palo- (E),
pal- (M) [Paasonen 1994, 1516].
*paka ', , , ' 354 > . panka (.
pangan) 'Rutenband um den Besen, Halfter des Rentiers, Arm eines
Spinnrockens'; . pago (E), paga () ' ' ?
*sata '' (Samm. *s'ata) 467 > . sata ''; . sado (E),
sada (M) [Paasonen 1996, 2083].
*walka '' (Samm. *wlka-) 554 > . valka, valkama
', ', valka- ', '; . valgo- (E), valg- (M)
[Paasonen 1996, 2522].
*lawa (*lawa) ', , ' 685 > . lauha ''; . lavo (E) ', ', lafa . lafn (M) ', '
[Paasonen 1992, 1035].
*maksa ', ' 698 > . maksa- '';
. makso- (E) '', maks- (M) ' ' [Paasonen
1992, 1162].
*nalja ', ' 706 > . nalja 'Scherz, Spa, Spiel' ?;
. nalko- (E), nal'k- (M) ? [Paasonen 1992, 1313].
*satta ' -, ' 753 > . satta() 'schaden, beschdigen', sattu- ''; . sato(E), sat- (M) ', ' ? [Paasonen 1996, 1956].
*wala '' 812 > . vala ', '; . val (E, M)
[Paasonen 1996, 2514].
*wasa ', ' 814 > . vasa '', vasikka
''; . vaz (E, M) . vazn (M), vazne (E), vazn (M) '' [Paasonen 1996, 2569].
*wasta ' ()' 815 > . vasta-kohta '',
vasta-ranta ' ', vasta (adv.) '', vastaan
40

(postp.) ', ', vastaa- ''; . vasta (M)


', ' ? [Paasonen 1996, 2558].
/ / / *o32:
*surmV33 ', , ' 452 > . horma
', ( )' ?; . sorma (E, M) '', sorma-,
sorma- (E, M), sormo- (M) ', ' [Paasonen 1996, 2015].
*woa ', , ' (Janh., Samm. (14)
woa) 577 > . otava, . otama ' '; ? ota
', '; . o (E, M) '' [Paasonen 1994, 1472].
/ / / *u :
*kuppa ', ' 213 > . kuppa, -u, -o, -i
', , ', kuppelo, kuppula ' ' ?;
. kopo (E) ', , , ',
kopa . kopn (M) ', ' [Paasonen 1992, 853].
*puka (*poka) ', , ' 404 > .
punka '() '; . pokol (E) ', ', . pokol (E) ', ', pokl pokel (M:P) ',
, ' [Paasonen 1994, 1722].
*juma ', ' 638 > . jumala ''; . jumi-i-pas
'mordvalaisten jumalia; mordwinische Gtter'; jon- (E), jondol (M)
jondul [Paasonen 1990, 536].
*puka ', ' 739 > . putkahta- '';
. pokode- (E), pokd- (M) ' ( ), ' ? [Paasonen 1994, 1711].
32

, *
:
*jotka- , 102 > . jutko (E), jutka (E: Kad), jotka . jotkn (M)
[Paasonen 1990, 552]. *sorwa (Samm. *s'orwa) 486 > . suro (E), sora
(M) [Paasonen 1996, 2199].
33
horma , ( )
ho~rmane (., . ho~rmatse) schrumpflich, verschrumpft *
.

41

/ / / *i 34:
*(j)ia '' (Samm. *ia) 636 > . iha (.) 'glad, glttig,
munter; froh, frhlich, munter', (.) ihaa- 'vara glad, fgna sig, gldja sig at, beundra; askada, bese, betrakta, syna, lngta; froh sein, sich
(er)freuen, bewundern; zuschauen, besehen, betrachten, besichtigen,
sich nach etw. sehnen', ihala 'hell, schn', ihana 'herrlich, entzckend,
hold; lieblich, s; wunderbar', iho '', ihokas 'med gott hll'; mit
guter Haut; . joo (E), jo, joa (M) [Paasonen 1990, 537].
*pinta ', ' (Samm. *pinta) 730 > . pinta
''; . pondak (E) '', ponda . pondn
(M) '' [Paasonen 1994, 1747].
*wia ' (> , )' (Samm. *via) 823 > . viha
'', krmeen viha 'virus serpentis', vihaa- '', vihainen '', vihanta ', ', vihava ',
', viheri, vihre ''; . oo (E), o (M) ''
[Paasonen 1994, 1492].
III. - ( )

/ / / *a :
*kawka '' 132 > . kauka ', ', kauas
''; . kuvaka (E), kvaka (M) '', k()vaka (M)
', ' [Paasonen 1992, 983].
*sajma ' , ' 456 > . saima
' '; . suma
sima (E), *sma (sema, . -n) (M) '' [Paasonen 1996,
2195].
*pisa (*pisa) 732 > . pisara ,
, pisaa- , , . pize- (E), piz- (M) [Paasonen 1994, 1694],
. ,
( *s,
*s) (. 1) .
.
34

42

/ / / *e :
*kerta ', , , ' 659 > . kerta '': kaksi
kertaa ' ', kolme kertaa ' ', kerran ' ', kerros
', ', kerto- ''; . kirda (E), krda (M)
[Paasonen 1992, 763].
*wera ', ' 820> . verha (.) 'Schirm,
Decke; Krpersbedeckung, Kleid', verho ''; . orta- (E),
ta- (M), urta- (M) [Paasonen 1994, 1463].
/ / / *o:
*cona coa '' (Helimski *o(n)c'a ) 39 > . sonsar,
sonsari (. sonsaren) (.) ''; . iav (E), uav (E),
iav ( eav < iav), . -n (M) [Paasonen 1990, 258].
*ora '' (Samm. *ora) 343 > . orava ''; . ur
(E), ura (M) (. -n) '; ' [Paasonen 1996, 2461].
*koka '' (Samm. *koka) 668 > . kotka '', ?kokko;
. kuckan (E: Atr), kuckan (M) [Paasonen 1992, 917].
*orpa '' 722 > . orpo ''; . urva (E),
rv (M) ' (E); . (M)', urvaksto- (E), ervja(M) '' [Paasonen 1996, 2476].
/ / / *u35:
*kunta ', ' 207 > . kunta (. kunnan) ''; . kunda- (E), kunda- (kunda-) (M) ', '
[Paasonen 1992, 956].
*suka ', ' 777 > . suka, suas (. sukaan)
'', suki- ', '; . suva (E), siva (E:
Kad), suva . (-n) (M) [Paasonen 1996, 2203].
, *kunta , 206 > . kond (), kund (M)
, ? [Paasonen 1992, 849]. *upa , [Samm. *cupa-] 64 > .
ova (E), va (M) [Paasonen 1990, 284] ,
, ,
.
35

43

*turpa ', ' (Samm. *turpa) 801 > . turpa '';


. turva torva (E, M), trva (M) '' [Paasonen 1996, 2354].
/ / / *i:
*ina '' 786 > . hihna, . hiihna ''; .
na (E, M), kna (E) [Paasonen 1992, 909].
IV. 2 ()

/ / / *a :
*ajta ' , ' 605 > .
aitta; . utomo (E), utm (M) [Paasonen 1996, 2492].
*jaksa *joksa ', , ' [Samm.
*je"ksa-] 630 > . jaksa- '', jakso ''; . jukse-
ukse- (E), juks- (M) [Paasonen 1990, 541].
*parma '' 724 > . paarma, . parma ''; .
promo, puromo (E), purom (M) '' [Paasonen 1994, 1852].
/ / / *o :
*korta ', ' 186 > . korttaa- (.) ', ';
. gurno- (E), gurna-36 (M) '' [Paasonen 1990, 431].
*kota ', ' (Samm. *kota) 190 > . kota ',
'; . kudo (E), kud (M) '' [Paasonen 1992, 922].
*lokV '' 256 > . lonka-, longallansa ',
, ', lonkoa, lonkua ' , '
??; . lungidu-, luvode- (E), lufta (E), luvd- (M: Ur), lugd'(M: emb) ', ' [Paasonen 1992, 1086].
*ora '' (Samm. *ora) 342 > . ora ', '; .
uro (E), ura . urn (M), ura, N.Pl. urt '' (M: MdJurtk) [Paasonen 1996, 2467].
36
*- ,
*- -*-.

44

*poka '' 389 > . potka (. pokka) '', potki''; . puko (E), puka, . pukn (M) ' ,
' ? [Paasonen 1994, 1830].
*soka ' ' (Samm. *s'o/dk/d'ka) 482 > . sotka ', '; . sulgo sulga FS (E), culga . culgn (M)
'- , ; Fuligula clangula,
Colymbus arcticus' [Paasonen 1996, 2193].
*orwa ', ' 502 > . harva ', ';
. uro (E), ura, . urn (M) [Paasonen 1990, 305].
*torV ', ; ' (Janh. *tora; Samm. *tora) 531 >
. tora ', ', tor-u- 37 ''; . ture-, ture- (E),
tur- (M) '' [Paasonen, 1996, 2418].
*loma ' , ' 692 > . loma
''; . kd-luv . -n (M) '
' [Paasonen 1992, 1085].
*noka ', ' 714 > . notka (.) '', notkea
', ', notko ', '; . nuka- .
nukn (M) [Paasonen 1992, 1358].
*orase ' ' 720 > . oras (. oraan),
orasa, oraisa 'Eber; verschnittener Eber'; . urs (M) [Paasonen
1996, 2463].
*porsas (*porcas) ', ' 736 > . porsas (.
porsaan) ''; . purcos (E), pur'c (. pur'cn) pur'c
(M) [Paasonen 1994, 1849].
*sota, *soa *soa ', , ' 777 > . sota
'', soti- ' -'; . sudo- (E), sud- (M) ', ' [Paasonen 1996, 2187].

37

-u- - [. 1953, 246].

45

/ / / *u :
*muka '' 705 > . muhka 'Unebenheit, Knollen, Knorren, Knoten' ( myhkyr, mhkyr); . muko (E: Mar),
muka, . mukn (M: P) '' [Paasonen 1992, 1302].
*ukta ' ' 788 > . huhta, . huuhta '',
huhti-kuu ''; . uvto, ufto (E), ufta (. uftn) (M) ', ', uftomo- (E) ' , ' [Paasonen 1996, 309].
/ / / *i :
*tika '' 796 > . sika ''; . tuvo (E), tuv, .
tuvn (M) [Paasonen 1996, 2358].

/ / / *o-:
I. -a ( )

/ / / * :
*waja '' (Samm. *waja-) 551 > . vajo-a- 38 ',
'; . vaja- (E), vaja- (M)39 [Paasonen 1996, 2511].
*amV ', , ' 782 > . hahmo ', ,
'; . ama (E), ama, . aman (M) '' [Paasonen
1990, 204].
*mala ', ' 698 > . malo ''; . malaso
(E), malasa (M) '' [Paasonen 1992, 1166].
/ / / *o :
*nolV '' 709 > . nolo ', '; . novla (E), novla, . novlan (M: P) '' ? [Paasonen, 1992, 1356].
--, -- [. 1953, 249].
, , .

38
39

46

/ / / *u :
*kuma '; ' (Janh., Samm. (33) *kuma) 201
> . kumo-ssa (olla) ' '; . koma- (E, M) '', komafto- (E) '' [Paasonen 1992, 839].
*puna ', ' (Janh., Samm. (116) *puna/) 402 >
. puno-; . pona- (E, M) [Paasonen 1994, 1746].
/ / / *i :
*nia ( *ni, *nia, *ni) '' 713 > . nito-; .
neda-, nda- (E), neda- (M) '' [Paasonen, 1992, 1381].
*sirV ', , ' 761 > . siro '', .
sire 'schlank, fein, hbsch, zierlich'; . ser(e) (E), ser (ChrM),
ser, . seren (M: P) ', ' [Paasonen 1996, 1969].
*ia ', ' 784 > . hio- ''; . ova(E), ova- (M) [Paasonen 1990, 286].
II. -1 ()

/ / / * :
*arwa (*ara) '' (Samm. *arwa) 16 > . arvo ',
, '; . arce- (E), ars- (M) ',
' (?) [Paasonen 1990, 68].
*kaa '' (Janh., Samm. (2) *kad'a-) 115 > . kato-a-40
'', kato ', ' ( > . N gaotus 'condemnation, perdition', K T ktta- 'verschwinden', kdade- 'verlieren'); .
kado- (E) kad- (M) ', ' [Paasonen 1992, 561].
*saca '' (Samm. *s'ans'a) 431 > . seiso-, seise- '';
. sta- (E, M) '' [Paasonen 1996, 2179].
*salkV ', , ' 460 > . salko '
'; . salgo, salga (E), salga (M) '', salgo-, salgu- (E),
40

--, -- [. 1953, 249].

47

salgo- (M) ', ' [Paasonen, 1996, 2086].


*rakV ', ' 743 > . rahko (.)
'Kienspanhalter; das gabelfrmige Eisen, worin die brennenden Kienspne eingesteckt werden'; . rako (E), raka, . rakn (M)
', , ,
' [Paasonen 1994, 1883].
/ / / *i :
*niwa (*nia) ' , ' (Samm. *niwa-)
306 > . nivo- ' , ,
'; . nevelde- (E) ' , ', nevld- (M) '' [Paasonen 1992, 1396].
*sitV '' 762 > . sito- ''; . sodo- (E,
M), sot- (M) '' [Paasonen 1996, 2003].
/ / / *u :
*kua ', ' (Samm. *kua-) 675 > . kuto-; .
koda- (E, M) [Paasonen 1992, 814].
*rukV ', ' 746 > . runko '
'; . roga (E: Kal), roga, . rogn (: P) ',
' [Paasonen 1994, 1908].
III. - ( )

/ / / *o :
*oa ', , , , ' 334 > .
odotta- ''; . uto- (E), *ut-, uan (M) '' [Paasonen
1996, 2426].
*towkV '' 532 > . touko- ' '; . tundo
(E), tunda (M: P) '' [Paasonen 1996, 2350].

48

/ / / *i :
*kiskV '' (Samm. *kis'ka-) 162 > . kisko- ', '; . skira- (E), kstera- (M), kskrda- kiskrda(M: P) ', ' [Paasonen 1992, 2167].
*sira-kta ', ' 760 > . sirotella '';
. strado- srado- (E), srad- (M) [Paasonen 1996, 2034].
IV. -2 ()

/ / / *a :
*aje '' (Samm. *aji) 5 > . aivo(t) ''; . uj (M)
'' [Paasonen 1996, 2440].
/ / / *o :
*orpa(sV) *orwa(sV) ', ' (Samm. *orpa) 343 >
. orpo ''; . uros urus (E), urs (M) '' [Paasonen 1996, 2468].

/ / / *u-:
I. -a ( )

/ / / * :
*kakV ', ' 641 > . katku; . kaamo (E), kaam,
. kaamn (M) '' [Paasonen 1992, 560].
II. -1 ()

/ / / * :
*kajkV ' , ' 643 > . kaiku- ''; .
kajge-, gajge- (E), kajg- (M) ' , ' [Paasonen
1992, 405].
49

/ / / *u :
*kumpa ', ' (Janh., Samm. (12) *kompa) 203 > .
kumpu ', ', kumpu-a-, kumpuu- ', '; . komba . kombn (M) ', ',
kumboldo-41, kopildi- (E) ' , ' [Paasonen 1992, 950].
*ulke '' (Janh. (53), Samm. *ul, *ulki) 543 > . ulku;
. olga, . olgn (M: P) '' [Paasonen 1994, 1443].
III. - ( )

/ / / *a :
*sawe '' 754 > . savu ''; . sufta- (E, M), *sfta-,
sftan (M:P) ', ' [Paasonen 1996, 2072].
/ / / *u :
*purkV ' ' (Samm. *purki) 406 > . purku,
. purun; . porga-, purga- (E), purga- (ChrM), *prga- (: prgan,
prgaj) (M: P) ', ' [Paasonen 1994, 1850].
*kurk(k)V '' 676 > . kurkku; . kirga, kirga, korga
(E), krga (M) '' [Paasonen 1992, 764].
/ / / *i :
*sira '' 759 > . siru; . sra- '', soradu-,
srado-, strado- (E), srad- (M) ', ' [Paasonen
1996, 2034].

41

,
.

50

IV. -2 ()

/ / / *a :
*sose (*sase) ' , ' 766 > . sasu '' ?;
. suz (M) ' ', suzja- (M: P)
' , ' [Paasonen 1996, 2077].
/ / / *u :
*sume '' 767 > . sumu ', '; . suv (E, M),
suvn (M: P) '' [Paasonen 1996, 2071].
Bereczki 1988, *- : *- *-.
2006 * :
1) ,
*, * I , > e II,
III ;
2) , , s * > * (I ); > e (II, III
);
3) s * > *a.
*
.
1997 * I, III - , -
eC- -C; -i II, V ; - IV
.
* , 1997,
3.

51

3
.
1) -()()V
. ( (2), (3))
2) -e()v/f/mV

3) -e()Ca
4) -i() C(C)V
. ( (5), (6))
5) -i() C(C)a
6) -i()v/f/mV

I
.

II III
. .

IV

V
.
.

V
.
.

e
e

e
i

i
e

e
i

i
i
i

i
i
i

e
e

i/e
i

e
e

i
i

i
i

e
u

/ / /
/ / / *-, UEW Paasonen 1990-1996, , / /
/ *-, *o-, *u-.
*-
/ / / 42

, UEW *-,
. *lps , 695 > .
lyps- , . lovso, lovco (E), loftsa (M) [Paasonen 1992, 1067]. *el (Janh., Samm. (27) *el-) 73 > . el- , . lle- l- (N), iell-, ll- (L), jielle(jea-) (T), ieille- (Kld.), . era-, ra- (E), era- (M) ?? [Paasonen 1990, 368] , , *a-.
*tlw (Samm. *tlw) 516 > . talvi (. talven), . dal've -lv(N), D Lwi (Wfs.), tilve (T), tailv (Kld. Not.), . tele (E), tala . taln (M) [Paasonen
1996, 2386];
*e , 499 > . hyv ( > . N hivve
), hyvin , , , , . *sev (Lehtiran-ta 1096)
sa^vve- -v- (N) , savv-, savvu- (L) ?, . iv (E: Kal) ,
, iva, , ivan (M) [Paasonen 1990, 272];
*si (-mV) (*s (-mV)) (Janh., Samm. (117) *s'/d'-) 477 > . sydn, .
sydmen, . syvm, sy(v)n, syn , . *cem (Lehtiranta, 100) a^a^ (N) (postp.)
, tjat (L), . sedej, sede (E), sedi . sedin (M) [Paasonen 1996,
2116], , .
42

52

4
*V (2 )

343

i/-(E) i//-(M)44
i/-(E) i//-(M)
i/-(E) i//-(M)
i/-(E) i//-(M)

i/-(E) i//-(M)
i/-(E) i//-(M)
i/-(E) i//-(M)
i/-(E) i//-(M)

/ /
/
*V (1)

*
*e
*i
*

(M), e (E)
i
o/e( _ C )
e/()

e ()
e ()
e ()
e ()

I. -

/ / / * 45:
*swn ' ' 437 > . syns (. synn), synj
'; Cyprinus Idus'; . senej (E), seni46 (M:P) '' [Paasonen 1996, 1968].
*kpp ', ' 651 > . kpp ', '; . kepe (E),
kp (M) '' [Paasonen 1992, 709].
/ / / * :
*en ', ' (Samm. (?) *e/in) 74 > . en
', ', enempi ', '; . ine (E), in . inn
(M) '' [Paasonen 1990, 463].
43

3 4
: 3 , 4
.
44
, 2006, 1997,
* *-.
45
*pl , (Samm. (24) *pexli,
*pl) 362 > . pieli (. pielen) suu-pieli , poski-pieli , pielos, pielus
, , , pielt , . *pl (Lehtiranta 907) blle -l-
blle -l- , , (N), piell pll (L) , , pieille
(T), pieill (Kld. Not.), beil (A) , , . pel (E), pl (M) , pele (E),
pl (M) [Paasonen 1994, 1597], , ,
., *.
46
* 2006, 147
, .

53

*sep '' (Samm. *s'ep) 473 > . sep (. sepi, sevi)


''; . sive, siv (E), siv . siven (M) '', siveks
(E) '' [Paasonen 1996, 2164].
*lem ' , , ' 689 > . lehm
''; . lime, ime (E), lim (M) ', ' [Paasonen 1992, 1144].
*pe *pen '' (Samm. *pe) 727 > . petj (.
petjs) ''; . pie (E), pi, . pien (M) [Paasonen 1994,
1649].
*wen ' , ' 821 > . vehn '';
. vi (E) vi47 . vien (M) ', ' [Paasonen 1996,
2666].
/ / / *i :
*ic '' (Samm. *is' ) 78 > . is '', iso ',
', ? iso ', '; . oc . ocn (M) '
' [Paasonen 1994, 1416].
*pit '' (Samm. *pit- + *pit-) 386 > . pit- ', , '; . peda48 (E, M) ',
, ' [Paasonen 1994, 1582].
/ / / * :
*kilm (*klm) (Samm. *klm) ', ' 663 >
. kylm '', kylm- '', kylmene- '
'; . kelme (E), kelm (M) [Paasonen 1992, 693].

47
48

* .
2006, 146 * > . -.

54

II. -3 ()

/ / / * :
*kl *kal ' ' (Samm. *kl-) 133 > .
kahlaa-, kaalaa- ' ' (< .?); . kele- (E), kl(M) [Paasonen 1992, 689].
*km '' (Samm. (?) *km) 137 > . km ', ', kme ', '; . keme
(E), kem (M) '', kem- (M) '' [Paasonen 1992, 697].
*lkk '' 685 > . lkht-, lkhty- '' ?;
. leka- (E), lk- (M) [Paasonen 1992, 1100].
/ / / * :
*nelj (*nelj) '' (Samm. *n'elj) 316 > . nelj ''; . nile (E), nil (M), nilnst nilenst (M) '' [Paasonen 1994, 1402].
*wet ', ' (Samm. *wet-) 569 > . vet- ''; . veta- veda- viti- (E), vt- (M) [Paasonen 1996, 2633].
/ / / *i :
*pikk (*pkk ) ', ' 379 > . pkk (. pkn)
''; . peke (E), pek (M) ', ', pekku (M) '
' [Paasonen 1994, 1593].
*silm '' (Janh., Samm. (30) *s'ilm ) 479 > .silm '';
. selme (E), selm Pl. selmt (M) [Paasonen 1996, 2128].
*lis '' 691 > . lis '', lis- ''; . leze (E), leza (M) '', lezde- (E), lezd- (M)
', , ' [Paasonen 1992, 1121].

55

/ / / * :49
*wil (*wl) ' ' (Janh., Samm. (105) *li) 573
> . yl '', yli '', ylen '', yll '', ylle '', yls ',
'; . velks (E), velks (M) '', velde (E) ', ', veld (veld-) (M) ', ' [Paasonen
1996, 2605].
*nkt ', ' 715 > . nyht- ',
'; . nevta- (E), nfti- (E), neft- (M) [Paasonen 1992,
1397].
III. -

/ / / * :
*tk (*tk )50 ' , ' 795 >
. thk ''; . tike (E), ti (M), tik, tik (M: MdJurtk)
', ' [Paasonen 1996, 2402].
/ / / * :
*ker ', ' (Samm. *ke/r) 147 > . ker ',
'; . kire (E), kr (M) [Paasonen 1992, 779].
*per ', -' (Samm. *per) 373 >
. per ' , , '; . pra, . pira (E), pr
(M) ', , , ' [Paasonen 1994, 1792].
/ / / *i :
*ilV '' 82 > . ilta ''; . ilt (M:P) ''
[Paasonen 1990, 453].
49

,
*cikl( ) (ckl( ) ) wart (Samm. (?) *s'kl) 36 > . silge, silg
(E), silg (M), cilg (. cilgn ) (M) [Paasonen 1996, 2153].
* *-3. , - silg (:P)
*-4 .
50
UEW , , - ,
*tek (*tek ), . thk 'Ahre'.

56

IV. -4

/ / / * :
*krn ', ' 138 > . krn ' '; . knat
(E), knt (M) '' [Paasonen 1992, 910].
*sk ' ' 469 > . sk, ske (. skeen), se (.
skeen), ski (., ) '; Silurus glanis'; . sije
(E), si (M) ', ' [Paasonen 1996, 2151].
/ / / * :
*ce '' (Janh., Samm. (26) *cec) 34 > . set '';
. ie (E) ' , , ', n St. na(M) ' ' [Paasonen 1990, 259].
*ke '' (Samm. *ke) 141 > . keh ', '; . i (E), i (M) ', ' [Paasonen 1990, 249].
*ker (> *ketr) ', ' 656 > . kehr, (.)
ketr '', kehr-, (.) ketr- ''; . tere, ere
(E), ktir . ktrn (M) [Paasonen 1996, 2222].
*pes '' (Janh., Samm. (28) *pes) 375 > . pes
''; . pize (E), piza . pizn () [Paasonen 1994, 1693].
*kes '' 660 > . kes ''; . kize (E), kiza, .
kizn (M) ', ' [Paasonen 1992, 790].
*mel ', ' 701 > . mela 51 '
', melo- ''; . mile (E) '', mil (M: P) '
', mlna (M: P) ' ', melidi- (E) 'rudern'
[Paasonen 1992, 1262].
/ / / *i :
*jik (*ik) ', ' (Samm. *ik) 98 > . ik '';
. ije (E), ij (M) [Paasonen 1990, 441].
51

, .

57

/ / / * :
*krs '' 679 > . kyrs ', '; . ki ke
(E), ki, . kin (M) [Paasonen 1992, 907].
*srj ', ' 779 > . syrj ', ', (.)
'hhere Stelle auf dem Gelnde, Land-, bergrcken; Sandfeld'; .
ire, sire (E), ir ( . iren) ir (M)52 [Paasonen 1990, 269].

1. *a, *o, *u, * . *-


, .
2. / / /
53 ,
, . / / /
.
, ,
/ / / *, *o, *u, *- .

, * vs. *.
, *-.
53
, / / / *a, *o, *u- ,
/ / / *a,
o. / / /
/ / / *- .
52

58

II


II.1.

, .
em, am. .
em , I- , am, II-54. (.., .. ) ,
,
: . e-: 55
1Sg iem, 2Sg iet, 3Sg i, 1Pl ien, 2Pl ie, 3Pl it.
a-: 1Sg pim, 2Sg piat, 3Sg pie, 1Pl iena,
2Pl pia, 3Pl pit.
*s, *j. (
moam '', liam '')
1 2 , . e-:
1Sg im, 2Sg its, 3Sg i, 1Pl in, 2Pl
54


: , 1 sg. -am, 2 sg. -at, 3 sg. -e, 1 pl. na, 2 pl. -a, 3 pl. -t, I ,
1 sg. -em, 2 sg. -et, 3 sg. -a, 1 pl. -ena, 2 pl. -ea, 3 pl. -at II [.,
, 1976, 62-63].
55
. ,
.

59

i, 3Pl it. a- : 1Sg manm, 2Sg


mants, 3Sg man, 1Pl manna, 2Pl manda, 3Pl majt,
1Sg piDnem, 2Sg piDnet, 3Sg piDne, 1Pl piDnen, 2Pl
piDne, 3Pl piDnet, 2Sg pit, 3Sg pit,
2Pl pitt, 1Sg am bit, 2Sg at pit,
3Sg ak pit, 1Pl ana bit, 2Pl aa bit.
, . ,

.
(., . .
Ravila 1954) ,
, vs. () .
, , . ,
.
. . [Ravila 1954]

, , -

. ,
, .
. , , . , - - *-,
- *- (. Ravila 1954). . , .
.
60

Ravila 1954 , (. UEW) . , . . UEW,


-
- *-.
/ / / *-,
, *- 11 a(1)-, 19 e(2)-56.
, / / / *-, 1
57:

*wktA-58 ' ( )' < *watka-;

56
, ,
.
57
, : :
*koA- (intr.) '; ' *koE- (tr.) '; (., ;
..)' < : *kaa-: . . koa (1) (2); . : C koam, tr. koem; .
: Ch koam, tr. koem; . : B koam, tr. koem; . : M koam, tr.
koem; . : U koam, tr. koem; . : P koam, tr. koem; . : V
koam, tr. koem; . : J koam, tr. koem; . : K koam, tr. koem;
. *ko- [UEW 115-116; Bereczki 1992, 18].
: *inA/E- ', , -, -, ; ( ; (
, ); ( ); ( )' < : *saca. . ina (1); ina (2) '; , , -.';
ima ' (); (, )'; : CU inem; . : Ch
ynem; . : B inem; . : M inem; . : U inem; . : P
inem; . : V nem; . : JT ynem, JO nem; . : nza (1) ',
'; nza (2) '; , '; . : KN, KSh nem,
KJ, KA snem; . *in-; SKES 990-991; UEW 431-432; Bereczki 1992, 63.
58
. , .., ,
. , Bereczki
1992, 1994, .
.. G.Bereczki ,
, , .
.. -
. , G.Bereczki,
Bereczki 1992, 1994. ,
.. .

61

. . vokta (1); : CK woktam; : Ch, ChN woktam;


: UJ wotkem; : vakta (1); : K waktam; .
*wokt-59; SKES 1675; UEW 561; Bereczki 1992, 87-88.

: *jmA- ', , , ; ,
' < : *jama-;
. . joma (1); : CK jomam, CU domam; : Ch jomam;
: B jomam, BJp. domam; : M, MK domam; : U

.
*
* _C
*C _
*i
*e

.
jya
iza
nyktaime
kela-

*
*a

er
watar

*
*o
*o _V

jol
kol
ku

.
j
z
niktaim
keler
watar
jal
kol
kue

*
*U
*
*U
*u

le
kjkualakuo

lcecc
kkualakuu

.
j
z
nktaim
kelr
watar
jal
kol
koi
le
kakyalakuy

.. G.Bereczki
, , , .
59
, . *-, .
Bereczki 1994 ,
. . ,

. . , . ,
--, --.

. ,
.
(.
). , .. , . .

62

jomam; : P domam; : V jamam; : jama (1); :


jamam; . *jom-; UEW 89; Bereczki 1992, 11.
: *kkA- ', , ; ; , ' < : *kaka- ;
. . koka (1); koe-je ' , '; : CU, CK
kokam, koskam, CCh kockam; : Ch koskam; : B kokam;
: MK kokam, M, MM kokam; : U kokam; :
P kokam; : V kackam; : JT kockam, JO kackam; :
kaka (1); . *kok-; UEW 641; Bereczki 1992, 17.

: *kjA- ', ; ; (.); , ; ( . )' < : *kaja- ;


. . koja (1); : C kojam; : Ch kojam; : B
kojam; : M kojam; : U kojam; : P kojam; : V kajam; : JT kojam, JO kajam; : kaja (1); : K kajam; . *koj-; UEW 642; Bereczki 1992, 18.

: *klA- ' , ; ;
(, ..); , ( ,
..)' < : *kl- ;
. . kela (1); : C kelam; : Ch kelam; : B kelam;
: M kelam, MK kelam; : U kelam; : P kelam;
: V kelm; : JT kelam, KO kelm; : K kelm;
. *kel-; UEW 133-134; Bereczki 1992, 14.

: *moA- ', ; , ; ' <


: *muja- ;
. . mua (1); : C muam; : Ch muam; : B muam;
: MK mam; : UP, UJ muam; : P muam; :

63

JT muam; : moa (1); : K moam; . *mu-; UEW


284; Bereczki 1992, 38.
*niktA- ', , ()' < : *nkt ;
. . nykta (1); nyylta (1) '; ()'; nyylta
(2) ' ( )'; : C nyktam; : Ch nyktam;
: B nyktam; : M nyktam, MK niktam; : UJ
nyktam, UP, USj. niktam; : P nyktam; : V niktm;
: JT niktam, JO niktm; : nkta (1); : K nktm;
. *nikt-; SKES 406; UEW 715; Bereczki 1992, 44.
:

: *pkA- ', -, -, -, -, -, ; ,
' < : *pek- (*pk-) ;
. . pka (1); : CU, CK pkam, CCh pckam; :
ChN pkam; Ch pskam; : BJp. pkm, B pkm; :
M pukam, MK pkam; : U pkami; : P pkm; : V pck; : JT pckam, JO pckm; : pka (1); : K pkm; . *pk-; SKES 674; UEW 367; 730;
Bereczki 1992, 55.

: *uA- ', ; ( -.); , ; (--. --.)' < : *waa- ;


. . ua (1); : C uam; : Ch uam; : B uam;
: M uam; : U uam; : P uam; : V uam;
: J uam; : K uam; . *u-; UEW 809; Bereczki 1992, 83.

: *elA- ', -, , -, ; ,
, ' < : *sl- (? *cl-) ;
. . ela (1); : CU elam, CK elam; : B elam;
: M elam, MK elam; : U elam, UP elam; : P
elam; : V elm; : JT elam, JO elm; : elyk

64

', '; : K elm; . *el-; SKES 11641165; UEW 470-471; Bereczki 1992, 59-60.
: *kA- ', (); ();
, ; ( ..); ()' <
: *ssk- ( *sske-);
. . ka (1); : Ch kam; : B km; :
M km, MK kam; : UP, UJ kam; : V km;
: JT kam, JO km; : ka (1); : K km;
. *k-; SKES 1149; UEW 768; Bereczki 1992, 74.

, / / / *-, 2 :
: *wnE- ', , , ' < : *wana- ;
. . vona (2); vonak ''; : C wonem; : Ch
wonem; : M wonem, MK wonem; : U wonem;
: V wanem; : JT wonem, JO wanem; : vana (2);
vanak ''; : K wanem; . *won-; UEW
557; Bereczki 1992, 87.
*jE - ' ' < : *jaa- ;
. . joya (2); : CK joyem, CU doyem; : B
joyem; : M doyem, MK douem; : UJ joyem,
UP, USJ. jomyem; : P doyem; : V jouem; :
JT, JO joyem; : jangya (2); : K jayem; .
*jo-; SKES 115-116; UEW 631-632; Bereczki 1992, 11.
:

: *ilE- '; ; , ; '; ( ) < : *el- ;


. . ila (2); : C ilem; : C ilem; : B ilem;
: M ilem; : UP ilem, UJ ilem; : P ilem; :

65

V lem; : JT ylem, JO lem; : la (2); : K lem;


. *il-; UEW 73; Bereczki 1992, 9.
: *kndE- ( ) '; ; , ; ; ' <
: *kanta- ;
. . konda (2); : C kondem; : Ch kondem; :
B kondem; : M kondem; : U kondem; : P
kondem; : V kandem; : JT kondem, JO kandem; :
kanda (2); : K kandem; . *kond-; SKES 158;
UEW 124.

*koE- ', , ' < : *kua- ;


. . kua (2); : C kuem; : Ch kuem; : B kuem;
: M kuem, MK kwem; : U kuem; : P kuem;
: V kuem; : JT, JO kuem; : koa (2); : K
koem; . *ku- ''; SKES 144; UEW 675; Bereczki
1992, 23.
:

: *kokE- ', , ; , ; ( ), ( , )' < :


*kuska- (*koska-) ;
. . koka (2); : C kokem; : Ch kokem; : B
kokem; : M kokem; : U kokem; : P kokem;
: V kokem; : J kokem; : K kokem;
. *kok-; UEW 223-224; Bereczki 1992, 20.

*kuE- ' ()' < : *kojwa- ;


. . kua (2); kolmo; : C kuem; kolmo; : Ch kuem;
kolmo; : B kuem; kolmo; : M kuem, MK kwem; M
kolmo, MK kolmu; : U kuem, UJ kolmo; UP kolmy; : P
kuem; kolmo; : V kuem; kolmu; : J kuem; JT kolmo;
:

66

JO kolmy; : K kuem; kolmy; . *kuj-; SKES


144; UEW 170; Bereczki 1992, 22-23.
: *kumE- ', , , ()' <
: *kuma- ;
. . kuma (2); : CU kumem, CK kumem; : Ch
kumem; : B kumem; : M kumem; : U kumem;
: P kumem; : V kumem; : JT, JO kumem; :
kyma (2); : K kymem; . *kum-; UEW 209;
Bereczki 1992, 24.

: *kiltE-, *kilE- ', , , ' < : *kelt- ;


. . kyla (2); : C kylem; : Ch kylem; : B
kylem; : M kylem, MK kilem; : US kylem, UP,
USj. kilem, UJ kyltem; : P kylem; : V klem; :
JT kylem, JO klem; : kla (2); : K klem; . *kilt-; UEW 657.

*kilmE- ', ' < : *kilm (*klm) ;


. . kylma (2); : klma (2); . *kilm; SKES 254;
UEW 663.
:

: *kirE- ', , ; , ; ; ( ); ( ); ' < : *kir- ;


. . kyra (2); : CU, CK kyrem; : B kyrem; : M kyrem, MK kirem; : US, UJ kyrem, UP, USj. kirem;
: P kyrem; : V krem; : JT kyrem, JO krem;
. *kir-; UEW 666.

: *lumE-, *lomE- ' -. ( -. -.)' < : *luma- ;


. . luma (2); : CU lumem, CK lumem; : Ch lumem;
: B lumem; : MK lumem; : U lumem; : P

67

lumem; : JO lumem, JT lomem; : loma (2); : K


lomem, (Wichm.) lymem; . *lum-; SKES 309; UEW 694;
Bereczki 1992, 34.
: *motE-, *mutE- ', (-. )' < :

*mata- ;
. . mota (2); : C motem; : Ch motem; : B
motem; : M motem; : U motem; : P motem;
: V motem; : J motem; : myta (2); : K
mytem; . *mot- *mut-; SKES 326; UEW 265;
Bereczki 1992, 37.

*murE- '; , , ' < : *mura ;


. . mura (2); : myra (2); . *mur; UEW 287;
Bereczki 1992, 39.
:

*optE- '; ' < : *apta- (*opta-);


. . opta (2); : C optem; : Ch optem; : B
optem; : M optem; : U optem; : P optem; : V optem; : J optem; : K optem; .
*opt-; UEW 14; Bereczki 1992, 46.
:

: *poktE- ', ; ( --.), ' < : *pukta- ;


. . pokta (2); : C poktem; : Ch poktem; : B
poktem; : M poktem; : U poktem; : P poktem;
: V poktem; : J poktem; : K poktem;
. *pokt-; UEW 402; Bereczki 1992, 50.

: *punE-

' ( ..), ()' < : *puna- ;


. . puna (2); : CU punem, CK punem; : Ch punem;
: B punem; : M punem; : U punem; : P
punem; : V punem; : JT, JO punem; : pyna (2); 68

: K pynem; . *pun-; UEW 402-403; Bereczki 1992,


53-54.
: *sulE- '; ; ; , ' < : *sula- ;
. . ula (2); : CU ulem, CK ulem; : Ch ulem;
: B ulem, sulem; : MK ulem; M sulem; : US,
UJ ulem; UP, USj. sulem; : V ulem; : JT, JO ulem;
: yla (2); : K ylem; . *sul-; UEW 450-451;
Bereczki 1992, 69.

*umE- ', ' < : *ia-;


. . uma (2); : CU umem, CK umem; : Ch umem;
: B umem; : M umem; : U umem; : P
umem; : J umem; : yma (2); : K ymem; . *um-; SKES 77; UEW 784-786; Bereczki 1992, 69.
:

, , (. UEW) , ., . , - . .
. - , [. Itkonen 1971 (2)] .
, - *a-
- -
, 60.
60

. , , - -

69

, ,
.
, , . ,
/ / / *, *o, *u-
, ,
,
.
UEW / / / *-,
, .
, - * -, 2 (e)-.
- *- -, 1 ()-61.
- 2 ()-
:

. . 1961
. . .
61
, - *
*- , 1, 2
.

70

/ / / * 62:
*awV (*apa) ', ' 54 >
. apamo (E), apama (M), Paasonen 1990, 210.
. *p-, *w- < *apa (*awV)
. . opa (2); apa (2); . *op; UEW 54-55; Bereczki 1992, 66.
*jaa ' , , ' 631 >
. jaa- (E, M) Paasonen 1990, 376.
. *j- ' ' < *jaa . . joya (2); CK joyem, CU doyem; B
joyem; M doyem, MK douem; UJ joyem,
UP, USJ. jomyem; P doyem; V jouem;
JT, JO joyem; jangya (2); K jayem; .
*jo-; SKES 115-116; UEW 631-632; Bereczki 1992, 11.

*kara ', , ' 221 >


. kara- (E, M) ', , ' ?, Paasonen
1992, 611.
. *kr- < *kurV . . kora (2); C korem; Ch korem; B korem;
U korem; P korem; V karem; JT
korem, JO karem; K karem; . *kor-; UEW
221-222; Bereczki 1992, 19.

/ / / *u :
*puna ' ( ..), ()' (Janh., Samm.
(116) *puna/) 402 >
*pucka (*packa) '' 396;
*kojwa ', ' (Samm. *ka/ojwa-) 170, , UEW
( ) Sammallahti ( ), .

62

71

pona- (E, M), Paasonen 1994, 1746.


. *pun- < *puna . . puna (2); CU punem, CK punem; Ch punem;
B punem; M punem; U punem; P
punem; V punem; JT, JO punem; pyna (2); K pynem; . *pun-; UEW 402-403; Bereczki 1992,
.

53-54.
*kua ', , ' (Samm. *kua-) 675 >
. koda- (E, M), Paasonen 1992, 814.
. *ko- < *kua . . kua (2); C kuem; Ch kuem; B kuem;
M kuem, MK kwem; U kuem; P kuem; V kuem; JT, JO kuem; koa (2); K koem;
. *ku- ''; SKES 144; UEW 675; Bereczki 1992, 23.

*sula '' (Samm. *sula) 450 >


. sola (E), sola (solan) (M), Paasonen 1996, 2008.
. *sul- < *sula . . ula (2); CU ulem, CK ulem; Ch ulem;
B ulem, sulem; MK ulem; M sulem; US,
UJ ulem; UP, USj. sulem; V ulem; JT, JO ulem;
yla (2); K ylem; . *sul-; UEW 450-451;
Bereczki 1992, 69.

/ / / *i :
*ia ', ' 784 >
. ova- (E), ova- (M), Paasonen 1990, 286;
. *um- < *ia . . uma (2); CU umem, CK umem; Ch umem;
B umem; M umem; U umem; P
72

umem; J umem; yma (2); K ymem; . *um-; SKES 77; UEW 784-786; Bereczki 1992, 69.
*a - 1 ()-
63:
/ / / *a :
*mOnV (*monV) ', ' 290 >
. muna- (E), mna- (M) '', Paasonen 1992, 1297;
. *man-: . . mana (1).
*jama- ', , , ; ,
' 89 >
. joma- (E), juma- (M), ima- (M), Paasonen 1990, 519.
. *jm- < *jama . . joma (1); CK jomam, CU domam; Ch
jomam; B jomam, BJp. domam; M, MK domam;
U jomam; P domam; V jamam; jama (1);
jamam; . *jom-; UEW 89; Bereczki 1992, 11.

