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1. .

.
2.
3.
4.
4.1.
4.1.1.
4.1.2.
4.1.3.
4.1.4.
4.2.
4.2.1.
4.2.2. -

4
7
8
9
13
13
13
15
17
18
20
20
22

4.2.3.
4.2.4.
4.3.
5.
5.1.
5.2.
6.
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
7.
7.1.
7.2.

24
25
27
29
30
32
34
34
34
36
37
40
40
40

7.3.
7.4.
7.5.

42
42
43


7.6.
8.
8.1.
8.2.
8.3.
8.4.

44
45
45
46
48
48
2

9.
9.1.
9.2.
9.3.
9.4.

49
49
49
52
53
54
55
56

.
(, .
.).
, , , .
,
,
. ,
,
, .

, , .

.
.
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.

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,
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,
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4

, ,
, .
,
,
, .

, (,
) .
,
.
,
,
.
,

.
, ,
,
,
(, ).
, ,
,
. ,
- ,
, ,
,
.
5

, , ,

.
,
,
, .
,
, . ,
.

1. . .
,
.
, ,
.

,

, .
:
- .
, y = f(x),
y = f(x).
- .
F(x, y) = 0,
F(x, y) = 0
- .

-

-
:


= (t ), = (t ), t ( a, b).

2. .
.
.
2-
. , , .
.
1718 3 4
, , . 72 3-
. , ,
16 .
4- ,
146 .
,
,
, , , 2- ,
, .
,
( ,
. .), ,
,
.

3. .
,
,
.
.

.
.

xOy

F ( x, y ) = 0

- ,

F ( x, y ) -

:
F ( x, y ) =

p +q =0

pq

x p yq

, ,
;
.

: 2- ;
3- ; 4- ..
.
, ,
, , , ,
, .
.
.
3- .
3- ,

.

(1704 .)
3-
Ax 3 + 3Bx 2 y + 3Cxy 2 + Dy 3 + 3Ex 2 + 6 Fxy + 3Gy 2 + Hx + Iy + K = 0

:
A.

xy 2 + ey = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d

B.

xy = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d

C.

y 2 = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d

D.

y = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d


4- ( 3-) :
1
ax 4 + bx 3 + cx 2 + dx + e 2 = 0
4

ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0 ,

. ,

3- 7 , 14 , 72 .
, ,
:
- ( > 0),
- ( < 0),
- ( = 0, b 0 ),
- ( = b = 0).
:
- ( e 0 ),
- ( e = 0, b 2
- ( e = 0, b 2

4ac ),

= 4ac ),

- ,
( b = 0). .

: ( e 0 ) ( = 0).

10

:
( > 0), ( < 0) ( = 0).
, , , D,
:
, ( )

, ,
.
; ,
(1869 .) , .
. .

3- . (1835 .),
3-
.
(1748 .) 3- 16
5 = 0,
.
(1866 .) 3-

.
(1887 .), ,
: .
4- .
4- ,
, 3- .

(1792), 12 ,
84551 .
11

,
,

4-

:
1) , ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) ;
6) ;
7) ;
8) ;
9) .
152
.

, .
4 :
1) , ;
2) ;
3) , , ..
;
4) ,
4- .
.

5-

, ,
, 12
(1750).
6-
. ,
- .
12

4. .

, , ,
.. .

: ;
- ,
.
, ,
, ( )
( ).
4.1 .
4.1.1 .
, ,
, ,
( 1).

1 ) , )
.
13

S , MN -
( 1);
EF ;

S1;
GH ;
S1.
.
,
.
, ,
,
(, ) ( 2).

2
, t
.
x = OP-SP = OP-MN,
OP = MP = at
MN = asint

= at asint
y = MS = CP CN,
CP = a CN = acost,
= a acost
14

x =a(t sint)
= (1cost)

t
.
x = r arccos

ry
2ry y 2
r

+ ,
.

.
4.1.2 .
.
. ,
,
t
t
2 sin cos
dy
a sin t
2
2 = ctg t = tg ( t )
tg =
=
=
t
dx a a cos t
2
2 2
2 sin 2
2

2 2

, KN,
N ,
NKP =

t
2

, ,
( 3).

15

3 .
MP NK, , , MP
( 3).
,
,
, .

. ,
:
,
.
, .

S=

2a

dx 2 + dy 2 =

2a sin 2 dt = 8a
0


( ).
, (
):
U =

2a

2
2
ydx = a (1 cos t ) dt = 3a

16

. , ,
.
4.1.3 .

4 .
:
1. 12,
r, (2r);
2. r,
;
3. 12 ,
12;
4. 1, 2, ..., 12
;
5. 1, 2, ..., 12
, r;
6. 1, 2, ..., 12 .

17

4.1.4 .

, -
: .
,
.
:
,
( 5),
?
,
,
. , ;
, , .
, , ,
, , , ,
, .
,
, ,
; ,
. , , -,
, .

