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.., .., ..

,
.., ..

,
.

,
[ ]: / .., ..,
.., .., ... . . . (1,2 ).
.: - , 2003.
: http://anubis.bsu.by/publications/elresources/Chemistry/bogatikov.pdf .
. . , 2002. PDF , 1.4 . .
: Adobe Acrobat 5.0 .


2003
.., ..,
.., ..,
.., 2003.
-
, 2003
www.elbook.bsu.by
elbook@bsu.by

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ISBN 985-445-803-2

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N: = 6,021023fhev1.
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m(X) = n(X) M(X)
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m( X ) V ( X ) N ( X )
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M ( X ) Vm ( X )
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35  FZkkh\u_^hebwe_f_glh\:b<\keh`ghf\_s_kl\_:o<mjZk
kqblu\ZxlkyihnhjfmeZf
x Ar ( A)
y Ar ( B)
;
.
w( A) =
w( B) =
M r ( Ax B y )
M r ( Ax B y )
IjbwlhfkmffZagZq_gbcfZkkh\uo^he_cwe_f_glh\\oh^ysbo\
khklZ\\_s_kl\Z\k_]^ZjZ\gZbeb
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lbklhcdbkehl_
J_r_gb_
 JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gb_Mrdbkehlu
Mr(HNO2) = Ar(H) + Ar(N) + 2Ar(O) = 1 + 14 + 32 = 47.
 JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gbyfZkkh\uo^he_cwe_f_glh\
1 Ar (H )
1
w(H ) =
=
= 0,021 = 2,1 %;
M r (HNO 2 ) 47
w( N) =

1 Ar ( N)
14
=
= 0,298 = 29,8 % ;
M r (HNO 2 ) 47

w(O) = 100 % 2,1 % 29,8 % = 68,1 % .


7

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Z m(O) = m(NxOy) w 2  ] ]
[ m(N) = m(NxOy) m(O) = ]] ]
 GZc^_fobfbq_kdb_dhebq_kl\ZZlhfh\ZahlZbdbkehjh^Z
m( N )
36,85 ]
=
 fhev
Z n(N) =
M ( N ) 14 ]fhev
[ n(O) =

m( O )
63,15 ]
=
 fhev
M (O) 16 ]fhev

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n(N) : n(O  fhevfhev fhevfhev
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 JZkkqblZ_ffZkkmm]e_jh^Z\h[jZah\Z\r_fkyKH2:
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] KH2)
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] G2H kh^_j`Zl ] G
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] G2H
 GZc^_fkmffmfZkkm]e_jh^Zb\h^hjh^Z\oh^b\rbo\khklZ\
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m(C) + m(H  ]
 IhkdhevdmkmffZfZkkKbG ] f_gvr_fZkkuk]hj_\r_]h
\_s_kl\Z ] ^_eZ_f\u\h^qlh\_]hkhklZ\\oh^belZd`_bdbkeh
jh^fZkkZdhlhjh]hjZ\gZm H = 6  ]
8

 Hij_^_ebfijhkl_cr__fheyjgh_khhlghr_gb_KGbH\bk
oh^ghf\_s_kl\_l__]hijhkl_crmxnhjfmem
m(C) m(H) m(O)
n(C) : n(H) : n(O) =
:
:
=
M (C) M (H) M (O)
2,4 ]
0,4 ]
3,2 ]
:
:
=
= 1 : 2 : 1.
12 ]fhev 1 ]fhev 16 ]fhev
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f_glh\\g_fFhe_dmeyjgZy`_nhjfmeZ\_s_kl\ZhljZ`Z_lj_Zevgh_
qbkehZlhfh\dZ`^h]hwe_f_glZ\fhe_dme_bihemqZ_lkymfgh`_gb_f
bg^_dkh\\ijhkl_cr_cnhjfme_gZhij_^_e_ggh_qbkehjZa
 JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gb_fheyjghcfZkkubkoh^gh]h\_s_kl\Zih
_]hhlghkbl_evghciehlghklb
M1(CxHyOz) = 29 D \ha^ = 29  ]fhev
 JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gb_fheyjghcfZkkubkoh^gh]h\_s_kl\Zih
_]hijhkl_cr_cnhjfme_
M2(CH2O   ]fhev
  Ihkdhevdm agZq_gb_ F1 [hevr_ agZq_gby F2 \  jZaZ lh ^ey
gZoh`^_gbyfhe_dmeyjghcnhjfmeu\_s_kl\Z\k_bg^_dku\_]hijh
kl_cr_cnhjfme_gm`ghm\_ebqblv\jZaZLZdbfh[jZahfbkdhfZy
nhjfmeZK3G6H3.
AZdhgwd\b\Ze_glh\
<_s_kl\Z\klmiZxl\j_Zdpbbbh[jZamxlky\j_amevlZl_j_Zd
pbc\wd\b\Ze_glguodhebq_kl\Zo
<gZqZe_ jZkkfhljbf hij_^_e_gby ihgylbc obfbq_kdbc wd\b\Z
e_gl qbkeh wd\b\Ze_glghklb nZdlhj wd\b\Ze_glghklb fheyjgZy
fZkkZwd\b\Ze_glZfheyjguch[t_fwd\b\Ze_glZbdhebq_kl\h\_s_
kl\Zwd\b\Ze_glZ
Obfbq_kdbcwd\b\Ze_glj_ZevgZybebmkeh\gZyqZklbpZ\_s_
kl\Z dhlhjZy \ dbkehlgh-hkgh\ghc j_Zdpbb wd\b\Ze_glgZ l _ obfbq_kdb jZ\ghp_ggZ  h^ghfm bhgm G+ Z \ hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evghcj_Zdpbbh^ghfmwe_dljhgm
J_ZevgZy qZklbpZ  fhe_dmeZ Zlhf beb bhg mkeh\gZy qZklbpZ
hij_^_e_ggZyqZklv iheh\bgZlj_lvbl^ fhe_dmeuZlhfZbebbhgZ
9