/ / / *u :
*purka ', ' 741 >
. purgavto- (E), *prga- (prgan, prgaj) (M: P) '', Paasonen
1994, 1850;
. pre- (1) (KB) 'whlen, durchwhlen, umrhren', purea- (B)
' ( ..); , ( ); ,
'.
63
, *korta ', ' 186 >
. gurno- (E), gurna- (M) ' ', Paasonen 1996, 431;
. *korV-: . B kore 'beruchern (der Opferpriester vor dem Beginn des Gebets)'.
, -, *- ,
*-. -, ,

, .. .

73

/ / / *-, , : , *-, 2 ()-, *-,


1 ()-.
,
/ / / *-, *-
.
* - 2 ()
:
/ / / * 64:
*jkV ', ' 90 >
. eke (E), j . jen, , . en (M), Paasonen 1990, 357.
. *jk-: . . jka (2); CK jkem, CU dkem;
Ch jkem; B jkem; M dukem, MK dkem;
UJ dkem, USj, US jkem, UP kem; P dkem;
JT, JO jkem; ka (2); K kem; .
*jk-; SKES 133; UEW 90-91; Bereczki 1992, 13.
*lmpV ', , ; ,
(., ); ( -. ); ( , -. ' 685 >
. lembe (E), lmb, . lmben (M), Paasonen 1992, 1108
. *lew, *lew- < *leppV
. . leva (2); leve; C lewe; Ch lewe; B
lewe; M lewe, MK lew; MK lep vt; UJ lewe, UP

*pl ', ' (Samm. (24) *pexli,


*pl) 362 (. pieli (. pielen), , , Sammallahti, *.

64

74

lewy; P lewe; V liw; JT liwe, JT liw; livy,


liva (1); K liw; lau; lep vt; . *lip(); SKES
287-288; Bereczki 1992, 30.

,
/ / / *- ,
.
*a- 2 ()-,
1()-. ,
, -
,
- (
( . 19921994).

75

II.2. III

:
200265. 66: 1) 67 , 2)
-e, -o -, 3) -a -e 4) -i, -u -. ,
, [. 2002]. 6
.
6

-e, -o, -
2

prt68
''
prt-n
prt-m
prt-lan
prt-t
prt(k)
prt-e

rg ''

.
.

.
.
.

65

-a, -e
3

-i, -u, -
4

puda '' pasu ''

lu ''

rg-n
rg-m
rg-lan
rg-t
rg-(k)

puda-n
puda-m
puda-lan
puda-te
puda-(ke)

pasu-n
pasu-m
pasu-lan
pasu-te
pasu-(ko)

lu-()n
lu-()m
lu-lan
lu-()to
lu-()(ko)

rg-e

puda-

pasu-e

lu-e

[. 1961]
: 1) , 2) , 3) . , - , 2002.
66
(
) . .
67
, .
68
, 2002.

76

. [Bereczki 1992-1994], . [Itkonen 1946], .. [ 2002]



69.
. . , , 70: I . 41; II . 6771; III . 6.
? 100. III ,
G.Bereczki ,
.
:
1) . * ~ *- (III .)
/ / / *a, * ~ *- ( ,
*a, *-
*, *-; / / /
69

1979, 1980, ,
I II
. , (II )
-, - (I ). - I, II . .. , - 2008 , - -
, 1979, 1980, - . ,
. , . , .., .., ..
, .
70
, ,
. ,
. .
71
Itkonen 1946 : I . 20 ; II .
30 .
Bereczki 1992-1994 Itkonen 1946
50 , .

77

* - *,
*-);
2) . ,
72.
3) . , (III .) , - , (-- -- )
. . . , , vs. () 73 .
, ,
- - , . , - .
.. [ 2002], , III ,
- -, - .
- . , - / /
/ *-, , , -e
/ / / *, *-.
..
: ,
72

G.Bereczki , ,
, ,
G.Bereczki
.
73
, ,
,
- () .

78

-: . . kue '', . . kne, . . k^ne ''; . . opke, , /


/ / *, *-. UEW .. kue '' <
*kojwa '', UEW, 169; . . kne, .. k^ne '' <
*knV '', UEW, 651; .. opke < *apa, UEW, 783.
, *knV '' .
.. opke .
, .., - / / / *, *-:
. . wiste, . wiste, . wiste '' < *wen
'', UEW, 821
. . jlme, . nlme '' < *nlm '', UEW, 313.
. ime ', ; , , (
); , ' < *jm '', UEW, 22.
.
, , .,
III
. ,
(I (--) II (--)) , vs. () 74. III -, ,
- , , - - .
, III .
74
, . (.
),
.

79

III . , I II , . ( vs. ), . , , ., III , III


- -, , .
,
- ,
.
-, - : - *-,
*a- III , -, *a-
III , -.
III
( )

/ / / *-, -

-.

*ic '', UEW, 78 >


. oc, . ocn (M) ' ', Paasonen
1994, 1416.

80

*iza ' ; ( )':


.. iza ' ; ( )';
izava ' , '; izaa ''; iza-olo '
, '; CU iza; BJ iza, BJp. iza; M, MM iza, MK iza; UJ iza; V z; JT
yza, JO z; za ' ; (
)'; K z; . *ica ' ,
'; Bereczki 19921994, 10.

*kala ', ', UEW, 645 >


. kaval: E k.-alks, M k.-al 'Achselhhle' (alks, al 'das unter etw.
Befindliche'); Paasonen 1992, 652.
. *kola ' ( , )': .. kola; CK
kola; B koyla; U kola; P koyla; V
kola; JT kola; kongla; . *kola;
Bereczki 19921994, 19.

*silm '', UEW, 479 >


. selme (E), selm (M); Paasonen 1996, 2128.
. *in-a ', ': .. ina ', '; CU
ina, CK yna; . Ch yna; B ina; M ina;
U ina; P ina; V n; JT yna,
JT n; snza; KN, KSh n, KA, KJ sn;
. *in-a; Bereczki 19921994, 62.

*cOka '', UEW, 47 >


. conga (M) ''; Paasonen 1990, 186.
. *coga *-, -- '; ': ..
oga; ca ' ' (KB), co ' ' (U),
caa ' ' (B).

81

,
-a, ,
- .
III - - ,
.
(6) *kusa 'Heckenkirsche, Geissblatt; Lonicera xilosteum', UEW,
678 >
. *kiza, *kz -- ' ': .. okiza;
CU o-kz-wondo, CCh o-kz-wondo, CK luze-wondo; . Ch
o-kz-wondo, kuze-wondo, ChN kuzi-wondo; . B okiza-wondo, BJ o-keza-wondo, BJp. o-kiza-wondo; ..
M, MM o-kize-wondo, MK o-kize-wondu; . . UP okyza-wondy, USj. o-kza-wondo, UJ o-kiza-wondo; P o-keza;
JT o-kze-wondo, JO o-kyzej-pandy; Bereczki 1992-1994,
117.

/ / / *-,
-.
*kojwa '', UEW, 169 >
75
. kiv-ger (E), kuj-ger (M) ' ', kujme (E), kujm,
kujv (M) 'Korb', kujma (M) 'groes Holzgef', kujn 'Krbchen aus
Ulmenbast'; Paasonen 1992, 758.
. *ku-e '': .. kue; C kue; . Ch kue;
B kue; M kue; UP, UJ kue, USj kwe; P
kue; V kue; JT JO kue; kui; K koi,
KN kui; . *ku; Bereczki 1992-1994, 22.
(1)

. kilej (E), kelu, . keluvn (M) '' [Paasonen 1996, 758] , ,


*kojwa '' [UEW, 169].

75

82

(2) *orpa(sV) *orwa(sV) ', , , ',


UEW, 343 >
. urus (E), uros (E, M) ''; Paasonen 1996, 2468.
. *irwe-ze '; , ': .. rveze ';
, '; CU yrweze, CK rweze; B, BJ
yrweze, BJp. yrweze; MK urweze, urwez; UJ
yrweze, UP erwez; P yrweze; V rwez; JT
yrweze, JO rwez; rvezy '; '; K
rwez; Bereczki 19921994, 82.

*sokta '', UEW, 446 >


. suvtne- (E), sifonde- (M), sfndam- (M: P) 'sieben', suvteme
(E), suftem, siftem 'Sieb'; Paasonen 1996, 2077.
. *skte- '': .. okte ''; akte ''
[Bereczki 1992-1994, 64].
(3)

*serV '', UEW, 757 >


. surceme, siRcama, siRcm (E), suRcem, siRcem (M) ''
[Paasonen 1996, 2062].
. *serge '': . . ere '' [Bereczki 1992-1994, 60].
(4)

, -, ,
. , ,
III - - , UEW,
,
.
83

*ic (*c) ', ', UEW, 78 >


. *iz-e '': .. izi; CK izi, CU izi, CC izi;
. C izi, CN ize; B ize; M ize, MK iz;
UP izi, izy, USj., US izy UJ izi; P ize; V izi;
JT izi; K izi; . *ic; Bereczki 1992-1994, 10
(5)

(6) *lEmV / *EmV ' ', UEW,


262 >
. *lum-e '': . CU lume, CK lume; B, BJ, BJp.
lume; P lume; V lumej; JT lume; lyme;
K lyme; . *lum; Bereczki 1992-1994, 34.

*knV '', UEW, 651 >


. *kin-e '': .. kyne ''; C kyne;
. Ch kyne; B kine; M kine; UP, US,
USj. kine, UJ kyne; P kine; V kne; JO kne;
kne; K kne; . *kin + e; Bereczki 19921994, 17

(7)


. III , , . ,
, - .
- vs. - III
: / / / *-,
*a-
III ,
84

-, *a-
III ,
-.
- vs. -- III , , I (a-) II
(-) .

85

III

III.1.

?
Bereczki 1994
:

a
o
u

e
i

. , . *u, *i, *

.
, - .
, , ,
, .,
,
.
-:
., ., ., .. [. Steinitz 1944,
Itkonen 1953, Bereczki 1992, 1964 (1, 2), 1966]. , .
., . , . , 86

.
, . . ,
.
. .
.
. -
-
[. Steinitz 1944].
, -
.
, -
, . -
, .,
.
. , -
.
Itkonen 1953 ,
,
.
, -
. ., , -
,
.
., ., .., .-
- , ,
87

[. Itkonen 1953, 1964 (1), RonaTas 1975].


. -
.
, ,
, , .
.
I
. . Bereczki 1992-1994
,
. , ,
( ,
). , ., . , .
, . , , , . . . . , -
. .
, ,

, . 88

. ,

.
, , .,
, , .
, - .
. [Itkonen 1953], , ,
(. , Beke , ).
, ,
,
.

.
.
, , - 76.
II .
., . *u, *, *i.
76

, .. .

89


.
., , , ,
-
vs. ,
.
UEW ()
. [Bereczki 1992], .
- ,
.
,
.
, , , , , .
,
vs.
*, *, * -.
I.

, . .

- ,
.
. ,
[Bereczki 1994]. ()
[Bereczki 1992],
, - .
90

. , , , , . , .
, - .
. . [. Itkonen 1953, Beke ] , , Itkonen 1953, ,
. Beke
.
,
- 77.

. *i :
. , , [.
Beke ] *i,
:
I : . ., . , . , . , .
i . , . (JO), . , .
. (JT) y, ,
. *iza ' ; ( )' <
*ic
. . iza; izava ' , '; izaa ''; iza-olo
' , '; CU iza; BJ iza,
BJp. iza; M, MM iza, MK iza; UJ iza; z;
JT yza, JO z; za ' ; ( )'; z; . *ica, UEW 78;
Bereczki 1992, 10.
77

, .. , .. , ...

91

II : . ., , y , , , i
, (JO), , , ,
. *kin-e '' < *knV
. . kyne; C kyne; kyne; kine;
kine; UP, US, USj. kine, UJ kyne; kine; kne;
JO kne; kne; kne; . *kin + e, UEW
651; Bereczki 1992, 17.
III : . ., , , (M), (UJ,
US), , (JT) y (MK), (UP, USj) i
, (JO), , , ,
. *kilm, *kilmE- ', ' < *kilm (*klm)
. . kylma (2); kylme ''; C kylme; kylme;
kylme; kylme, MK kilm; UJ kylme, UP,
USj. kilmy, US kylmy; kylme; klm; JT
kylme, JO klm; klma (2); klmy ''; klm;
. *kilm, SKES 254; UEW 663.

[. Itkonen 1953] . ,
, *i. ,
c , *i.

. , (JO), , i, y.
*wic '' < *witte
. . vizyt, vi; vitle ''; vi ''; CU
wi; wi; wi; wi; wi; JT
wyc, JO wc; vzyt, vc, vcy ''; wc;
. *wic, MSzFE 519-520; UEW 577; Bereczki 1992, 85.

92

. *wick- '; ,

( )' < *wckV


. . viky; CU wyky, CK wyskye; ChN
wyky, Ch wyskye; B wiky, BJp. wyky; M
wik, MK wiki; UP wiky, UJ wyky; wiky;
wck; JT wycky, JO wck; vcky; wck; . *wick, UEW 817; Bereczki 1992, 85.

. *jilm

. ''; ', ( )'; ' ()'

< *nlm
. . jylme; CK jylme, CU dylme; C jylme;
jylme, BJp. dylme; M dlm, MK dlm; UJ jylme,
US jylmy, UP, USj. jilm; dylme, nylmy; VK jlm;
JT jylme, JO jlm; jlmy; . *jilm, MSzFE 480481; UEW 313-314.

*jir ', ', . ', '; ', ' < *jrV


. . jyr; CK jyr, CU dyr; Ch jyr; B jyr, BJp.
dyr; M dyr, MK dir; UJ jyr, UP, USj., US jir, JO jr;
dyr; jr; JT jyr; jr; K jr;
. *jir, UEW 94; Bereczki 1992, 11.

*iza ' ; ( )' <

*ic
. . iza; izava ' , '; izaa ''; iza-olo
' , '; CU iza; BJ iza,
BJp. iza; M, MM iza, MK iza; UJ iza; z;
JT yza, JO z; za; z; . *ica,
MSzFE 516-517; UEW 78; Bereczki 1992, 10.

93

. *ilE- '; ; , ; '; < *el. . ila (2); C ilem; ilem; ilem;
ilem; UP ilem, UJ ilem; ilem; lem; JT
ylem, JO lem; la (2) '; '; lem;
. *il-, MSzFE 145-148; UEW 73; Bereczki 1992, 9.
*litE- ', ' < *ls. MK litem; US, UJ lytem, UP, USj. litem;
ltem; JT lytem, JO ltem; . *lit-,
UEW 687; Bereczki 1992, 30

*kia-l, -c '', '; , ' <


*kitV (*ktV)
. . kyal; kya; C kyal; kyal; B kyal,
BJp. kial; M kial, MK kyal; UJ kyal, UP, USj.,
US kial; kyal; kl; JT kyal, JO kl;
kal; kl; . *ki- *k-; MSzFE 379-380;
UEW 163; Bereczki 1992, 15.

. *kiltE-, *kilE- ', , , ' < *kelt. . kyla (2); C kylem; Ch kylem;
kylem; M kylem, MK kilem; US kylem, UP,
USj. kilem, UJ kyltem; kylem; klem; JT
kylem, JO klem; kla (2); K klem; .
*kilt-, UEW 657.
*kilm, *kilmE- ', ' < *kilm (*klm)
. . kylma (2); kylme ''; C kylme; Ch
kylme; kylme; M kylme, MK kilm; UJ
kylme, UP, USj. kilmy, US kylmy; kylme; klm;

94

JT kylme, JO klm; klma (2); klmy ''; klm; . *kilm, SKES 254; UEW 663.
*kin-e '' < *knV
. . kyne; C kyne; Ch kyne; kine; kine; UP, US, USj. kine, UJ kyne; kine;
kne; JO kne; kne; kne; . *kin +
e, UEW 651; Bereczki 1992, 17.

*kin-e-r ' ( ), ' < *kin (*kn)


. . kyner; kynervuj; kynerut ' '; kynerta (2)
''; ChN kyner; BJp. kyner, BJ kiner;
UJ kyner; P kiner; JT kyner; knera '
( 300 )'; knervurdy ''; knerta (2) ''; kner; . *kiner, MSzFE 372-373; UEW
158-159; Bereczki 1992, 16.

*kirE- ', , ; , ; ; ( ); ( ); ' < *kir. . kyra (2); CU, CK kyrem; kyrem;
M kyrem, MK kirem; US, UJ kyrem, UP, USj. kirem;
kyrem; krem; JT kyrem, JO krem; .
*kir-, UEW 666.

*kia-lA- '; ' < *kenV- *keV. . kyala (1); C kyalam; Ch kyalam;
B, BJ kyalam, BJp. kyalam; M, MM kyalam, MK
kialam; US, UJ kyalam, UP, USj. kialam; kyalam;
kclm; JT kycalam, JO kclm; kala (1)
''; K klm; . *kal- 'suchen', UEW
145-146; Bereczki 1992, 15

95

*ki(-k) ' ' < *kiV


. . kyyk; CU kyyk; B, BJ kyyk, BJp. kyyk;
UJ kyyk, UP, USj. kiyk; kck; JO kck;
k ; . *ki, SKES 187; UEW 662-663; Bereczki 1992, 15.

*kikE- ', ; , , , , ' < *kiskV. . kyka (2); C kykem; Ch kykem;


kykem; M kykem, MK kikem; US, UJ kykem,
UP, USj. kikem; kykem; kkem; JT
kykem, JO kkem; kka (2); kkem; .
*kik-, UEW 667; Bereczki 1992, 16.

*lita-(k) '' < *lete


. . lyta; C lyta; lyta; B lyta; BJp.
lt; MK lita; M, MM lyta; UP lista, USj.
lita; US, UJ lyta; lyta; ltk; JT lyta;
lyta; lt; . *lita-k; SKES 284; UEW
682; Bereczki 1992, 31.

*mij, *min() '' < *m8


. . myj; C myj; Ch myn; B min, BJ min()
BJp. myj; M, MK min; UP min, UJ myj(e);
min(); mn; JT myne, JO mn; mn;
mn; . *min; MSzFE 153-155; UEW 294; Bereczki 1992, 37.

*nijl '' < *nelj


. . nyl ; CU nyl, CK nil; Ch nyl ; B nil, BJ
nyl ; M, MK nil ; UJ nyl, UP nil ; nl ;
JT nyl, JO nl ; nl ''; K nl ; .
*nil ; MSzFE 466-467; Bereczki 1992, 42.

96

*piza-k '' < *pes


. . pya; CU pyak, CK pak; Ch pak;
B pya, BJ pua, BJp. p; M, MM, MK piza;
UP, USj., US piza; UJ pya; pya; pk;
JT pyak, JO pk; pa; K p; . *piza-k; MSzFE 204-205; UEW 375; Bereczki 1992, 49.

*pizl, *pil()z '' < *picla


. . pyzle; CU pyzle, CK pizle; Ch pizle; B
pizle; M pylyze, MM pylze, MK pilz; UP, USj.,
US pizly, UJ pyzle; pizle; pzli; JO pzl;
pzylmy; . *picl; SKES 542; UEW 376; Bereczki 1992,
49-50.

*pil ', ; , ' < *pilwe (*pile)


. . pyl; CU pyl, CK pil; Ch pyl; pyl;
pil; UJ pyl, UP, USj., US pil; pyl;
pl; JT pyl, JO pl; pl; pl; . *pil;
MSzFE 198-199; UEW 381; Bereczki 1992, 48.

. *irwe-z '; , ' < *orpa(sV)


*orwa(sV)
. . rveze; CU yrweze, CK rweze; B, BJ yrweze,
BJp. yrweze; MK urweze, urwez; UJ yrweze, UP
erwez; yrweze; rwez; JT yrweze, JO
rwez; rvezy; rwez; . *urwe-c; MSzFE
97; UEW 343; Bereczki 1992, 82.
*itE- ', ; ; ; ;
; ; ; (, ..)' <
*ete-

97

. . yta (2); C ytem; B ytem; M


ytem; UJ ytem; P ytem, tem; JT ytem,
tem; ta (2); K tem; . *it-; SKES 35;
UEW 626; Bereczki 1992, 8.
*is-ke ', , ' < *ice *ise
. . ke; C ke, CK yke; Ch ke, yke;
MK ke, M iske; USj., US eke; P ke; V ke;
JT, JO ke; keure ' (., )'; ketynok
', '; K ke; . *i-ke; MSzFE
327-328; UEW 79-80; Bereczki 1992, 63.

*inA- ', , -, -, ; (
; ( , ); (
); ( )' < *saca. . ina (1); ina (2) '; , , -.'; ima ' ();
(, )'; CU inem; Ch ynem; B
inem; M inem; U inem; P inem; V nem; JT ynem, JO nem; nza (1) ',
'; nza (2) '; , '; KN, KSh nem, KJ, KA snem; . *in-; SKES
990-991; UEW 431-432; Bereczki 1992, 63.

*i()-l '' < *cikl (*ckl)


. . yyle; C yyle; Ch yyle; B yyle;
M yyle, MK iyl; UP, USj., US iyl, UJ
yle; P yyle; V l; JT yyle, JO
l; yl; K l; . *i-l; MSzFE
556; UEW 36-37; Bereczki 1992, 61.

98

*i '' < *sikse (*skse)


. . ye; CU yy, CK ywe; Ch yy; B,
BJ ie, BJp. yy; M ie, MK i; UP, USj., US
iy, UJ yy; P yy; V ; JT yy, JO
; y; K ; . *i; MSzFE 517-518;
UEW 443; Bereczki 1992, 63.

*sijl '' < *siwV-lV


. . yl; CU yl, CK il; Ch, ChN yl; B
yl; M syl; MK sil; UJ yl, UP, USj. sil; P yl;
V l; JT yl, JO l; l '; '; K l; . *sil; UEW 763.

*il, *il- '' < *selk


. . yly ''; yly; M il; UJ
yly, UP ily; P yly; V l; JT yly, JO
l; . *il; SKES 995-996; UEW 772; Bereczki 1992, 61.

*iim, *im '' < *secem


. . ym; CU, CK ym; Ch ym; M,
MM yym, MK iim; UP, UJ, USj. ym. UP, US iim;
P ym; V m; JO m; m; K m;
. *im; SKES 991; UEW 773; Bereczki 1992, 61-62.

*it '' < *istV (*ikstV)


. . yte; C yte; Ch yte; B ite; M ite, MK it; UP ity; UJ yte; P ite; V t; JT yte, JO t; ty; K t;
. *it; UEW 785-786; Bereczki 1992, 63.

99

*jia ' ' < *jnte


. . jyan; CU dyra, CK jyra; C jyra; B
jya, BJp. dya; M dia, dyra; US jia, UP,
USj. ia; P dya; V j; JO j; K j; . *jia; MSzFE 314-315; UEW 92;
Bereczki 1992, 10

, ,
- . :
1) y (i)
(1 ):
. *jips - ', ' < *jpse
. . jyp; CK jyp; C jyp; B jyp;
V jyp; JT jyp, JO jp; jp; K jp; . *jip; UEW 94; Bereczki 1992, 10.
2) (JO) y (i) (2 ):
. *indeks '' < *ikte (*kte) + *eks
. . inde(e); CU inde, CK yndi; C yndi;
B inde; M, MM, MK indes; UP, USj. indes,
UJ inde; P inde; JO indi; K ndek;
. *indeks; SKES 1856; Bereczki 1992, 9.
. *niktA- ', , ()' < *nkt
. . nykta (1); nyylta (1) '; ()'; nyylta
(2) ' ( )'; C nyktam; Ch nyktam;
B nyktam; M nyktam, MK niktam; UJ
nyktam, UP, USj. niktam; P nyktam; V niktm;
JT niktam, JO niktm; nkta (1); K nktm;
. *nikt-; SKES 406; UEW 715; Bereczki 1992, 44.
100

3) , i (2 ):
. *pitE-, *pitE- ' ( ..); (; -. ); (, )' <
*pis(e)-t. . pyta (2); C pytem; Ch pytem; B
pytem; M pytem; US, UJ pytem, UP, USj.
pitem; P pytem; V ptem; JT pytem, JO
ptem; pita (2); K pitem; . *pit-; SKES
579; UEW 733; Bereczki 1992, 48.
. *cil-t, *cila ', ' < *cilV
. . yla; C yla; Ch yla; B yla; M yla, MK ila; US yla; UP, USj ila; P yla;
JT cyla, JO cl; cila; K cil, KJ yla;
. *cila; UEW 612-613; Bereczki 1992, 7.
, , 78.

78

. ,
, Itkonen 1954. , .
,
. *i, , . *i, .
,
, *, *e *u, . , . :
. . jyy '; (); , ( )'; CK jyy, CU dyy;
. Ch jyy; . B jyy, BJp. dyy; . M dyy, MK dii; .
UJ jyy, UP, USj., US jiy; . P dyy; . V j; . JT

101

. *u:
*u
, . [. Itkonen 1953].
. ., , , , , u , ,
, u . , y .
*ku, *kuA- ', ' < *kune *kuce
. CK ku-wt; kuam; Ch ku-wt; kuam; V kuam; JO, JT ku-wt; JT, JO kuam; K
ky-wt; kyam; . *ku; MSzFE 307-308; UEW 210; Bereczki 1992, 26.

*jum ', , ' < *juma


. . jumo; CK jumo, CU dumo; B jumo;
M, MK dumo; UJ jumo, UK jumy; P dumo; JT
jumo, JT jumu; jymy; K jymy; . *jum;
SKES 122; UEW 638; Bereczki 1992, 12.

jyy, JO j; . jeyng; . K je; . *ji; MSzFE 333; UEW


95; Bereczki 1992, 11 < *jse.
. . ryvy ''; CK, CU rywy; . Ch rywy; . B rywy; .
M rywy, MK riwi; . UJ rywy, UP riwy; . P rywy; .
JK rywy, J rw; . rvy ''; . KA rw, KSh rw; .
*riw; MSzFE 524-525; UEW 423-424; Bereczki 1992, 56 < *rep( -cV)
. . ya ''; C ya; . Ch ya; . B ya; .
M ia; . UJ ya; UP, USj, US ia; . P ya; . V
; . JT ya, JO ; . angy; . K g; .
*ia-(); MSzFE 137; UEW 496-497; Bereczki 1992, 61. < *ntV
. . yale ''; CK yale, CU ymale; . Ch yale; . B
yale; . M, MM yale, M imaly; . UJ yale, UP, US iyaly; .
P yale; . JT eale, JO l; . kaly; . K kl;
. *ial; SKES 1043-1044; UEW 454-455; Bereczki 1992, 62 < *sVcV (*sVcVlV) *sVV (*sVV-lV).

102

*kom; *kum- ', ', '' < *kama


. . kom; kumy; C kom; CU kumy, CK kumu;
Ch kom; kumu; B kom; kumu; M kom; kumu,
MK kumu; U kom; kumy; P kom; kumu; V
kom; kumu; JT, JO kom; kumu; . kymy;
K kom; kymy; . *kom, *kum-; MSzFE 258; UEW 121122.

*kuwl ' ' < *kupla


. . kuvyl; CU kuwyl, CK kuwul; Ch kuwul;
USj., US, UJ kuwyl; V kuwul; JT, JO kuwul;
K kywyl Ramst.; . *kuwl; MSzFE 294; UEW
212-213; Bereczki 1992, 25.

*kuwlc, *kuwlz . ' ' < *kopa-la/-la


. . kuvylo; CU kuwylo, CK kuwulo; ChN
kuwulo; P kuwulo; V kuwuzu; JT kuwulzo;
. *kuwlc; SKES 217; UEW 181; Bereczki 1992, 26.

. *kua-lA- ' ( ); ( );
, , ( )' < *kuttV- (*kottV-)
. . kuala (1); CU kualam, CK kualam; Ch
kualam; B kualam; M kualam; U
kualam; P kualam; JT, JO kualam; kyala (1);
K kyalam; . *kual-; UEW 679; Bereczki
1992, 22.
*kum '' < *kolme
. . kum; CU kum, CK kum; Ch kum; B
kum; M kum; U kum; P kum; V
kum; JT kum; kym ''; . *kum; MSzFE 268269; UEW 174; Bereczki 1992, 23.

103

*kum-k ', ', *kumalA- '; ,


, ( )' < *kuma
. . kumala (1); kumyk; CU kumalam, CK kumalam;
Ch kumalam; kumuk; B kumalam; kumuk; M
kumalam; kumuk, MK kum; U kumalam; P kumalam;
kumuk; V kumalam; kumuk; JT, JO kumalam;
kumuk; kymala (1); kymyk; K kymalam; kymyk;
. *kumal-, *kumk; MSzFE 296-297; UEW 201-202;
Bereczki 1992, 23.

. *kumE- ', , , ()' <


*kuma. . kuma (2); CU kumem, CK kumem; Ch
kumem; B kumem; M kumem; U kumem;
P kumem; V kumem; JT, JO kumem; kyma
(2); K kymem; . *kum-; MSzFE 309-310;
UEW 209; Bereczki 1992, 24.
*kumda '; , ' < *kumte
. . kumda; CU kumda, CK kumda, CCh kumda;
Ch kumda; B kumda; M kumda; UP kumda;
P kumda; V kumda; JT, JO kumda; kymda;
K kymda; . *kumda; UEW 203-204; Bereczki
1992, 23.

*kup; *kupE- ', ( )' <


*kuppV (*koppV) *kappV
. . kupa (2); CK kupem; Ch kupem; JT,
JO kupem; kypa (2); K kypem; . *kup-;
UEW 680; Bereczki 1992, 24.

104

*kura-lA- '' < *kurV. . kurala (1); CU kuralam; CK kuralam; B


kuralam; M kuralam; U kuralam; P kuralam;
V kuralam; JT, JO kuralam; kyrala (1); K kyralam; . *kural-; UEW 221; Bereczki 1992, 24.

*kur-A- ', ' < *korkV. . kura (1); CU kuram, CK kuruam; Ch


kuruam; B kuram; M kuram; U kuram;
P kuram; V kuruam; JO kuram, JT kuruam; kyrya (1); K kyryam Wichm.; -.
*kur-; UEW 672-673; Bereczki 1992, 25.

*kurmza-k . '' < *kurma (*kurpa, *kurwa)


. . kurmyzak; CU kurmyzak; CK, CCh kurmuzak; Ch, ChN kurmuzak; B kurmuzak, BJp. kurmezak;
UJ kurmyzak; P kurmuzak; V kurmuzak; JT
kurmuzak; kyrmyzak; K kyrmmyzak; .
*kurmcak; UEW 676-677; Bereczki 1992, 24.

*kur-ks '' < *kurV (*korV)


. . kur; CU kur, CK kuru; Ch kuru, ChN
kuruk; B kuru; M, MM kurus; USj, UJ kur;
P kuru; kyry; K kyry; . *kurks.

*kur-k '' < *kurV(-ka)


. . kuryk; CU kuryk, CK kuruk; Ch kuruk;
B kuruk; M, MK kuruk; UP, UJ kuryk;
P kuruk; V kuruk; JT, JO kuruk; kyryk; K kyryk; . *kurk; UEW 677; Bereczki 1992, 24.

105

*kutk '' < *kutke


. . kutko; CU kutko, CK kutko; Ch kutko;
B kutko; M kutko, MK kutku; UJ kutko, UP kutky;
P kutko; V kutku; JT kutko, JO kutku;
kytky; K kytky; . *kutk; UEW 678; Bereczki
1992, 25.

*kuE- ', ; , ' < *koe. . kua (2); CU kuem, CK kuem; Ch kuem;
B, BJ kuem, BJp. kuem; UP, UJ kuem; P
kuem; V kucem; JT, JO kucem; kya (2);
K kyem; . *ku-; UEW 667.

*kuk-eA- '' < *kaka. . kukea (1); CU kukeam, CK kukeam;


Ch kukeam; B kukeam; M kukeam; U
kukeam; P kukeam; JT kukeam, JO kukem;
kykea (1); K kykem; . *kukt-; UEW
641.

*mu '' < *moV


. . muyvuj; CCh mucu-wuj; BJp. muo-wuj, B,
BJ muo-wuj; M muo-wuj, MK mu-wuj; UP
mu-wuj, UJ w-wuj; P muo-wuj; JT mucu-wuj;
myyvuj; K mycy-wuj; . *mu (wuj ',
'); SKES 180; UEW 704; Bereczki 1992, 38.

*lum ''; *lumA- ', ( )' < *lume


. . lum; luma (1); CU lum, CK lum; Ch lum;
B lum; M lum; U lum; P lum;
V lum; JT, JO lum; lym; K lym; .
*lum; MSzFE 408; UEW 253-254; Bereczki 1992, 34.

106

*lups '' < *lupa


. . lups; CU lups, CK lup; C, CN lup; B
lup; M, MM lups, MK lup; lup; lup; lup; JT, JO lup; lyp; lyp; .
*lup; Bereczki 1992, 35; UEW 261.

. *lup ', , , , ;
()' < *lupsV
. . lup; lupa (2); CU lup, CK lup; Ch, ChN
lup; B lup; M, MM lups, MK lup; U lup;
P lup; JT lup; lyp; lypa (2); K lyp;
. *lup; NyK 45:118; Bereczki 1992, 35.
*luk ', , ' < *lowkkV
. . luk; lykyn-lukyn ' '; CU luk, CK luk; Ch luk, poly luk ' ' (poly ''); B
luk; M luk; U luk; P luk; lyk; K
lyk; . *luk; MSzFE 412; UEW 252; Bereczki 1992, 34.

*mujz . '' < *macV


. . muzo; CU myze, CK mize; Ch mize;
BJ muzo, B mujzo; M mujzo, MK muzu; UJ muzo,
USj. muzy, UP muzzy; P muzo; V muzu; JT
muzo, JO muzy; myzy ''; K myzy; .
*mucy; SKES 343; UEW 271-272; Bereczki 1992, 40.

*mun '; , ()' < *muna


. . muno; muna (2) ' , ( ); ( ), ( )'; CU muno, CK muno; Ch muno; B muno;
M muno; UJ muno, UP muny; P muno; V
munu; JO munu; myny; mynza (2) ' , ;

107

, '; K myny; . *mun;


MSzFE 449-450; UEW 285; Bereczki 1992, 39.

. *mur ''; *murE- '; , , ' <


*mura
. . mura (2); muro; CU muro, CK muro; Ch
mor; B muro; M muro, MK muru; UJ muro,
UP mury; P muro; V muru; JT muro, JO muru;
myry; myra (2); K myry; . *mur; UEW
287; Bereczki 1992, 39.
*mua-, *mu-n '' < *muV
. . mua; CU mua, CK mua; Ch mua;
B mua; M mua, MK mua; U mua;
P mua; V mucak; JT, JO muca; myny
. ' , '; mya ''; K mya;
. *mua-k; UEW 283; Bereczki 1992, 38.

. *mukA- ', , , ; ;
, ; ' < *muske- (*moske-)
. . muka (1); CU mukam, CK mukam; Ch
mukam; M mukam; U mukam; P mukam;
V mukam; JT, JO mukam; myka (1); K mykam; . *muk-; MSzFE 450-451; UEW 289;
Bereczki 1992, 39;
*muknd ' ()' < *mukV
. . mukyndo; CU mukyndy, CK mukundo; Ch
mukundo; B mukundo; M mukundo, MK
mukundu; UJ mukyndy; P mukundo; V
mukundu; JT mukundo, JO mukundu; mykyndy;
mykyndy; . *muknd; UEW 704; Bereczki
1992, 39.

108

*nulE- '' < *nole- (*nle-)


. . nula (2); CU nulem, CK nulem; Ch nulem;
B nulem; M nulem; U nulem; P nulem;
V nulem; J nulem; nyla (2); K nylem;
. *nul-; MSzFE 474-475; UEW 321; Bereczki 1992, 44.

. *pun ' (, ); ,
(); ( ); (); ( )' <
*puna
. . pun; CU pun, CK pun; Ch pun; B pun;
M pun; U pun; P pun; V pun;
JT, JO pun; pyn; K pyn; . *pun;
MSzFE 181; UEW 402; Bereczki 1992, 53.
*punE- ' ( ..), ()' < *puna. . puna (2); CU punem, CK punem; Ch punem;
B punem; M punem; U punem; P
punem; V punem; JT, JO punem; pyna (2); K pynem; . *pun-; MSzFE 213-214; UEW 402-403;
Bereczki 1992, 53-54.

*punda-ks '' < *puntV-ksV


. . punda; CU punda; CK punda; Ch punda;
B punda; MK punda, M, MM pundas; UP
punda, pundas, UJ punda; P punda; V punda;
JT, JO punda, JP pundak; pynda; K pynda;
. *pundak; UEW 740-741; Bereczki 1992, 53.

. *punE- '; , ()' <


*punca *puca
. . punala (1); MK punem; UJ punem;
V punem; JO punem; pynzala (1);
pynem; . *punc-; UEW 404; Bereczki 1992, 54.
109

*purA- ', ; , ; , , ; , ()' < *pure. . pura (1); CU puram, CK puram; Ch puram;
B puram; M puram; U puram; P
puram; JT puram; pyra (1); K pyram;
. *pur-; SKES 655-656; UEW 405; Bereczki 1992, 54.

. *purE- ', , ; ; ,
; , ; ( ..);
( ..)' < *purV- (*p8rV-)
. . pura (2); CK purem; Ch pyrem; B
purem; M purem; U purem; P purem; V purem; JO purem; pyra (2); K pyrem;
. *pur-; MSzFE 201-202; UEW 408; Bereczki 1992, 54.

. *puE- ', ; , ' <


*puV
. . pua (2); CU puem, CK puem; Ch puem;
B puem; M puem, MK puem; U puem;
P puem; V pucem; JT, JO pucem; pya
(2); K pyam; . *pu-; UEW 400; Bereczki
1992, 52.
*pu ', ' < *puV
. . pu; CU pu, CK pu; Ch pu; B pu;
M pu; U pu; P pu; V pu;
JT, JO pu; py; K py; . *pu; UEW 398.

*tur ', , ' < *tokV-rV- //*tokrV. . tuvyr; CU tuwyr, CK tuur; Ch tuur;
B tuwur; M tuwur, MK tuwur; U tuwyr; P
tuwur; V tuur; J tuur; tyyr; K
tyyr; . *tur; UEW 797; Bereczki 1992, 79.

110

*tul '; ' < *tule


. . tul; CU tul, CK tul; Ch tul, B tul;
M tul; U tul; P tul; V tul; JT,
JO tul; tyl; K tyl; . *tul; SKES 1390; UEW
535; Bereczki 1992, 78.

*ua -z- '' < *ue


. . ua; CU ua, CK ua; Ch ua;
V ua; J ua; ya ''; K ya; . *u-a; SKES 1560; UEW 541; Bereczki 1992, 83.

*ulA- ', ; ( ) , ' < *wole


. . ula (1); ulo ', '; CU ulam, CK ulam;
Ch ulam; B ulam; M ulam; U ulam;
P ulam; JT, JO ulam; yla ', '; yle '
(, -, -)'; K ylam; . *ul- ''; MSzFE 669670; UEW 580; Bereczki 1992, 81.

. *urE- ', -, -, -, -, ; ' <


*worke. . ura (2); CU urem, CK urem; Ch urem;
B urem; M urem; U urem; P
urem; V urem; J urem; yra (2);
K yrem; . *wur-.
*urm '' < *surme
. . urmae; CU urmay, CK urmae; Ch
urmae; urmae; urmae; UP urmagy; USj, US urmay; V urmu; JT urmo; K yrmy; . *urm; UEW 490; Bereczki 1992, 70.

111

*un, *uwn ', ; ' < *sowV-nV


. . uyno; CU uyno, CK uuno; Ch uuno;
B uwun; MK uwun, M, MM uuno; UP,
UJ uwyn; P uwun; JT uwun, uun; yvyn;
K ywyn; . *uwn(); UEW 767; Bereczki
1992, 71.

. *sulE- '; ; ; , ' < *sula. . ula (2); CU ulem, CK ulem; Ch ulem;
B ulem, sulem; MK ulem; M sulem; US,
UJ ulem; UP, USj. sulem; V ulem; JT, JO ulem;
yla (2); K ylem; . *sul-; MSzFE 500-501;
UEW 450-451; Bereczki 1992, 69.
*umE- ', ' < *ia. . uma (2); CU umem, CK umem; Ch
umem; B umem; M umem; U umem;
P umem; J umem; yma (2); K
ymem; . *um-; SKES 77; UEW 784-786; Bereczki 1992,
69.

*suzar, *szar ' ' < *sasare


. . ar; CU ar, CK uar; Ch uar;
B uar; MK uar, M, MM suzar; UP uar, suzar;
UJ ar; P uar; V uar; JT ar; JO uar;
yar; K yar; . *suzar; SKES 1042-1043;
UEW 752-753; Bereczki 1992, 71.

112

*puk-eA- ' ' < *pucka (*packa)


. CU pukeam, CK pukeam; Ch pukeam;
B pukeam; M pukeam; U pukeam;
P pukeam; JT pukeam, JO pukem;
K pykem; . *puke-t-; MSzFE 216-217; UEW 396-397;
Bereczki 1992, 54.

*wuza-lE- '' < *wosa. . uala (2); CU ualem, CK ualem; Ch


ualem; B ualem; M, MM, MK uzalem; U
ualem; P ualem; JT, JO ualem; vyala (2) ''; K walem; . *wuzal-; SKES 441; UEW
585; Bereczki 1992, 82.

*lum-e ', ' < *l8mV // *8mV


. . CU lume, CK lume; B, BJ, BJp. lume; P lume;
V lumej; JT lume; lyme; K lyme;
. *lum; UEW 262; Bereczki 1992, 34.


, - , .
:
1) o u (1 ):
. *nul '' < *nulkV
. . nulo; nolko; CU nulo; Ch nolo-ko;
B nulo, nulu-ko, BJ, BJp. nulu-o; M nulo,
MK nulu; UJ nulo, UP, USj. nuly; P nulo;
V nulu; JT nulo, JT nulu; K nyly; .
*nuly; UEW 327; Bereczki 1992, 44.

113

2) , u u
(1 ):
. *ua-r '' < *wi
. . uar; CK uar; Ch uar; B uar;
M, MK uar; UP, UJ uar; P uar; V
uar; JO uar; yar; K yar; . *ua-r;
SKES 1735; UEW 823; Bereczki 1992, 83.
3) , , u u (1 ):
. *uw-(k) ' (., )' <
*soppV-sV
. . uvy; CU uwy, CK ywyk; Ch ywy;
B uwu; M uwu, MK uwu; U uwy;
P uwu; JT, JO uwuk; uvy ', (; )'; K uwy; . *uw; UEW 776;
Bereczki 1992, 71.
4) , , , u u (2 ):
. *luj() '' < *lujV
. . luj; CCh luj; B luj; M luj;
UP, USj. luj; P luj; V luj; JO luj, JT lujo; lyj;
K lyjy; . *luj; UEW 252; Bereczki 1992, 33.
. *u() '; ()' < *otV. . umdo; CU undo, CK umdo; Ch, ChN umdo;
BJp. undo, B, BJ umdo; M umdo, MK undu;
UJ undo, UP , USj., US, UJ und; P undo; V undu;
JT umdo, JO und; yngyy ' ()'; . *umd-; SKES 342; Bereczki 1992, 81.