5 .

18

(15641642) ,
.

,
( , 6).

6 .
,
,
. ,

( ) .
, ,
: ,
. ,
. , ,
.
.
, ,
,
.
,

.

19

4.2 .
4.2.1 .

.
,
( ) ( ).
( ) ,
,
( ).
,

,
, .

.
.

r ,

R -

( 7). ,
M

A ,

.
A . t
MO1 K

O1

O M .
m :
m=

r
, r = mR
R


, AK KM :

AK = MK

R KOA = rt

20

7 .

KOA =

r
t = mt .
R

x, y.
.. OD = OO1 cos mt = (OK + KO1 ) cos mt = ( R + r ) cos mt ;
ME = O1 M sin MO1 E = r sin(t OO1 D ) = r sin(t (

mt )) = r sin((t + mt )

)=

= r cos(t + mt )

O1 D = OO1 sin mt = ( R + r ) sin mt ;


O1 E = O1 M cos MO1 E = r cos(t OO1 D ) = r cos(t (

mt )) = r cos((t + mt )

)=

r sin(t + mt );

.. r = mR x = OP = OD + ME , y = MP = O1 D O1 E ,

x = ( R + mR) cos mt mR cos(t + mt )

y = ( R + mR) sin mt mR sin(t + mt )


.
x y
( ).

x = ( R mR) cos mt + mR cos(t mt )

y = ( R mR) sin mt mR sin(t mt )


21

m ; :

x = ( R mR) cos mt + mR cos(t mt )

y = [( R mR) sin mt mR sin(t mt )]

, ,
, . ,
,
.

x = ( R + mR) cos mt mR cos(t + mt )

y = ( R + mR) sin mt mR sin(t + mt )


, m
, , , ,
r = mR
.

;
- m > 0 ,
- m < 0 .
,
r <R

m <1

m , ,

,
;
, , . ,
, .
22

4.2.2 - m .
m - ,

p
q

, ,

( 8, 9),
q ,
; q
, q
q (

8 .

9 .
m<

1
;
2

m>

).

1
2

q q

p =1 ,

, ;

p 1

p 1

, ,
.

23

m=

1
2

,
.

,
, ;
.
4.2.3 .

( 10):
1. r
R , ;
2. 12 ,
1, 2, ... 12;
3. 0
000=R+r;
4. a a =360r/R.
5. , a, 12
, 11, 21, ...121;
6. 0 11, 21, ...121
01, 02, ...012;
7. 0 1,
2, ... 12 ;
8. 01, 02, ...012, , r
1, 2, ... 12,
.

24

10 .

4.2.4

( 11):
1.

R , ;
2.

12 ,

1, 2, ... 12;
3.

000=R-r;
4.

a a =360r/R.

25

5.

, a, 12

, 11, 21, ...121;


6.

0 11, 21, ...121

01, 02, ...012;


7.

0 1,

2, ... 12 ;
8.

01, 02, ...012, , r

1, 2, ... 12,
.

11 .

26

4.3 .
,
12. : rw1 rw2 -
, rv1 rv2 - ,
,
.

12 .

27

1 ,
/ . 2
/ , - .
/ rv1
rw1 rw2 . /
rv2
rw1 rw2.


; , ,
;
, ;
.

28

5. .

m=

1
.
4

r ,
, , R .
,

x =

y=

m=

1
:
4

3
t 1
3t
R cos + R cos
4
4 4
4
;
3
t 1
3t
R sin R sin
4
4 4
4

t - ( 13)

13 .
t , :
29

( x 2 + y 2 R 2 ) 3 + 27 R 2 x 2 y 2 = 0 ,

, 6- .
:

3 t
x
=
R
cos

y = R sin 3 t

4
t , :
2
3

2
3

x +y =R

2
3

5.1

:
RK =

3
t
R sin
2
2

(t)
:
S=

3
R,
2

3
t
R sin 2
2
4

6 R ;

, ,

3
R 2
8

32
R 3
105

12
R 2
5

.
,
.
,
ND = R ( 14), ND
30

x sin y cos + R sin cos = 0

, :
x cos + y sin R sin 2 + R cos 2 = 0

x3 + y3 = R3 ,

.. .

14 .
ND
. R
, , r, ,
.
N

. ,
.

. ODCN,
, ,
, R, .
, DN,
,
31

,
.
.

x sin y cos + R sin cos = 0

ND, . .

,
, .
, ,
x cos + y sin + R sin cos = 0


R 2 ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 = 2( x 2 + y 2 ) 2

R
cos 2 ,
2

.
, ,
, .
:
, ,
.
5.2 .
x = a cos t , y = b sin t , a b > 0

:
x = a sin t , y = b cos t , x = a cos t , y = b sin t

1 ( a 2 sin 2 t + b 2 cos 2 t ) 2 (a 2 sin 2 t + b 2 cos 2 t ) 2


R= =
=
k
ab
ab sin 2 t + ab cos 2 t

32

15 .