<h[s_fkemqZ_wd\b\Ze_glex[h]h\_s_kl\ZOh[hagZqZ_lkyke_1

^mxsbfh[jZahf ( X ) ]^_z* qbkehwd\b\Ze_glghklb


z

Qbkehwd\b\Ze_glghklbz* qbkehbhgh\G+\dbkehlgh-hkgh\ghcj_Zdpbbbebqbkehwe_dljhgh\\hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evghc
j_Zdpbbdhlhjh_wd\b\Ze_glgh obfbq_kdbjZ\ghp_ggh h^ghcqZklbp_\_s_kl\ZO
1
 qbkeh dhlhjh_ ihdZau\Z_l
z
dZdZy^hey qZklv j_ZevghcqZklbpuOwd\b\Ze_glgZh^ghfmbhgmG+
\ dbkehlgh-hkgh\ghc j_Zdpbb beb h^ghfm we_dljhgm\hdbkebl_evgh\hkklZgh\bl_evghcj_Zdpbb
NZdlhj wd\b\Ze_glghklb

FheyjgZyfZkkZwd\b\Ze_glZ\_s_kl\ZO M ( X ) fZkkZ
z

h^gh]hfhevwd\b\Ze_glZwlh]h\_s_kl\Z?^bgbpZbaf_j_gby]fhev
beb d]fhev FheyjgZy fZkkZ wd\b\Ze_glZ \_s_kl\Z O k\yaZgZ k fh
eyjghcfZkkhc\_s_kl\ZOkhhlghr_gb_f
1
M (X )
.
M ( X ) =
z
z

K^jm]hcklhjhgufheyjgZyfZkkZwd\b\Ze_glZ\_s_kl\ZOqbk
e_ggh jZ\gZ hlghr_gbx fZkku \_s_kl\Z O d khhl\_lkl\mxs_fm ob
fbq_kdhfmdhebq_kl\mwd\b\Ze_glZ\_s_kl\ZO:
m( X )
1

.
M ( X ) =
z
n 1 ( X )
z

Obfbq_kdh_dhebq_kl\hwd\b\Ze_glZ\_s_kl\ZO n ( X )
z

\_ebqbgZqbke_gghjZ\gZyhlghr_gbxfZkku\_s_kl\ZOdfheyjghc
fZkk__]hwd\b\Ze_glZ?^bgbpZbaf_j_gbyfhev
1

Fheyjguch[t_fwd\b\Ze_glZ]ZaZO Vm ( X ) h[t_fh^
z

gh]h fhey wd\b\Ze_glZ ]Zahh[jZagh]h \_s_kl\Z O ?^bgbpZ baf_j_gby efhevbebf3fhev


10

Fheyjguch[t_fwd\b\Ze_glZ]ZaZOk\yaZgkfheyjgufh[t_fhf
]ZaZOkhhlghr_gb_f
1
V (X )
Vm ( X ) = m .
z
z

<lh`_\j_fyfheyjguch[t_fwd\b\Ze_glZ]ZaZOqbke_gghjZ
\_ghlghr_gbxh[t_fZ]ZaZOdkhhl\_lkl\mxs_fmobfbq_kdhfmdh
ebq_kl\m\_s_kl\Z
V (X )
1

V ( X ) =
.
z
n 1 ( X )
z

Ijbf_j  Hij_^_eblv qbkeh wd\b\Ze_glghklb nZdlhj wd\b\Z


e_glghklbwd\b\Ze_glbfheyjgmxfZkkmwd\b\Ze_glZnhknhjghcdb
kehlu\j_Zdpbb
Ca(OH)2 + H3PO4 :&D+324 + 2H2O.
J_r_gb_
 GZoh^bfqbkehwd\b\Ze_glghklbz*<^Zgghcj_Zdpbbhlh^ghc
fhe_dmeuG3PO4hls_ieyxlkybhgZG+beb^jm]bfbkeh\Zfbh^ghc
fhe_dme_ dbkehlu wd\b\Ze_glgu obfbq_kdb khhl\_lkl\mxl   bhgZ
G+Ihwlhfmqbkehwd\b\Ze_glghklbz*\^Zgghcj_ZdpbbjZ\gh
  GZoh^bf nZdlhj wd\b\Ze_glghklb b hij_^_ey_f wd\b\Ze_gl
1 1
dbkehluIhhij_^_e_gbx f wd\ = * = .
2
z
+
WlhagZqblqlhh^ghfmbhgmG \^Zgghcj_Zdpbbkhhl\_lkl\m_l
qZklv iheh\bgZ fhe_dmeudbkehludhlhjZyby\ey_lky\^Zgghc
j_Zdpbb__obfbq_kdbfwd\b\Ze_glhf
 GZoh^bffheyjgmxfZkkmwd\b\Ze_glZdbkehlu
1
M (H 3PO 4 ) 98
M (H 3PO 4 ) =
=
= 49 ]fhev .
2
2
z

Ijbf_jHij_^_eblvwd\b\Ze_glbjZkkqblZlvfheyjgmxfZkkm
wd\b\Ze_glZ]b^jhdkb^ZojhfZ ,,, \j_Zdpbb
2Cr(OH)3 + 3H2SO4 = Cr2(SO4)3 + 6H2O.
J_r_gb_
 GZoh^bfqbkehwd\b\Ze_glghklbKU HG 3:
qZklbpZfKU HG 3khhl\_lkl\mxlbhgh\G+,
qZklbp_
x bhgh\
-"11

hldm^Z o   AgZqbl qbkeh wd\b\Ze_glghklb ]b^jhdkb^Z ojhfZ z* \


^Zgghcj_ZdpbbjZ\gh
  GZoh^bf nZdlhj wd\b\Ze_glghklb KU HG 3 b hij_^_ey_f _]h
obfbq_kdbcwd\b\Ze_gl
qZklbpZKU HG 3,
bhgZfG+ wd\b\Ze_glgZ
+
-"yqZklbphldm^Zy = 1/3.
bhgmH
WlhagZqblqlh\^Zgghcj_Zdpbbwd\b\Ze_glhf]b^jhdkb^ZojhfZ
,,, y\ey_lkymkeh\gZyqZklbpZqZklv_]hnhjfmevghc_^bgbpu
 JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gb_fheyjghcfZkkuwd\b\Ze_glZKU HG 3:
1
M (Cr (OH )3 )
M (Cr (OH)3 ) =
 ]fhev
3
3