114

,
,

.79

79


:
. . luma (2) ' -. ( -. -.)'; CU
lumem, CK lumem; . Ch lumem; . B lumem; . MK lumem; .
U lumem; . P lumem; . JO lumem, JT lomem; . loma (2); .
K lomem, (Wichm.) lymem; . *lum-; SKES 309; UEW 694; Bereczki 1992,
34 < *luma. . numala (1) ', ; ( ..)'; namija (2); CU
numalam, CK, C numalam; . B numalam; . M numalam; . U
numalam; . P numalam; . V namalam; . JT numalam, JO
namalam; . K namalam; Bereczki 1992, 104 < *nowV *nowta
. . nuno ''; nine ''; CU nine; . B nine; . U nuny Wichm.;
UJ nine, UP niny; . JT nine; . nny; . K nin; nn; .
*ni-n; *nu-n; SKES 399, 412; UEW 300-301, 306-307; Bereczki 1992, 42, 44 < *n (*ne);
*no
. . pu ' (); ; (. )'; CU pu, CK po; .
Ch po; . B pu; . M puo, MK puu; . U pu; .
P pu; . V poc; . JT, JO poc; . py; . K py;
. *pu(); SKES 661-662; UEW 397-398 < *puke
. . pukyla (1); pukyna (1) ' (); , ; ',
', ( )'; CU pukylam; . B pklm; .
M psklam, MK psklam; . UP, USj. pskylam, UJ pkylam; .
P pklm; . V pukulam; . JT, JO pukulam; . pykyla (1); .
K pklam; . *pukyl-; SKES 659; UEW 408 < *puske. . tunema (1) '; , (-. )'; tunykta (2) ';
'; CU tunemam, CK tnemam; . CH tnemam; . B tunemam;
. MK tunemam, M tunemam; . UP, USj. tunemam, UJ tynemam; .
P tunemam; . V tunemm; . JT tnemam, JO tunemm; .
tymda (2); tymena (1); . K tymenm; . *tune-m-; MSzFE 611-612;
UEW 537; Bereczki 1992, 78.
. . roija (2) ''; CU rutijem, CK rutijem, C rotajem; . BJ, BJp.
royjem; . UP rot; . P roejem; . JSh rutijem, JT, JO rutejem;
. yrt kea; . KA, KSh ryt, KJ yrt; KJ rtijem; . *rut; UEW 427;
Bereczki 1992, 57 < *r8tV.

115

. * :
.,
* :
. ., , , , , , ,
, :
*wt (*w-) '' < *wete
. . v; CU, CK wt; Ch wt; B wt;
M wt; U wt; P wt; V wt;
JT, JO wt; v; K wt; . *wt;
MSzFE 695-696; UEW 570; Bereczki 1992, 90.

*wr '' < *wire


. . vr; C wr; Ch wr; B wr;
MM wr, M wur; U wr; P wr; V wr;
JT, JO wr; vr; K wr; . *wr;
MSzFE 684-685; UEW 576.

*wren '' < *irVnV (*rVnV)


. . vrene; C wrene; Ch wrene; B
wrene; M wrene, MK wren; UJ wrene,
UP wreny; P wrene; V wren; JT
wrene, JO wren; vreny; K wren; . *wren; UEW 628; Bereczki 1992, 90.

*wtel '' < *w8tV-lV


. . vtele; CU wtele, CK wtele; ChN wtele;
B, BJ wtele, BJp. wtele; M wutele, MK wtel;
UJ wtele, UP, USj, US wtely; V wtel;
JT wtele, JO wtelej; vtely; K wtel; .
*wtel; Bereczki 1992, 90.

116

*kr '' < *kVtrV


. . kyr; C kyr; CH kr; B kr;
M kr, MK kr; U kyr; P kr;
JT, JO kr; ker; K kr; .
*kr; UEW 231.

. *kp ' ( , )' < *kipsV (*kpsV


*kpsV)
. . kp; CU, CK kp; Ch kp; BJp.
kp; UJ kp; P kp; V kp; JT,
JO kp; kp; K kp; . *kp; UEW 1589160; Bereczki 1992, 27.
*krtn '' < *krtV
. . krtn; CU, CK krtn; Ch krtn; B
krtn; M kurtn, MK krtn; UJ krtn, UP, USj.,
US krtny; P krtn; V krtn; JT krtn, JO
krtn; krtni; K krtni; . *krtn; UEW 653.

*lm '' < *nime


. . lm; CU, CK lm; , hN lm; B
lm; B lm; U lm; P lm; V lm;
JT, JO lm; . lm; lm; MSzFE, 468-369; UEW
305; Bereczki 1992, 35.

. *lp, *lup ', , ' < *loppa


(*luppa)
. . lp; lpkata; CU lp; Ch lp; UJ lp;
V lp; JO lp; JT lupkata; K lypkata;
. *lup; UEW 693; Bereczki 1992, 34.
117

*n-k '' < *niV (*nV)


. . nk; C nk; ChN nko; B nk;
M nk, MK nsk; UJ nk, UP, USj. nky;
P nk; V nk; JT nk, JO nk;
nky; K nk; . *n-k; UEW 708; Bereczki
1992, 44.

*t '; ; ' < *tie (*te)


. . t; C t; Ch t; B t; M
t; U t; P t; V t; JT, JO t; .
t; t; . *t; MSzFE 641-642; UEW 523524; Bereczki 1992, 80.

*tr '; ' < *ter


. . tr; trla (2); B tr; M tr; UJ tr;
JT, JO tr; . tr; trla (2); tr; . *tr;
MSzFE 646; UEW 522; Bereczki 1992, 80.

*trw ', ' < *turpa


. . trv; CU, CK trw; Ch trw; B
trw; M trw, MK trw; UJ trw, UP trwy;
P trw; V trw; JT trw, JO trw;
trvy; trw; . *trw; SKES 1426; UEW 801;
Bereczki 1992, 80.

* '' < *cuV (*cukV) *suV (*ukV)


. . ; CU w, CK s; Ch w; B
w; M, MM , MK ; JT w, JT w;
. y ''; K ; UEW 41; Bereczki 1992,
110-111.

118

*-r '; ' < *setV


. . yr; CU, CK yr; Ch r; B
r; M r, MK r; U yr; P r;
JT, JO r; . yr; K r; .
*-r; UEW 757-758; Bereczki 1992, 71.

*r() '', *ra-k '' < *sure


. . ra; r; CU ra; r; CK srak; Ch
rak; B r; r; M ur; ur, MK ur; r;
U ra; UJ r; P r; r; V rk;
JT rak, JO rk; ra; K r; .
*r-k; SKES 1077; UEW 779; Bereczki 1992, 73-73.

. *kA- ', (); ();


-, ; ( ..); ()' <
*ssk- ( *sske-)
. . ka (1); Ch kam; B km; M
km, MK kam; UP, UJ kam; V km;
JT kam, JO km; . ka (1); K km;
. *k-; SKES 1149; UEW 768; Bereczki 1992, 74.

. *w-l, -k ', ' < *wil


(*wl)
. V wl; JT wln, JO wln; . vky; vlan;
vlny . ' (loc.)'; vlec ' , ';
K wln; . *wl-; SKES 1859-1861; UEW 573-574; Bereczki 1992, 89.


, - , .
119

:
1) (6 ):
. *wl, *wl '' < *wlV (*wV)
. . vl; CK wl; Ch wl; B wl;
MM wl, M wul, MK wl; UP wly, UJ wl;
P wl; V wl; JT wl, JO wl; . vly;
K wl; . *wl; SKES 1680; UEW 563, 563564; Bereczki 1992, 89.
. *mk-r '; ; ( )' <
*mikV (*mkV)
. . mkyr; CK mkr, CU mkyr; Ch mkyr;
B mkr; M mkr; UP, UJ mkyr;
P mkr; JT, JO mkr; . mkyr; K mkr;
. *mk-r; SKES 348; UEW 703; Bereczki 1992, 41.
. *kr '' < *kere. . kr; C kr; Ch kr; B kr, BJ kur;
M kur, MK kr; U kr; P kr; JT, JO
kr; . kr; K kr; . *kr; MSzFE 353; UEW
148-149; Bereczki 1992, 28.
. *pn '' < *pe *pen
. . pn; CU pn, CK pn, CCh pn; Ch
pn; B pn, BJp. pn; MM pn, M pun;
UP, USj, US pny, UJ pn; JT pn, JO pn;
K pn; . *pnc; SKES 543; UEW 727;
Bereczki 1992, 56.
. *pkA- ', -, -, -, -, -, ; ,
' < *pek- (*pk-)
. . pka (1); CU, CK pkam, CCh pckam;
ChN pkam; Ch pskam; BJp. pkm, B pkm;
M pukam, MK pkam; U pkam; P pkm;
V pck; JT pckam, JO pckm; . pka (1);
120

K pkm; . *pk-; SKES 674; UEW 367;


730; Bereczki 1992, 55.
. *rm, *rmbal, *rmbalE- '', '' <
*rmV
. . rmbala (2), rmbale; CU, CK rmbalem;
Ch rumbalem; B, BJ, BJp. rmblem; M
rumblem, MK rmbalem; UP, UJ rmbalem; JT,
JO rm; JO rmblem; . rmaly, rmala (2); KA,
KSh rm; . *rm; SKES 356; UEW 747; Bereczki 1992, 58.
2) ,
(3 ):
. *k() '; ( ); , ( )' < *kine (*kne) ? *kie (*ke)
. . k; C k; Ch k; BJp. k, B k,
BJ ku; M k, MK k; UP k, UJ k;
P k; V kc; JT, JO kc; k; K k;
. *k; SKES 255; UEW 157.
. *kz '' < *keV
. . kz; CK kz, CU kz; Ch kz; B
kz, BJp. kz; M kz, MK kz; UP kzy, UJ
kz; P kz; V kz; JT kz, JO kz; .
kzy; K kz; . *kc; MSzFE 356; UEW 142;
Bereczki 1992, 28.
. *rt ', , ' < *irtV (*rtV)
. . rt; C rt; Ch rt; B rt;
M rt, MK rt; UJ rt, UP rty; P
rt; JT rt, JO rt; . rty; K rt;
. *rt; UEW 785; Bereczki 1992, 74.

121

3) ,
(1 ):
. *tr '; ; ' < *terV
. . tr; CK tr; Ch tr; B tr; M
tr; U tr; P tr; V tr; JT, JO tr; .
tr; tr; . *tr; UEW 795; Bereczki 1992, 80.
4) , , (6 ):
. *kz- '; ( )' < *kise (*kse)
. . k; CK k, CU k; Ch k;
B k; M, MM kz, MK k; UP,
USj. kzy, US ky, UJ k; P k; V k;
JT k; . ky; k; . *kz;
UEW 161; Bereczki 1992, 28.
. *tka '' < *tek (*tek)
. CU, CK tka; B tk; M, MM tk,
MK tka; U tka; V tk; JO tk, JT
tka; K tk; . *tka; UEW 795.
. *wE- ', -, ', *w-l '' <
*silke (*slke)
. . va (2); vyl; C wyl; Ch wl; MK wl; UP swyl, UJ uwyl; V wl;
JO wl; . vala; wl; . *wl;
SKES 1145; UEW 479; Bereczki 1992, 74.
. *ar, *er '' < *iV-rV, *ciV-rV (*ikV-rV,
*cikV-rV)
. . ar; CU, CK ar; Ch ar; B
r; M, MK ar; USj, US ar; P r;
V er; JO er; . er; KA er;
. *V-r; MSzFE 552-553; UEW 59; Bereczki 1992, 72.
122

*s-k '' < *sitV


. . y; CU yr, CK y; Ch ;
B, BJ , BJp. r; M , MK ;
UP yr; USj., US, UJ y; P ; V
k; JT yyk, JO k; . y; K ;
. *si-k; SKES 1047; UEW 762-763; Bereczki 1992, 72.
. *l() ' ( ,
)' < *sile (*sle)
. . l; C l; Ch l; B l, BJp.
l; M l, MM sl, MK l; UP sly, USj.,
US ly; P l; JT l, JO l; . l; K
l; . *l; MSzFE 512-513; UEW 444; Bereczki 1992, 73.
.

, ,
80.

, *i, *u . , - , *i
87 %, * u 91% . , 10% , , . , .,
80

:
. . kla (1) '; , '; CU, CK kle, CCh kyle;
. Ch kle; . B kle; . M kule, MK kle; UP kule; UJ kyle;
P kle; . V kl; . JT kyle, JO kl; . kela (1); . K kele; .
*kil-; UEW 145 < *kelke-.

123

*u, *i , .,
,
. , ,
*u, *i 90 %
, , , , .
* . . , 70 . , 19 - . 15 , - ,
. ,
, ., , , ,
*, , .
, 70
, , , *.
81.

81

..: . *u 71 , . *i 31 , . * 32 .
. * 56 , . *
38 , . * 19 .

124

II.
. ,
*u, *i.
*, Itkonen 1953, .
, , .
, . ,
.
.
:
*i < *, *e, *i, *, *;
*i < *, *e, *, *i, *, *, *u;
*u < *o, *u, *i;
*u < *o, *u, *, *a;
* < *e, *i, *, *;
* < *e, *i, *o, *, *, *a, *, *;
,
. , , ,
, *, *e, *i, *, * > *i, *i;
*o, *u > *u, *u; *e,
*i, *, * > *, *. . .
, -82 *o, *u
*u ,
82

-
. , - . ,
,
. -

125

*u .
*o, *u :
I :

*u- > . *o, . *u83

II :

*o-a|, *u- > . *u ( *-)/* 84 ( *a-),


. *u ( *a-), . * (2- )// *u (1-) ( *-)
*u-a > . *, . *//
I
*u- :
*uma-re ' ' 789 >
. ovar (E), ovar . -n (M), Paasonen 1990, 288.
. *ua-r: . uar, C uar, . Ch uar, . B
uar, . M uar, MK ar, UJ uar, UP, USj. war,
P uar, . JT uar, uer; JO uar; . *uar; SKES 82-83;
UEW 789; Bereczki 1992, 68.

*muna '; , ()' (Janh., Samm. (19)


*muna) 285 >


, - (

). *- - - .
83
VV > . *u/*.
84
. * . 2006, 1997.

126

. mona (E) '', Paasonen 1992, 1282.


. *mun: . muno; muna (2) ' , ( );
( ), ( )';
CU muno, CK muno; . Ch muno; . B muno;
. M muno; UJ muno, UP muny; P muno; .
V munu; . JO munu; . myny; mynza (2) ' , ; , '; . K myny; .
*mun; UEW 285; Bereczki 1992, 39.
*puna ', ' (Samm. *pu/ana) 402 >
. pona (E M);
. *pun: . pun; CU) pun, CK pun; . Ch pun;
. B pun; . M pun; U pun; P pun; . V
pun; . JT, JO pun; . pyn; . K pyn; .
*pun; UEW 402; Bereczki 1992, 53.

*puna ' ( ..), ()' (Janh., Samm.


(116) *puna/) 402 >
. pona- (E, M) ', , ', Paasonen 1994, 1746;
. *punE-: . puna (2); CU punem, CK punem; .
Ch punem; . B punem; . M punem; U punem;
P punem; . V punem; . JT, JO punem; . pyna (2);
. K pynem; . *pun-; UEW 402-403; Bereczki
1992, 53-54.
*sula '' (Samm. *sula) 450 >
. sola (E), sola (solan) (M), sola- (E M), Paasonen 1996, 2008.
. *sulE-: . ula (2); CU ulem, CK ulem; . Ch
ulem; . B ulem, sulem; . MK ulem; M sulem;
US, UJ ulem; UP, USj. sulem; . V ulem; . JT, JO
ulem; . yla (2); . K ylem; . *sul-; UEW
450-451; Bereczki 1992, 69.

127

*kua ', , ' (Samm. *kua-) 675 >


. koda- (E, M), Paasonen 1992, 814;
. *koE-: . kua (2); C kuem; . Ch kuem; .
B kuem; . M kuem, MK kwem; U kuem; P
kuem; . V kuem; . JT, JO kuem; . koa (2); . K
koem; . *ku-; SKES 144; UEW 675; Bereczki 1992, 23.

II
*o-a :
*cona coa '' (Helimski *o(n)c'a) 39 >
. iav (E), uav (E), iav ( eav < iav), . -n (M),
Paasonen 1990, 258.
. *ur: . uro; C uro; . Ch uro; . B
uro; . M uro, MK uru; UJ uro, UP ury;
P uro; . V uru; . JO ury; . K ury;
. *ur; SKES 1071; UEW 39.

*koka '' (Samm. *koka) 668 >


. kuckan (E:Atr), kuckan (M), Paasonen 1992, 91785.
. *kutk-, *kuk-: . kutky; CU kutky; .
kutky; . KA, KN kuky; . *kuk; SKES 224;
UEW 668; Bereczki 1992, 25.

85

, *k - . k, k, k.
*k > k UEW .

128

*o- :
*korta86 ', ' 186 >
. gurno- (E), gurna- (M) ' ', Paasonen 1990, 431;
. *korE-: . B kore ' (
)'.

*sorwa ', ' (Samm. *s'orwa) 486 >


. suro (E), sora (M), Paasonen 1996, 2199;
. *ur: . ? urka ' ( );
)', C ur, . Ch ur, . B
ur; . M ur; UJ, US ur; P ur; . V ur;
J ur; . ur; . K ur; . *ur; UEW 486;
Bereczki 1992, 69-70.

*sota, *soa *soa ', , ' 777 >


. sudo- (E), sud- (M) '', Paasonen 1996, 2187;
. *ua-: uala- KB, u U '', uala- B '',
ue- M ''.

*kota ', ' (Samm. *kota) 190 >


. kudo (E), kud (), Paasonen 1992, 922.
. *kuV: ku KB, kuo U, kuo B.

*loma ', , , ' 692 >


. kd-luv . -n (M), Paasonen 1992, 1085.
. *lo-, *lo-ng, *lu--c -u- (*lo--c): . lo; logo; luy;
C lo; CK luu; . Ch logo; lo; . B lo; BJ
logo; luu; BJp. luu; . M logo; lo; luu; U

86
*- ,
*- *-.

129

lo; P logo; lo; luu; . V louc; . JT lo; . lo;


loc; . K lo, locn; . *lo; SKES 302; UEW
692; Bereczki 1992, 32.
*soka ' ' (Samm. *s'o/dk/d'ka) 482 >
. sulgo sulga (E), culga . culgn (M), Paasonen 1996, 2193;
. *so-e: . CK ue-luo, Ch ue-luo, . MK
sue-luu, . V ue-luu, . JT ue-luo, . K alaoe; . *u-e; SKES 1085; UEW 482; Bereczki 1992, 59

*u- :
*muja '' 284

>

. muje- (E), muj- (M), Paasonen 1992, 1292;


. *muA-: . mua (1), C muam, . Ch muam,
. B muam, . MK mam, UP, UJ muam, P
muam, . JT muam, . moa (1), . K moam; . *mu-; UEW 284; Bereczki 1992, 38.

*u-a :
*purkV (Samm. *purki) '' 406 >
. porgams, purga- (E), purgams, prga- (M), prgams, Paasonen
1994, 1850.
: *pur-, *pur-tE-, *pur-: . pury; . pyryta (2).

*turpa ', ' (Samm. *turpa) 801 >


. turva torva (EM), trva (M), Paasonen 1996, 2354;
. *trw: . trv; CU, CK trw; . Ch trw;
. B trw; . M trw, MK trw; UJ trw,
UP trwy; P trw; . V trw; . JT trw, JO trw;
. trvy; . trw; . *trw; SKES 1426; UEW

801; Bereczki 1992, 80.


130

*suka ', ' 777 >


. suva (E), siva (E:Kad), suva . (-n) (M), Paasonen 1996, 2203,
. *s : . u; C ; . Ch ; U ;
. JT, JO ; . K ; . *; SKES 10951096; UEW 777-778; Bereczki 1992, 67.

. *i :
I :

*i-a, *i- > . *o|*e, . *i

II :

*i- > . *i, . *i

:
I :
*ic '', 78 >
. oc, . ocn (M) ' ', Paasonen
1994, 1416;
. *iza: . . z, . iza, iza ' ;
( )', iza (B) 'lterer Bruder';
. *ica; UEW 78; Ber. 10.
*silm '', 479 >
. selme (E), selm Pl. selmt (M), Paasonen 1996, 2128;
. *iza: . . snz, ., ., inca; .
*in-a; UEW 479; Ber. 62.
II :
*jik (*ik) ', ', 98 ( . I
) >
. ije (E), ij (M) Paasonen 1990, 441;
. * (j): . . i, . ij; . *ij; UEW 93; Ber. 8.
131

, *i
, , .*,
*, *i
.

,
,
, , *i, *u.
,
*, , *i, Itkonen 1953
,
.
*u, , *i,
, .
. *u *o, *u, . *i, , *i *- .

.
, *u, *i , .
, .
, , - .
.

132

III.2.
[. Rsnen 1920, Beke
1933, Beke 1935, I968, ., Bereczki 1992, 1994].
, , ,
[.
., Bereczki 1992, 1994] ,
[. Rsnen 1920]. , , [. Bereczki 1992,
1994], .
. ,

. e
:
*: . . kvar '; '; . . kver '' < .
'', I996, I, 276;
*i: . . , '' < . - '',
I996, I, 149;
*u: . . una-; . . na- ', ' < .
- ', ', I996, II, 43.
. , . ,
.
, , 133

, ,
i *e *i:
, , ,
.
,
. :
*e, * > . *a > . *a, . .
*a, *, *o > . *o > . *, . o.
* > . * > . *i, . , e.
*u, *, *o, *-- > . *u > . *u, . .
*--, *--, *, *, *o > . * > . *, . e.
*--, * > . * > . *, . .
( *- > . *vi > . *vi, . ve)87.
*e > . *i > . *i, . i.
*a > . *a > . *e, . i, .
*ej > . *e > . *e, . i

1996. ,
I996 . .,
:
1) , ,
I996, ,
, : . - ' , , ', I, 75, ..
87

,

*.

134

' ', : *el- ',


, ': .-. e- (Orkh.); . e- (MK); .
t- (.); . is-; EDT 255, 1, 316, Stachowski 129. *e i,
i- ', ',
: *el- ', '. . - '
, , ', , t- (.)
', '.

. ,
,
. ,
, , ,
, , , , .
2) , 88 .
( ):
.. '' < . - '' . '', II, 268 < : *tut- ', ': .. tut- (Orkh., OUygh.); . tut- (MK, KB, IM); . tot-; .
tut-; . tut-; . tu't-; . tu't-; VEWT 502, EDT 451, 268269, Stachowski 233.

88

,
2006, . ,
: -
- ,
.
, ,
, . ,
.

135

.. ajlana- (2) ' ' < . , II, 54 <


: *sb-le- '': . sjl-, . svle-, sevle-; . sjle-;
. l-; . sgle-; VEWT 429, 7.
3) , ,
,
, 89 , ,
: . . ''; . . '' < . , '',
, 316. , .
I996
. ? ,
-, ,
, . -, , ,
-
, .

1996 ( 400 ),
. ,
(19 )
, , , , .

1)
, ; 2)

89

Bereczki 1992, 1994.

136

,
.

*e, * > . *a > . * , .


.. '' < . - '', I, 210 <
90
: *gb- : : kev- (MK); . k-; . gv-
'cud'; . keb-; . kege-n-; . kege-; VEWT 244, EDT 687,
3, 5-7.
.. aua- (2) '; ' < . , I, 24 < : *eg- : .-. eg- (OUygh.);
. eg- (MK); . eg-; . iex-; EDT 99, VEWT 37, 1,
330-332, 19, Stachowski 122 (. iex- < *eg-ik-).
.. aur '' < . '', I, 27 < *egir', ': . egrik, egrim (MK), . (. ., .)
egrim, (.) egrik; 1974, 229, EDT 112, 113, C 165-166,
I, 27. EDT 112, 1, 227-231, TMN 2, 192, Stachowski
122.
.. aka ' ; '; .. ka
' ' < . ' ', I, 31 < :
*eke ' ': .-. eke (OUygh.); . eke (MK);
ege-t 'female servant of bride' (MK); . ekei; VEWT 38, 1,
222-224, TMN 1, 190, 2, 91-92, EDT 100, 102, 23.
.. kavan ', '; .. kvan '' < .
', ', I, 225 < : *gepen '': . kibn,
kbn91; . xpen; 5, 15.
.. kandra ''; .. kndra < . '
', I, 224 < *kendVr ', ': .
90

,
, , , , , , , .
91
, ,
, . kbe ''.

137

kendir; . kindir; ., . xendir; 5, 39.


.. kaa- ''; .. ka- < . '', I,
223 < : *gee- '' *gee- '()': .-.
kee 2, kee- 1 (OUygh.); . kee- 'to settle one's affairs with
someone' (MK, KB), kene 2, kee- 1 (MK, KB); . ki 2; .
gee- 1, gee 2; VEWT 253, EDT 727, 734, 3, 21-22, TMN
3, 613-614.
.. kaka ' ( ); ,
'; .. kka ', ' < . ' ,
' - ', '; I, 233 < : *kes- '':
.-. kes- (Yenis.); . kes- (MK, KB); . kis-; . kes-;
. kas-; . keh-; . ke's-; VEWT 257, 5, 55-57, 58.
.. parym '' < . - '', I, 385 < :
*br- '': .-. ber- (Orkh., OUygh.); . ber- (MK, KB,
IM); . bir-; . ber-; . par-; . bier-; . ber-; . ber-;
VEWT 70, 2, 114-116, EDT 354-5, Stachowski 59.
.. '' < . - ( ''), I, 61 <
: *es '1 , 2 , ': .-. es 1
(OUygh.); . es 1 (KB), esirge- 2 (MK); . is 1; . es 1; EDT
252, VEWT 49, 50, 1, 310, 33.
.. '' < . *, , I, 240 <
: *kt-mAn '': .-. ketmen (OUygh.); . ketmen
(MK); . ktmen; VEWT 259, 3, 30-31, 5, 65-66, EDT 704,
Erdal 1991, 388.
.. ', ' < . - ',
', II, 14 < : *sep- '1 , 2
, ': .-. sep- 1(OUygh.); . sep 2 (MK);
. sip 2; . sep-li 'with a dowry'; . sap-la- 'to compensate'; .
ep- 1, eb 'more, additionally'; EDT 783, 784, VEWT 410, Stachowski
43.
.. ara- (2) '; ( ..); 138

; (); ; , ; ( ..)'; .. ra- (2) ';


( ..); ; (); ;
, ; ( ..)' < . - ', ', II, 14 < : *ser- '1 ; , 2 ': .-.
ser-, seril- 1 (OUygh.); . ser- 1, seril- 'to sway and almost fall
down' (MK); . ser- 2; VEWT 411, EDT 843, 851, 7.
.. saka (2) ', '; .. ska (2) ', ' < . c- '', II, 81 < *ek- ', ': ., . ka ', , '.
.. st ', ( , )' <
. c '', II, 87 < : *ert- '1 (), 2 3 4 ': . ert- 1 (MK); . irt- 2, 3, rdk-l- 'to hew'; .
irt- 1, 3; VEWT 105, EDT 428.
.. stan ', ' < . c '', II,
88 < : *eten ', ': . *itn.
.. tayna ' , '; .. tana ', ' < . '', II, 165 < :
*tekne ', , ': . tekne (MK, IM); . tign;
VEWT 470-471, EDT 484, 228.
.. taa- ''; .. ta- < . '',
II, 171 < : *te ', ': . ti '', til
''.
.. taa ''; .. ta '' < . '',
II, 163 < : *teke '': .-. teke (OUygh.); . teke
(MK, IM); . tk ', '; . teke; . taga 'he-goat,
ram'; . de`ge, te; . te'he.
.. tava- (2) ' ; , ' <
. - ', ', II, 171 < : *tep- / *dp139

', ': . tep- (MK, KB); . tip-; . dep-, db--

e-; . tab-; . tep-; . te'p-; VEWT 474, EDT 435, 3, 195-

197, Stachowski 221.


.. tarvana- (2) '; ; ;
', tarvata- (2) ', , , ';
.. trvana- (2), trvata- (2) < . '', II,
173 < : *depre- '(), ()': .-. tepre(OUygh.); . tepre- (MK, KB); . tibrn-; . depre-, terpen-;
. tapra-n-; VEWT 474, 3, 201-202, EDT 443-444.
.. tar ' ; , '; .. tr ' ; ,
' < . ' ', II, 176 < : *ter '1
2 ': . ter 1, 2 (MK, IM); . terij''; . xol deri 2; VEWT 474, EDT 528,
1997 353.
.. ''; .. - < . - '', II, 386 < : *ek- ', ': . igen- ''.

:
.. el '' < . '', II, 497 < :

*eil 92 '1 2 , ': .-. el 2 (Orkh., OUygh.); . el 1, 2 (MK); . il 2; . l 2; . jal 2; . il 2; EDT 121122, VEWT 39, TMN 2, 194, 1, 339-343, 352,
1997 316.

92

..
*ei, , . *, . , . -i-/ja [.
2007].

140

*a, *, *o > . *o > . *, . o


.. poja- (2) ', '; pojan '; ';
.. paja- (2) ''; pajan '' < . -, - '', '', I, 440 < : *bj '1 ,
2 , ': .-. baj 1 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.);
. baj 1 (MK, KB); . baj 1, bajtaq 2; . bj 1; . bj 1; .
baj 1; EDT 384, VEWT 56, TMN 2, 259, 2, 27-29, 36,
1997 304, 332, Stachowski 55, 56.
.. oja ', ; , '; .. aja ';
; ; ; , ' < .
, '', II, 54 < : *saj- '1 , 2
, ': . saja 1; VEWT 395, 7, 150,
1928-1950, XI, 160.
.. olo '' < . , '', II, 59 < :
*sl '': . sal (MK); . sal; . sl; . l; . sal; EDT
824, VEWT 397, 1997 537, 7.
.. ola- (2) '' < . - ', , ,
, ', II, 59 < *sal- '1 , 2
3 4 ': .-. sal- 1 (OUygh.); sal- 1,2
(MK, KB); . sal- 1, sal-m 3; .sal- 1; . sal- 1; . sal- 1;
VEWT 397, EDT 824, 7.
.. oryk ''; .. aryk '' < . , ,
II, 66 < : *sarXk '1 2 ( )': .
sarq 1; 1997 432, 7.
.. ' (: )' < . , ,
II, 68 < : *sakak '1 2
3 ()': . saqaq (MK) 1; . saaq 3; . saqaq
1; EDT 807-808, 7, 147, 1997 220-222,
1928-1950 IX, 279, XI, 216.

141

. . sola ''; .. sala '' < . c '', II,


127 < : *al- ' ': . allag ', ',
. al- ' '.
.. ; .. '' < . c, c '',
II, 132 < *al- ', ': . al- ''.
.. salko ' ( , )'
< . c, c ', ', II, 133 < : *al93
'1 , , , 2 3 ,
4 5 6 , 7 8
, 9 , - 10 11
12 13 14 , ': .-. al- 1
(OUygh.); . al- 1 (MK, KB); . al- 1, 3, al 5; . al10, 7, 6, alG 5, 11; . sln- 'to fall abruptly'; . al- 10; VEWT
97, EDT 417-418, 206,.
.. ; .. salym '' < . c, c '',
II, 133 < : *jal- '1 , 2 ': .-.
jal- 1 (OUygh.), jaln 2 (OUygh.); . jal- 1 (MK), jaln 2 (MK);
. jaln 2; . aln 2; VEWT 181, EDT 918, 929, 4, 106107, 1997 23, 356-357, 363, TMN 4, 187.
.. solkem ', '; .. carkem '
' < . c ', ' c-, c '
', II, 139 < *jr- '1 , 2
, ': .-. jar- 1 (OUygh.); . jar- 1 (MK); .
jar- 1; . jr- 1; . ar- 1; EDT 954-955, VEWT 188-189,
4, 135-137, Stachowski 209.
.. soa '; (
)' < . c, c, II,
146 < : *jaka '; ': .-. jaqa (OUygh.); .
93
, ,
(,
).

142

jaqa (MK); . jaqa; . jaqa; . saa; . aa; VEWT 180, 8283, EDT 898, 4, 82-84.
.. tola- (2) '' < . - '', II, 244 <
: *tla- '': . tala-, . tala-, . tla-, .
tala- 3, 134-136, 1928-1950: XIV, 120. (
*dla- '': . tala-; . dla-).
.. toryx ' '; .. taryx < . ,
' ', II, 253 < : *tar- ' ,
': .-. tar ''; .tar ' '; . tarak ',
'.
.. torta ''; .. tarta '' < . ''
-, - '', II, 254 < : *dart- '; , ': .-. tart- (OUygh.); . tart- (MK,
KB); . tart-; . dart-, tart-; . tart-; . t'rt-; . t'rt-; VEWT
465, EDT 534, 3, 154-156, Stachowski 218.
.. ajyl ', ' < . , '', II, 270 < : *ajVl ', ': .
ael.
.. ojyra- (2) ', , , , ; , ; ; , ; ; ( ); ( );
(); ( , ); ( );
'; .. ajyra- (1) ', , ;
; ; ( ); ; ( ); (); ( , );
(); ' < . , '',
II, 270 < : *ad-r- '': .-. adr- (Orkh.,
OUygh.); adn (OUygh.) 'other'; . ar- (MK); an (MK) 'other';
. ajr-; . ajr-; . atr-; atn 'other'; . adr-; VEWT 6, EDT
60, 66-67, 1, 93, 114-116, Stachowski 39.

143

.. okak ''; .. akak '' < . , ,


'', II, 273 < : *agsa- '1 2 ': . axsa- (MK) 1, aqsaq, asa (MK) 2; . aqsa- 1; .
aGsa- 1; . axsm 2; . asqa- 1; EDT 95, 76.
.. oksa '' < . c, oc '', II, 273 <
: *aka ', ': . aqa; . aqa; . c, oc
''; II, 273, 1, 120.
.. olma '' < . , , , '', II, 278 < : *alma '': . alma; . , , ,
'', 1, 138.
.. ondala- (2) '; , '; .. altala- (2)
'; ' < . '', II, 278 <
: *Al '1 , 2 ': .-. al 1 (Orkh.,
Yen., OUygh.), al-ta- 2 (OUygh.); . l 1 (MK, KB), alda- (MK);
. alda- 2; . l 1, lda- 2; EDT 120-121, TMN 2, 93, 1,
126-127.
.. ora- (2) ', '; .. ara- (2) '' <
. -, - '', II, 283 < : *r- '1
2 3 , ': .-. z- 1
(Orkh., OUygh.); . z- 1 (MK, IM); . z- 1; .z- 1; .s- 1,
3; . as- 1; EDT 279, VEWT 22, 33, 193, 1, 94-95.
.. orata '; ' < . '',
II, 284 < : *ra '1 , 2 ,
': .-. ara 1 (Orkh., OUygh.); . ara (MK); .
ara; . ra 1; . ra 2; . ara; EDT 196, VEWT 22, TMN 2, 24,
1, 162-164, Stachowski 41.
.. arlu . '' < . , '', II, 286
< : *ar- ' ': . arkl ''.
.. ojar ', ( )'; .. ajar ', (
)' < . , ' ', II, 298 < :
*anar ' ; ': .-. ajz (OUygh.); . ajas
144

(MK); . ajz; . ajz; . ajas; 1, 102-3; VEWT 11;


TMN 2, 170; 1997 13.
.. xal '' < . , '', II, 352 < :
*Kl '; , ; ': .-.. qa (Orkh.,
OUygh.); . qa (MK, KB); . qa; . G; . xs; . qa;
. , ''; EDT 669, VEWT 240, TMN 3, 389, 5,
343-345, 1997 211-212, 542, Stachowski 143.
.. olno '; '; .. alny '
, ' < . , , '', II,
354 < : *Kal '1 2 , ': .-.
qalan (OUygh.) 2; . qal (MK) 1; . qalm 1; . Gal 2;
. xalm, xalm 1; . xl 1; . xlm 1; VEWT 226, TMN 3,
399, 488, 5, 239-240.
.. kolko '' < . , ' ',
II, 355 < *Kl()- '1 2 ':
.-.. qal- (OUygh.) 1; . qal- (MK, KB) 2; . qalq- 1,2;
. Galk- 1, Gal-dr- (); . klj- 1,2; . xal- 1, 2;
VEWT 226, 5, 224-226.
.. olyro ',
; ( )'; .. alyrcy ';
(.) ' < . , , II, 356 <
*KaltXra- '': . kaldra- (MK) ''; . kaltra.
.. on ', ; ; ' < . , ,
II, 357 < : *Kan ', , , ': .-. qan, . xan; . xan; . xan; . xun;
2007, 79.
.. ono ', ; , ' < . , ,
II, 358 < : *Kdn '': .-. qadn
(Yenis., OUygh.); . qan (MK, KB), qadn (KB), qajn (IM);

145

. qajn; . Gjn; . qat; . xatt94; VEWT 218, 5,


215-216, 1997 309,.
.. ok ', '; .. < . ,
', ', II, 425 < : *ik '1 , 2 ,
': .-. aq 1, 2 (OUygh.); . aq 2 (MK); . aq 1, 2;
. G 1; . sax 1, saa 'about (the time when, the size of)'; .
aq 1, 2; VEWT 95, 327, 1997 67, EDT 404,
139, Stachowski 92-93, 208.
.. jos '' < . c c II, 493 < : *iars
'1 2 ': .-. as (OUygh.) 1; . as, .
(MK) 1, arun (MK) 2; . as 1; . as 1; EDT 216, 191.
.. joga- (2) ', ( , ..); , , ( , , ); (
, ); , ; ( , ); , ; ( )'; joyn ', ' < . -, '',
II, 495 < : *iak- '': .-. aq- (OUygh.); .
aq- (MK); . aq-; . aq-; . aq-; EDT 77, VEWT 12, 1,
118-120, 352.
.. ora ', , '; orala- (2) ' ;
'; .. ara ''; arala- ' ;
' < . , II, 284 < : *ar- '1
2 ': .-. aru arqa 1; . arqa (MK, IM) 1,
ar 2; . arGa 1, arGa- ' -', eri 2; . ar 1; VEWT
25, 26, EDT 216, 239, 1, 170, 1997 396.
.. '' < . , o '', II, 69 < :
*sogan '': .-. soun (OUygh.); . soun (MK); .
suan; . soan; EDT 812, VEWT 425, 1997 141, 465,
7.

94

146

.. ''; .. < . , ''


II, 182 < : *drak '': . . doraq; .
tora, twara; . tura ' '; VEWT 490, 8.
.. '' < . '', II, 249 < : *top
', ': . top (MK, IM), topq (MK, KB); . tup; . top;
. tub; VEWT 489, EDT 434, 437, TMN 2, 596-597, 258,
1928-1950 XIV, 143-144.
.. tor ' ( )' < . '',
II, 251 < *doru ' ': .-. toru; .turaas95;
II, 251; III, 269.

.. tavan ' ' < . , '',


II, 249 < *tapan ', , ': .
taban ''.
.. inal ''; .. sanzal '' < . , '',
II, 421 < : *dil '': .-. ta (Orkh.,
OUygh.); . ta (MK); . ta; . d; . ts; . da; .
ta, da; VEWT 466, TMN 2, 437-8, EDT 557, 3, 167-168,
326, Stachowski 219.
.. vustyk ', ' < . c '',
I, 454 < : *bal '': .-. ba (Orkh.,
OUygh.); . ba (MK, KB); . ba; . ba; . bas; battaq
'hair of head'; . ba'; . ba'; VEWT 64, 2, 85-88, TMN
2, 250-253, EDT 375-6, 1928-1950, X, 15, 1997
194, Stachowski 54, 55.
.. sja- (2) ''; .. sja- < . c, c ', ',
II, 129 < : *jj '1 , 2 , 95

. ,
. , .

147

3 , ': . sj- 2; VEWT 205, 4, 210.


.. srasa- (2) '; ()'; .. srasa- (2)
'()' < . cc, cc '', II, 141 <
*jara- ', , ': .-. jara- (OUygh.);
jara- (MK); . jara-; . jara-; EDT 956, VEWT 189,
4, 137-139, TMN 4, 56-57, 144.
.. syra- (2) ''; .. siira- < . c-, c
'', II, 147 < *akIr ', ': .
akr-; II, 147.
.. oro; .. xoro ', , ' < .
, , , II, 362 < : *Kor(a)- '1 , 2 , ': .-. qora- 1, qor 2 (OUygh.);
. qora- 1, qor 2 (MK); . qor 2, qoron- 1; . xor 2; EDT 641642, 645-646, 6, 73-74.
.. ojo ', , , , , '; ojan
' ..'; ojyra- (2) ', ..'; ..
ojxan '', ojxyra- (2) '' < . , '',
II, 352 < : *Kadgu '': .-. qadu (OUygh.);
. qau (MK, KB); . qaj; . GajG; VEWT 217,
5, 201-203.
.. ua- (2) ', (), ()';
utara- (2) ', , ' < . -, -,
II, 375 < : *Kol '1 , 2 ()': .-. qo- 2 (OUygh.); . qo 1, qo- 2 (MK); .
qu 1, qu- 2; . Go 'a couple of oxen', Go- 'to add'; . xos
'double; again', xohuj- 2, xohn 'poem'; . qo- 2; . qo'- 2;
VEWT 283; EDT 670, 1997 611, 6, 90-94, Stachowski
150
.. aja- (2), .. ' (, )' < . -,
- '', II, 298 < *aja- '1 2 ,
3 , ': .-. aja- 1, aj 3 (OUygh.); . aja148

(MK) 1, 2, aj 3 (KB); . aja- 2; . aja- 2; . aj 'well'; VEWT


10-11, EDT 267-8, 1, 101-102.

.. pasana ' ( )'; .. pasana '' <


. c '', I, 453 < : *ba '1 2
()': .-. baa (OUygh.) 2;
. baa-naq 2 (IM); . paca 2; . ba 1, ba 2; . baa 2;
. baa 2; VEWT 54, TMN 2, 682, 2, 24, 26-27, 1997
310, 168, 1928-1950 X, 33.

