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:
. 451

WP10/2007/06
WP10


2007

347.4
67.404.2
30

WP10

.. , ..
30

.. : . 451
: WP10/2007/06. .: ,
2007. 60 c.
-
/
.
, ,
.
. 451 ( commercial impracticability, frustration of purpose,
reformation of contracts) ,
,
, (. 4 . 451 ).
347.4
67.404.2
Petrishev V.S. Fundamental Change of Circumstances: the Practice of Application of the Artic
le 451 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and the Legal Experience of the Common and Continental Law Countries: Working paper WP10/2007/06. oscow: State University Higher School
of Economics, 2007. 60 p.
The author generalizes and analyzes the eight-year (state) arbitrazh court rulings on the matter of
adaptation and cancellation of a contract as a result of a fundamental change of circumstances.
The article contains a list of typical and atypical cases of the occurrence of a fundamental change
of circumstances, as well as facts and events which surely are not held as a fundamental change of circumstances by the courts.
The comparison of the Russian practice of application of the article 451 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation with the analogous practice of the USA, Great Britain (the doctrines of commercial impracticability, frustration of purpose, reformation of contract) and French, Germany (the doctrines of
(wirtschaftlich Unmglichkeit, Wegfall der Geschftsgrundlage, imprvision) has shown that as far as the
question of cancellation of contracts is concerned, Russia in general follows the way of the court rulings
of the mentioned countries. The Russian practice is however in sharp contrast with the foreign experience
as well as with the exact sense of law (Item4 of the Article 451 of the Civil Code of Russian Federation)
on the matter of the adaptation of a contract.

. ...................................................................4
I. . 451 ...............................7
II.
.............................................................................. 11
III.
............................................... 12
IV. Hardship ( )............................. 16
V.
. ........................................... 20
VI.
................................................................................ 33
VII.
. 451 .......................................... 43
................................................................................................... 44
1................................................................................................ 46
2................................................................................................ 47
3................................................................................................ 49
....................................................................................... 50
.............................................................................. 53

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best risk bearer ( )
.: Gordley J. Impossibility and Changed and Unforeseen Circumstances // The
American Journal of Comparative Law. 2004. Vol. LII. Summer. No. 3. P. 524.

24

25

:
,
, ,
, best risk bearer ,
best risk bearer.
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1. , Mineral Park Land Co. v. Howard (1916), .
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Hein v. Fox (1953) , , ()
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( , ; 42.
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:
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( 9.11. 2001 . 28-2733/01-89/19)
3. ,
. Selland PontiacGMC, Inc. v. King (1986)44.

41
Posner R.A.; Rosenfield A.M. Impossibility and Related Doctrines in Contract Law: An
Economic Analysis // The Journal of Legal Studies. 1977. Vol. 6. No. 1. P. 83118 (http://www.links.
jstor.org).

42
Laclede Gas Co. v. Amoco Oil Co. (1977)
VIII .
, . , Transatlantic
Financing Corp v. Unted States (1966) // ., . : 2 . . 2. . 277.
43
Teleworking Brings Office Home. 2004. September. No. 9. (www.uscourts.gov). . 1, 1, . , .
44
Emanue S.L. Op. cit. P. 412.

26

27

, .
, , , .
, commercial impracticality
Davis Corporation Ltd v. Fareham Urban District Council (1956)
23%
, , .
commercial impracticality ,
45.
, Ocean Tramp Tanker Corp. v. V/O Softracht (1964)
,
, . Trakiglou
& Co. Ltd v. Noblee Thort GmbH (1962).
, ( , ) .
1) ? // Condor v. Barron Knigbts Ltd (1966), Markball
v. Harland and Wolff Ltd (1972).
2) , ? // Metropolitan
Water Board v. Disr, Kerr & Co. (1918), Cbakki v. United Yeast Co. Ltd (1982).
3) ,
? // Krell v. Henry (1903).
4)
? // Davis Corporation Ltd v. Fareham Urban District Council
(1956).
5) , ? // Hirji Mulji v. Cheong Yue Stesmship Co. (1926)46.

4. , .
.. ,
47.
. 451 .
(frustration of purpose)48
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1. , , .
2.
frustration of purpose.
3. , 49.
frustration of purpose .
, : . .
, , .
,
50.

Lloyd v. Murphy (1947).

47

Treiter G.H. Frustration and Force Majeure. 2nd ed. Sweet & Maxwell, 2004. Para 6-025.
Chandler A., Brown I. Law of Contract. Questions & Answers. 2007 and 2008. Oxford2007.
P. 202203.

.. . .
impracticability ( ) frustration of
purpose ( ) , , // .., .. . . .: , 1988. . 124.
49
. : . 2- ., . . .: , 2002. . 285.
50
., . . . . 279.

28

29

45
46

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Stratford v. Seattle Brewing & Malting Co. (1916), , . [ .] , ,
52.
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VII.
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,
frustration of purpose.
54. ,
:
51
. . . 3: . . .:
, 2006. . 650561.
52
Posner R.A., Rosenfield A.M. Op. cit.
53
: Krell v. Henry (1903, ), Herne Bay
Steamboat Co v. Hutton (1903,
, ), Chandler v. Webster
(1904, , ), Blakely
v. Muller (1903), Hobson v. Pattenden (1903), Clark v. Lindsay (1903), Victoria Seats Agency v. Paget
(1903), Fenton v. Victoria Seats Agency (1903),
// Applebey G. Contract Law. L.: Sweet & Maxwell, 2001. P. 392395.
54
17 2005 . -41/7002-05 (. 2,
), 27 2004. 54-194/04-7
54-195/04-9 ( , ).

30

, ,
, . . 14 .

, , .
( 17.08.2005 . -41/7002-05)
, ,
55.
(reformation of contracts)

, .
, ,
, .

56.
, , ; ( )
ALCOA v. Essex Group (1980). , (75 .);
57.
Snipes Mountain Co. v. Benz Bros. & (1931) Paymaster Oil Mill Co. v.
Mitchell (1975) , , -

55

9 2007 . 19-20920/06-31-02-1718/2007.
. . . . 561. ,
//
Teleworking Brings Office Home. 2004. No. 9. September (http://www.uscourts.gov).
57
. . . . 561; . Emanue S. L. Op. cit. P. 417.
56

31

, ( )58. .
,
reformation of contracts.
. 4 . 451 ,
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275 BGB, , , , ,
61

Posner R.A., Rosenfield A.M. Op. cit. P. 107.


: .., .. .
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( ..).
60
, . : 03.05.2007 . 09-1978/07-6.

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( 15 1999 .) , , -

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66

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;
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: ,
, , (
) , ;

.
(tribunaux administratifs) , 1916 . imprevision. 30 1916 . ( Gaz de Bordeaux) - ,
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75.
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1982 . , , , , 76.
, imprevision imprevision 77.

. ,
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39

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WP10/2007/06
WP10

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