Ijbf_jHij_^_eblvwd\b\Ze_glbjZkkqblZlvfheyjgmxfZkkm
wd\b\Ze_glZ]b^jhdkb^ZfZj]ZgpZ II \j_Zdpbb
2Mn(OH)2 + 12KOH + 5Cl2 :.0Q24 + 10KCl + 8H2O.
J_r_gb_
 GZoh^bfqbkehwd\b\Ze_glghklb^eyFQ HG 2:
Ihkdhevdm \ nhjfmevghc _^bgbp_ wlh]h ]b^jhdkb^Z kh^_j`blky
Zlhf fZj]ZgpZ \ kl_i_gb hdbke_gby  Z \ nhjfmevghc _^bgbp_
D0Q24  \ kl_i_gb hdbke_gby  ^_eZ_f \u\h^ qlh  qZklbp_
FQ HG 2khhl\_lkl\mxlwe_dljhgh\AgZqblqbkehwd\b\Ze_glghklb
]b^jhdkb^ZjZ\gh
  GZoh^bf nZdlhj wd\b\Ze_glghklb ]b^jhdkb^Z b hij_^_ey_f
1 1
_]hobfbq_kdbcwd\b\Ze_gl f wd\ =
= .
z* 5
WlhagZqblqlh\^Zgghcj_Zdpbbwd\b\Ze_glhf]b^jhdkb^ZfZj
]ZgpZ ,, y\ey_lkymkeh\gZyqZklbpZqZklv_]hnhjfmevghc_^b
gbpu
 JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gb_fheyjghcfZkkuwd\b\Ze_glZ]b^jhdkb^Z
1
M (Mn (OH ) 2 ) 89 ]fhev
M (Mn (OH ) 2 ) =
 ]fhev
=
5
5
5

Ijbf_jHij_^_eblvwd\b\Ze_glbjZkkqblZlvagZq_gb_fheyj
ghcfZkkuwd\b\Ze_glZkmevnZlZZexfbgby\j_Zdpbb
Al2(SO4)3 + 3Pb(NO3)2 = 2Al(NO3)3 + 3PbSO4.
J_r_gb_
 GZoh^bfqbkehwd\b\Ze_glghklb$O2(SO4)3.
<^Zgghcj_Zdpbbh[f_gZg_ijbgbfZxlmqZklbybhguG+<wlhf
kemqZ_ijbgbfZxlky\h\gbfZgb_^jm]b_bhgukihklhyggufaZjy^hf
12

jZ\gufbeb<gZr_fijbf_j_wlhbhguNO 3 BamjZ\g_gbyj_
Zdpbb\b^ghqlhh^ghcqZklbp_$O2(SO4)3wd\b\Ze_glgubhgh\12 3 ,
l_qbkehwd\b\Ze_glghklbz*^eykmevnZlZZexfbgbyjZ\ghr_klb
 GZoh^bfnZdlhjwd\b\Ze_glghklbbhij_^_ey_fwd\b\Ze_gl
bhgZf12 3 khhl\_lkl\m_lqZklbpZ$O2(SO4)3,
bhgm
-"xqZklbphldm^Zx = 1/6.
WlhagZqblqlh\^Zgghcj_Zdpbbh[f_gZobfbq_kdbfwd\b\Ze_g
lhf kmevnZlZ Zexfbgby y\ey_lky mkeh\gZy qZklbpZ   qZklv _]h
nhjfmevghc_^bgbpu
 JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gb_fheyjghcfZkkuwd\b\Ze_glZ
1
M (Al2 (SO 4 )3 )
M (Al2 (SO 4 )3 ) =
 ]fhev
6
6

Ijbf_j Hij_^_eblvwd\b\Ze_glbjZkkqblZlvagZq_gb_fheyj
gh]hh[t_fZwd\b\Ze_glZk_jh\h^hjh^Z\j_Zdpbb
H2S2 + 8HNO3 :+2S+6O4 + 8NO2 + 4H2O.
J_r_gb_
  GZoh^bf qbkeh wd\b\Ze_glghklb G2S Ihkdhevdm \ fhe_dme_
k_jh\h^hjh^Zkl_i_gvhdbke_gbyk_jujZ\gZZ\fhe_dme_k_jghc
dbkehlu hgZ jZ\gZ  ^_eZ_f \u\h^ qlh  fhe_dme_ H2S khhl\_lkl
\mxlwe_dljhgh\WlhagZqblqlhqbkehwd\b\Ze_glghklb z* k_jh
\h^hjh^Z\^Zgghcj_ZdpbbjZ\gh
 GZoh^bfnZdlhjwd\b\Ze_glghklbk_jh\h^hjh^Zbhij_^_ey_f
_]hwd\b\Ze_gl
we_dljhgZfkhhl\_lkl\m_l fhe_dmeZG2S,
we_dljhgm
-"xfhe_dmehldm^Zx = 1/8.
Wlh agZqbl qlh obfbq_kdbf wd\b\Ze_glhf k_jh\h^hjh^Z \ ^Zg
ghcj_Zdpbby\ey_lkymkeh\gZyqZklbpZ\hkvfZyqZklv_]hfhe_dmeu
 GZoh^bfagZq_gb_fheyjgh]hh[t_fZwd\b\Ze_glZk_jh\h^hjh^Z
22,4 efhev
1
V
Vm (H 2S) = m =
 efhev
8
8
8

Ijbf_j G_ba\_klgucf_lZeefZkkhc]kh`]eb\dbkehjh^_
bihemqbebhdkb^f_lZeeZfZkkhc]Hij_^_eblvf_lZee
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fh[smxko_fmj_ZdpbbF_0H 02 :F_ +2 x H x 2 .
13

< khhl\_lkl\bb k aZdhghf wd\b\Ze_glh\ obfbq_kdh_ dhebq_kl\h


wd\b\Ze_glZ f_lZeeZ jZ\gh obfbq_kdhfm dhebq_kl\m wd\b\Ze_glZ
dbkehjh^Z
m(Me)
m (O 2 )
1
1

=
.
n * (Me) = n * (O 2 ) =>
1

z
z

M * (Me) M * (O 2 )
z

A^_kv m(Me) fZkkZf_lZeeZ\klmib\r_]h\j_Zdpbx


m(O2) fZkkZdbkehjh^Z\klmib\r_]h\j_Zdpbx
1

M * (Me) fheyjgZyfZkkZwd\b\Ze_glZf_lZeeZ
z

M * (O 2 ) fheyjgZyfZkkZwd\b\Ze_glZdbkehjh^Z
z

 GZc^_ffZkkmdbkehjh^Z\klmib\r_]h\j_Zdpbx
m(O2) = m hdkb^Z  m f_lZeeZ  ]] ]
 GZc^_ffheyjgmxfZkkmwd\b\Ze_glZfhe_dmeyjgh]hdbkehjh
^ZIjbh[jZah\Zgbbhdkb^ZdZ`^Zyfhe_dmeZdbkehjh^Zijbkh_^bgy_l
we_dljhgZbij_\jZsZ_lky\hdkb^-bhgZO 02 :O2.
Lh]^Z we_dljhgZfkhhl\_lkl\m_lfhe_dmeZH2,
we_dljhgm
-"xfhe_dmehldm^Zx = 1/4.
Wlh agZqbl qlh obfbq_kdbf wd\b\Ze_glhf dbkehjh^Z \ ^Zgghc
j_Zdpbby\ey_lkymkeh\gZyqZklbpZq_l\_jlZyqZklvfhe_dmeuGZc
^_fagZq_gb_fheyjghcfZkkuwd\b\Ze_glZdbkehjh^Z
1
M (O 2 ) 32
M (O 2 ) =
=
= 8 ]fhev .
4
4
4