* > . * > . *i, . , e


.. tyra (2) ', ; ' < .
'', II, 197 < : *trl '': .
tr; II, 197.
.. yrana- (2) ' ( ); , ';
yrata- (2) ' ( ); , '; ..
rana- (2) '; '; caus. rata- < . - '',
- '', I, 448 < : *sr- '1 , 2
, ': . sz- 1, 2; . sz- 1, 2; . sz- 1; .
szl- 1, ss-qa- 'to strain'; EDT 861, VEWT 420, 7.
.. lyk ' ' < . ' ',
II, 342 < : *Kl- '': .-. ql (OUygh.); . ql (MK,
KB); . ql; . Gl; . kl; . xl; . xl; VEWT 262, TMN 3,
574-5, EDT 614, 1997 196, 6, 204-205, Stachowski
168.
.. ia- (2) ', , , , ,
, ' < . - '', II, 347 <
*Ks- ', ': .-. kys-; . kysyk ',
'.
149

.. kijak . ''; .. xyjak . '' < . a


< : *Kj(g)ak '': . qjaq 'leaves of cereals'; . Gjaq
' '; VEWT 262, 6, 201-202

.. '' < . ce - '', II, 114


< : *jr- / *jr- 96 '1 2 , ':
. je/ir- 1 (MK); . jr- 2; . sr- 2; . ir- 1; II,
114, VEWT 198, EDT 955, 4, 203-204.
.. mujan . '' < . '', I, 353 <
: *bnan 97 (. 2007, 43) ', ': . .
mja; . bujan; 131.

*u, *, *o, *-- > . *u > . *u, . 98


.. kumyl '; , ; ,
; ( -.); '; .. kymyl '; , ; , ; ( -.); ' < . ', ', I, 251 < : *gjl ', ': .-. kl (Orkh.,
OUygh.); . kl (MK, KB); . kl; . gvn; . kl
'will, freedom'; . xl; VEWT 291, EDT 731, 3, 75-77,
1997 274, Stachowski 156.
.. ' ' < . c- '', II, 91
< : *k- '1 2 , 3 , ': .-. k- 2 (OUygh.); . k- 1
96

, .
2006 *i j ,
: . xj- '' < *ki-; . xjax '' < *kijak; . xj
'; ' < *kij- ' ', *kijik ''.
98
*u
e , 2006
s.
97

150

(MK); . k- 1; . k- 1, 2; . sgrj- 1; VEWT 117, TMN


3, 120-122, EDT 413-4, 205.
.. pua, .. pya '' < . '', I,
405 < : *bta- ', ': .-. butq 2 (OUygh.);
. butq, butaq 2 (MK); . bota- 1, botaq 2; . pda- 1,
pdaq 2; . butuk 2; mut- 1, mutuk 2; . bu'duq 2; EDT 301, 302,
VEWT 90, TMN 2, 330, 1997 103, Stachowski 183.
.. pursa ''; .. pyrsa '' < . c ,
I, 401 < : *burak ', ': .-. buraq
(OUygh.); . buraq (MK); . boraq; . buraq; EDT 357,
VEWT 89, 2, 275-277.
.. pu ''; .. py ', ; ' < . c '',
I, 403 < : *bus ', ': . bus (MK); . bus;
. bus; VEWT 90, EDT 370, 2, 277, 1997, 34.
.. vyca, vycalu ', , ' < .
, ' os ilium, ,
, ', I, 120 < : *a '1 2
3 , ': .-. ua (OUygh.) 1; . ua (MK) 2;
. ua 1; . a 1; . ua 1; EDT 20, 1, 566-567.
.. pusak '' < . c, c '', I, 426 <
: *b-gak, -mak ' ': . buaq (MK) 'region of
the world, corner'; . pomaq; . baq 'lower ends of a winebag';
VEWT 85, 2, 282-283.
.. '' < . c- '', I, 119 < :
*u- ', ': .-. u- (OUygh.); . u- (MK, KB);
. o-; . u-; . uhun- 'float'; . u'-; . u'-; VEWT 509,
EDT 19, 1, 612-613, Stachowski 241.
.. sur '; '; . . ''; ..
'' < . , ', ', II, 29 < :
*sr(X) ', ': . sor; . sr; VEWT 433, TMN 3, 287,
7.
151

.. tulyk ''; .. tylyk '' < . , II,


189 < : *dul- ', ': .-. tul (Orkh., OUygh.);
. tul (MK); . tul; . dul; . tuljax 'orphan'; . dulujaq;
. tulunaq; EDT 490, VEWT 497, 3, 292-293,
1997 293, 1928-1950 XIV, 258-259, Stachowski 230.
.. tyr '' < . '', II, 196 <
*turu '': . duru ' ,
, '.
.. kula ' ( )'; .. xyla ' (
)' < . '', II, 320 < *Kula
'': . kola.
.. yraka < . - '', - ',
, ', II, 331 < : *Kr-k,-gak '1
2 ': .-. qur- 'to dry' (OUygh.); . quru, qur 1
(MK); . qor 1; . Gr 1; . kurnaq 1; . qura 1; .
qura 1; VEWT 302, 303; EDT 652-3, 646, 658, 6, 154-155,
Stachowski 162, 163.
.. utara- (2) ', '; utla- (2) '; ;
'; .. ytara- (2) ', '; ytla- (2) ';
; ' < . - '', II,
336 < *Kutkar ', ': . kotkar- ''.
.. surala- (2) ', ( )'; .. sura
''; .. syrala- (2) ', ' < . c
'', II, 98 < : *jura-k '': . juzaq; 4,
209.
.. tuvra- ', ' < . '',
II, 194 < : *topr-Ak ', ': .-. topraq
(OUygh.); . topraq (MK, KB); . tufraq; . topraq; .
toburax; . dovuraq; . to'praq; VEWT 489, EDT 443, 444,
1997 99.
152

.. turij . ''; .. tyri '' < .


'', II, 198 < : *torgaj '1 2
': .-. tora 1; . turumtaj 'a predatory bird
used for hawking' (MK); . turaj 2; . torGaj 2; VEWT 490,
EDT 550, TMN 2, 482-3, 1997 176.
.. una ''; .. xyna '' < . '',
II, 327 < : *Kon- '1 2 , ': .-. qon 1,
qonaq 2 (OUygh.); . qon, qon 'neighbour', qonuq 'guest'
(MK); . Go 1, Gonaq 2; VEWT 279, EDT 637, 640, 6,
56, 66-68.
.. ura ', ' < . - '',
II, 331 < : *Kork- '': . kurk- ''; 2003,
79.

.. yr ''; .. yr '' < . c ',


', II, 93 < : *juldur (*dr) '': .-.
jultuz (Orkh., OUygh.); . julduz (MK); . joldz; . jldz;
. sulus; . slds; . slts; VEWT 210, TMN 3, 260-1, EDT 9223, 4, 279-280, 1997 53, Stachowski 111.
:
.. ovara- (2) ', ( ), ;

, ( ); ( )'; .. avara- (2) ', ; ( , )' < . a- '', II, 330 < *Kup- ', ': . kubar- ' '.

153

*--, *--, *, *, *o > . * > . *, . e


.. vra ' (
..)'; .. vran ' ' < . ' ',
I, 117 < *r(Xn)- ', ': . r- '';
. r ''; . r; 1, 544.
.. kvar '; '; .. kver '' < . '',
I, 276 < : *kpr, -g '': .-. kprg; .
kprg (MK); . kper, kpre; . kpri; . k'vrg; .
k'prig; VEWT 292, 5, 112-114.
.. tva, tma ', ' < . '',
II, 215 < : *Tmgek '': . te; . trgs,
tgrgs; . dh; VEWT 493, 3, 279-281, Stachowski 228.
.. tla- (2) '; ' < . - '',
II, 260 < : *tlV- ', ': . tl- ', '.
.. tla- '' < . - '', II,
261 < : *dl '1 2 ': .-. tl 1 (OUygh.);
. tl (MK Oghuz.) 'season when animals give birth to their
young; the newborn young'; . tl 'bird ovary'; . dl 2, 'sperm';
. tl 1; . - ''; 3, 274-276; EDT 490.
.. stara- (2) ', , ' < . '', II, 301 < : *s- '': .-. s- (OUygh.);
. s-; . s-; . 's-; VEWT 376, 1, 552-553.
.. kren ', '; .. kran '' <
. '', I, 278 < : *kre ' , , ': .
kren; . kren/; 5, 146.
.. kryk '' < . '', I, 280 < :
*krk ', ': . krk; . ''; 5,
148
154

.. kyk ''; .. ktyk '' < . '', I, 289 < : *kt- ' ': .
ktek; 5, 154.
.. kylta ''; .. klte '' < . '',
I, 273 < : *klte '': . klte; 5, 139.
.. kla- (1) '' < . '', I,
321 < : *Kl- '1 , , 2
3 ': . xl-ze- 1; VEWT 289. 122-123.
.. sv ''; svyza- (2) ', ( ,
, -. )' < . c, c ', ',
II, 148 < : *p '1 2 , , 3 penis
4 , ': .-. b, bik 1 (OUygh.); . b 'dregs of
wine; any piece of noodles'; bek 3; . p 1, bek 'oakum,
combings'; . p 2; VEWT 118, EDT 394, 396, 323.
.. pra (2) ' ( -.)'; .. pra (2) '
( -.)' < . - ', ', I,
421 < : *br- / *br- '': . br- (MK, KB), bz(IM); . br-; . br-, bz-; VEWT 92, EDT 355, 2, 294296, 157, I, 421.
.. pra- (2) ', ()'; .. prxa- (2)
', ()' < . - '', I,
422 < : *brk- '': . brk- ''.
.. ptyn ', ; ' < . , '
', I, 427 < : *btn ' ': . btn; .
bten; . , ' '; 2, 152-154.
.. pyta- (2) ', -, ; ( );
, ( ); ; ; ; ( ); ; , ';
.. pta- (2) ', -, ; ( );
, ( ); ; ; ; ( ); ; , ' <
155

. - '', I, 426 < : *bt- '1 ,


2 3 , 4 5 , ': .-. bt- 2, 4, 5 (OUygh.); . bt- 2, 4, 5
(MK); . bet- 2, bet-- 4; . bit- 2, 4, 5; . bt- 1,2, 4; . b't2, 4; . b't- 2; VEWT 93, TMN 2, 267, EDT 298-9, 306, 2,
152-154, 302-303, Stachowski 68.
.. ptyra- (1) ', , -, ; ;
; ; ()'; .. ptyra- (1)
', , -, ; ; ; ; ()' < . - ', ', I, 427 < *bter '': . bter- ', ';
. - ', '.
.. ', ';
.. ' ' < .
- '', I, 423 < : *br-, *br-ke- ', ': . brn- 'to be covered' (MK, KB), brkek
'cloudy', brkr- 'to become cloudy' (MK); . brk-; . bre-; .
brj-; brkj- 'to become cloudy'; . brge- (also of clouds); .
brh-; EDT 363, 367, 133, VEWT 92, 2, 296-298,
Stachowski 68.
.. ra- (2) '; '; .. ra- (2) '' < .
- '', II, 43 < : *sr(-t)- ', ': .. srt- (OUygh.); . srt- (MK); . sr-, srt-; . r-; .
sr-; EDT 846, VEWT 437, 188, 1997 382, 7.
.. ra- (2) ', ' < . - '',
II, 44 < : *sr- '1 , 2 3
': .-. sz- 1 (OUygh.); . sz- 1 (MK); . sz- 1,
(.) 2; . sz- 1; . ss- 3; EDT 861, 4, 261; 7; VEWT
420, 1997 411, 1928-1950 XI, 311-312, 314.
.. yra (2) ', , '; ..
< . - ', ', II, 47 < :
156

*sjdre- '1 , 2 ': .


sjr-; . sjre-; . t 2; . sdrt- 1, sdrge 2; VEWT 435,
7, 346, Stachowski 202.
.. tal ', ; , '; .. txal ', '
< . '', II, 213 < : *tkl ', , , , , ': .-. tkl
', '.
.. tylna- ', ' < . ', ', ee' ', II, 214 < : *dl (/*dl) '': .-.
tl; te- ' , ' (OUygh.); . t; te' , ' (MK); . t; . d; . tl; th' , '; . d; . d; VEWT 507, TMN
3, 211, EDT 559, 561, 490, 3, 323-324, Stachowski 234, 236.
.. tnyk ' ()'; .. tlyk '
' < . ' ', II,
216 < *t- ' , ': .-. tgnk
(OUygh.), tnlk; . tlk (MK), t/dnlk (IM); . tnlk; .
tjnk; . tnnk; . dndk; . dnk; VEWT 505, TMN 2,
643-645, EDT 520, 1997 506-507, 516, Stachowski 234.
.. ttyra ''; ttyra- (2) '; (
..)'; .. ttyra ''; ttyra- (2) '; ' < .
'', - II, 223 < : *tt-n,
*tt-sg '1 2 ': .-. tt(e)-1, ttn, ttsg 2
(OUygh.); . tt(e)- 1 (KB), tte-t- . (1), ttn, ttsg 2
(MK); . tt- 1, tten 2; . tte- 1, tsse 2; . tdm 2; .
ddskek; dd- 'to rot, mould'; . tt- 'to rot, mould'; VEWT 507,
EDT 452, 457-8, 461, TMN 2, 605, 1997 364-365.
.. tp imne ' , ', tp roo '
', tp sokyr ' '; tpla- (2) ' (), ()' < . ', , ', II,
217 < : *dp '; ; ': .-. tp (tb)
157

(OUygh.); . tp (tb) (MK); . tp; . dp; . dp; .


dp; EDT 434-435, VEWT 505, 3, 317-319, TMN 2, 652-654,
1997 108-109, Stachowski 234.
.. tr '; '; trla- (2) ''; .. tr '; '; trla- (2) ''; < . , e '',
II, 219 < : *tr ' , ': . tr
''.
.. trl ', , '; .. trly ',
, ' < . '', II, 219 < :
*tr ', , , , ': . trle '';
II, 219.
.. ts ', ; , , ' < . ', ',
II, 223 < : *ts ', , ': . tsle
', '; II, 223.
.. l, .. ly '' < . e 'c' II, 41 <
: *suli / *sli '': .: sol; . sle; . sula; VEWT 432,
1997 464, 7.
.. ', ' < . , '',
I, 75 < : *sogl- ' , ': . sula-; .
uoluj- 'to be very scared'; VEWT 426, 6.
.. ta- (1) ', , ; ,
'; .. tnga- (1) ', ; ' < .
'', II, 216 < : *to- ', ':
. tu ', ', tu- ', '.

158

*, * > . * > . *, .
.. tr '; , ; , ';
.. trok ', ; ' < . , , '',
II, 263 < : *dr '1 2 ': .. tz (Orkh., OUygh.) 1, tz- (OUygh.) 2; . tz 1, tz- 2
(MK, KB); . tz 1, tz- 2; . dz 1, dz- 2; . ds; 3,
309-312, VEWT 508, EDT 571, 572.
.. pke ', '; .. pkala- (2) '' <
. , II, 300 < : *pke '; ': .. pke (OUygh.); . pke (MK, IM), fke (KB); . pk;
. jken; . kpe; . 'kpe; VEWT 373, EDT 9, 1, 540541, 1997 276-277.

*- > . *vi > . *vi, . ve


.. vila '' < . , ', , ', I, 122 < : *l- '1 2 (*l-tr-) ':
.-. l- 1 (Yenis., OUygh.), lr- 2 (Orkh., Yenis., OUygh.);
. l- 1 (MK, KB), ldr- 2 (MK, KB); . l- 1, ter- 2; .
l- 1, ldr- 2; . l- 1, lr- 2; . l- 1, lr- 2; . l- 1, lr- 2;
VEWT 371; 1, 525-527, TMN 2, 112, 162-3; EDT 125-126,
133-134, 151, Stachowski 199.
.. visa ''; visa- (2) ', ; , '
< . c ', ', I, 126 < : *l-- '1 2 , ': .-. lg 2; . lg 2; . l1, lgi 2; . le- 1; EDT 142, VEWT 371, 1, 529, 632,
Stachowski 250.
.. vitara- (2) ', ; ', vitaryan ''; .. vitr- ', ' < . - ', ', I, 127 < : *t- ' ,
': .-. t- (Orkh., OUygh.); . t- (MK);
159

. t-; . t-; . t-; . t-; EDT 39, VEWT 376, 1,


554-555.
.. ', ' < . ', ',
I, 128 < : *t- '1 ( ) 2 ,
3 ': .-. t- 1 (OUygh.), tn- 3 (Orkh., OUygh.); .
tn- 3 (MK); . ten- 3; . tn- 3; VEWT 52, 1, 556,
557-558, EDT 39, 62, 21, Stachowski 48.

*e > . *i > . *e, .i


.. sita- (2) ' , ' < . c ',
', II, 123 < *jet- '': .-. jet(OUygh.); . jet- (MK); . it-; . jet-; . sit-; . e`t-;
EDT 884-885, VEWT 199, 4, 193-194, Stachowski 105.

*a > . *a > . *e, . i,


.. ilna- (2) ', ( ); , ,
( , , )' < . - ', , ', I, 164 < : *al- '': .-.: al- (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.);
. al- (MK, KB); . al-; . al-; . l-; . al-; EDT 124-125,
VEWT 14-15, 1, 127-128, 68, 1997 336, 337,
Stachowski 259.
.. seryp ', '; .. siryp ', ' < . c ', ', II, 123 < :
*jarpV- ', ': .-. jarp ', ';
243.
.. eklana- (2) ', , ; ,
; ' < . , '', I,
77 < : *sak()- '1 , 2 , ()': . saq 1, saqn- 2 (MK); . saq 1; . saq
1,2; . sa'- 2. VEWT 395-6.
160

.. ere ''; erna- (2) ''; .. ire '' < .


'', II, 474 < : *ar- '1 ,
2 ': .-. ar (Orkh.), ar-, ar (OUygh.) 1, art- (OUygh.)
2; . ar-, ar (MK, KB) 1, art- (MK, KB) 2; . aru 1; .
arG 1, art- 2; . rs 1, rt- ' '; . ar 1, art- 2;
EDT 198, 213, VEWT 27, 1, 184-186, . 182,
Stachowski 261.
.. je ''; je '' < . c '', II,
152 < : *jalauk '': .-. jalauq (OUygh.); .
jaluq (MK, KB); VEWT 182, EDT 930.
99

.. tule ' , ;
'; tula- (2) ' (, ); , ()' < . , , , II, 266 < : *talkX'1 ': . *talk- 1; . *talk- 1.
.. tuna '; ' < . , '',
II, 267 < : *dna '' (< . dhaen): . . tna; .
*tana-.

*ej > . *e > . *e, . i


.. eryk ', ; , '; erkyn ', , '; .. erka ''; erkyn ',
'; .. iryk ', ; , ' < .
', ', I, 170 < *ejrVk ', ':
.-. erk ''; . erk ''; 1, 295.
.. keral ', ' < . , ,
'', I, 298 < : *gejr- '1 2 , 3 ': .-. kerge- 1
99

. , ,
.

161

(OUygh.), kergek 2 (Orkh., OUygh.); . kerge- 1, kerek 2 (MK,


KB); . kirk 2; . gerek 2; . kerej- 3, kerex 2; . xerek 2;
. xerek 2; VEWT 256, EDT 742, 743, 3, 25-26, Stachowski
145.
.. em ''; emla- (2) '' < . '',
I, 166 < : *ejm '': .-. m; . em;
. em; . em; . im; . ''.
.. ', ' < . - '', II, 49 <
: *sejk- ', ': . sekri- (MK); . siker-; .
segre- (arch.), skdir- 'to gallop'; . sik-; . ekkirie-; VEWT 408,
EDT 822, 7, Stachowski 44.
.. terke '' < . ' ',
I, 235 < *tejrgi '': .-. tergi '
', terg ' '; .
' ', I, 235.
III.3. -
-

,
?
, XIX . . [. Erdal 1993] ,
. , .,
, ,
.
,

.
162


,
I996.

.
-,
.100
: *-g-, *--, *j-, *q-, *s.
, .
-
:
.1 XIV . -
- ;
.2 XIV .

-
7

*-g-

*--

*j-

XIV.

j_

V,

w_

V.

XIV.
.

*K-

101


x
.k-,
.
.,.0 .0,
. x
x

*-s-

100

. Rsnen, 1920.
101
*K- .
*K- (k-), (k-).

163

,
- *j-, *K-, *s. -
, , *j-,
*K-, *s - .
-
.
.
*j- - /,
-
*j-, , , ( -).

*j.1 -102
.. '' < . ce - '', II, 114
< : *jrt- '': . je/ir- 1 (MK); . jr- 2; . sr- 2;
. ir- 1; VEWT 198, EDT 955, 4, 203-204.
.. yr ''; .. yr '' < . c ', ', II, 93 < : *jul-dur (*-dr) '': .-.
jultuz (Orkh., OUygh.); . julduz (MK); . joldz; . jldz;
. sulus; . slds; . slts; VEWT 210, TMN 3, 260-1, EDT 9223, 4, 279-280, 1997 53, Stachowski 111.
s:
j-: .. je ''; je '' < . c
'', II, 152 < : *jalauk '': .-. jalauq (OUygh.); . jaluq
(MK, KB); . sn(); VEWT 182, EDT 930.
. .
.
102

164

.2 s

.. ; .. salym '' < . c, c '',


II, 133 < : *jal-(Xn) '1 , 2 ': .. jal- 1 (OUygh.), jaln 2 (OUygh.); . jal- 1 (MK), jaln 2
(MK); . jaln 2; . aln 2; VEWT 181, EDT 918, 929, 4,
106-107, 1997 23, 356-357, 363, TMN 4, 187.
.. solkem ', '; .. carkem '
' < . c-, c ' ', II, 139 <
*jr- '1 , 2 , ': .-. jar- 1
(OUygh.); . jar- 1 (MK); . jar- 1; . jr- 1; . ar- 1;
EDT 954-955, VEWT 188-189, 4, 135-137, Stachowski 209.
.. soa '; (
)' < . c, c, II,
146 < : *jaka '; ': .-. jaqa (OUygh.); .
jaqa (MK); . jaqa; . jaqa; . saa; . aa (. );
VEWT 180, 82-83, EDT 898, 4, 82-84.
.. sja- (2) ''; .. sja- < . c, c ', ',
II, 129 < : *jj 1 ', 2 , 3 , ': . sj- 2; VEWT 205, 4, 210.
.. srasa- (2) '; ()'; .. srasa- (2)
'()' < . cc, cc '', II, 141 <
*jara- ', , ': .-. jara- (OUygh.);
jara- (MK); . jara-; .jara-; EDT 956, VEWT 189, 4,
137-139, TMN 4, 56-57, 144.
.. surala- (2) ', ( )'; .. sura
''; .. syrala- (2) ', ' < . c
'', II, 98 < : *jura- '': . juzaq; 4,
209.
.. sula- (2) ', , ; ;
(, , ..)'; .. syla- (2) ', , ; ; (165

, , ..)' < . c- ', ', II, 92 < : *jol- ', , ': .. jol- jul- (OUygh.); . jol- jul- (MK); . jol-; .
sl-; . suluj-; . ul-; EDT 918, 4, 216.
.. sita- (2) ' , ' < . c ',
', II, 123. < *jet '': .-. jet(OUygh.); . jet- (MK); . it-; . jet-; . sit-; . sit-; .
e`t-; EDT 884-885, VEWT 199, 4, 193-194, Stachowski 105.
.. seryp ', '; .. siryp ', ' < . c ', ', II, 123 < :
*jarpV- ', ': .-. jarp ', '; .
c ', ', 243.
*s - s,
- *s, , s, , *s > . .

*-s.1
.. kaka ' ( ); , '; .. kka ', ' < . -; I, 233 < :
*kes- '': .-. kes- (Yenis.); . kes- (MK, KB); .
kis-; . kes-; . kas-; . keh-; . ke's-; VEWT 257, 5,
55-57, 58.
.. '' < . - ( ''), I, 61 <
: *es '1 , 2 , ': .-. es 1
(OUygh.); . es 1 (KB), esirge- 2 (MK); . is 1; . es 1; EDT
252, VEWT 49, 50, 1, 310, 33.
.. ara- (2) '; ( ..); ; (); ; , ;
( ..)'; .. ra- (2) ';
166

( ..); ; (); ;
, ; ( ..)' < . - ', ', II, 14 < : *ser- '1 ; , 2 ': .-.
ser-, seril- 1 (OUygh.); . ser- 1, seril- 'to sway and almost fall
down' (MK); . ser- 2; VEWT 411, EDT 843, 851, 7.
.. oja ', ; , '; .. aja ';
; ; ; , ' < .
, '', II, 54 < : *saj- '1 , 2
, ': . saja 1; VEWT 395, 7, 150,
1928-1950 XI, 160.
.. olo '' < . , '', II, 59 < :
*sl : . sal (MK); . sal; . sl; . l; . sal; EDT
824, VEWT 397, 1997 537, 7.
.. ola- (2) '' < . - '', II, 59 <
*sal- '1 , 2 3 4 ': .. sal- 1; (OUygh.); sal- 1,2 (MK, KB); . sal- 1, sal-m 3;
.sal- 1; . sal- 1; . sal- 1; VEWT 397, EDT 824, 7.
.. , .. '' < . , , ,
II, 64 < *spun '': . sabn.
.. oryk, .. aryk '' < . , , II, 66
< : *sark '1 2 ( )': . sarq 1;
. sara-daq 'a 2-year-old maral'; 1997 432, 7.
.. '' < . , o '', II, 69 < :
*sogan '': .-. soun (OUygh.); . soun (MK); .
suan; . soan; EDT 812, VEWT 425, 1997 141, 465,
7.
.. yrana- (2) ' ( ); , ';
yrata- (2) ' ( ); , '; ..
rana- (2) '; '; . rata- < . - '', I, 448 < : *sr- '1 , 2 , ':
167

. sz- 1, 2; . sz- 1, 2; . sz- 1; . szl- 1, ss-qa- 'to


strain'; EDT 861, VEWT 420, 7.
.. pua- (2) ' (); ; ,
(); , '; .. pya- (1)
' (); ; ; ; '
< . '', I, 404 < *bus- ',
, ': .-. buz- ', ', .
boz- ''.
.. pu ''; .. py ', ; ' < . c '',
I, 403 < : *bus ', ': . bus (MK); . bus;
. bus; VEWT 90, EDT 370, 2, 277, 1997 34.
.. , .. ', ' < . ', ', II, 43 < : *sn- '':
.-. sun- (Orkh., OUygh.); . sun- (MK); . son-; . n-;
. sun-; EDT 834, VEWT 432, 7.
.. ra- (2) '; '; .. ra- (2) '' < .
- '', II, 43 < : *sr(-t)- ', ': .. srt- (OUygh.); . srt- (MK); . sr-, srt-; . r-; .
sr-; EDT 846, VEWT 437, 188, 1997 382, 7.
.. ra- (2) ', ' < . - '',
II, 44 < : *sr- '1 , 2 3
': .-. sz- 1 (OUygh.); . sz- 1 (MK); . sz- 1,
(.) 2; . sz- 1; . ss- 3; EDT 861, 4, 261; 7; VEWT
420, 1997 411, 1928-1950 XI, 311-312, 314.
.. yra- (2), .. ', ,
' < . - - (< *sdr-103) ', ',
II, 47 < : *sjdre- '1 , 2 ': . sjr-; . sjre-; . t 2; . sdrt- 1,
sdrge 2; VEWT 435, 7, 346, Stachowski 202.

103

. 7, 346.

168

.. l , .. ly '' < . e 'c' II, 41 <


: *suli / *sli '': . : sol; . sle; . sula; VEWT 432,
1997 464, 7.
.. ', ' < . , '',
I, 75 < : *sogl- ' , ': . sula-; .
uoluj- 'to be very scared'; VEWT 426, 6.
.. eklana- (2) ', , ; ,
; ' < . , '', I,
77 < : *sak()- '1 , 2 , ()': . saq 1, saqn- 2 (MK); . saq 1; . saq
1,2; . sa'- 2; VEWT 395-6.
, , , *s > . , s
s:

.2 s

.. ', ' < . - ', ', II, 14 < : *sep- '1 , 2 , ': .-. sep- 1(OUygh.); . sep 2 (MK); .
sip 2; . sep-li 'with a dowry'; . ep- 1, eb 'more, additionally';
EDT 783, 784, VEWT 410, Stachowski 43.
.. '' (: '') < . , ,
II, 68 < : *sakak '1 2
3 ()': . saqaq (MK) 1; . saaq 3; . saqaq
1; EDT 807-808, 7, 147, 1997 220-222,
1928-1950 IX, 279, XI, 216.
.. sokta ' ' < . ,
, , II, 56 < : *sogut / *soktu ' , ': . sout, soqtu (MK).

169

.. sur '; '; .. , .. '' <


. , ', ', II, 29 < : *sr(X) ', ': . sor; . sr; VEWT 433, TMN 3, 287, 7.
.. stara- (2) ', , ' < . '', II, 301 < : *s- '': .-. s- (OUygh.);
. s-; . s-; . 's-; II, 301; VEWT 376, 1,
552-553.
*K- x-.
1) ..0/.0, 2) ..0/.x, 3) ..k/.x:
1) ..0/.0:
.. olno '; '; .. alny '
, ' < . , , '', II,
354 < : *Kal '1 2 , ': .-.
qalan (OUygh.) 2; . qal (MK) 1; . qalm 1; . Gal 2;
. xalm, xalm 1; . xl 1; . xlm 1; VEWT 226, TMN 3,
399, 488, 5, 239-240.
.. olyro ',
; ( )'; .. alyrcy ';
(.) ' < . , , II, 356 <
*KaltXra- '': . kaldra- (MK) ''; . kaltra.
..: on ', ; ; ' < . , , II, 357 < : *Kan ', , ,
': .-. qan, . xan; . xan; . xan; . xun;
2007, 79.
.. ojo ', , , , , '; ojan
' ..'; ojyra- (2) ', ..'; ..
ojxan '', ojxyra- (2) '' < . , '',
II, 352 < : *Kadgu '': .-. qadu (OUygh.);
. qau (MK, KB); . qaj; . GajG; VEWT 217,
5, 201-203.
170

.. lyk ' ' < . - ' ',


II, 342 < : *Kl(k) '': .-. ql (OUygh.); . ql
(MK, KB); . ql; . Gl; . kl; . xl; . xl; VEWT 262,
TMN 3, 574-5, EDT 614, 1997 196, 6, 204-205,
Stachowski 168.
.. yraka '' < . - '', II, 331 < :
*Kr-k,-gak '1 2 ': .-. qur- 'to dry' (OUygh.);
. quru, qur 1 (MK); . qor 1; . Gr 1; . kurnaq 1;
. qura 1; . qura 1; VEWT 302, 303; EDT 652-3, 646, 658,
6, 154-155, Stachowski 162, 163.
.. utara- (2) ', '; utla- (2) '; ;
'; .. ytara- (2) ', '; ytla- (2) ';
; ' < . - '', II,
336 < : *Kutkar ', ': . kotkar- ''.
.. ovara- (2) ', ( ), ;
, ( ); ( )'; .. avara- (2) ', ; ( ,
)' < . - '', II, 330 < *Kup- ', ': . kubar- ' '.
,
,
:
.. ono ', ; , ' < . , ,
II, 358 < : *Kdn '': .-. qadn
(Yenis., OUygh.); . qan (MK, KB), qadn (KB), qajn (IM);
. qajn; . Gjn; . qat; . xatt104; VEWT 218, 5,
215-216, 1997 309.
.. ua- (2) ', (), ()';
utara- (2) ', , ' < . -, -,
104

171

II, 375 < : *Kol '1 , 2 ()':


.-. qo- 2 (OUygh.); . qo 1, qo- 2 (MK); . qu 1,
qu- 2; . Go 'a couple of oxen', Go- 'to add'; . xos 'double;
again', xohuj- 2, xohn 'poem'; . qo- 2; . qo'- 2; VEWT 283;
EDT 670, 1997 611, 6, 90-94, Stachowski 150
.. ia- (2) ', , , , ,
, ' < . - '', II, 347 <
*Ks- ', ': .-. kys-; . kysyk ',
'.
.. ura ', ' < . - '',
II, 331 < : *Kork- '': . kurk-.
2) ..0/.x:
.. oro; .. xoro ', , ' < .
, , , II, 362 < : *Kor(a)- '1 , 2 , ': .-. qora- 1, qor 2 (OUygh.);
. qora- 1, qor 2 (MK); . qor 2, qoron- 1; . xor 2; EDT 641642, 645-646, 6, 73-74.
.. una, .. xyna '' < . '', II, 327 <
: *Kon- '1 2 , ': .-. qon 1, qonaq 2
(OUygh.); . qon, qon 'neighbour', qonuq 'guest' (MK); .
Go 1, Gonaq 2; VEWT 279, EDT 637, 640, 6, 56, 66-68.
,
,
:
.. xal '' < . , '', II, 352 < :
*Kl '; , ; ': .-. qa (Orkh., OUygh.);
. qa (MK, KB); . qa; .G; .xs; . qa; EDT 669,
VEWT 240, TMN 3, 389, 5, 343-345, 1997 211-212,
542, Stachowski 143.
172

.. , ', ' < . , , II, 357 < *Kona '': . kuna(u); . , ,


257.
3) ..k/.x:
.. kolko '' < . , ' ',
II, 355 < *Kl()- '1 2 ':
.-. qal- 1; qal- (MK, KB) 2; . qalq- 1,2; .Galk- 1,
Gal-dr- (caus.); .klj- 1,2; . xal- 1,2; VEWT 226, 5, 224226.
.. kijak . ''; .. xyjak . '' < : *Kj(g)ak
'': . qjaq 'leaves of cereals'; . Gjaq ' ';
VEWT 262, 6, 201-202.
.. kula ' ( )'; .. xyla ' (
)' < . '', II, 320 < *Kula
'': . kola.
[. Rsnen 1920] ,
x- 0-
, . .0-, .-.
. , . .
- , ..
. , -c - *0-,
*- [. Bereczki 1994]. ,

,
, -
. .0-, .-.
. .k-, .-. ,
173


- . . .k-, . /// *k *rk.
, - . .k-, .- *K-
- -,
. , ,
-
*-- -
-
-, n [Erdal 1993].

*- .. kaa, .. ka '' < . '', I,


223 < : *gee-()- '1 () 2 ': .-. kee 2,
kee- 1; . kee- 'to settle one's affairs with someone' (MK, KB),
kene 2, kee- 1 (MK, KB); . ki 2; . gee- 1, gee 2;
VEWT 253, EDT 727, 734, 3, 21-22, TMN 3, 613-614.
.. ta ', '; ta olyla- ' ', taasa- (2)
', '; .. t ', , ';
taa- (2) '' < . ', ', II, 170.
.. taastara- ''; .. tastara- '' < .
-, - ', ', II, 171.
.. taa, .. ta '' < . '',
II, 171 < *te ', ': . ti '', til
''; . ', '.
.. ta- (1) ', , ; , '; .. tnga- (1) ', ; ' < .
'', II, 216 < : *to- ', ': .
tu ', ', tu- ', '.
174

- -
*-g-. -
. j_V, w_V. -
. (
v).

*-g .. aua- (2) '; ' < . '', I, 24 < : *eg- '': .-. eg-; . eg(MK); . eg-; . iex-; EDT 99, VEWT 37, 1, 330-332,
19, Stachowski 122 (. iex- < *eg-ik-).
.. aur '' < . '', I, 27 < *gir ', ': . egrik, egrim MK, . (.
., .) egrim, (.) egrik; 1974, 229, EDT 112, 113,
C 165-166, EDT 112, TMN 2, 192, Stachowski 122.
, *j-, *--, *-s- -
. *-g- *K-

, - .
, , , - .
,
,
. -
?

175

XI-XIV . ( )?
.. [, 2005] , XI-XIV . . ,
, :
1) ;
2) ( )
: - , - , ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) : ,
.
.. , . ( ), , , -
, . - .
.., .., .., .., .., .., .., .., ...
, -

.. ...
,
, ,
-
176

. ,
, , .
XI-XII .
, - :
, , ,
, ,
.
, -
.. [, 2005]
.

IX X .
,
, .
X .
,
- , . ( , ..).
XI-XII .
.
, ,

.
177

XI-XIV .
*-g- *K-
- . , . :
XIV , -
- . :
., - ,
, . , ,
*-g- .
,
XI .,
- , , -
-
.
, - , I,
1996 400,
, .
, - . , - - ,
178

,
.
, ,
- * , *u ,
* : . * > . *i, . , e; . *u > .
*u, . ; . * > . *, . e. ,
(. ) -
.

179

IV


Korhonen 1988.

:
. 105:

a

:
*i > *e (*nime106 > *neme '')
* > *e (*p > *pesa '')
*u > *o (*tule > *tole '')
*e- > * (*pes > *psa '') > * (*psa > *psa)
*e-e > *e (*vere > *vere '')
*o-a > *oa (*kota > *koata '') > *oa (*koata > *koata)
*-e > *e (*kte > *kete '') > * (*kete > *kte)
*- > * (*pjv > *pjva ', '), *a (*jm > *ajma
'') > *a (*ajma > *ajma)
105
, ,
-
106
Korhonen 1988
, .,
UEW.

180

*a > *a (*vana > *vanca '') > *a


(vanca > vanca), *o (*lakte > *lokte ', ', *kala >
*kola '') > * (*lokte > *lkte, *kola > *kla),
* > *i (*pre > *pire '')
* > *u (*kle > *kule '').
M.Korhonen :

iu
e o

oa
a

M.Korhonen :
* > *ie (*kte > *kiete '')
* > *uo (*kla > *kuol '')
* > *e (*psa > pes '')
*oa > *oa (*koata > *koat '')
*e > *e (*vere > *vere '')
*o > o (*tole > *tole '').

:

i u ie uo
e o e oa
a

181

, , M.,
. /
/ / *o, *e, *. 107:
/ / / (
Korhonen 1988 -) *o
108 *oa, *:
*korpe , : . korpea-, korventa-, korvetta', '; . ko~rb (. ko~rve) 'Versengen, Anbrennen',
ko~rbe- ', '; . guor'ba^- -rb- (N)109 'be scorched',
kuor'pa- (L) 'durch Waldbrand verheert werden; erlschen, ohne zu
Ende gebrannt zu haben'); . kurva- (E) 'lodern, lodernd brennen',
kurvaste-, kirvaste-, krasti- (E), korvste- (M) 'anznden'; UEW, 186.
*koske '': . koske- ''; . guos'ka^- -sk- (N)
'knock against, touch, concern, regard', kuoska- (L) 'berhren, anrhren', ? kuosati- (L) 'schlagen (mit einem Stock)', kske- (Kld.) 'berhren, anrhren'; . kuke- 'Butter schlagen' ?, Szil.; UEW, 673.
/ / / *e
/ / / *e- > * (*pes > *psa '');
*e-e > *e (*vere > *vere ''), Korhonen
1988 , :
*pene '': . peni, . penin 'Welf', penikka 'Hndchen'; . peni ''; . *pnek (Lehtiranta 911) bna^ -dna^g- (N),
pna (L), pienn (Kld.), pienag (T); UEW, 371.

107

. .
. ., N .
109
,
Lehtiranta 1989. ,
N , , .
.
108

182

/ / / *e
*, :
*kent ', ': . kentt, (.) kent ''; .
knt (Lehtiranta 427) kedde 'pratum' (Lind.-Ohrl.), N giedde -dd'(natural) meadow', L kiedd 'natrliche Wiese; Zeltplatz', (T. I. Itk.,
WbKKlp. 115) K T kindt(A), Kld. ki.ndt(A), Ko. Not. ki^DtA 'Feld,
auch: frherer grasbewachsener Wohnplatz'; UEW, 658.
/ / / *
/ / / *-
M.: *- > * (*pjv > *pjva ', '), *a (*jm >
*ajma '') > *a (*ajma > *ajma).
, / / /
*o, *e, * : .
M.Korhonen / / /
*o > . *oa. , . . */ -
. *oa. *e - . *oa > . *.
, ,
, -
110.
110
.Korhonen , -
. : / / /
*, *a > *a > *a > * > . *, *i , / / /
*o > *oa > *oa > . *oa, *u , / / /
*e > *e > *e > . *e. , .
, / / / *o,
/ / /
: *norja *norja ', ': . norja, . norea ',
, '; . njuora^s (njuorra^) (N) 'soft, not yet woody or hard, not able to stand (of
infants), limp, weak', njuoras njuorra (L) 'zart, weich, unverhrtet, frisch; weich', nuor s (Ko. P)
'schwach, zart (Kleinkind, Rentierkalb; Ruder, Stab)', njuorra^- -r- (N) 'become gentle, weak, be

183

/ / / *e, *
. ,
/ / /
*e > . *, *e, *; / / / * > *, *a, *.
, ,
.
/ /
/ * . M. ,
/ / / * > . * / / / *e > . *, *a / / / *-. , / / / * .
*, *a, ,
. / / /
*-,
, / / / * > . *, , / / / * >
. *a.
/ / / *e
/ / / *e . / / / *e > . *, *, . i, / /
/ *e > . *e, . e/.
, , / / / *e1, *e2. / / / .
/ / / *e1 > . *, *, . i
/ / / * *e-:
weakened, tired out', nuorr - (P) 'mde werden, schwach werden'; UEW, 709. . kojana 'grosser
mnnlicher Lachs'; . goaggjen, SSA I, 386. . kolkata ''; . goal'ket, SSA I, 386.
. kortata ''; . goar'det, SSA I, 386. . ahven ''; . N. vuosko '',
SSA I, 56. . ,
/ / / *o ,
/ / / .

184

*nelj (*nelj) '': . nelj ''; . neli (.


nelja); . *nlj (Lehtiranta 720) njl'lje -llj- (N), niel'ja (L),
nielje (T), nielj (Kld.), nelj (Not.), nel (A); . nile (E), nil (M),
nilnst nilenst (M) ''; UEW, 316, Paasonen 1994,
1402.
*pene '': . peni, . penin 'Welf', penikka 'Hndchen'; . peni ''; . *pnek (Lehtiranta 911) bna^ -dna^g- (N),
pna (L), pienn (Kld.), pienag (T); . pine (E), pi (M); UEW,
371.
*secem '': . seitsemn (seitsem-), . seitsen
''; . seitse (. seitsme); . *ccem (Lehtiranta, 145)
iea^ (N), kietjav (L), kim (T), kiem (Kld.), ihem (Not.)
'seven', kat (A) 'der siebente'; . sisem (E M); . m (KB),
m (U B), iim (M); UEW, 773.
*selk '': . selk ''; . selg (. selja) ',
'; . *clke (Lehtiranta, 151) iel'ge -lg- (N) 'backbone;
back', ieilke (T) 'Rcken, Kreuz', iilke 'der untere Teil des
Rckens, das Kreuz'; UEW, 772.
/ / / *e /
/ / *- ,
/ / / *e > . i e/
111.
,
, *3 . / / / *-, / / / *e . *, *.
/ / / *e- ,
, , . *,
111

. ,
.

185

*, . i; . *e, . e/. / / /
*e- , .
, /
/ / *e > . i; . e/ / / / *e / / / *. ,
/ / / *e
*, * *e. , / / / *,
/ / / *
.

/ /
/
*V (1)
.
.

*e-

*e-3112
(< *-)

8
*e-

(< *-)

*e-

*e-4
*e-
(< *-) (< *-)

* ,
*

________

*e

*, *

*, *

*, *

e ( )

e ( )

i/-(E)
i//-(M)

i/-(E)
i//-(M)

i/-(E)
i//-(M)

,
/ / / *e / / / ,
, /
/ / *e .