= a cos t b cos t
= b sin t a sin t

a 2 sin 2 t + b 2 cos 2 t a 2 b 2
=
cos 3 t
ab
a

a 2 sin 2 t + b 2 cos 2 t b 2 a 2
=
sin 3 t
ab
b

t (
2/3 ),
2

(a ) 3 + (b ) 3 = (a 2 b 2 ) 3

( 15)

33

6. .
,
. (150. ..)
( ).
6.1 .
:
=2 (
16). , ,
= ;
.
, . .

16 .
6.2 .
:
, :
= OM = OB OC

OC = 2a cos

OB =

2a
cos

2a
2a sin 2
2a cos =
cos
cos

34

:
=

2a sin 2
cos

:

, . :
= x2 + y2

sin =

y
x +y
2

cos =

x
x + y2
2

,
x, y,
:
y2 =

x3
2a x

.
,
.
:
,
y=

x
t

, ,
:

x
=
t 2 + 1

y= a
t (t 2 + 1)
.
, ,
.
6.3 .
35

1. , ,
, .
2. 0 2 0 ,
.
3. ,
- .
> 2, .
4. ,
=2, , 2 , , , =2
.
5. 1- .
6. .
. y = 2px .
(, )

px y + /2 = 0,

,
,

y=-

x;

x = - 2( p2+ 2 ) ,
y=

3
2( p2 + 2 )

,
y 2 =

x3
2p+ x

.
7. , ,
;
36

U = 3a 2

V ,
.

V = U 2 (2a x c ) = 3a 2 2 (2a

5a
) = 2 2 a 3
3

,
. , ,
, ,
.
.


x

S = a
0

z=

1
2a x

8a 3 x
a 3 ( z 3) (2 + 3)
dx = a ( z 2) +
ln
2a x
2
( z + 3 )(2 3 )

4a 3 x
ax

6.4 .

. , ,
, : ,
;
, , .
,
. ,
,
, (),

,
37

, , ,
, .

17 .

, 3 .
, ,
.
b , ; = 2b ,
, = b 3 2 ,
.


y
y
( )3 =
x
2a x

y
=k
x

AD = 2ak ,

y
2a x

= k.

38

,
(2, 0) = 2k.
= 1/2 = 2,
(1, 0),

, D 3 2 .
,
.
, ,
.
17 .
,
,
.

:
.

39

7. .
7.1 .
(150 . .
.).
:
LL1 ,
OE =a

( 18). , LL 1 .

, , 1,
,

KM = KM 1 = l

, l . (

0 180) ( l),
, 1.

18 l a: ) l < a , ) l = a , ) l < a
.
. LL1 .
: ,
1.
7.2 .
.

;
LL1 ; ,
, - (
).
40

.

( 1 , ) ,

1 = OM 1

( , ) ,

= OM

, 1

( , l < a ) ,
= OK +l

1 = OK l .

OK =

a
sin ,

a
a
+ l ; 1 =
l .
sin
sin

:
=

a
l
sin

+ - , - -
.
.
l a.
( 18).
,
, ,

sin

x, y.

M ( x, y )

. ;
S LL 1.
S

OM =

OM / MK = MP / MS

x 2 + y 2 , MK = l , MP = y , MS = y a ,

:
x2 + y2
y
=
l
y a

( y a ) x 2 + y 2 = ly; ( y a ) 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) = y 2

( x 2 + y 2 )( y a ) 2 l 2 y 2 = 0


;
.
41

7.3 .
- : (0; +l) (0; - l)
;
- =0, =0.
, (0,0) ;
.
- l<a ( 18) (
); l=a ( 18)
x=0; l>a ( 18)
. ( ).
, LL1 :

.
,
lim MP = lim y = lim sin = lim(
0

a
l ) sin = lim( a l sin ) = a
0
sin

lim MP = lim y = a

7.4 .
(.. )
(. 410-485).

, . III II .
.. ,
.
XVII XVIII .

. , ,
, .

.
42

7.5 .
.

OC =l

l . ,
. ,
, .
. ,

1
MOK = .
3

N,

MN =l

).

OC = CM =l

MN =l

, CMN OCM

. :
MCN = MNC

, COM = CMO , CMO = 2CNM (

CMN),
CNM = MOK ,

= COM + MOK = 2CNM + MOK = 2MOK + MOK = 3MOK

= 3MOK .

19 .
7.6 .
3 .

43


. ,
( 1)
.

.
.
, .

= -10 -30. 3
,
.
.