  Ih^klZ\bf qbkeh\u_ agZq_gby \_ebqbg \ \ujZ`_gb_ aZdhgZ


wd\b\Ze_glh\
1

m(Me) M * (O 2 )
1

z
= 10 8  ]fhev
M * (Me) =
m (O 2 )
8,89
z

*
 >eyf_lZeeZqbkehwd\b\Ze_glghklbz jZ\ghkl_i_gb_]hhdbk
1

e_gby\kh_^bg_gbbIhkdhevdmM(Me) = M * (Me) z*lhijb


z

*
F F_  ]fhev
z =1
*
z =2
F F_  ]fhev
*
F F_  ]fhev
z =3
14

H^gh\Ze_glgh]h f_lZeeZ k fheyjghc fZkkhc  ]fhev b ^\mo\Z


e_glgh]hf_lZeeZkfheyjghcfZkkhc]fhevg_kms_kl\m_lLj_o
\Ze_glgucf_lZeekfheyjghcfZkkhcZexfbgbc Al).
Ijbf_jIjbjZkl\hj_gbb\dbkehl_f_lZeeZfZkkhc]\u
^_ebeky\h^hjh^h[t_fhfe gm Hij_^_eblvf_lZee
J_r_gb_
n
AZibr_fh[smxko_fmj_ZdpbbF_0 + nH+ :Men+ + H 02 .
2
<khhl\_lkl\bbkaZdhghfwd\b\Ze_glh\dhebq_kl\h\_s_kl\Zwd
\b\Ze_glZf_lZeeZjZ\ghdhebq_kl\m\_s_kl\Zwd\b\Ze_glZ\h^hjh^Z
Ke_^h\Zl_evgh
m(Me)
V (H 2 )
=
.
1

M * (Me) Vm * (H 2 )
z

A^_kv m(Me) fZkkZf_lZeeZ


V(H2) h[t_f\h^hjh^Z
1

M * (Me) fheyjgZyfZkkZwd\b\Ze_glZf_lZeeZ
z

Vm * (H 2 ) fheyjguch[t_fwd\b\Ze_glZ\h^hjh^Z
z

 JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gb_fheyjgh]hh[t_fZwd\b\Ze_glZ\h^hjh^Z
Ihkdhevdmfhe_dmeZ\h^hjh^Zh[jZam_lkyihko_f_H+:H 02 lh
jZkkm`^Z_flZd
we_dljhgZfkhhl\_lkl\m_lfhe_dmeZG2,
1
we_dljhgmkhhl\_lkl\m_lxfhe_dmehldm^Zx = .
2
LZdbfh[jZahfwd\b\Ze_glhf\h^hjh^Z\^Zgghcj_Zdpbby\ey_l
ky mkeh\gZy qZklbpZ  iheh\bgZ _]h fhe_dmeu Ihwlhfm fheyjguc
h[t_fwd\b\Ze_glZ\h^hjh^Z[m^_ljZ\_g
22,4
1
V
= 11,2 efhev .
Vm (H 2 ) = m =
2
2
2

 Ih^klZ\bfagZq_gby\_ebqbg\\ujZ`_gb_aZdhgZwd\b\Ze_glh\
gZc^_ffheyjgmxfZkkmwd\b\Ze_glZf_lZeeZbhij_^_ebff_lZee
1

m(Me) Vm * (H 2 )
1

z
= 9,58 11,2  ]fhev
M * (Me) =
V (H 2 )
6,72
z

15

1
M (Me)
IhkdhevdmF * (Me) =
lhfheyjgZyfZkkZf_lZeeZ[m
z*
z

^_l\ujZ`ZlvkyM(Me) = M * (Me) z*,


z

*
=^_z  beb Kfijbf_j 
F F_  ]fhev
Ijbz* = 1
*
F F_  ]fhev
ijbz = 2
*
ijbz = 3
F F_  ]fhev
H^gh-b^\mo\Ze_glgh]hf_lZeeh\kgZc^_ggufbagZq_gbyfbfh
eyjguofZkkg_kms_kl\m_llj_o\Ze_glgucf_lZeekfheyjghcfZkkhc
]fhevlblZg 7L 
Ijbf_jBaoehjb^Zg_ba\_klgh]hf_lZeeZfZkkhc]ihem
q_ggbljZlwlh]h`_f_lZeeZfZkkhc]Hij_^_eblvf_lZee
J_r_gb_
  Ihkdhevdm obfbq_kdh_ dhebq_kl\h wd\b\Ze_glZ oehjb^Z f_
lZeeZjZ\ghobfbq_kdhfmdhebq_kl\mwd\b\Ze_glZ_]hgbljZlZlh
m(Me + x Cl x )
m(Me + x ( NO 3 ) x )
.
=
1

M * (MeCl x ) M * (Me( NO 3 ) x )
z

Ijbj_r_gbbih^h[guoaZ^Zqg_h[oh^bfhihfgblvqlhfheyjgZy
fZkkZwd\b\Ze_glZkeh`gh]h\_s_kl\ZjZ\gZkmff_fheyjguofZkkwd
\b\Ze_glh\ _]h khklZ\guo qZkl_c >himklbf qlh fheyjgZy fZkkZ wd
\b\Ze_glZg_ba\_klgh]hf_lZeeZjZ\gZx]fhevMqblu\Zyqlhfheyj
gZy fZkkZ wd\b\Ze_glZ oehjb^-ZgbhgZ Cl   ]fhev Z fheyjgZy
fZkkZ wd\b\Ze_glZ gbljZl-ZgbhgZ NO 3  jZ\gZ  ]fhev b ih^klZ\b\
agZq_gby\_ebqbg\\ujZ`_gb_aZdhgZwd\b\Ze_glh\ihemqbf
18,34
23,64
=
hlkx^Zx ]fhev
x + 35,5 x + 62
 Hij_^_ebff_lZee
1