3 4
: 3 , 4 .

112

186

, /
/ / UEW SSA113
:
9

/ /
/ *

/ /
/ *e

/ /
/ *o
/ /
/ *
/ /
/ *i
/ /
/ *u
/ /
/ *

-
.

-
.

*-
- . 1-
C. *
- . 2-
C. *
*e-
. *
*-
C. *, * 114 ( . i)
*e-
. *e ( . e/a)
C. *, * ( . i)
. *oa-/
. *- e
. *
. *
. *e

32

42

48

29
53
20

5
3

. *o

59

. *e

24

113
,
.
114
,
. * *
*- , : *rep ( cV) '', .

187

, / / /

M. / / /
*o, *e, *, *a.
/ / / *o, *e, * . / / / *a M., , / / /
* . *,
. , .
*a < *a 115, / / / *a ,
. *a, *
.
116 / /
/ *o, *e, *, * . / / /
*i, *u, *, ,
.

115
.. ,
.. 2008 , . *a <
/ / / *a . ,
/ / / / / / *-. / / /
* / / / * .
, (, / / / *
- ).
116
, N, .

188

/ / / * > . *, * 117 :
1) , 118,
:

*krn ', ': . krn ' '; . krn (.


krna) ', '; . *krn (Lehtiranta 389) gr'dne -rdn(N) 'thin crust on snow; a scab-like disease attacking the udder of the
female reindeer', kier'n kr'n 'id.; grobkrniger Schnee', kierne
(T), kierne (Kld.), k'ierne (Ko. Not.) 'Eiskruste auf Schnee, der sonst
weich ist' ( > . . kerni ' , '); . knat
(E), knt (M) ''119, Paasonen 1992, 910; UEW, 138.
2) , 120:
*pjw ''; (Janh. (73) *pjw; Samm. *pjw):
. piv ''; . pev, . -a, . piv, pe ''; .
*pjv (Lehtiranta 905) bi've -iv- (N) 'day; sun', pei'v pi'v (L),
piejve (T), piejv (Kld.), peiv (Not. A); UEW, 360.

117
/ / / * > . *, *-
:
. mmmi '' . mae(b)ma (N), SSA, II, 192
*swn ' '; (Samm. *swni ): . syns (. synn), synj '; Cyprinus
Idus'; . sinam (. sinama), sinas (. sina) 'Dickfisch; Cyprinus idus Pall., Leuciscus
Ieses'; . saewnjad (N); . senej, (M) seni, sen ' (, Cyprinus Art)';
UEW, 437; SSA, III, 243.

/ / / *, UEW.
. ,
.
118
,
.
119
Paasonen 1990
1996.
120

/ / / *
.
.

189

*rpp ' ( , )'; (Samm.


*rpp): . rppn ' , '; . rpen (.
rpna), (.) rpp, (.) repe (. repna), reppn, reppan
' '; . *rppn() (Lehtiranta,
1037) rppen rppen (N) 'smoke hole; very deep place in the
middle of a lake, where ice never forms', riehpn rhpn (L)
'Rauchloch des Zeltes', riehpen (T Kld.), riahpen (Not.) 'Rauchfang';
UEW, 743.
*jk-l ', ': . jkl (. jkli, jkr)
', '; . *jkl (Lehtiranta, 260) jgel -kkal- (N)
'reindeer moss, liehen, in the widest sense; Cladonia, Cetraria,
Stereocaulon etc.', (T., I.) jiegel (K, T), jel (Kld.), jiel (Ko., Not.);
UEW, 632.
. hvs ', ' . saeppe (N), SSA I, 212.
. kyr ', ' . gaew're (N), SSA I, 482.
. lnk '' . laeg'ge (N), SSA II, 125.
. lpp '' . laep'pe (N), SSA II, 127.
. mti '' . maeen (N), SSA II, 194.
. pts '' . baee (N), SSA II, 462.
. vle '' . vaelek (N), SSA III, 480.
/ / / * > . *a, *, * 121 :
1) , ,
:

* > . *a, *-
: . klvi '' . gal'vat (N), SSA, I, 471

*. . ,
.
121

190

*jrw122 '': . jrvi (. jrven) ''; . jrv (.


jrve) ''; . *jvr (Lehtiranta, 258) jaw're -wr- (N) 'lake',
jau'r (L) 'See (Binnensee)', jivre (K (554), T), jaivr (Kld.), javr
'Binnensee' (Not.); . erke (E), r'k (. r'ken) jr'k (M)
', ', Paasonen 1990, 379; . . jr, . jer '' 123 ;
UEW, 633.
*pe124 ''; (Samm. *pi): . p ''; .
pe, p; . bage -- (N) 'the thickest part of the reindeer antler,
by the head'; . pe, p (E), pe (M) ''; UEW, 365.
*tlw125 '': . talvi (. talven) ''; . talv (.
talve); . dal've -lv- (N) tilve (T), tailv (Kld. Not.); . tele (E),
tala . taln (M), Paasonen 1996, 2386; . . tel, . tele; (Samm.
*tlw); UEW, 516.
*klV (? *klV-wV) '': . kly ''; . kli,
. kl 'Bruder des Mannes, Frau des Bruders des Mannes'; .
*klj(-nn) (Lehtiranta 354) glojdne -n- -dne -n- (N) 'sisterin-law (of husband's brother's wife)', klji(e)tn (L) 'Schwgerin
(Frau des Bruders od. des Vatters des Ehemanns)'; . kijalo, kijal
(E), kel (M) ' ', Paasonen 1992, 753; (Janh. (77)
*kliw; Samm. *klw); UEW, 135.
. nt '' . njacco (N), SSA II, 255.
122

UEW , * . , . , , - . *
.
123
1991.
124

*.
125
UEW Samm. , * . ,
. , -
. *
.

191

2) , :

*sn *cn '': . hhn, hhn, rhni, rhmi, rhni


(.) ' '; . hn (. hn), hhn (. hhn),
rhn (. rhni, rhna, rhnu) ', '; . aitne,
aihne, ainne (Friis) 'Picus tridactylus', ai'hne -ihn- (N) 'Picoides
tridactylus; Dendrocopus; kinds of woodpecker', tjai(h)n (L)
'Specht', teana (T), tien(e) (Kld.) 'Specht'; . . it, . iten; (Samm. *s's'n); UEW, 772.
*l(m)cV (*le(m)cV) ', ': . lms, lmsi (.
lmsen) ''; . *lmc (Lehtiranta 564) law'e -w- (N) 'rein',
lab'tj lag'tj (L) 'Zgel, Zugleine'; UEW, 239.
*tkt ', '; (Samm. *tkt): . thti (. thden),
thde (. thteen) '' ?; . *tst (Lehtiranta 1233) dak'te
-vt- (N) 'bone', dakta^- -vt- 'dry, get dry; become insensible, more
difficult to influence or bend', tikte (T), tit (Kld.), tait (Not.), tavtit
(A) 'Knochen, Bein' ?; UEW, 515.
*je (*j) ', ': . ij ', , ',
. ij(n) ''; . i, . ia, ie ', '; . *jj
(Lehtiranta, 32) ag'gja (N) 'grandfather, old man, fellow', jja (Kld.),
adj (L); (Samm. *jj); UEW, 609.
*jm ' '; (Janh. (22) *jm;
Samm. *jm): . im ' '; . *jm ai'bme -im'triangular needle (for sewing leather or furs)' (N), ai'm 'dreieckige
Nadel (zum Nhen in Leder)' (L); . . im (KB), . ime '';
UEW, 22.

192

/ / / * > . *,
*e126127:
*je '': . j ''; . j; . *je (Lehtiranta, 268)
jiega^ -- (N) 'ice; glacier', jieka (L), jn~n~ (T Kld.), jien~n~ (Not.)
'Eis'; . ej, ev, e, ij (E), jj, j (M); . . i, . ij; (Samm. *ji);
UEW, 93.
*krte ', , ': . krsi- ',
' ( > . kre- (K, Kld.)); . krsi- ',
'; . gierda^- -rd- (N) 'bear, endure; hold (intr.); stand,
put up with', L kierta- 'dulden, leiden, aushalten, sich gefallen lassen',
K (293) Not. kierde- 'leiden, dulden'; . kirde- (E M) ',
, '; . . ker-, . kerta- ''; UEW,
652.
*kte ''; (Samm. *kti): . ksi (. kden) ''; .
ksi (. ke); . *kte (Lehtiranta 433) gietta^ -- (N), kiehta (L)
'Hand, Arm', ktt (T Kld.), kieht (Not.), kit (A) 'Hand'; . ked (E),
kd (M); . ., . kit; UEW, 140.
*kke ', ': . ktke- ', ', ?
ktkyt (. ktkyen) 'Wiege'; . ktke- ', '; .

126
,
* *e:
*kme(-ne) '': . kmmen ''; . kmmal (. kmbla), kmmel (.
kmble); . kiem (. kiemman) (Friis) 'palma', kjmman (T), kema (. kemman)
'Handteller, Hand', kebmmaD (I) 'die flache Hand, Handteller'; UEW, 137.
*lwl '': . lyli (. lylen) '', lyl ''; . lila
''; . le'ls 'schwer', livs, li(a), attr. liu`s (T) ?; . nel (KB), nele (U),
lel (J), lele (M, B) 'schwer, schwierig; Schwere'; UEW, 243.
*mrV *rmV ' > ': . mre, mreh, mrhe (.) '',
mrehti- '' ?; . mletse- ?; . smrii- (N) 'chew the cud', smieriti-, smieritji-
smieritsi- (L), mrede- (T), mre- (Kld.), smrette- (Ko. Not.) 'wiederkuen' ?; UEW, 700.
. mm '' . eb'mui, SSA, III, 497
127
* > . * , *e-
:
. hk 'Kohlenoxyd' - . ciekke, SSA, I, 206.

193

giet'kat; . keke- (E), ke- (M) ''; UEW, 649; SSA, I,


481.
*mlke (*mle) ''; (Samm. *mlki): . mlvi '
, ' ?; . mlv (. mlve) '
' ?; . *mlke (Lehtiranta 666) miel'ga^ -lg- (N) 'breast,
chest (of animal)', miel'ka (L), milk (T) 'Mitte der Brust, Brustbein' (
> . melki 'Brust des Rentiers'); . melke (E) '', mLk
(M) ''; . ., . mel ''; UEW, 267.
*mkte ', ': . mts (. mttn) ''; .
mtas (. mtta) ''; . miek'ta^ -vt- (N) 'a sp. of Carex
which for- tussocks and grows on bogs'; UEW, 266.
*nke (*nke/*nke) ', ': . nk-, nky', ' ( > . N nkko 'appearance, exterior',
nk'te- 'look, appear, seem'); . nge- ''; . niega^di- (N)
'dream', niekko -g_- (N) 'dream', niekati- (L) 'trumen', niehk (L)
'Traum', nikka- (T) 'trumen'; . neje-, nii- (E), nje- (M)
''; (Samm. *nki-); UEW, 302.
*ske '() ': . snki (. sngen) ',
'; . iegga (L, I, Ko, Kld); . (KB) '
, ', (KB), ene (U M), pu-ee (B)
''; UEW, 756; SSA III, 239.
*crke- '() > ': . srke- '(), ();
'; . rgiidi- (N) 'go to sleep (of limbs); tjr'ka (U)
'scharfes Prickeln in eingeschlafenen Gliedern', tjier'k- tjr'k'zuschneiden, abrunden (das Loch im Schuh)'; 'reka- rhka- (Pi.)
'starr, gefhllos werden', terG- (Ko. P) 'schmerzen (von der
Wunde)'; . . re-, . ere- ''; UEW, 32.
*wke ''; (Samm. *wki): . vki (. ven) ',
' ( > . vkka -g- (N) 'men, help; strength', L vhka
'Hausleute; Schar, Haufe, Volk', vkk (T), viehk (Not.), vik (A) 'Kraft;
Heer'); . vgi (. ve) ', , '; . viekka^ (N)
194

'fairly, rather', viehka (L) 'ziemlich, recht'; . vij (E), vi (M)


', , '; . wi (KB U), wij (B)
''; UEW, 563.
*ws ', , , ':
. vsy- ''; . vsi- '', vsi (. vsi), vs
', , ' ?; . veissa^ -s- (N) 'get
tired, fatigued, languid', viesse 'that easily gets tired', viessa- (L) 'bis
zur Erschpfung mde werden', vsse- (Kld.), viesse- (Not.) 'mde
werden' ?; UEW, 818.
. set 'die Glat zusammenschieben' . iekkat (N), SSA, III,
236.
.vlke '' . viel'gad (N), SSA, III, 481.

* > *, *i :
. mkr '' . muoger (N), SSA, II, 191.
*ssV ' (); ': . ssy '
'; . ssi, ss ', '; . suossa (N); UEW,
756; SSA, III, 242.
*we ', ': . vvy, (.) vy ''; . vi
(. vi, via) ''; . *vive (Lehtiranta 1394) vivva^ -v- (N)
'son-in-law', vivva (L) 'Schwiegersohn, Eidam', vivv (T Kld.), vivv
(Not.) ? ( < .?); . ov (M) ''; . . wi, . wee
', '; Janh. (114) *we/iw; Samm. 2
*we/iw; UEW, 565.
/ / / *e > .*e,
e ( ):
1) , / / / * > . e ():
*kee ', , ': . kesi (. keden) ',
', kesi- '', kettu ' '; . kesi (.
kee) ' ', ktt (. ktu) ',
195

', ktuta-, ketuta- ''; . *kete (Lehtiranta 331) sarves-katt (I) 'Rentierhaut', katt (T), kht (Not.) 'Fell';
. ked, kd (E), ked (M) ''; UEW, 142.
*keske ', , ': .
keski (. kesken) ', '; . kesk (. keske);
. *keske (Lehtiranta 327) ga^ska^ -sk- (N) 'interval; Stretch;
distance', kaska (L), kask (K (217), T), ksk (Kld., Not., A) 'Mitte,
Zwischenraum'; . keska (M) 'die Weichen, die Mitte des Leibes';
UEW, 661.
*teke '': . teke- ''; . tege-; . da^kka^- -g'do, make, perform', tak- (Wfs.) 'machen', takki- (T) 'machen, tun';
. teje- (E), tije- (M) ', '; (Samm. *teki-);
UEW, 519.
*wene-e ', ': . vene (. veneen), (.)
veneh, venhe ''; . vene (. vene) ', '; .
*vene (Lehtiranta 1330) fa^na^s va^na^s -dn- (N), vans (L) 'Boot,
Schiff', vans (T), vns (Kld.), vnas, vnnas (Not.) 'Boot'; .
ven, vn (E), vene, venek (M) ', '; UEW, 819.
*wire128 ''; (Samm. *weri): . veri (. veren) '',
veres (. vereksen) ', , ', verev ',
, , '; . veri (. vere) ', ,
, '; . *vere (Lehtiranta 1335) va^rra^ -r- (N)
'blood', varra (L), varr (T), vrr (Kld. Not. A); . ver (E M), vr
(E), vr (M); . . wr, . wr; UEW, 576.
*wene ', ': . veny- '' (
> . N viedna^- -n- 'get overstrained (of sinew)'); . veni''; . va^d'na- fa^d'na- -n- (N) 'lie extended full
length', vatna- (L) '(aus)gedehnt, gespannt, gestreckt werden; lnger
werden; wachsen, grer werden', vanni- (T), vnn- (A) 'sich
128

Samm. *weri.

196

dehnen; liegen', vantte- (T), vntte- (Kld.) 'ausdehnen'; .


veneme- (E M) '', venste-, vente- (E), venepte- (M)
' '; UEW, 819.
*pele ', '; (Janh. (56) *peli-; Samm. *peli-): .
pelt- ''; . pelga- ', '; . ba^lla^- -l- (N)
'fear, be afraid', palla- (L), palli- (T), plle- (Kld.), pll- (A); .
pele- (E, M); UEW, 370.
2) , :

. evs '' . avastit (N), SSA, I,110


. menesty ', ' . manastuvvat (N), SSA,
II, 159
. menet ', ' . manatit (N), SSA, II, 159
*ete ' , '; (Samm. *eti-): .
ehti- ''; . ehe (. ehte) '', ehti '
, '; . a^s'ta^- -st- (N) 'have time, leisure (to do
something); be available, not be required', a^s'to -st- 'leisure', asta- (L)
'Zeit haben (fr etw.)', ast 'Zeit fr etw., Arbeitspause, Freizeit',
asta- (K, T), st- (Kld.), st- (Ko. Not.) 'gute Zeit haben, mit etwas
fertig werden', asta (T), astA (Ko., Not.) 'freie Zeit'; . . te-, .
te-, te- ', '; UEW, 626.
*kere ', ': . keri (. kerin) ', ';
. keri '', kere (. kere) ''; . *kere (Lehtiranta,
318) kieras (L) 'Hornring am Ende der Fangleine'; skier'ro -rr- (N)
'wooden disk used as a hoop by children; cartweel'; (Samm. *keri/);
UEW, 148.
*lete '': . lehti (. lehden) ''; . leht (.
lehe); . *leste (Lehtiranta 555) la^s'ta^ -st- 'Blatt, Laub', last (T),
lst (Kld. Not. A); . . lt, lt, . lta, . lita
(M); UEW, 689.

197

*mene '': . mene-, . mne- ''; . mine-; .


ma^nna^- -n- (N) 'go, journey, travel', manna- (L), manni- (T), mnne(Kld. Not.), mnn- (A); . . mie-, . mije- ''; UEW, 272.
*rEppV (*reppV) ', ': . repi- '()',
repise-, revise-; . rbi-, rebi- ''; . ra^ppa^- -b- -v- (N)
'open, take the cover off', rahpa- (L) 'ffnen'; UEW, 427.
/ / / * > . *,
i/-(E) i//-(M)129:
1) , / / / * > . i/-(E) i//-(M):

*en ', '; (Samm. (?) *e/in): . en ',


', enempi ', ', eno ''; . enam, onu (S.)
uno ''; . *n (Lehtiranta, 231) dna^g 'much (of), a lot (of);
many' (N), tna, tnak (L) 'viel, viele', jiennig (T), ienne (Kld.),
ianne, jennaj (Not.), jennj (A) 'viel; wie viel, wie viele', ddno
dno -n- 'the main river', tn (L) 'Flu, Strom', eno, ed'nu dnu
(N) 'mother's brother, maternal uncle', noi, dnu (L) 'jngerer oder
lterer Bruder od. Vetter der Mutter', jeanaj (T) 'Mutterbruder'; .
ine (E), in (M) ''; UEW, 74, Paasonen 1990, 463.
*ker (> *ketr) ', ': . kehr, (.) ketr
'', kehr-, (.) ketr-''; . kedr (. kedra)
'', kedra- ''; . *krs (Lehtiranta 390) grse -rs(N) 1. '(pig's) snout', 2. 'either of the disks forming the ends of a reel',
L kiers krs 'Schwungring an einer Spindel, Spinnwirtel'; .
tere, ere (E), ktir (M) ''; . . r, . r, r
(B) '', . re-, . re-, re- ''; UEW, 656.
*kes '': . kes ''; . *ks (Lehtiranta 393)
gesse -s- (N), kiess kss (L), kiesse (K (207), T), kiess (Kld.,

129
, 2006, 1997,
* *-.

198

Not.), kess (A); . kize (E), kiza (M) ' (E M), (M)'; UEW,
660.
*mel ', ': . mela ' ',
melo- ''; . mo~la ', '; . *ml
(Lehtiranta 656) mlle -l- (N) 'steering-oar', mll mll (L)
'Ruder, Riemen (mit dem man steuert)', mielle (Ko. P) 'Ruderblatt;
Steuerruder des Flosses'; . mile (E) '', mil (M:P)
' ', mlna (M:P) , melidi- (E)
'rudern', Paasonen 1992, 1262; UEW, 701.
*nelj (*nelj) ''; (Samm. *n'elj): . nelj ',
'; . neli (. nelja); . *nlj (Lehtiranta 720) njl'lje
-llj- (N), niel'ja (L), nielje (T), nielj (Kld.), nelj (Not.), nel (A); .
nile (E), nil (M), nilnst nilenst (M) , . . nl, .
nl; UEW, 316, Paasonen 1994, 1402.
*pene ''; (Samm. *pen): . peni, . penin
'Welf', penikka ''; . peni ''; . *pnek (Lehtiranta
911) bna^ -dna^g- (N), pna (L), pienn (Kld.), pienag (T); .
pine (E), pi (M); . . pi, . pij, . puni, . pn
''; UEW, 371.
*pes ''; (Janh. (28) *pes; Samm. *pes): . pes
''; . pesa; . *ps (Lehtiranta 917) bsse -s- (N) 'nest;
primitive dwelling', piess pss (L) 'Nest, Horst, Bau, Lager', piess
(Kld. Not.) 'Vogelnest'; . pize (E), piza (M); . . p,
. pa, piza, pua ''; UEW, 375,
Paasonen 1994, 1693.
*pe *pen '; Pinus sylvestris'; (Samm. *pe): .
petj (. petjs) ''; . pedajas (. pedaja), pedakas
(. pedaka), pdajas (. pdaja), pdakas (. pdaka)
' ; Pinus sylvestris'; . *pc (Lehtiranta 901)
bcce -- (N) 'Pinus silvestris', piehtrs, phts (L) 'Kiefer, Fhre',
piecce (T), pieicc (Kld.), piehc (Not.) 'Kiefer, Fichtenrinde'; .
199

pie (E), pi (M) '; Pinus sylvestris'; . . pn, .


pnc ''; UEW, 727, Paasonen 1994, 1649.
*sep ', '; (Samm. *s'ep): . sep (. sepi,
sevi) '' ( > . sieppalas (T), seaBps (Kld.),
sepp(A)s (Not.) 'Kragen, Brustausschnitt'), sep-, sepile''; . seba (. seba, seva) 'Heunetz, welches das
Heufuder umschliet; hochgebogener Vorderteil des Schlittens', sebad,
sebi (. sebja), sebi-vits 'Ruten vorn am Bauernschlitten'; .
*cptt *cptt (Lehtiranta, 130) bet, ve (-ppat-, vat) (N)
'neck or throat (outside); collar on clothing', tjiehp tjhp (L)
'Hals', tjiept tjpet (L), vss-tieBpe (T), vss-tieBpE (Kld.) 'Hals
des Fellsackes', teaBpad (T), te'ppt (Ko. Not.) 'Hals'; . sive,
siv (E), siv, . -en (M) '', siveks (E) ''; . .
, . j ''; UEW, 473, Paasonen 1996, 2164.
*ce ''; (Janh. (26) *cec; Samm. *cec): . set '';
. sedi (.) ' ' ( < .?); .
*cc (Lehtiranta, 126) cce -- (N) 'father's brother, paternal uncle,
younger than the father', tjiehtj, tjhtj (L) 'Vaterbruder, Onkel
vterlicherseits', iecce (T), tieDtsE (Klk.), tiettsE (Not.) 'jngerer
Bruder des Vaters'; . ie (E) , ,
, n St. na- (M) ; . .
, cc, . , t ', ';
UEW, 34, Paasonen 1990, 259.
2) , :

. er ', ' . aerre, SSA, I, 107


. keino ', ' . gaei'dno, SSA, I, 338
. pensas '' . baes'se, SSA, II, 337
. permanto '' . baerbmek kodan lattiaplkky t. plkyt, SSA, II, 340
*kep '': . kepe, keve ', ', kevene' '; . kebja, kebi ''; . *kpp

200

(Lehtiranta 385) gp'pa^d (N) 'easy, light; empty, vacuous', gp'pani'become smaller, less, diminish', khppat, kieppes (L) 'leicht'; UEW,
146.
*el- ''130: . el- ''; . ela-; . lle- l- (N),
iell-, ll- (L), jielle- (jea-) (T), ieille- (Kld.); . . le-, . ile-;
UEW, 73.
*sepp ''; (Samm. *s'epp): . sepp '',
sepsti ', '; . sepp (. sepa) ',
'; . *cppe (Lehtiranta, 131) p'pe -pp- (N) 'clever,
efficient', tjiehpp, tjhpp (L) 'flink, tchtig, geschickt', iehpe (T),
iehp (Kld. Not.), ep (A) 'Meister', tiep(E) (Kld.) 'geschickt;
Meister'; UEW, 474.
*ter ', ': . ter ', '; . tera;
. *tr (Lehtiranta 1247) drre -r- (N) 'edge-side, the whole of
the thin part of an axe', tierre (T), tieirr (Kld. Not.) 'Klinge (eines
Messers)'; . . ter, . tr ''; UEW, 522.
/ / / * > . *,
i/-(E) i//-(M):
1) , * > . i/-(E) i//-(M):
*rep ( -cV) '': . repo ''; . rebane (.
rebase) '', rebu ', -, -'; .
rieba^n rieva^n (N) 'fox', riepij (L) 'Fuchs, Rotfuchs', re^Pis, re^pH
(S), rmne (T), rmn (Kld.), riemn (Not.); . rives (E); . .
rw, . rw; Samm. *rep; UEW, 423.
*secem ''; (Samm. *s'e/ees'/c'Vmi): . seitsemn
(seitsem-), . seitsen ''; . seitse (. seitsme); .
*ccem (Lehtiranta, 145) iea^ (N), kietjav (L), kim (T), kiem
(Kld.), ihem (Not.) 'seven', kat (A) 'der siebente'; . sisem (E,
M); . . m, . m, iim; UEW, 773.
. era-, ra- (E), era- (M) 'leben, wohnen' -
.
130

201

2) , :

. selke ', ' . ielgag (N), SSA, III, 167


*kent ', ': . kentt, (SKES .) kent
', ' (> . genda -nd- (N) 'grassy piain in the
mountains where Lapps once lived in the past'); . knt
(Lehtiranta 427) giedde -dd- '(natural) meadow' (N), kiedd
'natrliche Wiese; Zeltplatz' (L), kindt(A) (K, T), ki.ndt(A) (Kld.),
ki<^DtA (Ko., Not.) 'Feld, auch: frherer grasbewachsener
Wohnplatz'; UEW, 658.
*mec ', ': . mets '' ( > . mc'ce (N)
'pasture land, wilderness', miehce (K, T), miehc (Kld.) 'des Land,
Wste'); . mets (. metsa), . mo~ts (. mo~tsa) ',
, ', metsa, metsas ''; . miehttjn (L) 'ganz bei,
an der Zeltwand; weit weg', miehse (S) 'weit, weithin', mettila
(Inari) 'weiter weg, nher ans Ufer'; UEW, 269.
*neje (*neje/*neje) ', , ': . neiti (.
neiden, neidin, . neitti, neity, neitike, neitikki, neikko, neikka)
', '; . neid (. neiu, neio) '', .
neiu; . *njte (Lehtiranta 730) niei'da^ -id- (N) 'daughter, girl,
young girl', nei'ta (L), njt (T), njt, nijt (Kld. A), niejt (Not.) (<
.?); Janh. (94) *nxi; Samm. *nxi; UEW, 302.
*selk '': . selk '' ( > . sl'ge -lg- (N) 'the
back', siel'k sl'k (L) '', sieilke (K, T), sieilk (Kld., Not.)
'Rcken'); . selg (. selja) ', ' ( > .
. ); . *clke (Lehtiranta, 151) iel'ge -lg- (N)
'backbone; back', ieilke (T) 'Rcken, Kreuz', iilke 'der untere Teil
des Rckens, das Kreuz'; . . l '', ile
''; UEW, 772.
*welje ', ': . veli (. veljen) '' ?; . veli
(. vele, velja) '' ?; . *vlje (Lehtiranta 1398) viel'lja^ -llj(N), viel'ja (L), vlj (T Kld.), vielj (Not.), vil (A) ?; UEW, 567.
202

/ / / *o
/ / / *o > . *oa - /131:
*komta ', '; (Samm. *komta): . kansi (.
kannen) ''; . kaas (. kaane); . *kmt (Lehtiranta
473) goaw'de -wd- (N) 'opening under something; projecting roof;
roof on posts, without walls', kimte (T) 'uere Flche', ktt-kimte
'uere Handflche', koampls (K) 'Deckel'; . kundo (E), kunda
. -n (M); . . kom ', '; UEW, 671,
Paasonen 1992, 960.
*kokka '- , - ,
': . kokka ''; . kokka . 'Haken, Angelhaken';
. *kkk (Lehtiranta 468) goakke (N) 'Hacke, Haue', kkke- (L)
'ein sich rckwrts biegendes Holz'; goakke -g- (N) 'hood on a Lapp
cradle', khk (L) 'das Schutzdach der Lappenwiege (der Holzbogen
mit dem darber gespannten Leder)'; UEW, 171.
*kopa-la/l'a (-oppa-) '; Tetrao urogallus': . koppelo
'; Tetrao urogallus'; . *kppl (Lehtiranta 474)
goap'pel (N), kahppl (L), kihpel (T), kuihpel (Kld. Not.); .
kuwulzu, kuwlc ; UEW, 181.
*korV ( *korwa) '': . korva ''; . ko~rv (.
ko~rva) ', , '; . *krv (Lehtiranta 482) goar've -rv(N) 'Ohrffnung'; UEW, 187.
*kota ', '; (Samm. *kota): . kota ', ';
. koda (. koa) ', , '; . *kt
(Lehtiranta 487) goatte -- (N) 'tent; Lapp hut', kht (L), kiitte (T),
kuitt (Kld.), kuoiht (Not.), kit (A) 'id.; Tasche, Beutel'; . kudo
131
:
*kopta '( ) ': . kohta ''; . koht (. koha) ',
' ?; . guotte (N) 'in Bezug auf etwas', goakte (N) 'beinahe, fast, nahezu', khti (T) (postp.)
'gegenber' ?; UEW, 183.
: . norua 'rinnen' .
njoarrat (N), SSA II, 233.

203

(E), kud () ; . . ku, kuo ', ;


( ,
); ; '; UEW, 190, Paasonen 1992, 922.
*koka ''; (Samm. *koka): . kotka '', ?kokko; .
kotkas (. kotka), ? kokas (. kokka); . *kckm
(Lehtiranta 466) goas'kem goasken 'eagle', kaskem (L) 'Steinadler,
Goldadler', kiickem (T), kuckem (Kld.), kuehckim (Not.), koickem
(A) 'Adler'; . kuckan (E:Atr), kuckan (M); . . kuk, .
kutk, kutk ', '; UEW, 668, Paasonen 1992,
917.
*kopra ', ': . koura, (.) kopra ', ';
. *kpr (Lehtiranta 475); UEW, 183.
*nojta (*nojta/*nojta) ', , ': .
noita ', ', noitu- ', '; .
no~id (. no~ia), . noid ', , ', no~ida'hexen, zaubern'; . *njt (Lehtiranta 739) noai'de (N) 'sorcerer,
wizard', nai't (L) 'Zauberer, Schamane', nijte (T), noajt-olmun
(Kld.), nojt (Not.); noai'do- (N) 'practise sorcery, witchcraft',
noajdlue- (Kld. Not.); UEW, 307.
*kojwa ', ', (Samm. *ka/ojwa-): . kaiva', ', kaivo ''; . kaeva- ', ,
'; kaev (. kaevu) 'Brunnen, Schacht'; . goai'vo- -iv(N) 'ladle (out), draw (water); shovel', kaivo- (L) 'graben, schpfen;
(im Schnee) scharren und weiden', koajva- (T), koajve- (Kld. Not.),
kojv- (A) 'schpfen'; goai'vo -iv- (N) 'shovel, spade', kai'v (L)
'Schaufel, Schippe', koajva (T), koajv (Kld. Not.) 'Spaten'; .
kojme, kojm (E), kajm (M)
; . . koe- ' ();
()'; UEW, 170, Paasonen 1992, 820.
*korta ', ': . korttaa- (.) ', ';
. goar'de- -rd- (N) 'to warm, heat; to roast; cook a little', kar't204

(L) 'brennen, Glut strahlen, sengen' ( > . . kortaa-); .


gurno- (E), gurna- (M) ' '; . .
kore- (2) ' ( )', UEW, 186,
Paasonen 1990, 431.
*noka ', ': . notka (.) '', notkea
', ', notko ', '; . no~tke
', , ', no~tk, no~tku (. no~tku)
'Senkung, Niederung'; . *nck (Lehtiranta 778) njoas'ke -sk(N) 'depression with sloping sides', njask (L) 'Talsenke zwischen
zwei niederen Bergen, Tal, Einsenkung', nicke, niecke (T), nuick
(Kld.), nuahck (Not.) 'Tal'; . nuka- . nukn (M); UEW,
714, Paasonen 1994, 1358.
*ojwa ', '; (Janh. (11) *ojwa; Samm. *ojwa): .
oiva '', . oima, oimo, . oimi '', oivallinen
'', oivalta- ''; . oim, uim (. oimu,
uimu) ', '; . *jv (Lehtiranta 822) oai've -iv- (N) 'head,
intellect', ai'v (L) 'Kopf, Verstand', vuv(e) (Kld.), vuve, vuava,
vuiv (Not.) 'Kopf, Haupt'; . ujfte- (M) ''; . ., .
wuj ''; UEW, 336.
*wolka ''; (Samm. *wolka): . olka '', olka-p
''; . o~la (. olg, o~lg) 'Schulter'; . *lk (Lehtiranta
827) oal'ge -lg- (N) 'shoulder', al'k (L) 'Schulter, Achsel', viilke
(T), uilk (Kld.), uailk (Not.), oilgi (A - . pl.) 'Achsel, Schulter';
UEW, 581.
*oma ', ': . oma '',
omaisuus ', ' ( ? < o- 'sein'); . oma
'eigen; Eigentum'; . *m (Lehtiranta 830) ame 'res', oabme
(Friis) 'res, pecus, proprietas', oabme -m- (N) 'property', oami (I)
'eigen, Eigentum'; UEW, 717.

205

*ona '': . one 'schmal, dnn, schlecht', onea,


onakka id. ?; . oadne -n- (N) 'short', atn (L) 'kurz', viineg (T),
aine, oine( Kld.), uankes (Not.); UEW, 339.
*ora ''; (Samm. *ora): . ora ', '; . ora
''; . *r (Lehtiranta 841) oarre 'subula', virre (T), uirr
(Kld.), uairr (Not.) 'Ahle, Pfrieme'; . uro (E), ura . urn (M);
UEW, 342, Paasonen 1996, 2467.
*ora ''; (Samm. *ora): . orava ''; . orav,
oravas (. orava); . *rv (Lehtiranta 847) oar're -rr- (N), arr
(L), viirrev (T), uirrev (Kld.), uairrev ''; . ur (E), ura (M)
(. -n) '; '; . ., . ur ''; UEW, 343,
Paasonen 1996, 2461.
*oca *onca ', '; (Samm. *os'a/i): . osa '',
? osaa- '', ? osu- '' ( > . N oasse, L ss, K T
viisse, Kld. uiss, Not. uaiss, A vois 'Teil'); . osa ', ,
', osa- ', '; . *nc (Lehtiranta
835) oa'e -- (N) 'flesh; musculature', adtj (L), vine (T), uin
(Kld.), uai (Not.) 'Fleisch'; oa'o-, -- (N) 'get, obtain', adtj- (L),
oane- (Kld.) 'bekommen'; . ua ', ', uala', '; UEW, 333.
*poka '': . potka (. pokka) '', potki''; . po~tk (. po~tka), . petk, po~kk 'Schinken, Lende';
. *pck (Lehtiranta 966) boas'ke- -sk- (N) 'the small of the leg',
pask (L) 'Fusohle (des Mittelfues), Fublatt; Ferse, Hacken (eines
Schuhes)', pitsk-vintE (T), putsk-vunt (Kld.), pu'tsk'v
uDtE (Not.) 'Schenkel, Wade', pu'tskE, pu'skE, pua'tska (Not.)
'Knochen im hinteren Teil des Fugelenks am Hinterbein des
Rentiers'; . puko (E), puka, . pukn (M) ' ,
' ?; UEW, 389, Paasonen 1994, 1830.
*sompa '': . sompa ' ', sompakko
id. ?; . *smp (Lehtiranta 1158) soab'be -bb- (N) 'stick', sabb
206

(L) 'Stock, Stab', siimpe (T), suimp (Kld.), suaipp (Not.) ?; . .


omba ''; UEW, 764.
*soka ' '; (Samm. *s'o/dk/d'ka): . sotka ',
'; . so~tkas (. so~tka) '', . sotka, satka
'Tauchente, Fuligula marila'; . *ck (Lehtiranta, 172) oa'ge g- (N) 'golden-eye; Glaucion clangula', tjar'hk (L) 'Schellente,
Klingelente; Clangula glaucion, Fuligula clangula'; . sulgo
sulga FS (E), culga . culgn (M) - ,
; Fuligula clangula, Colymbus arcticus'; .
. ala-oe ' ', . sue ' '; UEW, 482, Paasonen
1996, 2193.
*torV '; '; (Janh. (32) *tora; Samm. *tora): .
tora ', ', toru- ''; . to~ra 'Aufruhr, Zank,
Streit'; . *tr (Lehtiranta 1284) doarro -r- (N) 'fight, battle,
struggle', doarro- -r- 'strike with the horns, butt; fight', trr (L)
'Krieg, Kampf, Schlgerei', trr- 'kmpfen, kriegen; stoen', toarra
(T) 'Zank, Streit, Krieg', toarra- (T), toarre- (Kld. Not.) 'streiten';
. ture-, ture- (E), tur- (M) ''; . . torle- ',
'; UEW, 531, Paasonen, 1996, 2418.
. kojana 'grosser mnnlicher Lachs' . goaggjen (N), SSA I,
386.
. kolea '' . goallot (N), SSA I, 389.
. kolkata 'klopfen' . goal'ket (N), SSA I, 390.
. loka '' . loakke (N), SSA II, 89.
. norppa 'Ringelrobbe' . noarvve (N), SSA II, 232.
. pohja '' . boa'o (N), SSA II, 383.
. poimia ', ' . boai'bmot (N), SSA II, 386.
. rohtia 'Mut haben' . ros'tit (N), SSA III, 86.
. toivoa ', ' . doai'vot (N), SSA III, 305.

207

/ / / *o > . *-e
*koke ', , ': . koke- '';
. koge- (.) 'frchten, hten, sich schmen; ,
', koeta- 'hervorbringen'; . kuok- 'Fischfanggerte
besichtigen'; UEW, 171.
*korpe ', ': . korpea-, korventa-, korvetta', '; . ko~rb (. ko~rve) 'Versengen, Anbrennen',
ko~rbe- ', '; . guor'ba^- -rb- (N) 'be scorched',
kuor'pa- (L) 'durch Waldbrand verheert werden; erlschen, ohne zu
Ende gebrannt zu haben'); . kurva- (E) ', ',
kurvaste-, kirvaste-, krasti- (E), korvste- (M) ''; UEW, 186,
Paasonen 1992, 972-973.
*koske '': . koske- ''; . guos'ka^- -sk- (N)
'knock against, touch, concern, regard', kuoska- (L) 'berhren,
anrhren', ? kuosati- (L) 'schlagen (mit einem Stock)', kske- (Kld.)
'berhren, anrhren'; . kuke- 'Butter schlagen' ?, Szil.; UEW,
673.
*koske '': . koski (. kosken) ''; . kosk
(. kose), ko~sk (. ko~se) ''; . *kke (Lehtiranta
540) guoi'ka^ -ik- (N) 'rapid(s)', kuoi'hka (L) 'Stromschnelle', kisk
(T), kk (Kld.), kuok (Not.) 'id., Wasserfall'; . . kak '
( ); , ', . koke,
koske ''; UEW, 674.
*nolke (*nolke/ *nolke) ', '; (Samm. *nolki): .
nolki (. noljen) 'Schleim, Rotz, Geifer'; . no~lg (. no~le)
'Rotz (der Pferde)'; . *nlke (Lehtiranta 744) snuol'ga^ -lg- (N)
'snot', snuol'ka (L) 'Nasenschleim, Rotz', nuolk (T Not.) 'Rotz';
. nolgo (E), nolga (M) ''; UEW, 322.
*norja *norja ', ': . norja, . norea
''; . njuora^s (attr. njuorra^) (N) 'soft, not yet woody or
hard, not able to stand (of infants), limp, weak', njuoras njuorra (L)
208

'zart, weich, unverhrtet, frisch; weich', nuors (Ko. P) 'schwach, zart


(Kleinkind, Rentierkalb; Ruder, Stab)', njuorra^- -r- (N) 'become
gentle, weak, be weakened, tired out', nuorr- (P) 'mde werden,
schwach werden'; . . nr, nr ', ';
UEW, 709.
*oksa *okse ''; (Samm. *oksi-): . oksenta''; . okse-, oksenda- ''; . vuok'se- -vs- (N)
'cast up, get sick, vomit', vuovsa^di- (N), vuoks- (L), vkse- (T),
vkse- (Kld.), vuose- (Not.) 'speien'; . uksno- (E) '',
uksnd- (M) ', '; . . uknza-, uksnza-, .
ukinca- ''; UEW, 716, Paasonen 1996, 2443.
*polwe ''; (Janh. (108) *po/uxl; Samm. *po/uxl): .
polvi (. polven) '', polveutu- ''; . po~lv
(. po~lve) ''; . *plv (Lehtiranta 997) buol'va^ -lv- (N)
'generation', puol'va (L) 'Knie, Generation', pivl (T), plv (Kld.),
puolv (Not.), pulv (A) 'Knie'; . pulaza (E), pulza- (E:Mar),
plza- (ChrM) ' '; . . pul-wuj, pl-wuj, . pulwuj ''; UEW, 393 Paasonen 1994, 1842.
*poe (-sV) ''; (Samm. *poi): . povi (. poven)
''; . po~u (. po~ue), . p ''; . *pe
(Lehtiranta 1000) buoga vuoga -- (N) 'breast of a bird', puoka
(L) 'der bauschige Brustteil des Lappenrockes', pn~n~ (T), pun~n~ (Kld.
Not.) 'Busen; Blase'; . pogo (E), pov, pova (M) ''; . .
pog, . pom; UEW, 395, Paasonen 1994, 1749.
*colme ', ': . solmi (. solmen), solmu
''; solmi-, solmia-, solmea-, solmua- ' '; .
so~lm (. so~lme) ', '; . *clme (Lehtiranta, 194)
uol'bma^ -lm- 'knot' (N), tjuol'ma; tjuol'ma- 'knpfen, knoten' (L),
tuolma (Ko. P) 'Knoten'; tuolm- 'knpfen'; . sulmo, sulma
(E), sulma (M) '', sulma- (E M) ', ';
(Samm. *s'olmi); UEW, 38.
209

. joikua 'einem Laut von sich geben' . juoi'gat (N), SSA I, 239.
. kopsa 'Schaum' . guok'sa (N), SSA I, 401.
. potea ', ' . buoccat (N), SSA II, 405.
. soida ', ' . uoggjat (N), SSA III, 193.
. sonkia 'whlen' . suog'gat (N), SSA III, 198.
. totkut 'Abfall' . duoka (N), SSA III, 314.
. voitaa 'salben' . vuoi'dat (N), SSA III, 468.