.
,
, ,
. ,
.
, 1 2,
P
. 1 2 ,
,
, , ,
. ,

,
1 2 P, , .
8 .
8.1 .
44

:
x 3 + y 3 3axy = 0

,
y=tx, , :

3at
x = 1 + t 3

2
y = 3at
1 + t 3
, .

=

2a cos sin
cos 3 + sin 3

,
, =.
,
.
,
, , ,
.
3 = 0, = 0 = 0
. ,
,
. , ,
=

N(

3
3
a, a )
2
2

( 20).

,
, M 1 (a 3 2 , a 3 4 ) M 2 (a 3 4 , a 3 2 ) .

y = kx + b .

45

20 .
kx + b
.
1 + k 3 = 0 3k 2 b 3ak = 0 , k = 1 b = a .
, y = x a ; ,
2- 4- .
8.2 .
l,
:
1. AO = l - GH,
AO;
2. AA OE, OA,
A, E GH;
3. , OA OF = 3OA
FE.
4. :
- O ON N,
, NQ|| AA;
- Q, NQ OF, A
K, QA FE;
46

- AK GH Q;
- , OA OP,
AQ;
- M1M2, P AA,
ON M1. ( M2,
AO), .
N, O, A
, M1 LOCABOI.

.

21 .

47

8.3 .
, ,
,
.
, 3- ,
.
8.4
.
x 3 + y 3 3axy = 0

: 20.

x = cos ; y = sin .

3 cos 3 + 3 sin 3 3a 2 cos sin = 0 ,

2 ,

3a cos sin
.
cos 3 sin 3

0 / 2 ,

S=

1
2

/2

2 d =

9a 2
2

/2

sin 2 cos 2
d.
(sin 3 + cos 3 ) 2

tg = t ; ( d) / cos 2 = dt ; = 0 t = 0, = / 2

t = .

,
S=

9a 2
2

t 2 dt
9a 2
=
0 (1 + t 3 ) 2 2

t 2 dt

lim (1 + t )
A 0

3 2

3a 2
2

3
1
= a2.
lim
3

2
A 1 + t 0

48

9. .
9.1 .

F
F1 .

,
( 22).

22 .
F F1 -
-, MFMF1 = a,
( x a) 2 + y 2

( x + a) 2 + y 2 = a 2

( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 2a 2 ( x 2 y 2 ) = 0 .

, :
2 = 2a 2 cos 2 .

,
,
, m = 2 .
9.2 .
- ,
, /2
y = x.
49

- .
-

Aa

2 ,0

=0 =a 2 ,

A1 a 2 ,0

..

).

- .
- ,
- ,

m +

;
2

2 + 2 ;

- , ,
,
, 2.
- , ,
, ,
.
- , ,
, ,
.
-
N =

..

2 + '2 =

cos 2 ,

R=

1
N
3

R=

3 cos 2 .

, ..

.
-
-
2 =

4a 2
cos 2 .
9

-
S = 3

dR
(

3
R ) 4 1
a

50

2 = 2a 2 cos 2

-
2 = 2a 2 cos 2 ,

.. .

- ,
.
-
,
( 23).

23 .
- -

.
- -,
:

1
a2
2
2
U = d = a cos 2d =
sin 2
20
2
0

= 4 :
U =
4

a2 1
= (a 2 ) 2
2
4

.. , ,

a 2.

- , -
- , .
51

- , 1 = 0
2 = , :

S = 2 + ' 2 d = a

d
cos 2

= a
0

d
1 2 sin 2

(
S ==

1
1 sin 2
2

a
2

F(

1
2

2 sin 2 = sin 2 ):

, )

= 4 ,
2 sin 2 =1

, , = 2 .


1-
S ==

1
1 sin 2
2

a
2

K(

1
2

).

9.3 .
,
- ,

2 cos ,

; ,

2 = a 2 (2 cos 2 1) .


( 24):
- O = 1 = ;
- OB = a;
- ,

AB = a 2 ,

- ( /4) N1ON;
- N ND;
- A , OD, OB C.

52

OC 2 = AC 2 OA 2 = OD 2 OA 2 = (ON cos ) 2 OA 2 = (a 2 cos ) 2 a 2 ,

, OC -
, .

24 .
, OC, N1ON
1 2. .
N1ON ,

. .
9.4 .
,

.

, ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
, , ,
,
.
, 45.
53


, ,
, .
, ,
.

.
.

,
, ,
,
, , ,
.

54


1. .., . .: , 1954.
2. .., 3- . - , 1911.
3. .., .., . .: . ., 1985.
4. .., . - . ., 1949.
5. . ., , 2 ., ., 1968.
6. .., , 3- ., ., - .: ,
1978.
7. .., ; , - .,
2000.
8. .., . , ,
( ). / . .. . - .: , 1960.
9. .., ..,
. .: , 1961.
10. . , . - ., 1951.
11. .., - ..
. .
.:, 1997.
12. . , , .: , 1949

55


3-

56