IhkdhevdmM(Me) = M * (Me) z*,


z

]^_ z*  kl_i_gv hdbke_gby f_lZeeZ \ kh_^bg_gbb lh ijb


z* = 1 F F_ = ]fhev ]fhevf_lZeeg_kms_kl\m_l
ijbz* = 2 F F_  ]fhev ]fhevf_lZeedZ^fbc &G 
16

AZdhg:\h]Z^jh
<jZ\guoh[t_fZojZaebqguo]Zah\ijbh^bgZdh\uo\g_rgbomkeh
\byo ^Z\e_gbbbl_fi_jZlmj_ kh^_j`blkyh^bgZdh\h_qbkehfhe_dme
Ijbj_r_gbbaZ^Zqbkihevamxlkyke_^kl\bybawlh]haZdhgZ
 IjbghjfZevguomkeh\byo^Z\e_gbbdIZbl_fi_jZ
lmj_  hK beb  D  fhev ex[h]h ]ZaZ aZgbfZ_l h[t_f ijbf_jgh
jZ\guc  e Hg gZau\Z_lky fheyjguf h[t_fhf ]ZaZ ijb ghjfZev
guo mkeh\byo b h[hagZqZ_lky V om . ?^bgbpu baf_j_gby  efhev beb
f3fhev
Fheyjguch[t_f]ZaZqbke_gghjZ\_ghlghr_gbxh[t_fZ]ZaZd
khhl\_lkl\mxs_fmobfbq_kdhfmdhebq_kl\mwlh]h\_s_kl\Z
Vm =

V (X )
.
n( X )

  Hlghkbl_evgZy iehlghklv ]ZaZ O ih ]Zam Y Dy(X)  [_ajZa


f_jgZy\_ebqbgZjZ\gZyhlghr_gbxfheyjguofZkk^Zgguo]Zah\
DY ( X ) =

M (X )
.
M (Y )

HgZihdZau\Z_l\hkdhevdhjZa]ZaOe_]q_bebly`_e__]ZaZY_kebboh[t_fuh^bgZdh\uGZijbf_jhlghkbl_evgZyiehlghklvZffbZdZih\h^hjh^m
M ( NH 3 ) 17 ]fhev
= 8,5.
DH 2 ( NH 3 ) =
=
M (H 2 )
2 ]fhev
?keblj_[m_lkygZclbagZq_gb_hlghkbl_evghciehlghklb]ZaZ O)
ih \ha^mom lh fheyjgmx fZkkm ]ZaZ O ^_eyl gZ kj_^gxx fheyjgmx
fZkkm\ha^moZF\ha^ kj jZ\gmx]fhevGZijbf_jhlghkbl_evgZy
iehlghklvoehjh\h^hjh^Zih\ha^mom
D\ha^(HCl) =

36,5 ]fhev
M (HCl)
= 1,259.
=
M \ha^ (kj.) 29 ]fhev

Kj_^g_cfheyjghcfZkkhc]Zah\hckf_kb Fkj gZau\ZxlfZkkmkf_


kb h[t_f dhlhjhc ijb g m jZ\_g  e HgZ k\yaZgZ k fheyjgufb
fZkkZfb]Zah\khhlghr_gb_f
Fkj kf_kb  3(O) F(O) + 3(Y) M(Y).
A^_kv3 X b3 Y) h[t_fgu_^heb]Zah\\kf_kbF(X bM(Y) fh
eyjgu_fZkku]Zah\H[t_fgZy^hey]ZaZ 3 \kf_kb\_ebqbgZjZ\
17

gZy hlghr_gbx h[t_fZ ]ZaZ O d h[t_fm kf_kb DZd b fZkkh\Zy^hey


hgZfh`_l\ujZ`Zlvky\^heyo_^bgbpubeb\ijhp_glZo
 Iehlghklv]ZaZ ! \_ebqbgZqbke_gghjZ\gZhlghr_gbx_]h
fheyjghcfZkkudfheyjghfmh[t_fm
!(X) =

M (X )
.
Vm

GZijbf_jiehlghklv\ha^moZijbgmjZ\gZ
! \ha^ 

M \ha^. (kj.)
29 ]fhev
 ]e
=
Vm
22,4 efhev
AZdhg;hceyFZjbhllZ

Ijbihklhygghcl_fi_jZlmj_h[t_f^Zgghcihjpbb]ZaZh[jZlghijhihjpbhgZe_g_]h^Z\e_gbx
Wlh agZqbl qlh ijb m\_ebq_gbb ^Z\e_gby ]ZaZ \ hij_^_e_ggh_
qbkehjZa_]hh[t_fmf_gvrZ_lky\hklhevdh`_jZaIhwlhfmijhba
\_^_gb_^Z\e_gby]ZaZgZ_]hh[t_fijbihklhygghcl_fi_jZlmj_y\ey
_lky\_ebqbghcihklhygghc
p1V1 = p2V2 = const.
Ijbf_j  Ijb ^Z\e_gbb  dIZ h[t_f ]ZaZ jZ\_g  e <u
qbkeblvagZq_gb_h[t_fZ^Zgghcihjpbb]ZaZijb^Z\e_gbbdIZ
J_r_gb_
BamjZ\g_gby;hcey-FZjbhllZ\ujZabfV2bgZc^_f_]hagZq_gb_
V2 =

p1V1 98,5 10,4


=
= 6,3 e .
p2
162,6

AZdhg=_c-ExkkZdZ
Ijb ihklhygghf ^Z\e_gbb h[t_f ^Zgghc ihjpbb ]ZaZ ijyfh
ijhihjpbhgZe_g_]hZ[khexlghcl_fi_jZlmj_
WlhagZqblqlhijbm\_ebq_gbbZ[khexlghcl_fi_jZlmju]ZaZ\
hij_^_e_ggh_ qbkeh jZa _]h h[t_f m\_ebqb\Z_lky \h klhevdh `_ jZa
Ihwlhfm hlghr_gb_ h[t_fZ ]ZaZ d _]h Z[khexlghc l_fi_jZlmj_ ijb
ihklhygghf^Z\e_gbby\ey_lkyihklhygghc\_ebqbghc
V1 V2
=
= const .
T1 T2
18