*woke/a ''; (Samm. *woki): . onkalo ',


'; . unk (. unga) 'Dachsparre', ongas (. onka), ungas
(. unka) 'Rauchloch unter der Spitze des Giebels (an
Bauernhusern)'; . vuoggo (N) 'antrium, in quo mus sylvestris
tegit; tugurium', vin~ka (T), vun~k (Kld.) 'Hhle (des Fuchses)';
UEW, 583.

/ / / *o > .*o
. ommella '' . oblal (N), SSA II, 266.
*joke ''; (Janh. (15) *juka; Samm. *juka): . joki (.
joen) ', '; . jo~gi (. jo~e) ''; . jokka^ -g- (N)
'river', jahka 'grerer Bach od. kleinerer Flu', jokk (T), jkk (Kld.),
johk (Not.) 'grerer Bach, Flu'; . jov (E) '.
' ?; . . jo-wt, . jon-wt, . joe- ', ' ?;
UEW, 99.
*kolme (*kulme) ''; (Samm. *kolme + *kolmanti ''):
. kolme; . kolm (. kolme); . *kolme (Lehtiranta 444);
golbma^ -lm- (N), kal'ma (L), kolm (T Kld. A), koum (Not.); .
kolmo (E), kolma (M); . . km, . kum; UEW,174.
*kowa ', ': . kotva ' ',
kotvan aikaa 'eine Weile'; . katfo 'intervallum temporis vel
locorum', korefu (L) 'Entfernung; ein Stck Weges', koafi (I)
210

'Zwischenzeit beim Nachsehen der Netze od. der Grundleine'; . .


kot ', '; UEW, 669.

/ / / *o > .*u
*solke ', '; (Samm. *s'olkama): . solki (.
soljen) ', '; . so~lg (. so~le) 'Spange,
Brustspange; Stange, Querholz, Riegel'; . *culk (Lehtiranta,
184) ulgum (N) 'side-piece of a Lapp winter brogue made of shankshin; side-piece of winter legging or driving gloves of reindeer-skin',
tjul'kum (L) 'der keilformige Zwickel in einem Handschuh; der
seitliche Schuhteil eines Pelzschuhs'; . sulgamo (E), sulgam (M)
' ' ( > . . ); . olkama (Bud.)
' ( )', Bud., lkama
'', Szil.; UEW, 774, Paasonen 1996, 2192.

/ / / *a
/ / / *a > . *a
*alka '( ) , , ': .
alka- '', alku ''; . alga- '', alg (. alu)
''; . alge- lg- 'begin to, set to work upon' (N), alk- (L),
ilke- (Kld.), ailke- (A) 'anfangen', algo -lg- 'beginning, origin' (N),
alk (L), lk (T), alk (Not. A) 'Anfang'132; UEW, 6.
*ampV ', ', (Samm. ampa-): . ampu; . ambu, . ambu, amb, . ammu, ammu, . ammu
'Bogen'; . ab'bo (N) 'to boil over', ambp (Kld.) 'anschwellen,
berkochen'; UEW, 606.
*kakta e-k-s-n > *kakteksan '': . kahdeksan '';
. kaheksa (. kaheksa); . *kkc (Lehtiranta 342) gavce -kc(N), kaktse (L), kkce (K (118) T ), Kld. Not. kc; . kavkso (E),
kafksa (M); . . knks, knk. UEW, 643.
132

UEW, , , .

211

*konV (*kana) (? + ala) ''; (Samm. *koni): .


kainalo ''; . kaenal (. kaenla) ''; .
*kjl() (Lehtiranta 339) Gain (Wfs.) 'Achselhhle', kain~n~el (T),
kajn~el-vulan (Kld.); UEW, 178.
*kaja (-ka) '': . kajava, kajakka, kajova '; Larus';
. kajakas (. kajaka), kajak; . *kjk (Lehtiranta 337) gaja
(pl. gagjagak) 'Larus argentatus', gaggjeg 'Larus' (N), kajjuh (I), kjeg
(T), kjje (Kld.), kajji (Not.); UEW, 117.
*kajV ', ': . kajoa- '', . kajettu-,
kaettu-; . kae-, kaje- (.) ''; . gaggjo- -j- (N) 'save,
liberate', kdj- (L) 'retten, erlsen', kij- (Ko.) 'retten'; UEW, 118.
*kansa ', , , ': . kansa ',
', kanssa 'mit, samt'; . kaasa (. ks) '', -ga 'mit,
samt'; . ga'e -- (N) 'household (often in Opposition to a
Single individual); (considerable) assembly of people', K T kaince,
Kid. kinc, A kainc 'Genosse'; UEW, 645.
*maja ''; (Samm. *majaka): . majava ''; .
majaja, majajas (. majaja); . *mjk (Lehtiranta 640)
maggjeg maggjek (N), mjjeg (T), mje (Kld.), mjjij (Not.); .
mijav, mijal (E); UEW, 697.
*paka '': . panka (. pangan) 'Rutenband um den
Besen, Halfter des Rentiers, Arm eines Spinnrockens', panki, pankki
'Eimer' ?; . paG (. paGa) (.) 'Griff, Handgriff'; .
*pk (Lehtiranta 892) bag'ge -gg- (N) 'halter for reindeer, horse or
cow', pagg (L), paikk (Not.) 'Halfter'; . pago (E), paga ()
' ' ?; UEW, 354.
*spp ''; (Samm. *spp): . sappi (. sapen)
''; . sapp (. sapi); . *spp (Lehtiranta 1108) sap'pe pp- (N), sahpp (L), sihpe (T), sihp (Kld. Not.) 'Galle', seppin (A);
. sepe (E), sp . -en (M); UEW, 435, Paasonen 1996, 1968.
212

*sawa '': . sauva '', sauvoin 'Stange' ( > . N


svvuonN 'Bootstange'), sauvakko 'Stecken, Stange' ( > . N
savvak 'each of the upright thin poles on the framework for hay'),
sauvo- 'einen Kahn staken'; . sau (. saua) (., .) ',
, '; . *cv (Lehtiranta, 125) aw'ge -w- (N) 'each
of the more prominent poles in the roof of a lath gamme', avbme,
avme (Friis) 'quatuor tigna incurvata, quorum bina in anteriore, bina
in posteriore parte tugurii una cum canteriis tectum sustinent'; UEW,
468.
*trm ', ': . tarmo '', . tarma,
trm '' ?; . dar'bmo -bm- (N) 'energy, vigour', dar'bme rbm-, (L) tar'm 'Kraft, Energie'; UEW, 517.
*wajmV '': . vaimo ''; . vaim (. vaimu)
'Geist, Seele, Gefhl, Kraft; Person, Arbeiter; Frau, welche (zur Zeit
der Leibeigenschaft) Frondienste fr den Gutshof verrichtet hat'; .
*vjm (Lehtiranta 1345) vai'bmo -im- (N) 'heart', vai'm (L), vama
(Ko. P) 'Herz, Bauch', vai'bmel (N) 'desirous, covetous' ( > .
vaimala 'streitschtig, launisch, wtend'); . ojme, ojmine (E),
vajm, vajmon (M) ', '; UEW, 809, Paasonen
1994, 1436.
. akka '' . ak'ka (N), SSA I, 64.
. haara ', ' . sarre (N), SSA I, 126.
. jata 'Reihe' . jatte (N), SSA I, 237.
. lahtea 'feucht' . lak'tat (N), SSA II, 36.
. laulaa ', ' . law'lot (N), SSA II, 54.
. maarto 'junger Fisch' . mar'do (N), SSA II, 136.
. mantu ', ' . mad'do (N), SSA II, 148.
. naala 'Art' . nalle (N), SSA II, 199.
. naama 'Gesicht' . namme (N), SSA II, 200.
. pakkanen '' . bkkas (N), SSA II, 295.
. parva 'Schrze' . bar've (N), SSA II, 319.
213

. sahra '' . sarre (N), SSA III, 141.


. saitta 'Stange' . sai'te (N), SSA III, 143.
. taaja ', ' . daw'je (N), SSA III, 247.
. taju '' . daggjot (N), SSA III, 257.
. vaiti '' . vai'dot (N), SSA III, 394.
. vannoa '' . vuor'dnot (N), SSA III, 407.

/ / / *a > . *
*aje ''; (Samm. *aji): . aivo(t) ' '; .
aju ''; . *vje (Lehtiranta 1425) vuoia-, pl. vuoi'daak
'brain' (N), vuoiam vuoi'am 'Gehirn' (L), vujven (Kld.), vueven
(Not.) 'Gehirn'; . uj (M) ', '; UEW, 5,
Paasonen 1996, 2440.
*aja- ''; (Samm. *aja): . aja- ''; . aja''; . vuoggje- -j- 'drive (a horse, reindeer)', drive
on, drive over' (N), vuodj- 'fahren' (L), vjje- (K, T), vujje- (Kld),
vuajje- (Not.) 'fahren, lenken'; UEW, 4.
*ala ' -': . ala '',
alla ''; . ala ', , ', all ', ,
'; . *vl (Lehtiranta 1433) vuolle vuolle -l- 'down; (in
comp.) 'space or part under smth...' (N), -vuoll 'der Platz unten oder
nahebei, Unterlage' (L), ville (T) 'das Untere', vilne, viln (T), viln
(Kld.), vueiln (Not.), voiln (Not.) 'unter, unten'; . al (M) ,
, alo (E), ala (M) , ; . ., . l-,
. l-, l- '', . ln, . ln ''; (Janh. *la; Samm. *
la); UEW, 6, Paasonen 1990, 22.
*anV(-ppV) ', '; (Samm. *na (jpp)): . anoppi
(. anopin) ', '; . *vnm (Lehtiranta 1442)
vuone -dnam- (N), vuonv (L), vin (. vinnaime) (T), vine (.
vunnaim) (Kld.), vuene (. vuannem, -am) (Not.); UEW, 9.
214

*amta- ''; (Samm. *mta-): . anta- ''; .


vuow'de- -wd- 'sell' (N), vuob't- vuog't- (L), udte- (K Ko Not.)
'geben'; . ando- (E) and- (M) ; UEW, 8, Paasonen
1990, 42.
*appe ''; (Samm. *pp): . appi (. apen, . apin)
''; . *vppe (Lehtiranta 1451) vuop'pa^ -pp- (N), vuohppa
(L), vihp (T), vhp (Kld.), vuhp (Not.); . . ow, owo;
UEW, 14.
*ara ', , ': . hara ', ,
', harava '', haravoi- ', '; . haro,
haru, . ara ', '; . ? *sr (Lehtiranta
1186); . arm-pan, or-wono, or-mono,
orm-wono ''; UEW, 783.
*jaka- '' (Samm. *je"ka): . jaka- '', jako
', '; . jaga-, jga- 'teilen, verteilen, austeilen';
. juokke- -g- (N) 'divide; distribute', juokko -g- 'division,
partition', juohk- (L) 'teilen, austeilen', juohk 'Teilung, Verteilung',
jkke- (ie) (T), jikke- (Kld.), juoihke- (Not.), joikke- (A) 'teilen';
. java- (E), javo- (E, M) ', , '; UEW,
87, Paasonen 1990, 503.
*jalka ''; (Samm. *jlka): . jalka ''; . jalg (.
jala); . *jlk (Lehtiranta, 292) juol'ge -lg- (N), juol'k (L), jlke
(jie) (T), jilk (Kld.), juoilk, jueilk (Not.), juilgit (A) 'Fu'; . jalgo
(E), jalga (M) ''; . . jal, . jol ''; UEW, 88,
Paasonen 1990, 491.
*kaa '': . katoa- '', kato ',
' ( > . N gaotus 'condemnation, perdition', K T ktta'verschwinden', kdade- 'verlieren'); . kadu ',
'; . guoe -- (N) 'let remain, leave', kuot- (L) 'lassen,
zurcklassen', kitte- (T), kitte- (Kld.), koidde- (A) 'hinterlassen,
lassen'; . kado- (E) kad- (M) , , Paasonen
215

1992, 561; . . koa (1) (2); . : C koam, tr. koem;


. : Ch koam, tr. koem; . : B koam, tr. koem;
. : M koam, tr. koem; . : U koam, tr.
koem; . : P koam, tr. koem; . : V koam, tr.
koem; . : J koam, tr. koem; . : K koam,
tr. koem; . *ko-; Bereczki 1992, 18, UEW, 115, SSA I,
270.
*kaa(-rV) '': . kaari (. kaaren) ', '; .
kaar (. kaare, kaaru) ', '; . *ker (Lehtiranta
523) kuoar kuokar (L) 'Spant, Rippe eines Bootes', kr (T), kar
(Kld.), kr (Ko. P) 'Spant (des Bootes)'; UEW, 126.
*kakta *kkt ''; (Janh. (113) *ke/kt; Samm. *kekt,
*kakta): . kaksi (. kahden); . kaks (. kahe); . *kkt
(Lehtiranta 509) guok'te -vt- (N), kuokte (L), kkt, kikt (T), kt
(Kld.), kuat (Not.), kot (A); . kavto, kafto (E), kafta (M); .
., . kok, koktt; UEW, 118.
*kala ''; (Janh. (8) *kala; Samm. *kala): . kala '';
. kala; . *kl (Lehtiranta 511) guolle -l- (N), kuoll (L), kille
(T), ku~ill (Kld.), kuoill (Not.); . kal (E), kal (M); UEW, 119,
Paasonen 1992, 574.
*kalma ', ': . kalma ', ' ( > . N
gal'bme -lm- 'place of a corpse, corpse, L klma); . kalm (.
kalmu, kalma) ''; . *klm (Lehtiranta 514) guolmas l'bm- 'the innermost soft white layer of the bark of conifers; pale,
pallid', guol'bma- 'appear, rise (of the moon)', kuolmi (L)
'Dmmerung' ?; . kalmo (E), kalma (M) '', kalma- (E M)
''; UEW, 119, Paasonen 1992, 582.
*kanta ', , '; (Samm. *knta): . kanta (.
kannan) '', kantap 'Ferse', kannas (. kannaksen)
'Baumstamm; Ende der Schlittenkufe' ( > . N gad'do 'back of the
knee', T knta 'Ferse'), kanto (. kannon) 'Baumstumpf, Stumpf';
216

. kand (. kanna) ', , ', kand (. kannu)


'Baumstumpf, Stamm'; . *kntj (Lehtiranta 522) guoddo,
gud'du- (N) 'stump (of tree)', kuotti (L) 'umgefallener Baum,
Baumstamm', ? N gad'de -dd- 'bank, shore', ? L kadd 'Ufer; Rand';
. kando (E), kanda, . kandn (M) ,
; UEW, 123, Paasonen 1992, 595.
*lampe '': . lampi, lammi (. lammen, lammin),
lamppi (. lampin) ''; . lammikas 'Schlammpftze, Moor'
?; . *lmpel (Lehtiranta 620) luobba^l -b'b- (L) 'kleiner Waldsee,
krzere Strecke Stillwasser' ( > . lompalo, lompolo 'Verbreiterung
eines Flusses'), limpe, limp (T) 'Moor, Sumpf' ?; . lop ''
?; UEW, 235.
*lamte ', , '; (Samm. *le"nsi): . lansi
(. lannen) 'niedrig, Tiefland', lantea 'niedrig', lansa 'tiefe Stelle im
Meere', lantu- 'niederfallen, niedersinken', lanto 'Tiefland, Tal' ( >
. N laddo 'pond, tarn', L sladd, slatti 'kleiner Waldteich'); .
laas (. laane) 'dichter Laubwald auf feuchtem Boden', . land
(. landu) 'stehende Lache'; . *lmt (Lehtiranta 621) luow'de-wd- (N) 'to lie down flat, lie down on one's knees and elbows or
hands', (L) luob't luog't- 'sich mit eingeknickten Beinen auf den
Leib legen' ?; . landa- (E, M) ' , ' ?;
. . landaka ' , '; UEW, 235.
*pala ', '; (Janh. (9) *pala; Samm. *pala):
. pala ''; . pala; . *pl (Lehtiranta 995) buola
'frustulum'; . pal (E) ' ( )', pal, . paln (M)
; . , pult ''; UEW, 350, Paasonen
1994, 1510.
*pala '': . pala- ', ', poltta- ''; .
pala-, po~le- 'brennen (intr.)'; . buolle- -l- (N) 'burn, be on fire',
puoll- (L) 'brennen (intr.)', pille- (T), pille- (Kld.), puoille- (Not.);
217

. palo- (E), pal- (M); pulta- (E), puLta- (M) ', ';
UEW, 352, Paasonen 1994, 1516.
*pala ' ': . palele- 'Klte empfinden, frieren'; .
buola^ -ll- 'frost, frosty'; . palo- (E), pal- (M) '';
UEW, 352, Paasonen 1994, 1516.
*para ''; (Samm. *pe"ra): . parempi (.
paremman) 'besser', paras (. parhaan), parahin, parhain 'der beste',
paranta- 'gesund machen; bessern', parantu- 'genesen, gesund werden;
besser werden' ( > . L prti- 'verbessern'); . parem '',
paras (. paraja) 'angemessen, passend, bequem', parim (.
parima) 'der beste'; . *pr (Lehtiranta, 1001) buorre buorre -r'good, kind, pleasant', puorr (L) 'gut, recht', pirre (T) 'das Gute',
purr (Not.), poir (A) 'gut', puireamp (Kld.) 'besser'; . paro (E),
para (M) ', '; . . pur, puro, poro
', ', . poro 'gut', . parem-, parema-, .,
porema- ', , ';
UEW, 724, Paasonen 1994, 1545.
*marja '': . marja ''; . mari (. marja); .
*mrj (Lehtiranta 693) muor'je -rj- (N), muor'j (L), mrje (T), mrj
(Kld.), muorj (Not.), murj (A); . mar (E M) ' ' (in
comp.); . ., . mr, mr ' ( )';
UEW, 264.
*maksa ''; (Janh. (41); *mksa; Samm. *mksa): .
maksa ''; . maks (. maksa); . *mks (Lehtiranta
688) mksi (Wfs.); . makso (E), maksa (M), UEW, 264,
Paasonen 1992, 1162.
*paV ', '; (Samm. *pa/ia): . pato
''; . *p (Lehtiranta 989) buoo -- (N) 'dam (usually
of peat), enclosure for netting salmon', piDta (T; . pida); UEW,
347.
218

*sakV (<~ *sakka) ''; (Samm. *se"kita): . sakea


'', sakka ', ' ( > . N skka^d 'dense (of grass)')
?; . sage (. sageda, sage, sake) '', sago (. sao)
'Bodensatz' ?; . *ske (Lehtiranta 1173) suokka^d (N) 'thick (of
fluid and semi-fluid things); thick, dense', suohkat (L), (attr.) suohkkis
'dick, zhflssig, dicht; dicht behaart; dicht siedelnd, dicht wohnend;
dicht gesammelt', skkiit (T), skke (Kld.), suohke (Not.) 'dicht,
dick' ?; . uk (KB U), uko (U B) '' ?; UEW, 750.
*sala ', , '; (Janh. (10) *sala; Samm. *sala):
. sala ', ', salaa ', '; . sala ',
', salaja 'heimlich, verstohlen, verborgen', salasta'verheimlichen'; . *sl (Lehtiranta 1175) suola^ -lla^g- (N) 'thief,
thievish', suoladi- 'steal, go stealthily'; suola (L) 'Dieb', suollt 'im
geheimen', suolti- 'stehlen'; sl (T), sl (Kld.), suol (Not.), sul (A)
'Dieb', silane- (T), sulne- (Kld.), sual- (Not.) 'stehlen'; . sala(E M) , . . ol '', olp '', . olta-,
olta- ''; UEW, 430, Paasonen 1996, 1937.
*sale ', ': . sali- ' ', sale
(. saleen) ' ' ( > . N slla^- -l- 'make a line or
groove in smth.') ?; . uolla^- -l- (N) 'chop, cut', tuoll- (Ko. P)
'schlagen, hacken, hauen' ?; UEW, 459.
*salkV ', , '; (Samm. *s'lka): .
salko ' ' ( > . N salaHkuo 'langer Pfahl'); .
*clkj (Lehtiranta, 193) uolgo, ul'gu(m) (N) 'lever, crowbar; bar
used for pushing a fishing net under the ice', tjuol`ki, tjuol`kun (L)
'Stange, mit der man bei der Eisfischerei das Netz unter dem Eise von
dem einen Eisloch zum andern schiebt od. zieht', ualgui (I)
'Stopfnadel'; . salgo-, salgu- (E), salgo- (M) ''; UEW,
460, Paasonen 1996, 2086.
*talja '': . talja '' ?; . *tlj (Lehtiranta
1294) duol'lje -llj- 'skin of a reindeer or elk with hair on it' (N), tuol'j
219

(L) 'Fell, Haut (woran die Haare noch dran sind)', tiilje (T), tlj (Kld.),
tuelj (Not.) 'Rentierfell, Bett, Lager' ?; UEW, 508.
*waja ''; (Samm. *waja-): . vajoa- ',
'; . vaju- 'sinken; langsam flieen'; . vuoggjo- -j(N) 'sink, go to the bottom; penetrate', vuodjo- (L) 'sinken',
oajeuitte- (Kld.) 'zu sinken anfangen'; . vaja- (E), vaja- (M)
; UEW, 551, Paasonen 1996, 2511.
*wala '': . vala ', ' ( > . N valle -l'oath'); . vuoll (L) '"ein Jojker" (lappischer Melodiesatz)'; .
val (E M); UEW, 812, Paasonen 1996, 2514.
*walka ''; (Samm. *wlka-): . valka, valkama
', ', valka- ', '; . valgu- 'herabflieen,
strmen, flieend herabsinken', valgma 'Stelle am Ufer, wo die Boote
ans Land gezogen werden'; . *vlk (Lehtiranta 1434) vuol'ge- lg- 'go (leave), start, depart' (N), vuol'k (L) 'sich fortbegeben,
abfahren', viilke- (T), vilke- (Kld.), vuoilke- (Not.), vuilke- (A) 'sich
begeben; zukommen'; . valgo- (E), valg- (M); . . wale-, .
wole- ', '; UEW, 554, Paasonen 1996, 2522.
*warV '': . varis, vares (. variksen, vareksen)
''; . vares, . varese, varekse; . *vres (Lehtiranta
1458) vuora^a^s vuorra^a^s -ss- -s-, vuores -r'a- (N), vuoratjis (L),
vre (T), vr (Kld.), vuoreh (Not.); . varaka, varsej, varce,
varcej, varksij, varksij (E), varsi, varci (M); UEW, 559.
*wasta ' ()': . vasta-kohta '', vastaranta ' ', vasta (adv.) '', vastaan
(postp.) ', ', vastaa- '' ?; . vast 'erst, nur
erst, eben noch, so eben', vasta, vastas, vastu (adv., prep., postp.)
'gegenber, gegen, entgegen', vasta- 'antworten; entgegenkommen' ?;
. *vst (Lehtiranta 1471) vuost vust (N) 'first; for the present,
still, yet', vuos'ta 'against', vuos'te -st- 'wind or weather which goes
in the opposite direction to that in which someone is travelling',
220

vuost(i) (L) 'entgegen, in Richtung gegen', vuost (L) 'gegen, gerade


zu', viste (T) 'das entgegen od. gegenber belegene', vist (T) (prep.)
'gegenber, neben', vist (A) 'erst', vista (T), vusta (K), vuasta
(Not.), vosta (A) 'entgegen, gegen' ?; . vasta (M) ,
; . ., . watare, wotare ''; UEW,
815, Paasonen 1996, 2558.
*alV ' , ': . alus ; .
vuolos (N); . alks; SSA I, 72.
*sarka ' , , ' (Janh. (5) *sarka, Samm.
*sarka): . sarka , , ; . suor'ge
(N), SSA III, 158.
. ahma '' . vuosmes (N), SSA I, 53.
. ahven '' . vuosko (N), SSA I, 56.
. appaa ' , ' . vuop'pot (N), SSA I, 79.
. jalo '' . juolled (N), SSA I, 235.
. jatkaa '' . joat'ket (N), SSA I, 237.
. kalto 'Glatteis' . guol'de (N), SSA I, 291.
. kannus 'Zaubertrommel der Lappen' . gobdes (N), SSA I,
300.
. lahko '' . luos'k (N), SSA II, 35.
. lasta ', ' . luos'te (N), SSA II, 50.
. lastu ', ' . lustu (I), SSA II, 51.
. matka ', ' . muot'ke (N), SSA II, 154.
. raihnas ', ' . ruoinas (N), SSA III, 39.
. rasahtaa ', ' . ruoat (N), SSA III,
51.
. raukua 'jammern' . ruow'gat (N), SSA III, 56.
. sammakko '' . cuobbo (N), SSA III, 151.
. tarpoa ', ' . duor'bot (N),
SSA III, 273.
221

. vaka ', , ' . vuokke (N),


SSA III, 395.

*kaca '': . kasa ', '; . kadsa 'unteres Ende


an der Schneide des Beiles'; . *kc (Lehtiranta 379) ge -(N) 'and, point, outskirts; top', kiehtj khtj (L) 'Ende, Spitze',
kiettE (Ko. Not.), kieDtE (Kld.), kieDte (T) 'Ende (eines
Gegenstandes)'; UEW, 110.
*kace ', , ': . katso', , '; . katsu-'versuchen, prfen,
betasten, befhlen, kosten; besehen, anschauen, sehen'; . g'a^-- (N) 1. 'look, look at; look for, see whether', 2. 'regard, notice,
observe; take care', 3. 'look after, tend, herd', L khttja- 'sehen,
ansehen, auf etw. blicken, angucken, anschauen, nachsehen;
betrachten', K (177) T kiehi-, Kld. khe-, Not. kiehe-, A ke'blicken, betrachten'; UEW, 640.
*pucka (*packa) ', , ': . paska '', paskanta- ''; . pask
(. pasa) 'dnner Kot, Unflat', pasanda- 'Durchfall haben'; .
*peke (Lehtiranta 871) ba^i'ka^ -ik- 'excrement; dirt, mess' (N),
pai'hka (L) 'Scheie', pake (T) 'Scheie, Dreck'; . pskize- (E),
peskize- (M) ' '; . . pke-, . pukea' '; UEW, 396, Paasonen 1994, 1824.
*waske '- , '; (Janh. (25) *ws'k; Samm.
*ws'k): . vaski (. vasken) ''; . vask (. vaske)
'Kupfer, Messing'; . *vk (Lehtiranta 1380) vi'ke -ik- (N)
'copper', vei'hk (L) 'Messing', vieke (T), vieik (Kld.), viaik (Not.)
'Kupfer'; . uske, visk (E), usk (M) ''; . .
krtni-wa 'Eisenerz', i-wa 'Silbererz', i-wo; UEW, 560,
Paasonen 1996, 2485.
. kas '' . gae, gaet, SSA I, 321.
222

/ / / *i > . *e
*nila '- , , '; (Samm. *n'ila): . nila
'- , '; . nilane (lats) 'unbehlfliches
Kind, welches erst anfngt zu sprechen und zu gehen' ?; . nja^lle l- (N) 'the condition in which the bark is loose on the wood', nja^lla^'flake off, get loose and peel off; peel'; njall (L) 'etw. Glattes od.
Schlpfriges; der Baumsaft, wenn er sich zwischen Stamm und Rinde
gesammelt hat', njalla- '(leicht) losgehen, sich lsen (von der Rinde in
der Saftzeit), leicht gleiten'; nalle -l- (Ko. Not.) 'schlpfrige, glatte
Stelle'; . nola (E) , nola (M); . nl (N) ' ';
UEW, 318, Paasonen 1992, 1343.

/ / / *u > . *o
*kuma '; '; (Janh. (33) *kuma; Samm.
*kuma): . kumo-ssa (olla) ' ', kumoa- ''; . kumm (. kummi, kummu) ', '; kummer (. kummera) 'gewlbt', kummuta- 'umkehren, umstlpen',
kummarda- 'beugen; sich beugen'; . gomo (N) 'turned with the
convex side up, turned upside down', gometi- 'turn upside', kamti'umdrehen; umstrzen; umkippen', kommat (T), komma (Kld.)
'umgestrzt', koimede- (T), komed- (Kld.), komete- (A) 'umstrzen,
streuen'; . koma- (E, M) , komafto- (E) , Paasonen 1992, 839; . . kmk, . kumk '', .
kmala-, . kumala- '; , , (
)'; UEW, 201.
/ / / * > . *e
*kilm (*klm) ', ': . kylm '',
kylm- '', kylmene- ' '; . klm
(. klma) ', , ', klma- ''; .
*kelm (Lehtiranta, 307) ga^lma^s -lbm-, (Attr.) ga^lbma^ N 'frozen',
223

ga^lbme -lm- 1) 'freeze (impers., causing a frozen crust to form on


snow, or ice to form on water)'. 2) 'form (intr.) a layer of ice on, freeze
over', L kalmas, (Attr.) kalma 'kalt', kalm- '(unpers.) der Boden ist
gefroren; frieren, verfroren sein (von einem Menschen)', (T. I. Itk.,
WbKKlp. 105) T kamcs, Kld. kmas, Not. kmas 'kalt', T kalme-,
Kld. kalme-, Not. kalme- 'kalt werden (der Erdboden), sich erklten
(ein Glied); gefrieren (Wasser und ein nasser Gegenstand, z.B. ein
Kleidungsstck)'; . kelme (E), kelm (M); . . klm, .
klme ', '; (Samm. *klm); UEW, 663, Paasonen
1992, 693.

224



- ,

,
- , :
1) 133 / /
/ *, *, *u, *- (I );
2) I (a-) vs. II (e-) -
(II , I );
3) III
, - vs. -e
- (II ,
II );
4) , (

); - (III );
133

I 8%, 48%.

225

5) / / / *, (*e )
- (IV ).
- ,
.
I. -

1. / / / , .
2. / / / ,
2.1.
*oa *u,
* *u ();
2.2. *o, - -
,
*, ,
*o,
o ;
2.3. *e, - -
, o/e ( _C ), *i, e/( ), *,
i , *e ;
2.4. *, -, *, 226

-,
* ;
2.5. *, -
, *,
, *,
i ;
2.6.
*o, *u ;
2.7. *,
/, *.
3. ,
3.1. * *-,
* ;
3.2. *i
*-, * e.
4.
.
II. -

1. *-, *, -
.
2. *-, * -, *-, *u- *- , *-.
3. -,
*-.
4.
.
227

III. -
*, *, *-
:
1. ( - );
2. (. 2, 4 I );
3. (
I(a)- *, *, - ;
II()- *, *-,
- );
4. - vs. -e III
( III -, ;
III
-, -
);
5. (
*o, *u ,
- ; *o, *u , --
134);
6. * ( * > . *,

134

*u-a, . III .

228

; * > . *,
);
7.
.
,
UEW ,
, ,
.
, , ,:1)
; 2) UEW ( ,
,
)135. , UEW, ,
.

-
UEW *aka > *ak '', UEW, 3.

ahka '', haahka, hahka, hahkea, haahkea ''


. ahka (. ahka) '', hahk (. haha) ''
. ao (E), aka ( aka) . akn (M) ', ', Paa .

sonen 1990, 76.


. o, o, oo, o ', '
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
135

,
UEW.

229

:
( III.2.)

UEW *aja > *aja ', ', UEW, 605.

aija (E), aj (M)


Samm. *ooi
.

:
-, * ( I.3.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.),
( III.2.)

UEW *ajta > *ajt ' ,

', UEW, 605.


. aitta
. ait, . aida
. utomo (E), utm (M), Paasonen 1996, 2492
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

230

UEW *aje > *aj '', UEW, 5

aivo(t) ' ';


. aju '';
. *vje (Lehtiranta 1425) vuoia-, pl. vuoi'daak 'brain' (N),
vuoiam vuoi'am 'Gehirn' (L), vujven (Kld.), vueven (Not.)
.

'Gehirn';
. uj (M) ', ', Paasonen 1996, 2440.
Samm. *aji
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *akta > *akt ', (,

)', UEW, 5.
. ahta- ', , '
. ahta-, ahti- 'aufstecken (Getreide zum Darren)'
. wuoktaje, wuokta (Wfs.) 'in die Erde eingeschlagener
Pfahl zum Aufhngen und Trocknen der Netze'
. avto- avte- afte- (E), aft- (M) ' , ',
Paasonen 1990, 94.
. ., . opte- ' -, , , ',
. opto, opt ' '
Samm. *kta
: ( I.1.)

231

: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *ala > *al ' -',

UEW, 6.
. ala ', , ', alla (postp.) ''
. ala ', , ', all (postp.) ', '
. *vl (Lehtiranta 1433) vuolle vuolle -l- 'down; (in comp.)
'space or part under smth...' (N), -vuoll 'der Platz unten oder
nahebei, Unterlage' (L), ville (T) 'das Untere', vilne, viln (T), viln
(Kld.), vueiln (Not.), voiln (Not.) (adv., postp.) 'unter, unten'
. al (M) , , alo (E), ala (M) ,
, Paasonen 1990, 22
. ., . l-, l-, l- '', . ln, . ln ''
Janh., Samm. (38) *la
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *alV- > *alta- ' ,

', UEW, 7.
. alta-, alvta- (E) '', alsta- ', ',
Paasonen 1990, 35
. . ula (2), uyla (2) ''
232

:
-, * ( I.3.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
:
( III.2.),
:
II(e)-, -
( III.3.)

UEW *amta- > *amt- '', UEW, 8.

anta- ''
d
. vuow'de- -wd- 'sell' (N), vuob't- vuog't- id. (L), u te- (K
.

Ko Not.) 'geben'
ando- (E) and- (M) , Paasonen 1990, 42.
Samm. *mta : ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
.

UEW *ana > *ana '

(, ); ? ', UEW, 10.


233

. *n (Lehtiranta 837) vinne (oa) (T), vunne 'Frau des lteren


Bruders'
. niz-ana '' (E), anaka ' ' (M) (?)
Samm. *an'a
: : -, * ( I.3.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *aa > *aa ', ', UEW,

11.
. avaa- ', ', avanto ', '
. ava- ', '
. aksima avsima (E), ancima, . anciman (M) ,
, Paasonen 1990, 45.
Samm. *a
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
234

UEW *arwa (*ara) > *arw '', UEW, 16.

. arvo ', ', arvaa- ', ,


', arvele- ', ' ( > . N ar'vo 'value;
significance; importance', ar'va^li- 'think, think so')
. aru, arv (. arvu) ', ', arva- ', , '
. arce- (E), ars- (M) ', ' (?),
Paasonen 1990, 68.
Samm. *arwa
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.), :

( III.2.)

UEW *je (*j) > *jV ', ', UEW, 609.

ij ', , ', . ij(n) ''


. i, . ia, ie ', '
. *jj (Lehtiranta, 32) ag'gja (N) 'grandfather, old man, fellow',
jja (Kld.), adj (L)
Samm. *jj
.

: ( I.1.)
:
( II.4.)
: *
: * > . *, ( III.6.)
235

*jm > *jmV ' ',

UEW, 22.
. im ' '
. *jm ai'bme -im- 'triangular needle (for sewing leather or
furs)' (N), ai'm 'dreieckige Nadel (zum Nhen in Leder)' (L)
. . im, . ime ''
Janh., Samm. (22) *jm
: ( I.1.)
:
( II.4.)
: *
: * > . *,
( III.6.)
UEW *ltV > *lt '', UEW, 609

. *lt (Lehtiranta, 49) al'do 'full-grown reindeer female which


has a calf in that year' (N), alt (L), lta 'alte Reinkuh' (T)
. elde, ild (E), ld, jld 'mare'
: * - , * ( I.2.4)
: *-
,
* - ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

236

*cappV > *cappa ' , ,

', UEW, 29.


. uop'pa^- -pp- (N) 'chop; cut; cut up; amputate', tjuohppa- (L)
'(auf)schneiden, aufhacken (z. B. Fleisch od. Fische zum Kochen),
abschneiden (z. B. ein Band)', hpi-, hpi- (T), hpe- (Kld.),
uohpe- (Not.), upp- (A) 'schneiden; hauen, hacken'
. capa- (E, ) ' , ', Paasonen 1990, 158
Samm. ?*c'appi :
-, * ( I.3.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *caka > *cak '', UEW, 611.

. tsank, . tsango, tsnk, . tsngo ', ' ?


. sago (E), saga, . sagn ' ', Paasonen 1996,
2088
: ( I.1.)
: *- ,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

237

*ce > *ce '', UEW, 34.

. set ''
. sedi (.) ' ' ( < .?)
. *cc (Lehtiranta, 126) cce -- (N) 'father's brother, paternal uncle, younger than the father', tjiehtj, tjhtj (L) 'Vaterbruder,
Onkel vterlicherseits', iecce (T), tieDtsE (Klk.), tiettsE (Not.)
'jngerer Bruder des Vaters'
. ie (E) ' , , ', n St.
na- (M) ' ', Paasonen 1990, 259.
. . , cc, . , t ',
'
Janh. (26) *cec; Samm. *cec
: ( I.1.)
: *- ,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

*cona coa > *cona coa '', UEW, 39.

. sonsar, sonsari (. sonsaren) (.) ''


. iav (E), uav (E), iav ( eav < iav), . -n (M),
Paasonen 1990, 258.
. . uro; (C) uro; . (Ch) uro; . (B)
uro; . (M) uro, (MK) uru; (UJ) uro, (UP)
ury; (P) uro; . (V) uru; . (JO) ury; . (K) ury; . *ur.

238

: ( I.1.)
: *- ,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : *o, *u ,
( III.5)

*corkV > *curkV ' : , ', UEW,

39.
. orhko (N) 'securis cuiusmodi', torRkuo (Wfs.) 'Beil, groe
Axt'
: *o,
*u ( I.2.6.)
:
( II.4.)
:
( III.7.)
UEW *awa > *awa '- : ,

', UEW, 619.


. havad
. ava (E), M ava ', ', Paasonen 1990, 224

239

: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

*awV (*apa) > *awa (*apa) ', ',

UEW, 54.
. hapan (. happamen) '', happo '', happane' '
. apamo (E), apama (M) ?, Paasonen 1990, 210.
. . opa (2); opo; . C opo; . Ch opo;
. B owo;
. (M) owo; . (UJ) owo, (UP) owy; .
(P) opo; . (JT) opo; . apa (2); apy; .
(K) apy; Bereczki 1992, 66.
: ( I.1.)
: *- ,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : II(e)-,
240

-
( III.3.)
UEW *k (*k) > *k (*k) '',

UEW, 620.
. hk (. hd) 'Hher', phke-hk 'Nuhher' (phke 'Nu'),
tamme-hk 'Eichenhher, Holzhher' (tamm 'Eiche')
. ekej, ekata, ekata (E), ki, kan, kata (M) '',
Paasonen 1996, 2226
. . ceckem, cekce, M ekem: .-, c.-kajk
', '
: ( I.1.)
: *- ,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.),
( III.2.)
*upa > *upa ', ', UEW, 64.

. hupa ', , , ' ( > . N hoppe,


hoba^s 'undurable, unlasting'), hupi- '', hupene- ', '
. huba 'mrbe, locker; angenehm, leicht, gemtlich'
. ova (E), va (M) '', Paasonen 1990, 284
Samm. *cupa : ( I.1.)

241

: *- ,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *ek ( *e + .) > *ek '',

UEW, 624.
. et-, et-: etlle ', ', etll ', ',
etlt ''
. ikez (M) ', ', ikezd' '', ikezi
', ' ?, Paasonen 1996, 2644.
: ( I.1.)
: *- ,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
*en > *en ', ', UEW, 74.

. en ', ', enempi ', ', eno ''


. enam, onu (S.) uno '';
. *n (Lehtiranta, 231) dna^g 'much (of), a lot (of); many' (N),
tna, tnak (L) 'viel, viele', jiennig (T), ienne (Kld.), ianne, jennaj
(Not.), jennj (A) 'viel; wie viel, wie viele', ddno dno -n- 'the
main river', tn (L) 'Flu, Strom', eno, ed'nu dnu (N)

242

'mother's brother, maternal uncle', noi, dnu (L) 'jngerer oder


lterer Bruder od. Vetter der Mutter', jeanaj (T) 'Mutterbruder'
. ine (E), in (M) '', Paasonen 1990, 463.
Samm. (?) *e/in
: ( I.1.)
: *- ,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
*ic > *ic '', UEW, 78.

. is '', iso ', ', ? iso ', '


. isa ', '
. *ec (Lehtiranta, 2) , e (N), jiee (jea) (T), eh (ejj)
(Not.), j (jea), e (ee) (A)
. oc, . ocn (M) ' ', Paasonen 1994, 1416
. . z, . iza, iza ' ;
( )', iza (B) 'lterer Bruder'
Samm. *is'
: ( I.1.)
: *- ,
*- ( II.1.)
: (

243

III.1.), ( III.2.),
III :
III -,
- ( III.4.)
UEW *ic (*c) > *c ', ', UEW,

78.
. sa 'Weniges', saga 'bei Wenigem, wenig zur Zeit', ei sagi
'gar nichts'
. . izi; . (CK) izi, (CU) izi, (CC) izi; ..
(C) izi, (CN) ize; . (B) ize; . (M) ize, (MK)
iz; . (UP) izi, izy, (Usj), (US) izy (UJ) izi; .
(P) ize; . (V) izi; . (JT) izi; .
(K) izi; . *ic; Bereczki 19921994, 10.
: ( I.1.)
:
( II.4.)
:
III :
III -e,
- ( III.4.)
UEW *ilV > *il- '', UEW, 82.

. ilta ''
. ilt (M:P) '', Paasonen 1990, 453
: ( I.1.)

244

: *- ,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *isV > *isa- ', ', UEW, 629.

. istu- ''
. istu-', '
. oza- (E M) '', E ozado, M ozada ', ', Paasonen 1994, 1481
: ( I.1.)
: *a- ,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *ia > *ia '', UEW, 629.

. hiha, (SKES .) hia, hija ''


. iha (.): srgi ihad 'Hemdrmel'
. *ses (Lehtiranta 1093) sasse 'manica', L sass 'Armel (an
einem Pelz, Lappenkolt usw.)', Wfs. (2120) sissi 'Armel'
. oa (E), oa (M) ' ', Paasonen 1994, 1489
: ( I.1.)

245

: *a- ,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *jaka- > *jak '', UEW, 87.

. jaka- ', ', jako ' , '


. jaga-, jga- ''
. juokke- -g- (N) 'divide; distribute', juokko -g- 'division, partition', juohk- (L) 'teilen, austeilen', juohk 'Teilung, Verteilung',
jkke- (ie) (T), jikke- (Kld.), juoihke- (Not.), joikke- (A) 'teilen'
. javo- java- (E), jav- (M), Paasonen 1990, 503
Samm. *je"ka
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *jaksa *joksa > *jaks ', -

, ', UEW, 630.