Ijbf_jIjbl_fi_jZlmj_ hKh[t_f]ZaZjZ\_ge<u
qbkeblvagZq_gb_h[t_fZ^Zggh]h]ZaZijbl_fi_jZlmj_18 hK
J_r_gb_
 JZkkqblZ_fZ[khexlgu_agZq_gbyl_fi_jZlmju
Z T1 = t1 + 273 = 18 + 273 = 291 K;
[) T2 = t2 + 273 = 118 + 273 = 391 K.
  Ba mjZ\g_gby =_c-ExkkZdZ \ujZabf V2 b jZkkqblZ_f _]h agZ
q_gb_
VT
6,72 391
V2 = 1 2 =
= 9,03 e .
T1
291
H[t_^bg_gguc]Zah\ucaZdhg
Ijhba\_^_gb_\_ebqbgu^Z\e_gby^Zgghcihjpbb]ZaZgZ\_ebqbgm
_]hh[t_fZhlg_k_ggh_dagZq_gbxZ[khexlghcl_fi_jZlmju_klv
\_ebqbgZihklhyggZy
p0V0 p1V1
=
= const .
T0
T1
WlhmjZ\g_gb_gZau\Z_lkymjZ\g_gb_fDeZi_cjhgZ?]hqZklhbk
ihevamxl^eyjZkq_lZh[t_fZ]ZaZijbghjfZevguomkeh\byo_kebba
\_klgh_]hagZq_gb_ijb^jm]bomkeh\byo
Ijbf_jIjbl_fi_jZlmj_hKb^Z\e_gbbdIZh[t_f]Z
aZjZ\_ge<uqbkeblvagZq_gb_h[t_fZ]ZaZijbghjfZevguomk
eh\byo
J_r_gb_
Ba mjZ\g_gby h[t_^bg_ggh]h ]Zah\h]h aZdhgZ \ujZabf V0 b jZk
kqblZ_f_]hagZq_gb_
T p V 273 68,8 120,4
V0 = 0 1 1 =
= 70,2 e .
p0T1
101,3 318
?kebobfbq_kdh_dhebq_kl\h]ZaZjZ\ghfhevlhagZq_gb_^jh
pV
[b
 y\ey_lky ihklhygghc \_ebqbghc b gZau\Z_lky mgb\_jkZevghc
T
]Zah\hc ihklhygghc R  < kemqZ_ dh]^Z ^Z\e_gb_ ]ZaZ \ujZ`Z_lky \
dIZ Z h[t_f  \ ebljZo lh R ijbgbfZ_l agZq_gb_ jZ\gh_
8,314 >`fhev KKmq_lhfwlh]h^eyfhev]ZaZfh`ghaZibkZlv
pV
= R bebpV = RT.
T
19

?keb`_obfbq_kdh_dhebq_kl\h]Zahh[jZagh]h\_s_kl\ZjZ\ghn
fhevlh
pV = nRT.
WlhmjZ\g_gb_gZau\Z_lkymjZ\g_gb_fDeZi_cjhgZ F_g^_e__\Z.
m
^Zggh_mjZ\g_gb_fh`ghaZibkZlv\\b^_
Mqblu\Zyqlh n =
M
m
pV =
RT .
M
Hgh k\yau\Z_lfZl_fZlbq_kdb^Z\e_gb_]ZaZ_]hh[t_ffZkkmb
l_fi_jZlmjm >Zggh_ mjZ\g_gb_ iha\hey_l \uqbkeblv ex[mx ba \oh
^ysbo\g_]h\_ebqbg_kebba\_klguhklZevgu_\_ebqbgu
Ijbf_j<uqbkeblvagZq_gb_fheyjghcfZkku\_s_kl\Z_keb
_]hiZjufZkkhc]ijbl_fi_jZlmj_ oKb^Z\e_gbbdIZaZ
gbfZxlh[t_fjZ\gucfe
J_r_gb_
Ba mjZ\g_gby DeZi_cjhgZ-F_g^_e__\Z \ujZabf M b jZkkqblZ_f
__agZq_gb_
mRT 2,6 8,314 360
=
= 78 ]fhev
M=
pV
83,2 1,2
AZdhgiZjpbZevguo^Z\e_gbc]Zah\
H[s__ ^Z\e_gb_ kf_kb ]Zah\ g_ \klmiZxsbo \ obfbq_kdh_ \aZb
fh^_ckl\b_ jZ\ghkmff_iZjpbZevguo^Z\e_gbcdZ`^h]hbagbo
P kf_kb  j(1)j(2) + j(n).
IZjpbZevgh_ ^Z\e_gb_ ]ZaZ j   ^Z\e_gb_ dhlhjh_ ijhba\h^be
[uwlhl]Za_keb[uhgh^bgijbl_o`_mkeh\byoaZgbfZe\_kvh[t_f
]Zah\hckf_kb
IZjpbZevgh_^Z\e_gb_]ZaZ\kf_kbijhihjpbhgZevgh_]hh[t_f
ghc^he_
j(1) = J kf_kb 3(1).
Ijbf_j  H[s__ ^Z\e_gb_ kf_kb khklhys_c ba ZahlZ fZkkhc
14 ]bdbkehjh^ZfZkkhc]jZ\ghdIZ<uqbkeblvagZq_gbyiZj
pbZevguo^Z\e_gbc]Zah\\kf_kb
J_r_gb_
Ihkdhevdm \ kf_kb h[t_fgu_ ^heb ]Zah\ qbke_ggh jZ\gu bo
fhevguf^heyflh\^ZgghfkemqZ_iZjpbZevgu_^Z\e_gby]Zah\[m
^mlijhihjpbhgZevgubofhevguf^heyf