. jaksa- '', jakso ''
. jaksa-, jksa-'knnen, vermgen', jaks (. jaksu), jks (.
jksu) 'Kraft, Vermgen'
. jukse- ukse- (E), juks- (M), Paasonen 1996, 541
246

: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *jalka > *jalk '', UEW, 88.

. jalka ', '


. jalg (. jala)
. *jlk (Lehtiranta, 292) juol'ge -lg- (N), juol'k (L), jlke (jie)
(T), jilk (Kld.), juoilk, jueilk (Not.), juilgit (A) 'Fu'
. jalgo (E), jalga (M) '', Paasonen 1990, 491.
. . jal, . jol '; ( )'
Samm. *jlka
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *jama- > *jama ', , -

, ; , ', UEW, 89.


. jabme- -m- (N) 'die, perish', japm- (L) 'sterben; sich zerstreuen (vom Nebel)', jmme- (T), jimme- (Kld. A), jamme- (Not.)
'sterben'
. joma- (E), juma- (M), ima- (M), Paasonen 1990, 519.
247

. . joma (1); . (CK) jomam, (CU) domam; .


(Ch) jomam; . (B) jomam, (BJp.) domam; .
(M, MK) domam; . (U) jomam; . (P)
domam; . (V) jamam; . jama (1); .
jamam; . *jom-; Bereczki 1992, 11
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : I(a)-,
-
( III.3.)

UEW *jama > *jam '', UEW, 631.

. jama, (.) jaama 'zusammengefgter Teil, Reihe', (SKES)


'liitynt, liitos, liittym-, yhtymkohta; Beitritt, Fuge, Fgung, Anknpfungs-, Berhrungspunkt', jamaa- 'in Reihe zusammenfgen'
. jama, jma 'Fugenstelle', jama-, jma- 'zusammenfgen, zusammenknpfen'
. *jm (Lehtiranta, 293) juomekjuomek jmik (N) 'twin
lamb', juomitj (L) 'Zwilling; (PL) Zwillinge (in ihrem gegenseitigen
Verhltnis)', (SKES) jmehoD (I) 'kaksonen; Zwilling' ?
. jav (E): kijaks-j. ' ', Paasonen 1990, 503
: ( I.1.)

248

: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *jaa > *jaa ', ', UEW, 631.

. jauha- '', jauho ''


. jahvata- '', jahu 'Mehl, Pulver'
. jaa- (E M) '', Paasonen 1990, 510
. . joya (2); . (CK) joyem, (CU) doyem;
. (B) joyem; . (M) doyem, (MK)
douem; . (UJ) joyem, (UP, USJ) jomyem; .
(P) doyem; . (V) jouem; . (JT,
JO) joyem; . jangya (2); . (K) jayem;
. *jo-; Bereczki 1992, 11.
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : II(e)-,
-
( III.3.)

249

UEW *jk-l > *jkV-lV ', ', UEW,

632.
. jkl (. jkli, jkr) ', '
. *jkl (Lehtiranta, 260) jgel -kkal- (N) 'reindeer moss,
liehen, in the widest sense; Cladonia, Cetraria, Stereocaulon etc.',
(T., I.) jiegel (K, T), jel (Kld.), jiel (Ko., Not.)
: ( I.1.)
:
( II.4.)
: *
: * > . *, ( III.6.)
UEW *jik (*ik) > *jik (*ik) ', ', UEW,

98.
. ik '' ( > . N a^kke, Kld. aikk, T aikke)
. iga (. ea)
. *jek (Lehtiranta, 248) (SKES . < ) ja^kke -g- (N)
'year', jahk (L), jikke (T), ekk, eikk (Kld.), ehk (Not.)
. ije (E), ij (M) Paasonen 1990, 441
. . i, . ij
Samm. *ik
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
250

UEW *(j)ia > *(j)i '', UEW, 636.

. iha (.) 'glad, glttig, munter; froh, frhlich, munter', (.)


ihaa- 'vara glad, fgna sig, gldja sig at, beundra; askada, bese, betrakta, syna, lngta; froh sein, sich (er)freuen, bewundern; zuschauen,
besehen, betrachten, besichtigen, sich nach etw. sehnen', ihala 'hell,
schn', ihana 'herrlich, entzckend, hold; lieblich, s; wunderbar',
iho '', ihokas 'med gott hll; mit guter Haut; (Kangas: a.a. O.
129) (.) kaunisihoinen; kaunis, nyttv, siev; eine schne
Haut habend; schn, hbsch, nett'
. iha ', , ', ihalda- 'begehren,
trachten, Verlangen haben', ihu 'Leib'
. *es: a^sse -s- (N) 'back of skins or furs; the skin as distinct
from the hair on it; the outer layer of flesh, as the place where a
shudder is feit', a^l'bme-a^. 'the vault of heaven', ass (L) 'die Fleischseite (Aasseite) einer Haut; Haut des Menschen'.
. joo (E), jo, joa (M) ' , ', Paasonen 1990, 537.
. . ju: j.-wt 'das Wasser, welches sich in der Schwiele sammelt' (wt 'Wasser')
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

251

UEW *jorkV- > *jurkV ', ',

UEW, 102.
. jor'go- -rg- (N) 'turn, turn inside out, turn with the bottom up',
jar'k- (L) 'wenden, zurcktreiben, -jagen', jorgka- (Ko. Not.) 'wenden, umwenden'
: *o,
*u ( I.2.6.)
:
( II.4.)
:
( III.7.)
UEW *jorV- > *jurV '', UEW, 102.

. jorra^- -r- (N) 'go round; rush about', jarra- 'umfallen, umstrzen', jorri- (T), jrre- (Kld.), jorre- (Not.) 'rollen, umfallen' ?
: *o,
*u ( I.2.6.)
:
( II.4.)
:
( III.7.)

UEW *jukta- > *jukta '', UEW, 104.

. juttele136- ', ', juttu ', '


. jutt (. jutu) ', , ', tle- 'sagen, ausdrcken'
. jofta- jovta- (E), jofta- (M) ', ', Paasonen 1990, 533

136

, .

252

: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *juma > *jum ', ', UEW, 638.

. jumala ''
. jumal, jummal (. jumala) ', '
. jondol (E), jondul (M) '', Paasonen 1990, 536
. . jm, . jumo '', B jumo ', '
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *juta- > *juta- ', ', UEW, 106

. jotte- -- (N) 'be in motion, move, go', jaht (L) 'auf dem
Wanderzug sein', joitte- (T) 'wandeln', jotte- (Ko. P) 'gehen, wandern', jotto -- (N) 'pace, speed; motion, movement' ( > . .
jutaa- 'streben', juta 'trges')
. juta- (E), jota-, juta- (M) ', , ', Paasonen 1990, 549

253

: *o,
*u ( I.2.6.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *jOlV > *julV ' ()', UEW, 107.

. jolle -l- (N) 'middling fatness, good condition', jall (L)


'Rckenfett (des Rentiers)'
: *o,
*u ( I.2.6.)
:
( II.4.)
:
( III.7.)

UEW *kakV > *kak , , UEW, 641.

. katku ', '


. katk (. katku), (.) katsk (. katsk) ', '
. kaamo (E), kaam (M) '', Paasonen 1992, 560
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)

254

: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *kaa > *ka '', UEW, 115.

. katoa- '', kato ', '


. kadu- ', '
. guoe -- (N) 'let remain, leave', kuot- (L) 'lassen, zurcklassen', kitte- (T), kitte- (Kld.), koidde- (A) 'hinterlassen, lassen'
. kado- (E) kad- (M) ', ', Paasonen 1992,
561.
. . koa (1) (2); . koam, tr. koem; .
(Ch) koam, tr. koem; . (B) koam, tr. koem; .
(M) koam, tr. koem; . (U) koam, tr.
koem; . (P) koam, tr. koem; . (V) koam,
tr. koem; . (J) koam, tr. koem; . (K)
koam, tr. koem; . *ko-; Bereczki 1992, 18.
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *kaja > *kaja '', UEW, 116

. kaja- (E M) ', ', Paasonen 1992, 566


:
-, * ( I.3.1.)
255

: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *kajkV > *kajk , ,

UEW, 643.
. kaiku-
. kaiku-, kaikune- ', '
. skai'ge- -ig- 'shout loudly, or make some other loud noise, in
the distance, so that the shout, sound, is heard echoing' (N).
. kajgems, gajge- (E), kajg- (M) , ,
Paasonen 1990, 405
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *kala > *kal '', UEW, 119.

. kala
. kala
. *kl (Lehtiranta 511) guolle -l- (N), kuoll (L), kille (T), ku~ill
(Kld.), kuoill (Not.)
. kal (E), kal (M), Paasonen 1992, 574.
. kol

256

Janh. (8) *kala; Samm. *kala


: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *kalma > *kalm ', ', UEW, 119.

. kalma 'Leiche, Tod; Grab'


. kalm (. kalmu, kalma) ''
. *klm (Lehtiranta 514) guolmas -l'bm- 'the innermost soft
white layer of the bark of conifers; pale, pallid', guol'bma- 'appear,
rise (of the moon)', kuolmi (L) 'Dmmerung' ?
. kalmo (E), kalma (M) '', Paasonen 1992, 582.
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

*kanta > *kant ', , ', UEW, 123

. kanta (. kannan) 'Grund, Fus; Stand; Ferse', kantap


'Ferse', kannas (. kannaksen) 'Baumstamm; Ende der Schlittenkufe', kanto (. kannon) 'Baumstumpf, Stumpf'
. kand (. kanna) ', , '

257

. *kntj (Lehtiranta 522) guoddo, gud'du- (N) 'stump (of tree)',


kuotti (L) 'umgefallener Baum, Baumstamm', ? gad'de -dd- (N)
'bank, shore', ? kadd (L) 'Ufer; Rand'
. kando (E), kanda, . kandn (M) ' , ', Paasonen 1992, 595.
Samm. *knta
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

*kanta > *kant ', , ; ', UEW, 124

. kanta- ''
. kanda- 'tragen, ertragen, vermgen'
. guod'de- -dd- (N) 'carry, bear; bring forth, calve', kuodd- (L)
'tragen; kalben', kinte- (T), kinte- (Kld.), kuette- (Not.), kuinte- (A)
. kando- (E, M) ', ', Paasonen 1992, 596
. . kande-, . konde- ( )
'; ; , ; ; '
Janh. (42, 43) *kan-; Samm. *kan : ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

258

UEW *kala > *kala ',

', UEW, 645.


. kangla, kangel (. kangla), kangle (. kangle) ''
(.)
. kaval : k.-alks (E), k.-al (M)', ', Paasonen 1992, 652
. . kola, . kola: k.-jmal, . kola ' ( ,
)'
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.),
III : III
-a,
- ( III.4.)
UEW *kara > *kara ', ,

', UEW, 221.


. kara- (E, M) ', , ' ?, Paasonen 1992, 611.
. . kora (2); . (C) korem; . (Ch) korem;
. (B) korem; . (U) korem; . (P)
korem; . (V) karem; . (JT) korem, (JO) k
arem; . (K) karem; . *kor-; Bereczki
1992, 19.
259

:
-, * ( I.3.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : II(e)-,
-
( III.3.)

UEW *karma > *karma '', UEW, 128

. karma- (E M) '', Paasonen 1992, 625


:
-, * ( I.3.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *kaswa > *kasw ', ',

UEW, 129.
. kasva- ', ', kasvot '' ( > . kasv (L))
260

. kasva- ', ', kasu (. kasu) ',


'
. kaso- (E), kas- (M), Paasonen 1992, 637
. kuka- '; ; ( )', kute- (KB U B)
', ' ?
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *kawka > *kawka '', UEW, 132

. kauka ', ', kauas ''


. kaua ', ', kauge ', '
. gwka^s -aw'k- (N) 'uncanny; very dull', gaw'ka^- -wk- 'stare,
gaze (at, after)', kuhkas (L) 'langweilig'; gaw'ge- -wg- 'shower,
sprinkle; make its way out' (?)
. kuvaka (E), kvaka (M) , k()vaka (M) ,
, Paasonen 1992, 983.
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

261

UEW *kl *kal > *kal ' ',

UEW, 133.
. kahlaa-, kaalaa- ' ' ( < .?)
. kahla- ' , ' ( < .?)
. galle-, -l- (N) 'wade', kll- (L) 'waten', kille- (Kld. Not.)
. kele- (E), kl- (M), Paasonen 1992, 689
. . kel-, . kela Samm. *kl : ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *km > *km '', UEW, 137

. km ', ', kme ',


' ?
. keme (E), kem (M) '', kem- (M) '',
Paasonen 1992, 697
Samm. (?) *km
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

262

UEW *knV > *kVnV '', UEW, 651

.. kyne ''; . (C) kyne; . . (Ch)


kyne; . (B) kine; . (M) kine; .
(UP, US, Usj) kine, (UJ) kyne; . (P) kine; .
(V) kne; . (JO) kne; . kne; .
(K) kne; . *kin + e; Bereczki 19921994, 17
: ( I.4.)
:
( II.4.)
:
III :
III -,
- ( III.4.)

UEW *kpp > *kpp ', ', UEW, 651.

. kpp ', '


. kapp (. kp) ''
. kepe (E), kp (M) '', Paasonen 1992, 709
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

263

UEW *krn > *krn ', ', UEW, 138.

. krn ' '


. krn (. krna) ', '
. *krn (Lehtiranta 389) gr'dne -rdn- (N) 'thin crust on snow;
a scab-like disease attacking the udder of the female reindeer',
kier'n kr'n 'id.; grobkrniger Schnee', kierne (T), kierne (Kld.),
k'ierne (Ko. Not.) 'Eiskruste auf Schnee, der sonst weich ist' ( >
. . kerni ' , ')
. knat (E), knt (M) '', Paasonen 1992, 910
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.), * : * > . *,
( III.6.)

UEW *ke > *ke '', UEW, 141.

. keh ', '


. keha ', , '
. i (E), i (M) ', ', Paasonen 1990, 249
. . ke, . kec, . kee
Samm. *ke
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)

264

:
( III.2.)

UEW *ker (> *ketr) > *ker ', ',

UEW, 656.
. kehr, (.) ketr '', kehr-, (.) ketr-'',
kehrin (. kehrimen) ''
. kedr (. kedra) 'Scheibe, Drehscheibe, Spindel, Rolle', kedra'spinnen'
. *krs (Lehtiranta 390) grse -rs- (N) 1. '(pig's) snout', 2.
'either of the disks forming the ends of a reel', L kiers krs
'Schwungring an einer Spindel, Spinnwirtel'
. tere, ere (E), ktir . ktrn (M), Paasonen 1996, 2222
. . r, . r, r '', . re-, .
re-, re- ''
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *ker > *ker ', ', UEW, 147.

. ker ', '


. kera (. kera) ''
. kire (E), kr (M), Paasonen 1992, 779.
Samm. *ke/r
: ( I.1.)

265

: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *kerta > *kerta ', , , ',

UEW, 659.
. kerta '': kaksi kertaa ' ', kolme kertaa ' ',
kerran ' ', kerros ', ', kerto- ''
. kord (. korra), ko~rd (. ko~rra) '', korda-,
ko~rda- ' '
. *krt (Lehtiranta 391) grde N 'time (first time, second time,
etc.); layer (of clothes, thread); tuft; round', grde grde (Adv.)
'once (upon a time), formerly', grdo -rd- 'put together, twist (two
or more Strands, etc.); repeat', L kier't kr't 'Schicht, Lage von
aufeinanderliegenden dnnen od. schmalen Gegenstnden (z.B.
Kleidern, Tauwerk)', kr't- 'zusammenzwirnen, -drehen (zwei od.
mehrere Fden od. Sehnen)', (T. I. Itk., WbKKlp. 11920) T Kld.
kierdtE, Not. kiertdtE 'Faden (des Garns, des Seils, des Strickes)'
. kirda (E), krda (M), Paasonen 1992, 763
. ker: pl-er, uker (< uk + ker) ', '
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
266

III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *kes > *kes '', UEW, 660.

. kes ''
. *ks (Lehtiranta 393) gesse -s- N, L kiess kss, K
(207) T kiesse, Kld. Not. kiess, A kess
. kize (E), kiza, . kizn (M) ', ', Paasonen 1992, 790
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *kia > *kia ', -

', UEW, 661.


. kitsakka (.) 'het, hftig, amper, ondsint, vresig; hei,
heftig, scharf, bitter, bse, mrrisch'
. kidzo-klm 'ankara pakkanen; starker Frost' (klm 'kalt; Frost')
. keca- (E) '', kec (M) ', , , ', kecakado- ',
', Paasonen 1992, 670
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
267

III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *kilm (*klm) > *klm ', -

', UEW, 663.


. kylm '', kylm- '', kylmene- ''
. klm (. klma) ', , ', klma- ''
. *kelm (Lehtiranta, 307) ga^lma^s -lbm-, (Attr.) ga^lbma^ N 'frozen', ga^lbme -lm- 1) 'freeze (impers., causing a frozen crust to form
on snow, or ice to form on water)'. 2) 'form (intr.) a layer of ice on,
freeze over', L kalmas, (Attr.) kalma 'kalt', kalm- '(unpers.) der
Boden ist gefroren; frieren, verfroren sein (von einem Menschen)',
(T. I. Itk., WbKKlp. 105) T kamcs, Kld. kmas, Not. kmas
'kalt', T kalme-, Kld. kalme-, Not. kalme- 'kalt werden (der
Erdboden), sich erklten (ein Glied); gefrieren (Wasser und ein
nasser Gegenstand, z.B. ein Kleidungsstck)'
. kelme (E), kelm (M), Paasonen 1992, 693
. . klm, . klme ', , '
Samm. *klm
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
268

UEW *kipsV > *kpsV ' -

', UEW, 159.


. kps ' ; ' ?
. kps (., . kpsu) 'Ferse, Hacke; Oberschenkel; Ges' ?
. kp '' ?
Samm. *kpsV
: ( I.1.)
:
( II.4.)
:
( III.7.)
UEW *kiskV > *kiska '', UEW, 162.

. kisko- ', '


. kisku- ', '
. ga^i'ko- -ik- (N) 'tear, pull', kai'hk- (L) 'zerreien, reien',
kika- (T), kike- (Kld.), kke- (Not.) id.
. skira- (E), kstera- (M) , , Paasonen 1996,
2167
Samm. *kis'ka : ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

269

UEW *koka > *koka '', UEW, 668.

. kotka, ?kokko ''


. kotkas (. kotka), ? kokas (. kokka)
. *kckm (Lehtiranta 466) goas'kem goasken 'eagle',
kaskem (L) 'Steinadler, Goldadler', kiickem (T), kuckem (Kld.),
kuehckim (Not.), koickem (A) 'Adler'
. kuckan (E:Atr), kuckan (M), Paasonen 1996, 917
. . kutky; (CU) kutky; . kutky; .
(KA, KN) kuky; . *kuk; Bereczki 1992, 25
Samm. *koka
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : *o, *u ,
( III.5)

UEW *koka (*koke) > *koka '', UEW, 668.

. kotkas (. kotkaksen) 'gebogenes od. genietetes Ende eines


Nagels'; kotkaa- ', ' ?
. kokara (E), kokr (M) ', ',
Paasonen 1996, 788
: ( I.1.)

270

: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *kojwa > *kojwa '', UEW, 169.

. koivu ''
. ko~iv (. ko~ivu)
. koajev, koaiv (Pit) ?
137
.
kiv-ger (E), kuj-ger (M) ' ', kujme (E),
kujm, kujv (M) 'Korb', kujma (M) ' ', kujn
', '; Paasonen 1992, 758, 935
. . kui, koi, . kue ''
Janh. (84) *koxj; Samm. *koxj
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.),
III :
III -e,

. kilej (E), kelu, . keluvn (M) [Paasonen 1996, 758] , ,


*kojwa , UEW, 169.

137

271

- ( III.4.)
UEW *komV(rV) > *komV(rV) '', UEW, 175.

. *kmr (Lehtiranta 472) goabmer (N) 'the two curved open


hands put together', koemmer (T), kummer (Kld.) 'die hohle Hand'
. komoro (E), komor (M) ''
:
*oa,
*o (
I.2.1.)
:
: ( II.4.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *konV (*kunV) > *kunV '', UEW, 672

. gudna^ -n- (N) 'ash', kudni- (L) 'mit Asche beschmutzen,


Asche streuen', kunn (T Kld. Not.) 'Asche'
. ., . kon, kon-wt ', '
: *u, *u ( I.2.1.)
:
( II.4.)
:
( III.7.)

272

UEW *kopa > *kop ', ', UEW, 180.

. ko~ba (. ko~ba) 'Kieferrinde'


. kuvo (E) '', kuva (M) ', '
. kuwo ' (, )', Szil.
Janh. (95) *kopa; Samm. *kopa
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *korta > *kort 138', ', UEW, 186.

. korttaa- (.) ', '


. goar'de- -rd- (N) 'to warm, heat; to roast; cook a little', kar't(L) 'brennen, Glut strahlen, sengen'
. gurno- (E), gurna- (M) ' ', Paasonen 1990, 431
. kore- (2) ' ( )'
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.), : *o, *u

138
*- ,
*-, -*-.

273

,
- ( III.5)
UEW *kota > *kot ', ', UEW, 190.

. kota ', '


. koda (. koa) ''
. *kt (Lehtiranta 487) goatte -- (N) 'tent; Lapp hut', kht
(L), kiitte (T), kuitt (Kld.), kuoiht (Not.), kit (A) 'id.; Tasche,
Beutel'
. kudo (E), kud () '', Paasonen 1992, 922.
. . ku, . kuo, . kuo ', ;
( , ); ; '
Samm. *kota
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.), : *o, *u
,
- ( III.5)

UEW *kua > *kua ', ', UEW, 675.

. kuto- ', '


. kudu- ', '

274

. goe- -- (N) 'weave; knit', kat- (L) 'Netze stricken;


Handschuhe hkeln od. stricken; Stoffe weben', koitte- (T Kld.),
kidde- (Not.) 'hkeln, stricken'
. koda- (E, M), Paasonen 1992, 814
. . kua (2); (C) kuem; . (Ch) kuem; . (B)
kuem; . (M) kuem, (MK) kwem; (U) kuem;
(P) kuem; . (V) kuem; . (JT, JO) kuem; . koa (2);
. (K) koem; . *ku-; SKES 144; UEW 675;
Bereczki 1992, 23.koe- (KB), kue- (U B)
Samm. *kua : ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : II(e)-,
-
( III.3.), : *o, *u
,
-
( III.5)

UEW *kuma > *kuma '; ',

UEW, 201.
. kumo-ssa (olla) ' ', kumoa- ''
275

. kumm (. kummi, kummu) ', ', kummer (.


kummera) 'gewlbt', kummuta- 'umkehren, umstlpen', kummarda'beugen; sich beugen'
. gomo (N) 'turned with the convex side up, turned upside
down', gometi- 'turn upside', kamti- 'umdrehen; umstrzen;
umkippen', kommat (T), komma (Kld.) 'umgestrzt', koimede- (T),
komed- (Kld.), komete- (A) 'umstrzen, streuen'
. koma- (E, M) '', komafto- (E) '',
Paasonen 1992, 839.
. . kumala (1); kumyk ', ', (CU)
kumalam, (CK) kumalam; . (Ch) kumalam; kumuk; .
(B) kumalam; kumuk; . (M) kumalam; kumuk, (MK) kum;
(U) kumalam; (P) kumalam; kumuk; . (V)
kumalam; kumuk; . (JT, JO) kumalam; kumuk, . kymala
(1); kymyk, . (K) kymalam; kymyk; . *kumal-,
*kumk; Bereczki 1992, 23.
Janh. (33) *kuma; Samm. *kuma
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : *o, *u ,
( III.5)

276

UEW *kumpa > *kump ', ', UEW, 203.

. kumpu ', ', kumpua-, kumpuu- ', '


. kummu- ', ' ?
. kabba (L) 'Anhhe od. kleinerer Berg, Hgel', gobbolaste- (N)
'in aqua dormire (de phoca)', kappal (L) 'Netzfle, Schwimmer',
kappal'ti- 'auf dem Wasser umhertreiben, schwimmen'
. komba . kombn (M) ', ', kumboldo-139, kopildi- (E) ' , ', Paasonen
1992, 950.
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *kumV > *kum '', UEW, 204.

. kumuri ''
. kovol (E), kovl (M:P) ''
Samm. *kumala
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

139

, .

277

UEW *kuppa > *kupp ', ',

UEW, 213.
. kuppa, -u, -o, -i ', , ', kuppelo, kuppula
' ' ?
. kupp (. kupu, kupa) 'Blase, kleine Beule; Buckel'
. skop'pe -pp- '(rounded) extension of smth., rounded depression, cavity', ska^hpp (L) 'der untere zu einem Sack zusammengenhte Teil einer Decke oder eines Felles' ?
. kopo (E) ', , , ', kopa . kopn (M) ', ', Paasonen 1992, 853.
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
: (
III.1.),
( III.2.)
UEW *kurk(k)V > *kurk(k)a , UEW, 676.

. kurkku ''
. kurk (. kurgu) ', '
. kirga, kirga, korga (E), krga (M) '', Paasonen 1992, 764
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (

278

III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *kuska (*koska) > *kusk ',

', UEW, 223.


. goikes -i'ka(s)-, goi'ke (N) 'dry, emaciated', goi'ki- (N) 'dry
up; drink up', kaihks, kai'hk (L) 'trocken', kai'hka- (L) 'trocknen,
durstig sein', kok, ko (T), koik (Kld.), kok, kokes (Not. A)
'trocken, drr', koki- (T), koke- (Kld.), kke- (Not.) 'drr werden, trocknen'
. koske (E), kosk (M) ', ', koske- (E), kosko- (M)
'', Paasonen 1992, 872
. . koka (2); . (C) kokem; . (Ch)
kokem; . (B) kokem; . (M) kokem; .
(U) kokem; . (P) kokem; . (V)
kokem; . (J) kokem; . (K) kokem;
-. *kok-; Bereczki 1992, 20.
Janh. (61) *kos'k ; Samm. *kos'k
: *o,
*u ( I.2.6.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *krs > *krs '', UEW, 679.

. kyrs ', '

279

. krs 'hart (Brot); krss 'die erste vom Rande des Brotes abgeschnittene Schnitte'
. ki ke (E), ki, . kin (M), Paasonen 1992, 907
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *kOkV > *kakV ' ', UEW,

228.
. guog'gom guog'goma^s (N) 'larynx, Adam's apple', kuokki
(L) 'Kehlkopf', kg` (T) 'Adamsapfel' ?
: *, /,
* ( I.2.7)
:
( II.4.)
:
( III.7.)
UEW *lajwa ? > *lajw ', ', UEW, 682.

. laiva ''
. laev (. laeva) ', ' ?
. luv (E:Kad) '' ?, Paasonen 1992, 1087

280

: ( I.1.)
: *- ,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *lawa (*lawa) > *law ', -

, ', UEW, 685.


. lauha ''
. lahva 'los, locker'
. lause (R) 'lose, locker, weich, schlaff' ( < .)?
. lavo (E), lafa . lafn (M) ', ',
Paasonen 1992, 1035
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *l(m)cV (*le(m)cV) > *l(m)cV ', -

', UEW, 239.


. lms, lmsi (. lmsen) ''
. *lmc (Lehtiranta 564) law'e -w- (N) 'rein', lab'tj lag'tj
(L) 'Zgel, Zugleine'
: ( I.1.)
281

:
: ( II.4.)
:
( III.2.), * : * > . *,
( III.6.)

UEW *lkk > *lkk '', UEW, 685.

lkht-, lkhty- '' ?


. lkata-, lketa-, lkasta- 'ersticken, erwrgen; (intr.) ersticken,
.

verdumpfen' ?
leka- (E), lk- (M), Paasonen 1992, 1100
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
.

UEW *lemV (*leme-V) > *lem '() ',

UEW, 688.
. lehmus (. lehmuksen) '; Tilia ulmifolia'
. lo~hme (. lo~hme), lo~hmus (. lo~hmuse, lo~hmukse) 'junge
Linde'
. lev (E), levo (M) '', Paasonen 1992, 1119
. . nemet, nemet, . nmte, nimit '
'
282

: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *lem > *lem ' , ,

', UEW, 689.


. lehm ''
. lehm (. lehma)
. lime, ime (E), lim (M) ', ', Paasonen
1992, 1144
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *leksV > *laksa '', UEW, 690.

. lakse- (E) '', laksan- (M) ' ', Paasonen


1992, 1004
. . loknca-, . lokinca-, loknca- ', '
:
-, * ( I.3.1.)

283

: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *lis > *lis '', UEW, 691.

lis '', lis- ''


. lisa ', ', lisa- ', '
. *les (Lehtiranta 554) la^sse -s- 'addition, increase', lass (L)
'Zusatz, Zulage, Vermehrung, Zuwachs', laie (T), liss (Not. A),
aE 'Zuschu, Wucher', la^seti- (N) 'add, put on; increase; fill up',
lasti- (L) 'dazulegen, hinzufgen, steigern', laade- (T), lai'e-,
laie- (Kld.), lizte- (Not.) 'vermehren'
. leze (E), leza () '', lezde- (E), lezd- (M)
.

', , ', Paasonen 1992, 1121


: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *loma > *lom ' ,

', UEW, 692.


. loma ''
. *lm (Lehtiranta 553) loabme -m- loabma^ -m- loabmo -m'open space, gap, under smth. or between two layers', lapm (L)
284

'grobewachsene Hochflche im Hochgebirge, unmittelbar unterhalb


des Berggipfels', imm, im, oamma (K T), umme, ume
(Kld.), umme, ume, uamma (Ko. Not.) 'Spalte. Ritze, Fuge'
. kd-luv . -n (M) ' ',
Paasonen 1992, 1085
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.) , : *o, *u
,
-
( III.5)
UEW *loppa (*luppa) > *lopp ', ',

UEW, 693.
. lopp (. lopa) 'Schnee mit Wasser gemischt', loputa- 'splen,
im Wasser bewegen, aussplen'
. lopavto-, lopafto- (E), () lopode- ', ; '
. lup, . lpkata ', ', Szil.
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.), 285

: *o, *u
,
- ( III.5)
UEW *luppa > *lupp ', ', UEW, 694.

luppa, luppo, luppu 'Baumflechte'


. la^p'po -pp- (N) 'Alectoria (alm.), Usnea barbata, "beard" lichen', (s)lahpp (L) 'Bartflechte, Bartmoos, Baumbart'
. nupon lupon (E), nupen . nupenen (M) '', Paasonen
.

1994, 1367
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *lOkV > *lok '', UEW, 256.

lonka-, longallansa ', , ',


lonkoa, lonkua ' , ' ??
. lonk (. longu, longo) 'gesenkt, niedergeschlagen etc.' ??
. lungidu-, luvode- (E), lufta (E), luvd- (M:Ur), lugd' .

(M:emb) ', ', Paasonen 1992, 1086


: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
286

:
( III.2.)

UEW *maja > *maja '', UEW, 697.

majava ''
. majaja, majajas (. majaja)
. *mjk (Lehtiranta 640) maggjeg maggjek (N), mjjeg (T),
mje (Kld.), mjjij (Not.)
. mijav, mijal (E)
Samm. *majaka
.

: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *maksa > *maks '', UEW, 264.

maksa ''
. maks (. maksa)

. *mks (Lehtiranta 688) mk si (Wfs.)
. makso (E), maksa (M), Paasonen 1992, 1162.
. ., . mok
Janh (41) *mksa; Samm. *mksa
.

: ( I.1.)

287

: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *maksa > *maksa '; ?, ?,

?, ? ', UEW, 264.


maksazej (E) '', (ERS) maksaka, moda-maksaka '',
maksaka (M) ' (Criatus)' ?, Paasonen 1992, 1161
:
-, * ( I.3.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.),
( III.2.)
.

UEW *maksa > *maks ', ',

UEW, 698.
. maksa- ''
. maksa . mak'se- -vs- (N), maks- (L), mikse- (T), mkse-, mse(Kld.), mse- (Not.) ( < .)
. makso- (E) , maks- (M) , Paasonen
1992, 1162
: ( I.1.)
288

: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *mala > *mala ', ', UEW, 698.

. malo 'Ri, Spalt, Kluft', malous, malavus 'Wuhne fr das


Zugnetz, aus dem die Zugnetze emporgehoben werden' ?
. mala 'Meeresufer' ?
. *ml (Lehtiranta 689) muols (L) 'Wake, eisfreier Streifen,
der sich im Frhjahr entlang der Ufer bildet', mll (T)
. malaso (E), malasa (M) '', Paasonen 1992, 1166
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *marja > *marj '', UEW, 264.

marja ''
. mari (. marja)
. *mrj (Lehtiranta 693) muor'je -rj- (N), muor'j (L), mrje
(T), mrj (Kld.), muorj (Not.), murj (A)
. mar (E M) ', ' (in comp.), Paasonen 1992, 2453.
. ., . mr, . mr ' ( )'
.

289

: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *mata (*mata) > *mat (*mat) '

, ', UEW, 265.


. mahta- '', mahtu- ', '
. mahtu- ', '
. mato- (E) mat- (M), Paasonen 1992, 1195
. . mota (2); . (C) motem; . (Ch)
motem; . (B) motem; . (M) motem; .
(U) motem; . (P) motem; . (V)
mo-tem; . (J) motem; . : myta (2); .
(K) mytem; . *mot- *mut-; Bereczki
1992, 37.
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *mata > *mata '', UEW, 699.

mata-, matele- ''?


. made (. mademe-) ', ' ?
. made- (R)
.

290

madamo (Eg), madama, . -n (M) ' (

), (
)' ?, Paasonen 1992, 1155
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.),
( III.2.)
UEW *mel > *mel ', ', UEW,

701.
. mela ' ', melo- ''
. mo~la ', '
. *ml (Lehtiranta 656) mlle -l- (N) 'steering-oar', mll
mll (L) 'Ruder, Riemen (mit dem man steuert)', mielle (Ko. P)
'Ruderblatt; Steuerruder des Flosses'
. mile (E) '', mil (M:P) ' ', mlna (M:P)
, melidi- (E) 'rudern', Paasonen 1992, 1262
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

291

UEW *mert > *mert ', ', UEW,

702.
. mirde (E), mird (M) ', ', Paasonen 1992, 1267
: i -,
* ( I.3.2.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.); ( III.2.)
UEW *mua *mua > *mua *mua '',

UEW, 705.
. muta ''
. muda (. muda, moa) ', '
. moe -- (N) 'mud, mire', mat (L) 'Staub, der von Kleidern
staubt'
. moda (E, M) '', Paasonen 1992, 1271
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
292

UEW *muja > *muj '', UEW, 284.

muista- ', '


. mo~ista- 'verstehen, begreifen; bedeuten'
. muje- (E), muj- (M) '', Paasonen 1992, 1292
. . mua (1), (C) muam, . (Ch) muam, . (B)
muam, . (MK) mam, (UP, UJ) muam, (P)
muam, . (JT) muam, . moa (1), . (K) moam;
. *mu-; UEW 284; Bereczki 1992, 38
.

: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.), : *o, *u
,
- ( III.5)

UEW *muna > *muna ', '; UEW, 285.

muna ''
. muna
. *mon (Lehtiranta 677) ma^nne monne -n- 'egg', mainne (T),
mainn (Kld.), minn (Not.)
. mona (E, ) '', Paasonen 1992, 1282.
. . muno; muna (2) ' , ( ); .

( ), ( )';
(CU) muno, (CK) muno; . (Ch) muno; . (B)
muno; . (M) muno; (UJ) muno, (UP) muny;
(P) muno; . (V) munu; . (JO) munu; . myny; mynza (2)
293

' , ; , '; .
(K) myny; . *mun; Bereczki 1992, 39.
Janh. (19) *muna; Samm. *muna
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : *o, *u ,
( III.5)
UEW *muka > *muk '', UEW, 705.

. muhka 'Unebenheit, Knollen, Knorren, Knoten' (


myhkyr, mhkyr)
. muhk (. muhu) ''
E
E
. mo (K Kld.), mo (Ko. Not.) 'Beule, Hautknoten' ?
. muko (E:Mar), muka, . mukn (M:P) '', Paasonen 1992, 1302
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

294

UEW *mOnV (*monV) > *mana ', ',

UEW, 290.
. manaa- ''
. mana- ', '
. muone- 'nominare', moanna- 'conjicere, divinare; erraten,
raten'; mnna- (L) 'vermuten, erraten'
. muna- (E), mna- (M) '', Paasonen 1992, 1297;
. . mana (1) ', '
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : II(e)-,
-
( III.3.)
UEW *nalja > *nalj ', ', UEW, 706.

nalja 'Scherz, Spa, Spiel' ?


. nali (. nalja) ', ' ?
. nalko- (E), nal'k- (M) ?, Paasonen 1994, 1313
.

: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)

295

:
( III.2.)

UEW *niwa (*nia) > *niw , -

, UEW, 306
. nivo- , , ;
c. na^vve- -v- (N) 'pick off, pluck out (esp. hair)', navv- (L) '(ein
Fell) enthaaren, "plen"', naivvede- (T) 'das Fell von Haaren befreien';
. nevelde- (E) , ,
nevld- (M) (Paasonen 1994, 1396)
Samm. *niwa : ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *nolV > *nola '', UEW, 709.

nolo ', ' ?


. novla (E), novla, . novlan (M:P) '' ?, Paasonen
1994, 1356
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
.

296

III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *nelj (*nelj) > *nelj '', UEW, 316.

nelj ', '


neli (. nelja)
. *nlj (Lehtiranta 720) njl'lje -llj- (N), niel'ja (L), nielje (T),
nielj (Kld.), nelj (Not.), nel (A)
. nile (E), nil (M), nilnst nilenst (M) , Paa .
.

sonen 1994, 1402


. . nl, . nl
Samm. *n'elj
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *nia ( *ni, *nia, *ni) > *nia '',

UEW, 713.
. nito- ''
. nidu- 'binden, umbinden, bewickeln'
. nja^e- -- (N) 'tack or lash (on, together', join together by
tacking or sewing; fasten (scythe) on the handle', njat (L) 'mit
einen wenigen weiten Stichen zusammennhen, zusammenheften',
naDte- (T), naDte- (Kld.), naDDe- (Ko. Not.) 'binden, annhen'
. neda-, nda- (E), neda- (M) '', Paasonen 1994, 1381
: ( I.1.)
297

: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *nila > *nila '- , , ',

UEW, 318.
. nila '- , '
. nilane (lats) 'unbehlfliches Kind, welches erst anfngt zu
sprechen und zu gehen' ?
. nja^lle -l- (N) 'the condition in which the bark is loose on the
wood', nja^lla^- 'flake off, get loose and peel off; peel'; njall (L)
'etw. Glattes od. Schlpfriges; der Baumsaft, wenn er sich zwischen
Stamm und Rinde gesammelt hat', njalla- '(leicht) losgehen, sich
lsen (von der Rinde in der Saftzeit), leicht gleiten'; nalle -l- (Ko.
Not.) 'schlpfrige, glatte Stelle'
. nola (E), nola (M) '', Paasonen 1994, 1343.
. nl (N) ' '
Samm. *n'ila
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
298

UEW *noka > *nok ', ', UEW, 714.


.

notka (.) 'Biegung, Krmmung', notkea '', notko

', '
. no~tke ', , ', no~tk, no~tku (.
no~tku) 'Senkung, Niederung'
. *nck (Lehtiranta 778) njoas'ke -sk- (N) 'depression with
sloping sides', njask (L) 'Talsenke zwischen zwei niederen Bergen,
Tal, Einsenkung', nicke, niecke (T), nuick (Kld.), nuahck (Not.)
'Tal'
. nuka- . nukn (M), Paasonen 1994, 1358
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *nkt > *nkt ', ',

UEW, 715.
. nyht- ', '
. nevta- (E), nfti- (E), neft- (M), Paasonen 1994, 1397
. . nkt-, . nkta- '; ()'
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

299

UEW *oa > *o ', , ,

, ', UEW, 334.


. odotta-, . ootta-, outta-, uotta-, vuotta- ''
. oota . a^dsote- (Schw.) 'expectare', oota^- (Pite) 'await repeatedly'
. uto- (E), *utms, uan (M) '', Paasonen 1996, 2426.
. *wuE- . wc-, wuce-, . wue- ', ,
, '
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *ora > *or '', UEW, 342.

ora ', '


. ora ', '
. *r (Lehtiranta 841) oarre 'subula', virre (T), uirr (Kld.),
uairr (Not.) 'Ahle, Pfrieme'
. uro (E), ura . urn (M:Sel), ura, N.Pl. urt (M:Md .

Jurtk), Paasonen 1996, 2467


*ora
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
Samm.

300

UEW *ora > *ora '', UEW, 343.

orava ''
. orav, oravas (. orava)
. *rv (Lehtiranta 847) oar're -rr- (N), arr (L), viirrev (T),
uirrev (Kld.), uairrev 'Eichhrnchen; Kopeke'
. ur (E), ura (M) (. -n) '; ', Paasonen 1996,
.

2461.
. ., . ur ''
Samm. *ora
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *orase > *ors ' ', UEW,

720.
. oras (. oraan), orasa, oraisa 'Eber; verschnittener Eber'
. urs (M), Paasonen 1996, 2463
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
301

UEW *orma > *orma 'Einschnitt an einem Kleidung-

stck od. Schuh', UEW, 722.


. orm (. orma) 'Loch im Bauernschuh (zum Einziehen der
Schnur); Schnur (zum Einziehen)' ?
. urmac (M:P) ' , ',
Paasonen 1996, 2467
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *orpa(sV) *orwa(sV) > *orp(sV) ',

', UEW, 343.


. orpo '' ( > . orb, . orvu)
. *rps (Lehtiranta 846) oarbes -r'bas- (N) 'orphan; lonely and
deserted', ar`ps 'id., ohne Gatte od. Gattin, ohne Mnnchen od.
Weibchen', virb's (P), vurbes (Kld.), vurBes (Not.) 'Waisenkind'
. uros urus (E), urs (M) '', Paasonen 1996, 2468
. . rveze '; , '; . (CU)
yrweze, (CK) rweze; . (B, BJ) yrweze, (BJp) yrweze;
. (MK) urweze, urwez; . (UJ) yrweze,
(UP) erwez; . (P) yrweze; . (V) rwez;
. (JT) yrweze, (JO) rwez; . rvezy ';
'; . (K) rwez; Bereczki 19921994, 82.
Samm. *orpa
302

: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.), III :
III -, -
(
III.4.)

UEW *orpa > *orpa '', UEW, 722.

. orpana ' ', . orvas 'Verwandter'


. *rpn (Lehtiranta 845) oarben, orben (N) 'soror', arpn (L)
'Geschwister (Bruder od. Schwester)', viirpen (T), uirpen (Kld.)
'Schwester'
. urva (E), rv (M) ' (E); , (M)', urvaksto- (E), ervja- (M) '', Paasonen 1996, 2476
. . rwez, rweze, urweze '; ,
'
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

303

UEW *paa > *paa ' () ', UEW, 345.