20

 JZkkqblZ_fobfbq_kdh_dhebq_kl\hdZ`^h]hba]Zah\
14 ]
 fhev
n(N2) =
28 ]fhev
n(O2) =

8]
 fhev
32 ]fhev

 JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gbyfheyjguo^he_c]Zah\\kf_kb
n( N 2 )
0,5 fhev
$(N2) =
=
= 0,666 .
n(kf_kb) 0,75 fhev
Ke_^h\Zl_evghfheyjgZy^heydbkehjh^Z$ H2 jZ\gZ
$(O2) = 1 0,666 = 0,334.
 JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gbyiZjpbZevguo^Z\e_gbc]Zah\
p(N2) = $(N2) P kf_kb = 0,666 dIZ dIZ
p(O2) $(O2) P kf_kb = 0,334 dIZ dIZ.
Ijbf_j  < khkm^_ h[t_fhf  e kf_rZeb dbkehjh^ h[t_fhf
3,5 egZoh^b\rbckyih^^Z\e_gb_fdIZbZahlh[t_fhfegZ
oh^b\rbcky ih^ ih^ ^Z\e_gb_f  dIZ <uqbkeblv iZjpbZevgu_
^Z\e_gby]Zah\bh[s__^Z\e_gb_ihemq_gghckf_kb
J_r_gb_
 IhmjZ\g_gbx;hcey-FZjbhllZjZkkqblZ_fgh\u_^Z\e_gby]Z
ah\ihke_bokf_rb\Zgby l_iZjpbZevgu_^Z\e_gby 
p (O ) V (O ) 125 3,5
p 2 (O 2 ) = 1 2 1 2 =
= 72,92 dIZ ;
V2
6
p2 ( N 2 ) =

p1 ( N 2 ) V1 ( N 2 ) 105 5,5
=
= 96,25 dIZ .
V2
6

 GZc^_fh[s__^Z\e_gb_kf_kb
P kf_kb = p(1) + p(2) dIZdIZ dIZ
Ijbf_j<[Zeehg_h[t_fhfeijbl_fi_jZlmj_ oKkh
^_j`Zlkydbkehjh^fZkkhc]m]e_dbkeuc]ZafZkkhc]bZahl
g_ba\_klghcfZkku<uqbkeblvagZq_gb_fZkkuZahlZ\kf_kb_keb__
^Z\e_gb_jZ\ghdIZ
J_r_gb_
  Ba mjZ\g_gby DeZi_cjhgZ F_g^_e__\Z \ujZabf ^Z\e_gb_ b
jZkkqblZ_f_]hagZq_gby^eydbkehjh^Zbm]e_dbkeh]h]ZaZ
21

mRT
;
VM
27,2 8,314 (273 + 19)
= 46,35 dIZ .
p (O 2 ) =
44,5 32
55 8,314 (273 + 19)
= 68,16 dIZ .
p(CO 2 ) =
44,5 44
 JZkkqblZ_fiZjpbZevgh_^Z\e_gb_ZahlZ\kf_kb
p(N2) = P kf_kb  p(CO2) p(O2) = 139,05 68,16  dIZ
 JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gb_fZkkuZahlZ\kf_kb
pVM
24,5 44,5 28
=
= 12,58 ] .
m( N 2 ) =
RT
8,31 (273 + 19)
Ijbf_j<]Zahf_lj_gZ^\h^hcijbl_fi_jZlmj_ hKkh^_j
`blkydbkehjh^h[t_fhfeih^^Z\e_gb_fdIZJZkkqblZlv
agZq_gb_h[t_fZkmoh]hdbkehjh^Z\]Zahf_lj_ijbgm_keb^Z\e_
gb_gZkus_ggh]h\h^ygh]hiZjZijboKjZ\ghdIZ
J_r_gb_
 JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gb_iZjpbZevgh]h^Z\e_gbyqbklh]hdbkehjh
^Z\kf_kb
j(O2) = P(cf_kb  p(H2O) = 102,455  dIZ
  Ba mjZ\g_gby h[t_^bg_ggh]h ]Zah\h]h aZdhgZ \ujZabf Vh b
jZkkqblZ_f_]hagZq_gb_
T pV
273 99,291 5,2
V0 = 0 1 1 =
= 4,67 e .
p0T1 101,3 (273 + 25)
p=

1.
2.

3.
4.

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Knhjfmebjmcl_hij_^_e_gbyihgylbcobfbq_kdbcwe_f_glZlhf
fhe_dmeZbhg\_s_kl\h
Cdhevdh obfbq_kdbo we_f_glh\ ba\_klgh \ gZklhys__ \j_fy"
< q_f aZdexqZxlky jZaebqby f_`^m obfbq_kdbf we_f_glhf b
ijhkluf \_s_kl\hf" DZdb_oZjZdl_jbklbdbijbkmsbwe_f_glmZ
dZdb_ijhklhfm\_s_kl\m"
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agZq_gb_hgZijbgbfZ_lbdZdh[hagZqZ_lky"
Ihq_fmqbkehijhkluo\_s_kl\ a ]hjZa^h[hevr_qbkeZba
\_klguo obfbq_kdbo we_f_glh\" Q_f h[mkeh\e_gh y\e_gb_ Zeeh
ljhibb"
22

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g_fhe_dmeyjgh]h kljh_gby"DZdb_nbabq_kdb_k\hckl\Zijbkmsb
l_f b ^jm]bf \_s_kl\Zf" DZdb_ qZklbpu y\eyxlky bo kljmdlmj
gufb_^bgbpZfb"
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jmcl_hij_^_e_gb_ihgylbyfhevDZdh\nbabq_kdbckfukeihklh
ygghc:\h]Z^jhbq_fmjZ\gh__agZq_gb_"
7. Qlhij_^klZ\ey_lkh[hcfheyjgZyfZkkZ\_s_kl\Z"DZdhgZk\yaZ
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q_gbyijbgbfZ_lfheyjgZyfZkkZb\dZdbo_^bgbpZohgZ\ujZ`Z
_lky"
8. QlhlZdh_fheyjguch[t_f]ZaZ"DZdhgk\yaZgkh[t_fhf]ZaZb
_]hobfbq_kdbfdhebq_kl\hf"Ihq_fmmjZaguo]Zah\ijbh^bgZ
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9. Knhjfmebjmcl_aZdhgkhojZg_gbyfZkku\_s_kl\ZDZdfh`ghbg
l_jij_lbjh\Zlv wlhl aZdhg k lhqdb aj_gby Zlhfgh-fhe_dmeyjgh]h
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10. Knhjfmebjmcl_aZdhgihklhygkl\ZkhklZ\Z\_s_kl\ZDdZdbfkh
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klZ\Z"Ijb\_^bl_ijbf_ju
11. Q_fhlebqZxlkywfibjbq_kdb_ ijhkl_crb_ nhjfmeu\_s_kl\hl
fhe_dmeyjguo bklbgguo nhjfme"
12. Knhjfmebjmcl_aZdhgwd\b\Ze_glh\>Zcl_hij_^_e_gbyihgylbyf
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Ijb\_^bl_ijbf_ju
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15. Ihq_fm fheyjgZy fZkkZ wd\b\Ze_glZ h^gh]h b lh]h `_ \_s_kl\Z
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16. Knhjfmebjmcl_aZdhg:\h]Z^jhD\_s_kl\Zf\dZdhfZ]j_]Zlghf
khklhygbbhgijbf_gbfbihq_fm"
17. Knhjfmebjmcl_\Z`g_crb_ke_^kl\bybaaZdhgZ:\h]Z^jhDZdb_
mkeh\by kqblZxlky ghjfZevgufb b q_fm jZ\_g fheyjguc h[t_f
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18. QlhoZjZdl_jbam_lhlghkbl_evgZyiehlghklvh^gh]h]ZaZih^jm]h
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23