. o-paca, o-paa (E), o-paa (M) ', ()', Paasonen 1990, 283
:
-, * ( I.3.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *paka > *pak ', ',

UEW, 350.
. pahka ', , , ' ( > c. N bak'ke -kk'excrescence on birch or fir-tree', L pahkk 'Knollen, Knorren (an
Bumen)', K T pahke 'Auswuchs, Maser')
. pahk (. paha) ', , '
. pak (E), pak (M) ', , ', Paasones 1996,
1509.
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

304

UEW *pala > *pal ', ', UEW,

350.
. pala ''
. pala
. *pl (Lehtiranta 995) buola 'frustulum',
. pal (E) ' ( )', pal, . paln (M) '',
Paasonen 1994, 1510
. , pult ''
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *pala > *pal '', UEW, 352.

. pala- ''; poltta- ''


. pala-, po~le- 'brennen (intr.)'
. buolle- -l- (N) 'burn, be on fire', puoll- (L) 'brennen (intr.)',
pille- (T), pille- (Kld.), puoille- (Not.) id.
. palo- (E), pal- (M), Paasonen 1994, 1516.
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

305

UEW *paka > *pak ', , , -

', UEW, 354.


. panka (. pangan) 'Rutenband um den Besen, Halfter des
Rentiers, Arm eines Spinnrockens', panki, pankki 'Eimer' ?
. paG (. paGa) (.) 'Griff, Handgriff'
. *pk (Lehtiranta 892) bag'ge -gg- (N) 'halter for reindeer,
horse or cow', pagg (L), paikk (Not.) 'Halfter'
. pago (E), paga () ' ' ?
. p-klj 'Zgel'
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *parma > *parm '', UEW, 724.

. paarma, . parma ''


. parm (. parmu), . paarm
. promo, puromo (E), purm (M) '', Paasonen 1994, 1852
. . parm, pormo, pormo ''
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

306

UEW *pjw > *pjwV '', UEW, 360.

. piv ''
. pev, . -a, . piv, pe ''
. *pjv (Lehtiranta 905) bi've -iv- (N) 'day; sun', pei'v
pi'v (L), piejve (T), piejv (Kld.), peiv (Not. A)
Janh. (73) *pjw; Samm. *pjw
: ( I.1.)
:
( II.4.)
: *
: * > . *, ( III.6.)

UEW *pkn > *pkn '', UEW, 726.

. phn (. phn) 'alte Linde; Tilia parvifolia; Rster, Ulmus


effusa'
. peke (E), p (M) '', Paasonen 1994, 1596
. . pist, . pite
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: ( -
III.1.), -
( III.2.)

UEW *pe > *pV '', UEW, 365.

. p ''
. pe, p

307

. bage -- (N) 'the thickest part of the reindeer antler, by the


head'
. pe, p (E), pe (M) ''
: ( I.1.)
:
( II.4.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), *
: * > . *, ( III.6.)

UEW *pe *pen > *pe *pen '; Pinus

sylvestris', UEW, 727.


. petj (. petjs) ''
. pedajas (. pedaja), pedakas (. pedaka), pdajas (.
pdaja), pdakas (. pdaka) ' ; Pinus sylvestris'
. *pc (Lehtiranta 901) bcce -- (N) 'Pinus silvestris', piehtrs, phts (L) 'Kiefer, Fhre', piecce (T), pieicc (Kld.), piehc (Not.)
'Kiefer, Fichtenrinde'
. pie (E), pi (M) '; Pinus sylvestris', Paasonen 1994,
1649
. . pn, pnc ''
Samm. *pe
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
308

: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *pekt > *pekt ' ,

', UEW, 728.


. pett- '', . petti 'Butter', petto, pettu, pettypiim 'Buttermilch', ? puht- 'buttern, Butter machen' ? ( > .
. )
. pett (. peti), peti-piim 'Buttermilch' ?
. pivte- (E), pit- (M), Paasonen 1994, 1692.
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *pelj > pelj '', UEW, 370.

. *plj (Lehtiranta 908) bl'lje -llj- (N) 'Ohr', piel'j pl'j


(L) 'Ohr; Henkel, Griff an einem Topf od. Kessel', pielje (T), pielj
(Kld.), pelj (Not.), pel (A) 'Ohr'
. pile (E), pil (M), Paasonen 1994, 1660
. . pl, pl, . pl
Samm. *pelj
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.1.)

309

: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), *
: * > . *, ( III.6.)

UEW *per > *per ', -',

UEW, 373.
. per ' , , '
. pra ', , '
. pra, . pira (E), pr (M) ', , , ', Paasonen 1994, 1792
Samm. *per
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *pes > *pes '', UEW, 375.

. pes ''
. pesa
. *ps (Lehtiranta 917) bsse -s- (N) 'nest; primitive
dwelling', piess pss (L) 'Nest, Horst, Bau, Lager', piess (Kld.
Not.) 'Vogelnest'
. pize (E), piza . pizn (), Paasonen 1994, 1693
. . p, pa, piza, . pua ''

310

Janh. (28) *pes; Samm. *pes


: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *pikk (*pkk) > *pkk ', ',

UEW, 379.
. pkk (. pkn) '' ?
. pkk (. pka) 'Ballen (an der Hand, am Fu, im Pferdehuf),
Hinterbacke, Hode' ?
. pahkk (L) 'Magen des Eichhrnchens' ?
. peke (E), pek (M) ', ', pekku (M) ' ', Paasonen 1994, 1593
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *pinta > *pint ', ', UEW,

730.
. pinta ''
. pind (. pinna) ', '
. pondak (E) , ponda . pondn (M) '', Paasonen 1994, 1747
311

Samm. *pinta
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *pit > *pit '', UEW, 386.

. pit140- ', , '


. pida- (pean) ', , '
. ba^tte- -- (N) 'go to a lonely place in order to calve (of a female reindeer or cow)', paht- (L) 'unruhig werden und einen Platz zum
Kalben aufsuchen (von einer Rentierkuh)' ?
. peda- (E, M) ', , ', Paasonen 1994, 1582
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *poka > *pok '', UEW, 389.

140

. potka (. pokka) ', ', potki- ' '

, .

312

. po~tk (. po~tka), . petk, po~kk ''


. *pck (Lehtiranta 966) boas'ke- -sk- (N) 'the small of the
leg', pask (L) 'Fusohle (des Mittelfues), Fublatt; Ferse, Hacken
(eines Schuhes)', pitsk-vintE (T), putsk-vunt (Kld.),
pu'tsk'-vuDtE (Not.) 'Schenkel, Wade', pu'tskE, pu'skE,
pua'tska (Not.) 'Knochen im hinteren Teil des Fugelenks am
Hinterbein des Rentiers'
. puko (E), puka, . pukn (M) ' , ' ?,
Paasonen 1994, 1830
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *poV (*puV) > *puV 'Span; spalten, split-

tern', UEW, 389.


. bo'i- (N) 'take to pieces, undo; separate', boo 'separated
from its natural connection, deviating', paddi- (L) 'zerstcken, in
mehrere Teile teilen', poaDas (Ko. Not.), poa (Kld.), podas (T)
'los, getrennt; zerstcktes Fleisch'
: *o,
*u ( I.2.6.)
:
( II.4.)
:
( III.7.)
313

UEW *pojka > *poj ', ', UEW, 390.

. poika ', , '; poja, poju ''


. poeg (. poja) ', '
. bujo, pijo (E) ', ', Paasonen 1990, 147
. . p-er ', ' ?
Samm. *poji
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *porsas (*porcas) > *porss (*porcs) ',

', UEW, 736.


. porsas (. porsaan) ''
. po~rsas (. po~rsa)
. purcos (E), pur'c (. pur'cn) pur'c (M), Paasonen 1994,
1849
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *puka > *puk ', ', UEW,

739
. putkahta- esille '' ?
. pokode- (E), pokd- (M) ' ( ), 314

', Paasonen 1994, 1711


: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *puna > *puna ''; UEW, 402.

. puna ', '


. puna ', ', punane ', '
. *pone (Lehtiranta 952)
. pona (E M) ', ', Paasonen, 1994, 1743
. . pun; (CU) pun, (CK) pun; . (Ch) pun; .
(B) pun; . (M) pun; (U) pun; (P) pun; . (V)
pun; . (JT, JO) pun; . pyn; . (K) pyn; .
*pun; Bereczki 1992, 53
Samm. *pu/ana
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.),
: *o, *u ,
( III.5)

315

UEW *puna > *puna ', ', UEW, 402

. puno- ', ', puna ''


. punu- ', '
. ba^dne bodne -n- (N), patn- (L) 'Sehnenfaden spinnen', ponna(T), ponne- (Kld. Not.) 'drehen (z. B. ein Seil auf dem Knie)'
. pona- (E, M), Paasonen 1994, 1746
. . puna (2); . (CU) punem, (CK) punem; .
(Ch) punem; . (B) punem; . (M)
punem; . (U) punem; . (P) punem; . (V) punem; . (JT, JO) punem; . pyna (2); .
(K) pynem; . *pun-; Bereczki 1992, 53-54.
Janh. (116) *puna/; Samm. *puna/
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.) : II(e)-,
-
( III.3.), : *o, *u
,
-
( III.5)

UEW *puka (*poka) > *puk ', ,

', UEW, 404.


. punka '() '
316

. pung (. punga) ', , '


. bug'ge -gg- (N) 'bump, lump, hump', bog'ge -gg- 'a short, fat
one'
. pokol (E) , , pokl pokel (M:P), pokl pokl
(M:MdJurtk) ', , ', Paasonen 1994, 1722
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *purka > *purka ', ',

UEW, 741.
. purka- ', ' ?
. purge- 'ausleeren' ?
. purgavto- (E) ''
. . pre- (1) 'whlen, durchwhlen, umrhren', . purea' ( ..); , ( ); , '
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : II(a)-,
317

-
( III.3.)
UEW *purkV > *purka '', UEW, 406.

. purku (. purun) '', purkus ', '


. *porke (Lehtiranta 956) bor'ga^ -rg- (N) 'cloud, spray (of snow),
bor'ga^- -rg- 'be driving snow, blow in clouds', borge- -rg- 'smoke;
make water splash all around one', par`ksti- (L) 'rauchen, wirbeln;
herumfliegen (von Haaren)', pork-ilm (Not.) 'Schneegestber',
porgkA (Ko. Not.), porgk(A) (Kld.), porgk(A) (T) 'Schneegestber',
porG- (Ko. P), porgk- (Kld.), porgka- (T) 'stbern (Schnee)'
. porgams, purga- (E), purgams, prga- (M), prgams, Paasonen, 1994, 1850
. . pury ', '; . pyryta ',
'
Samm. *purki
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : *o, *u ,
( III.5)

UEW *pOa ? > *paa '', UEW, 412.

. paa (E M) '' ?

318

:
-, * ( I.3.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *race > *raca '', UEW, 743.

. ra'a^- -- (N) 'stretch (a skin which has been removed


whole in one piece)', rahttja- (L) 'den Balg eines Pelztieres mit dem
Balgspanner (aus)spannen', ra'a^ -- (N) 'stick or smth. else for
fitting out and stretching a skin', rahttj (L) 'Spannholz,
Balgspanner'
. racakado- (E), racam- (M:P) '', Paasonen 1994,
1874
: *, -, * ( I.2.4.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

319

UEW *rakV > *rak ', ',

UEW, 743.
. rahko (.) 'Kienspanhalter; das gabelfrmige Eisen, worin
die brennenden Kienspne eingesteckt werden'
. rako (E), raka, . rakn (M) ', ,
, ', Paasonen
1994, 1883.
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *rpp > *rppV ' ( -

, )', UEW, 743.


. rppn ' , '
. rpen (. rpna), (.) rpp, (.) repe (. repna),
reppn, reppan ' '
. *rppn() (Lehtiranta, 1037) rppen rppen (N) 'smoke
hole; very deep place in the middle of a lake, where ice never forms',
riehpn rhpn (L) 'Rauchloch des Zeltes', riehpen (T Kld.),
riahpen (Not.) 'Rauchfang'; UEW, 743.
Samm. *rpp
: ( I.1.)
:
( II.4.)
* : * > . *,
( III.6.)
320

UEW *rukV > ruk ', ',

UEW, 746.
. runko ' ', ? runka 'Stiel, Stengel, Strunk, Hfte'
( < . .)
. roike (T), roik (Kld.) 'Rumpf, Krper' ? ( < .)
. roga (E:Kal), roga, . rogn (:P) ', ',
Paasonen 1994, 1908
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *rOkV (*rOkV) > *rokV ', -

, ', UEW, 426.


. rohka ', ; ' ?
. . raka ''
: ( I.1.)
:
( II.4.)
:
( III.7.)
UEW *sata > *sat '', UEW, 467

. sata ''
. sada
. *ct (Lehtiranta, 213) uotte, uoe -tt- -- (N), tti
(Wfs.) 'tausend', iitte, itt (Kld.), ueht (Not.) 'hundert'
. sado (E), sada (M), Paasonen 1996, 2083

321

. . , .
Samm. *s'ata
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *satta > *satt ' -,

', UEW, 753.


. satta- () 'schaden, beschdigen', sattu- '' (
> . N sat'tu- 'happen to') ?
. sattu- '' ?
. sato- (E, M) ' , ', Paasonen 1996,
1956
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *sala > *sala ', , ', UEW,

430.
. sala '', salaa ', '
. sala ', ', salaja ', ', salasta- 'verheimlichen'
. *sl (Lehtiranta 1175) suola^ -lla^g- (N) 'thief, thievish', suoladi'steal, go stealthily'; suola (L) 'Dieb', suollt 'im geheimen', suolti322

'stehlen'; sl (T), sl (Kld.), suol (Not.), sul (A) 'Dieb', silane- (T),
sulne- (Kld.), sual- (Not.) 'stehlen'
. sala- (E M) '', Paasonen 1996, 1937
. . ol '', olp '', . olta-, olta''
Janh. (10) *sala; Samm. *sala
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *saca > *saca '', UEW, 431.

. seiso-, seise- '' ( > . S se.jsai-)


. seisa- (. saisa-, sis-, so~isa-) 'stehen, bleiben'
. uo'o- -- (N) 'stand, stand unused', tjuodtj- (L), i^na(T), uone- (Kld.), uee- (Not.), oan- (A) 'stehen'
. sta- (E, M) , Paasonen 1996, 2179
. . ina (1); ina (2) '; , , -.'; ima ' (); (, )'; (CU) inem; . (Ch)
ynem; . (B) inem; . (M) inem; .
(U) inem; . (P) inem; . (V)
nem; . (JT) ynem, (JO) nem; . nza (1)
', '; nza (2) '; , '; . (KN, KSh) nem, (KJ, KA) snem;
. *in-; Bereczki 1992, 63.

323

Samm. *s'ans'a
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *sawe > *sawa , UEW, 754

. savu ;
. sau , . sau, savvu
. *sve (Lehtiranta 1195) suovva^ -v- (N) 'smoke', suovva (L)
'Rauch', svv (T), svv (Kld.), suovv (Not.)
. sufta- (E M), *sftams, sftan (M:P) , ,
Paasonen 1996, 2072
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *swn > *swn ' ', UEW, 437.

. syns (. synn), synj '; Cyprinus Idus'


. sinam (. sinama), sinas (. sina) 'Dickfisch; Cyprinus
idus Pall., Leuciscus Ieses'

324

. suna, seu'na, siuna (L) 'Aland, Rohrkarpfen (Weifischart);


Leuciscus idus', sivn (. sivne) (T Kld.) 'Khling'
. senej (E), seni (M:P) '', Paasonen 1996, 1968.
Samm. *swni
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *sira > *sira , UEW, 759.

. siru ', ', . siro 'id., Span', siiru 'Streifen,


schmale Scheibe, Fetzen', siiro id., siro- 'aufschiefern, -splittern',
siroa- 'aufreien, bersten'
. sra-, soradu-, srado-, strado- (E), srad- (M:P) ',
', Paasonen 1996, 2034
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

325

UEW *sira-kta > *sira-kta ', ', UEW,

760.
. sirotta-, sirottele- ''
. strado- srado- (E), srad- (M), Paasonen 1996, 2034
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *sirV > *sira ', , ', UEW,

761.
. siro '', . sire 'schlank, fein, hbsch, zierlich'
. sire (. sireda) ''
. ser(e) (E), ser (ChrM), ser, . seren (M:P) ', ',
Paasonen 1996, 1969
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *sitV > *sit '', UEW, 762.
.
326

sito- '', side (. siteen) ', '

. sidu- 'binden', side (. sideme) 'Band'


. sodo- (E), sot- (M) '', Paasonen 1996, 2003
. , k, , , ,
''
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *sompa > *sompV '', UEW, 764.

. sompa, sompakko ' '


. *smp (Lehtiranta 1158) soab'be -bb- (N) 'stick', sabb (L)
'Stock, Stab', siimpe (T), suimp (Kld.), suaipp (Not.) ?
. omba ''
: ( I.1.)
:
( II.4.)

III : III
-a,
- ( III.4.)

UEW *sose (*sase) > *sas , -

, UEW, 766
. sasu ?

327

. sasi (. sase), sasu '', sask (. sasu) 'Backenknochen'


. *sse (Lehtiranta 1191) suossa^ -s-, suosse -s- (N) 'bay ice (in
river and lake)', suossa (L) 'der innere, porse Teil der Horn-, Geweihmasse; schwaches, porses, schwammiges Eis (im Frhjahr)', sss
(T) 'Eisbrei, Eismatsch', sss(A) (Kld.), suossA (Ko. Not.) 'id. (im
Wasser), (Kld. auch) dnne Eiskrste' ?
. suz (M) , suzja- (M:P)
, , Paasonen 1996, 2077
. ., . u, suz(), su ', '
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *sula > *sula '', UEW, 450.

. sula '', sulaa- ''


. sula ', ', sula- ', '
. sola (E), sola (solan) (M) , sola- (E M) , Paasonen 1996, 2008
. . ula (2); . (CU) ulem, (CK) ulem; .
(Ch) ulem; . (B) ulem, sulem; .
(MK) ulem; (M) sulem; . (US, UJ) ulem; (UP, Usj)
sulem; . (V) ulem; . (JT, JO) ulem; .
yla (2); . (K) ylem; . *sul-; Bereczki
1992, 69.
Samm. *sula

328

: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : II(e)-,
-
( III.3.), : *o, *u
,
-
( III.5)

UEW *sume > *sum , UEW, 767

. sumu ,
. sume (. sumeda) ', '
. *som (Lehtiranta 1148) sobmo sa^bmo -m- (N) 'dull, hazy
atmosphere (in summer) with fine rain', sapm (L), sm(a) (Kld.),
sma (s-) (Not.), smm(A) (P) 'dichter Nebel im Winter (Kld.),
Nebel (Not.), trbes Wetter (ohne Regen) (P)'
. suv (E M), suvn (M:P) , Paasonen 1996, 2071
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

329

UEW *surmV > *sorm ', , -

', UEW, 452.


. horma ', ( )' ?
. ho~rmane (., . ho~rmatse) 'schrumpflich, verschrumpft' ?
. sorma (E M) '', sorma-, sorma- (E M), sormo- (M)
', '
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *sajma > *sajma ' ,

', UEW, 456.


. saima ' '
. sim, sime, so~im ''
. suma sima (E), *sma (: sema, . -n) (M) '',
Paasonen 1996, 2195
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

330

UEW *salkV > *salk ', , ',

UEW, 460.
. salko ' '
. *clkj (Lehtiranta, 193) uolgo, ul'gu(m) (N) 'lever, crowbar; bar used for pushing a fishing net under the ice', tjuol`ki,
tjuol`kun (L) 'Stange, mit der man bei der Eisfischerei das Netz unter
dem Eise von dem einen Eisloch zum andern schiebt od. zieht',
ualgui (I) 'Stopfnadel'
. salgo, salga (E), salga (M) '', salgo-, salgu- (E), salgo(M) ', '
Samm. *s'lka
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *sk > *sk ' ', UEW, 469.

. sk, ske (. skeen), se (. skeen), ski (., ) '; Silurus glanis'


. sg, so~gi 'Wels; Silurus glanis'
. sije (E), si (M) , , Paasonen 1996, 2151
. . i-kol, , ij-kol ''
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

331

UEW *sn *cn > *snV *cnV '',

UEW, 772.
. hhn, hhn, rhni, rhmi, rhni (.) 'Buntspecht'
. hn (. hn), hhn (. hhn), rhn (. rhni, rhna, rhnu)
'Specht, Buntspecht'
. ai'hne -ihn- (N) 'Picoides tridactylus; Dendrocopus; kinds of
woodpecker', tjai(h)n (L) 'Specht', teana (T), tien(e) (Kld.)
'Specht'
. . it, ite, ite-n
Samm. *s's'n
: ( I.1.)
:
( II.4.)
: *
: * > . *, ( III.6.)
UEW *sep > *sep ', ', UEW, 473.

. sep (. sepi, sevi) '', sep-, sepile- ''


. seba (. seba, seva) 'Heunetz, welches das Heufuder umschliet; hochgebogener Vorderteil des Schlittens', sebad, sebi (.
sebja), sebi-vits 'Ruten vorn am Bauernschlitten'
. *cptt *cptt (Lehtiranta, 130) bet, ve (-ppat-,
vat) (N) 'neck or throat (outside); collar on clothing', tjiehp
tjhp (L) 'Hals', tjiept tjpet (L), vss-tieBpe (T), vss-tieBpE
(Kld.) 'Hals des Fellsackes', teaBpad (T), te'ppt (Ko. Not.)
'Hals'
. sive, siv (E), siv, . -en (M) '', siveks (E) '', Paasonen 1996, 2164
. . , , , j ''

332

Samm. *s'ep
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *silm > *silm '', UEW, 479.

. silm ''
. silm (. silma)
. *celm (Lehtiranta, 110) a^l'bme -lm- (N), tjalm (L), ailme
(T), ailm (Kld.), ailm, ilm (Not.)
. selme (E), selm Pl. selmt (M), Paasonen 1996, 2128
. . snz, , , inca
Janh. (30) *s'ilm; Samm. *s'ilm
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.), III : III -a, -
( III.4.)

333

UEW *soka > *sok ' ', UEW, 482.

. sotka '; Fuligula'


. so~tkas (. so~tka) '', . sotka, satka 'Tauchente, Fuligula marila'
. *ck (Lehtiranta, 172) oa'ge -g- (N) 'golden-eye; Glaucion clangula', tjar'hk (L) 'Schellente, Klingelente; Clangula glaucion, Fuligula clangula'
. sulgo sulga FS (E), culga . culgn (M) '-
, ; Fuligula clangula, Colymbus arcticus', Paasonen 1996, 2193
. . (CK) ue-luo, (Ch) ue-luo, . (MK) sueluu, . (V) ue-luu, . (JT) ue-luo, . (K) alaoe; . *u-e; Bereczki 1992, 59
Samm. *s'o/dk/d'ka
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.), III : III -, -
(
III.4.), :
*o, *u ,
- ( III.5)

334

UEW *sota, *soa *soa > *sot, *so *so

', , ', UEW, 777.


. sota '', soti- ' -'
. so~da ', , ', so~di- ', '
. sudo- (E), sud- (M) , , Paasonen
1996, 2187
. . uala-, uala-, ue- ', ', u '', uala- 'schimpfen, wettern', ue- 'verfluchen, verwnschen'
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.) , : *o, *u ,
- ( III.5)
UEW *orwa > *orw ', ', UEW, 502.

. harva ', '


. harv (. harva) ', '
. uro (E), ura, . urn (M), Paasonen 1990, 305
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

335

UEW *suka > *suka ', ', UEW,

777.
. suka, suas (. sukaan) '', suki- ', '
. suga (. sugi, . soe) '', suge-, sugi- ''
. *cok (Lehtiranta, 160) okko- -g_- (N) 'comb; scrape, currycomb', tjahk- (L) 'kmmen, sich kmmen', okka- (T) 'kmmen'
. suva (E), siva (E:Kad), suva . (-n) (M), Paasonen 1996,
2203
. . u; (C) ; . (Ch) ; (U) ; .
(JT, JO) ; . (K) ; . *; Bereczki 1992, 67.
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : *o, *u ,
( III.5)
UEW *srj > *srj ', ', UEW, 779.

. syrj ', ', (.) 'hhere Stelle auf dem Gelnde,


Land-, bergrcken; Sandfeld'
. sri (. srja) (.) 'ber einem ebenen Sumpfboden hervorragender lnglicher kleiner Bergrcken'

336

. ire, sire (E), ir ( . iren) ir (M)141, Paasonen 1990,


269
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *amV > *ama , , , UEW, 782

. hahmo , , ;
. ama (E), ama, . aman (M) '', Paasonen 1990, 204.
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *ia > *ia ', ', UEW, 784.

. hio-, . hijo-, hivo-, hiho- ', ', hiaisin,


hijaisin, hivaisin, hioin ''
. ihu-, ihku-, (.) higo- ''
. sa^ggje- -j- (N) 'hone, sharpen on hone; file', sadj- (L) 'wetzen, schleifen', sijja- (T) 'schleifen', saij- (Kld.), saija- (Ko. Not.)
'schleifen, reiben, feilen'

141

, * vs. *.
, *-.

337

. ova- (E), ova- (M), Paasonen 1990, 286


. . uma (2); . (CU) umem, (CK) umem; .
(Ch) umem; . (B) umem; . (M)
umem; . (U) umem; . (P) umem; .
(J) u-mem; . . yma (2); . (K) ymem; . *um-; Bereczki 1992, 69.
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : II(e)-,
-
( III.3.)

UEW *ina > *ina '', UEW, 786.

. hihna, . hiihna ''


. ihn (. ihna), ehn (. ehna) 'Riemen, lederner Grtel' ?
. *sesn (Lehtiranta 1095)
. na (E, M), kna (E), Paasonen 1992, 909
. . t, . t ' , '
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
:

338

(
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *ukta > *ukt ' ', UEW, 788.

. huhta, . huuhta '', huhti-kuu ''


. uht (. uha) (.) '', uha, uhe (. uhte) 'zum
Verbrennen niedergehauener Wald, dessen Boden Feld werden soll'
. uvto, ufto (E), ufta (. uftn) (M) ', ',
uftomo- (E) ' , ', Paasonen 1990, 309.
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *uma-re > *uma-re ' ',

UEW, 789.
. huhmar (. huhmaren), . huhmari, huhmaro, huuhmar
''
. uhmer, uhmre (. uhmri, uhmre) ', '
. ovar (E), ovar . -n (M), Paasonen 1990, 288
. . uer, . uar ', '
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
339

III.1.),
( III.2.)
UEW *tappa > *tappa ' , ', UEW,

509.
. tappa- ' , ', tappele- ', '
. tapa- 'tten, schlachten', . tap- 'dreschen'
. tapa- (E M) '', Paasonen 1996, 2264
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.); ( III.2.)

UEW *tek (*tek) > *tk (tk) ' -

, ', UEW, 795


. thk ''
. tike (E), ti (M), tik ~tik (M:MdJurtk) ', ', Paasonen 1996, 2402.
. . tk, . tka '; '
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.),
( III.2.)
340

UEW *tika (?) > *tik '', UEW, 796.

. sika ''
. siga (. sea) ''
. tuvo (E), tuv, . tuvn (M), Paasonen 1996, 2358
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *tokka > *tokka ', ', UEW,

796.
. tokkaa- 'stechen, picken; etw. pltzlich machen'
. toka- (E), toka- (M) ', ', Paasonen 1996,
2302
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *torV > *tor ', ; ', UEW,

531.
. tora ', ', toru- ''
. to~ra 'Aufruhr, Zank, Streit'
341

. *tr (Lehtiranta 1284) doarro -r- (N) 'fight, battle, struggle',


doarro- -r- 'strike with the horns, butt; fight', trr (L) 'Krieg,
Kampf, Schlgerei', trr- 'kmpfen, kriegen; stoen', toarra (T)
'Zank, Streit, Krieg', toarra- (T), toarre- (Kld. Not.) 'streiten'
. ture-, ture- (E), tur- (M) '', Paasonen 1996, 2418
. . torle- ', '
Janh. *tora; Samm. *tora
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *towkV > *towkV '; ? ,

( ) ', UEW, 532.


. touko '', toukokuu ''
. to~ug (. to~uu) 'Sommersaat, Sommerkorn'
. tundo (E), tunda (M:P) '', Paasonen 1996, 2350
: ( I.1.)
: ( II.4.)

( III.2.)
UEW *tulka > *tulka ', ', UEW, 535.

. *tolk (Lehtiranta 1267) dol'ge -lg- (N) 'feather', tal'k (L)


'Feder, Daune', toilke (T) 'Feder'
. tolga (E, M), Paasonen 1996, 2309
Janh. (85) *tuxl; Samm. *tuxl

342

: *o,
*u ( I.2.6.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *tuppa > *tupp ', ', UEW,

800.
. tuppaa- ', '
. topavte- (E), topafto- (M) ', , ', Paasonen 1996, 2322
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *turpa > *turpa ', ', UEW, 801.

. turpa ''
. turva torva (EM), trva (M) 'Lippe', Paasonen 1996, 2354.
. . trv; (CU, CK) trw; . (Ch) trw; .
(B) trw; . (M) trw, (MK) trw; (UJ) trw,

343

(UP) trwy; (P) trw; . (V) trw; . (JT) trw,


(JO) trw; . trvy; . trw; . *trw;
Bereczki 1992, 80.
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.), : *o, *u ,
( III.5)
UEW *ulke > *ulk , UEW, 543.

. ulku (.) ', '


. *olke (Lehtiranta 803) hol'ga^ -lg- (N) 'horizontally placed bar
or pole (for hanging or as a support)', hal'ka (L) 'Stange ohne Ast
od. Gabelung; Trockengestell', olk (T) 'horizontale Stange zum
Aufhngen der Kleider od. Netze', olk-sujn (Kld.) 'Rohr'
. olga, . olgn (M) '', Paasonen 1994, 1443
Janh. (53) *ul, *ulki ; Samm. *ul, *ulki
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
:
( III.2.)

344

UEW *urma (rma) > *urma ' -

', UEW, 805.


. urm (. urma) ''
. orbmes, urbmes 'culicum species', ur`mas (L) 'Tiere, die "Unfrieden" verursachen (Br, Wolf, Vielfra; nicht "Mcke"); kleine
fliegende Insekten verschiedener Art (die im Sommer beunruhigen),
uirm (Kld. Not. A) 'Pocke, Blatter', urme (Kld.), urme (Ko. Not.)
'Larve der Rentierbremse (im Rcken unter dem Fell des Rentieres)'
. orma (E), urma (M:P) ', , ', Paasonen
1994, 1459
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *utare > *utar '', UEW, 806.

. udar (. utaren), . utare, utara, utaro ''


. udar (. udara, oara)
. odar (E, M), Paasonen 1994, 1424
. . waar, . woar
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (

345

III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *waka > *waka '', UEW, 548.

. vatkaa-, vtk- ' '


. vaka- (E), vatka- (M) '', Paasonen 1996, 2503
. . wakalt- (2) ' '
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *waja > *waja '', UEW, 551.

. vajoa- ''
. vaju- ', '
. vuoggjo- -j- (N) 'sink, go to the bottom; penetrate', vuodjo- (L)
'sinken', oajeuitte- (Kld.) 'zu sinken anfangen'
. vaja- (E), vaja- (M) '', Paasonen 1996, 2511
Samm. *waja : ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (

346

III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *wakka > *wakka '- : ,

.. ', UEW, 811.


. vakka ', '
. vakk 'hlzernes Gef, Paudel, Korb; Scheffel; Brautkasten'
. vakan (E) '', Paasonen 1996, 2512
: ( I.1.)
: *a-
,
*a- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *wala > *wal '', UEW, 812.

. vala ''
. vuoll (L) '"ein Jojker" (lappischer Melodiesatz)'
. val (E, M), Paasonen 1996, 2514
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

347

UEW *walka > *walk '', UEW, 554.

. valka, valkama ', ', valka- ', '


. valgu- ', ', valgma 'Stelle am Ufer, wo die
Boote ans Land gezogen werden'
. *vlk (Lehtiranta 1434) vuol'ge- -lg- 'go (leave), start, depart'
(N), vuol'k (L) 'sich fortbegeben, abfahren', viilke- (T), vilke(Kld.), vuoilke- (Not.), vuilke- (A) 'sich begeben; zukommen'
. valgo- (E), valg- (M), Paasonen 1996, 2522
. . wale-, . wole- ', '
Samm. *wlka : ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *wasa > *was ', ', UEW, 814.

. vasa '', vasikka ''


. vasik, vasikas (. vasika)
. *vs (Lehtiranta 1466) vyesi (I), viisse (T), viss (Kld.), vuaiss
(Not.) 'kleines Rentierkalb, bis es um den Peterstag neues Haar bekommt'
. vaz (E, M) . vazn (M), vazne (E), vazn (M) '',
Paasonen 1996, 2569
: ( I.1.)
: *-

348

,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *wasta > *wast ' () ', UEW,

815.
. vasta-kohta ', ', vasta-ranta ' ', vasta (adv.) ', ', vastaan (postp.)
''
. vast 'erst, nur erst, eben noch, so eben', vasta, vastas, vastu (adv.,
prep., postp.) 'gegenber, gegen, entgegen', vasta- 'antworten; entgegenkommen' ?
. *vst (Lehtiranta 1471) vuost vust (N) 'first; for the present,
still, yet', vuos'ta 'against', vuos'te -st- 'wind or weather which goes
in the opposite direction to that in which someone is travelling',
vuost(i) (L) 'entgegen, in Richtung gegen', vuost (L) 'gegen, gerade zu', viste (T) 'das entgegen od. gegenber belegene', vist (T)
(prep.) 'gegenber, neben', vist (A) 'erst', vista (T), vusta (K),
vuasta (Not.), vosta (A) 'entgegen, gegen' ?
. vasta (M) , ?, Paasonen 1996, 2558
. ., . watare, wotare ''
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

349

UEW *wasara > *wasra (?)'', UEW, 815.

. vasara ''
. vasar (. vasara)
. *vcr (Lehtiranta 1367) ver ver -- (N), viehtjr
vhtjr, miehtjr (L), vieer (T Kld.), vieher (Not.)
. uzer vizir, *uzr / *uzer (M), Paasonen 1996, 2498.
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *w > *w '', UEW, 818.

. vh ', ', vhn ''


. vhe (. vha, vh) 'wenig, etwas, ein wenig', vhene (.
vhese) 'klein, gering, wenig'
. *vs (Lehtiranta 1362)
. veka vika (E), vik (M:Katm) '', Paasonen 1996,
2639
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

350

UEW *wera > *wera ', ', UEW,

820.
. verha (.) 'Schirm, Decke; Krperbedeckung, Kleid', verho
''
. vo~ru ', ', (.) varu, vahru 'Ring, Holzband' ?
. orta- (E), ta- (M), urta- (M), Paasonen 1996, 1463
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
UEW *wen > *wen ' , ',

UEW, 821.
. vehn ''
. vi (E) vi . vien (M) '', Paasonen 1996, 2666
. wit, wiste, wiste, wiste
''
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)
351

UEW *wet > *wet ', ', UEW, 563.

. vet- ''
. veda- ', '
. veta- veda- viti- (E), vt- (M), Paasonen 1996, 2633
. . wie-, . we- '; '
Samm. *wet :
( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *wil (*wl) > *wl ' ',

UEW, 573.
. yl '', yli '', ylen '', yll '', ylle '', yls
', '
. la- 'Ober-', lal 'oben', li (. le) 'Oberes', les 'hinauf'
. *el (Lehtiranta, 8) jilli (S) 'Westen', a^llen (N) 'high, from
high up', a^las 'high up', a^lde, a^l 'upon, over'; all- (L) 'West-', alln
'im Westen', alls 'gegen Westen, westlich'; al, ali, l (T Kld.), iln
(A) 'auf, an; von, ab', ali (T), l, l (A) 'auf, an'
. velks (E), velks (M) , velde (E) ', ',
veld (veld-) (M) ', ', Paasonen 1996, 2605.
. wl-n '', wk, wln ', ',
wl-n ''
:
( I.1.)
: *-
,
352

* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *wilw > *wlw '', UEW, 822.

. va^l've -lv- (N) 'pack of wolves; pack of dogs; troop of people',


val'v (L), vailve (T) 'Haufe, Rudel (von Wlfen)'
. vele, vl (E), vel (M) ', , ', Paasonen
1996, 2613
. . -wl, -bl-, -bl, . -wlak, -blak, -plak, -blak, -plak
. . . ( )
:
*e
e/(), - , * (
I.2.3)
: *-
,
*- ( II.1.)
: (
III.1.), ( III.2.)

UEW *wina > *win ', ', UEW, 822.

. vino (. vina) ', '


a
. *ven (Lehtiranta 1332) vanjal, vadnjal 'obliquus', vannaij (K,
T) 'schrge'
. venaa, venua (E) ', ', Paasonen 1996, 2621
: ( I.1.)

353

: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

UEW *wia > *wi ' (> , ) ',

UEW, 823.
. viha '', krmeen viha 'virus serpentis', vihaa- '', vihainen '', vihanta ', ',vihava
', ', viheri, vihre ''
. viha ', '
. *ve (Lehtiranta 1340)
. oo (E), o (M) , Paasonen 1994, 1492
. . ar, ar, . uar ''
Samm. *via
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
*- ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)
UEW *woa > *wo ', ,

', UEW, 577.


. otava, . otama ' '; ? ota ', '
. rootsi oda 'Orionsgrtel, die drei hellen Sterne im Adler', suur
odav, odamus (. odamuse) 'der Groe Br', rootsi odamus 'Orionsgrtel, der kleine Br'; ? oda 'Speer, Lanze, Spie', odav 'spitz zulaufend', oda- 'stechen, anstechen'
354

. *c (Lehtiranta 816) oacce -- (N) 'a barrier, esp. a barrier


which hinders reindeer or other animals from going too far or getting
lost', oac'cai (N) 'who/which easily settles or quiets down, steady',
oaes -ccas- (N) 'barrier (of netting or small birch trees) across a
river, used when fishng with drift-nets', hts (L) 'Schutz; Uberwachung, Oberaufsicht'
. o (E, M) '', Paasonen 1994, 1472
Janh. (14) woa; Samm. *woa
: ( I.1.)
: *-
,
* - ( II.2.)
:
( III.2.)

10
- . ,
-
.
10

V-a 65
V- 66

V-a 33
V- 41

355

C
1928-1950 .. .

, 1928-1950.
1937 .. . //
3. , 1937.
1953 ..
. , 1953.
1973 .-. -
- *-. // -. , 1973, 2.
1964 (1) ..
. //
. NII, 18, -, 1964.
1964 (2) ..
. -, 1964.
1966 ..
-. // 2, 1966.
1970 .. (
) . 1970.
1961 ..
. // . ., 1961.
1972 .. . // -
. , 1972: (12-14 ). ., 1972.
1973 .. -
. // . 1973. . ., 1973.
1979 .. -
. (
.. ) // : . ., 1979.
356

1980 .. -
. - . // . .,
1980
1981 .. . . ., 1981.
1983 .. (
-)
? [.I] //
. ., 1987.
1989 .. 1989. . //
- . ., 1989.
1990 .., .., ..
. ., 1990.
2000 .. . . I. ., 2000.
2003 .. -
. // . (1899-1968). , 2003.
2005 .. ..
. //
. .. . ., 2005.
2007 ..
. . ., 2007.
1964 .. . , 1964.
2002 .. - -
. ., 2002.
1997 .. - : . . . ... .-
. . ., 1997.

357

2006 ..
.
. , 2006.
2006 .. . , 2006.
- 1971 - .. (, , , , , ): . . / . . , 1971.
1980 ..
. //
. -, 1980.
1948 ..
- . //
. , 1948, . 2, . 38-41.
1964 ..
. ., 1964.
1965 ..
. // Beitrge zur Sprachwissenschaft, Volkskunde und Literaturforschung. Berlin, 1965, s. 257-265.
1970 ..
- . // ALH, 1970, 4, s. 245-263.
1970 .. - . // , 1970, 3, . 221-238.
2005 .. ( ). . . . . ,
2005.
1936 .. ()
. , 1936.
1987 .. - . . ... .
. . , 1987.
1989 .. . , 1989.
. ..
. . ... . . . ., 1994.

358

1979
- . // -: . , 1979, . 2.
1988 .. . //
. , 1988.
2006 ..
. // , , 2006.
2008 (1) .. (, , , , , ). // III. ., 2008.
2008 (2) ..
. //
. ., 2008, 6.
1976 - . , . ., 1976.
1997 ( )
. . ... . . . ., 1997.
1964 .. -
. // - . .,., 1964,
. 59-67.
1967 .. . ., 1967.
1967 .. . //
. ., 1990.
, , 1989
.., .., .. - .
., 1989.
1997 - : . ., 1997.
2002 - . . ., 2002.
359

2006 - . -. . ., 2006.
1993 . . , 1993.
1961
. . -, 1961.
1962 , .2. . ., 1962.
1987 ..
. // ..
. ., 1987.
1968 .. -
. , 1968.
1996 .. . 2 . , 1996.
1974 .. - . // Acta Linguistica Hungarica. Budapest, 1974, p.137-141.
1953 .
. ., 1953.
1976 .. - . //
-. , 1974, 3.
1977 .. . // Nyelvtud. Kzlem., Budapest, 1977, 1/2.
1978 .. . // , 23-25 1978 . .,
1978.
1979 .. , .
// Balcanica; . ., 1979.
2000 .. , . . ., 2000.
1980 ..
. // -:
360

. ,
1979, . 2.
2000 .. . //
-. , 2000.
1910 ..
. ., 1910.
..
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,, , / . .
.., ... ., 1989;
.
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.
.
.
.
.-.
.-.
Orkh.
OUygh. -
Yenis.
.
.
.
MK The dictionary of Mahmd Kar (. EDT)
KB Karakhanide Turkic according to Qutadu Bilig (. EDT)
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. .
.
B -
BJ
BJp
.
Ch
ChN
.
JO
JT
.
M
MK
MM
.
P
.
UJ
UP
366

US
USj
.
.
. (-)
CCh
CK
CU
.
KA
KJ
KK

KN
KSh
.
E
E:Atr

E:Kad

E:Kal
E:Mar

M
M:emb
M:Katm
M:MdJurtk - -
M:P , ( )
M:Prol
M:P

M:Sel -

M:Ur

367

. , Bereczki
1992, 1994


.


.
.
I
L
N -
Pit
.

.
.
.
-
.
-
.
-

.
. ., .
.

gen.
intr.
Pl
Sg
tr.

368


.. 3
7
I.
.. 27
II.

.... 59
II.1.

.... 59
II.2. III
... 76
III.
...... 86
III.1.

? .....86
III.2. ... 133
III.3. -
-
..............................................162
IV.
. 180
..... 225
, . 225
- .........229
..............................356
366

369

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372