19. Qlh oZjZdl_jbam_l kj_^gyy fheyjgZy fZkkZ kf_kb ]Zah\" DZd hgZ
jZkkqblu\Z_lky"Q_fmjZ\gZkj_^gyyfheyjgZyfZkkZ\ha^moZ"
20. Knhjfmebjmcl_ aZdhgu ;hcey  FZjbhllZ b =_c-ExkkZdZ aZib
rbl_bofZl_fZlbq_kdb_\ujZ`_gby
21. Knhjfmebjmcl_h[t_^bg_gguc]Zah\ucaZdhgbaZibrbl__]hfZ
l_fZlbq_kdh_\ujZ`_gb_<dZdbojZkq_lZohgbkihevam_lky"
22. AZibrbl_mjZ\g_gb_DeZi_cjhgZF_g^_e__\ZDZdh\nbabq_kdbc
kfuke mgb\_jkZevghc ]Zah\hc ihklhygghc" DZdb_ agZq_gby hgZ
fh`_lijbgbfZlvbhlq_]haZ\bkbl__\_ebqbgZ"
23. DZdh_^Z\e_gb_gZau\Z_lkyiZjpbZevguf^Z\e_gb_f]ZaZ"DZdhgh
k\yaZghkh[sbf^Z\e_gb_f]Zah\hckf_kb"Knhjfmebjmcl_aZdhg
iZjpbZevguo^Z\e_gbc]Zah\
AZ^Zqb^eyj_r_gby
1. =Zah[t_fhfeijbghjfZevguomkeh\byobf__lfZkkm]
<uqbkeblvagZq_gb_fZkkuh^ghcfhe_dmeu^Zggh]h]ZaZ
2. Fhe_dmeZ\_s_kl\Zbf__lfZkkmjZ\gmx25d]Hij_^_
eblvagZq_gb_fZkkuwlh]h\_s_kl\Z_keb_]hobfbq_kdh_dhebq_
kl\hjZ\ghfhev
3. Q_fmjZ\ghobfbq_kdh_dhebq_kl\h\_s_kl\Z_keb_]hfZkkZjZ\gZ
]ZfZkkZh^ghcfhe_dmeuwlh]h\_s_kl\ZjZ\gZ25 d]?
4. Cdhevdhfhe_dmekh^_j`blky\[_gahe_fZkkhc]\hdkb^_k_
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]b^jhdZj[hgZl_ dZevpby fZkkhc  ] \ gbljZl_ ]b^jhdkh[Zjby
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24

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dbkehjh^ h[t_f dhlhjh]h ijb l_fi_jZlmj_  hK b ^Z\e_gbb
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kb\bkoh^ghfh[jZap_oehjZlZdZeby
11. Ihke_\aju\Zkf_kb\h^hjh^Zkdbkehjh^hfh[sbfh[t_fhfe
gm hklZekydbkehjh^h[t_fhfe gm <uqbkeblvagZ
q_gbyh[t_fguo^he_c]Zah\\bkoh^ghckf_kb
12. BakdhevdboZlhfh\khklhylfhe_dmeujlmlb_kebagZq_gb_hlgh
kbl_evghciehlghklb__iZjh\ih\ha^momjZ\gh"
13. Ijbg_dhlhjhcl_fi_jZlmj_iehlghklviZjh\k_juihZahlmjZ\gZ
 Ba kdhevdbo Zlhfh\ khklhbl fhe_dmeZ k_ju ijb mdZaZgghc
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14. <[Zeehg_\f_klbfhklvxegZoh^blkydbkehjh^ih^^Z\e_gb
_f 7 IZ b ijb l_fi_jZlmj_  hKDZdhch[t_faZcf_ldb
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15. KlZevghc [Zeehg gZiheg_g Zahlhf ih^ ^Z\e_gb_f 7 IZ ijb
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25

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fheyjgh]h h[t_fZ wd\b\Ze_glZ g m  k_jh\h^hjh^Z \ dZ`^hc ba
j_Zdpbc
Z) 2H2S + (CuOH)2SO4 = 2CuS + H2SO4 + 2H2O;
[) 2H2S + O2 = 2H2O + 2S;
\) 2H2S + 3O2 = 2H2O + 2SO2;
]) H26G2SO4 = 4H2O + 4SO2
45. Hij_^_eblv wd\b\Ze_gl b jZkkqblZlv agZq_gb_ fheyjghc fZkku
wd\b\Ze_glZkmevnZlZZexfbgby\dZ`^hcbaj_Zdpbc
Z) Al2(SO4)3 + 12KOH = 2K3[Al(OH)6] + 3K2SO4;
[) Al2(SO4)3 + Al(OH)3 = 3Al(OH)SO4;
\) Al2(SO4)3 + 2KOH = 2Al(OH)SO4 + K2SO4.
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qZ_jZ\gZ]
Z) 4H3PO4 + Ca3(PO4)2 = 3Ca(H2PO4)2;
[) 2H3PO4 + (CaOH)3PO4 = 3CaHPO4 + 3H2O.
47. >ey hkZ`^_gby \k_]h oehjZ kh^_j`Z\r_]hky \ oehjb^_ f_lZeeZ
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65. < hj]Zgbq_kdhf \_s_kl\_ fZkkh\u_ ^heb we_f_glh\ khklZ\eyxl
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[uld_ dbkehjh^Z \ j_amevlZl_ q_]h h[jZah\Zebkv m]e_dbkeuc ]Za
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70. G_ba\_klgh_ [jhfkh^_j`Zs__ \_s_kl\h fZkkhc  ] kh`]eb \
ba[uld_dbkehjh^Z\j_amevlZl_q_]hh[jZah\Zebkvm]e_dbkeuc]Za
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30

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72. G_ba\_klgh_ k_jhkh^_j`Zs__ \_s_kl\h fZkkhc  ] kh`]eb \
ba[uld_dbkehjh^Z\j_amevlZl_q_]hh[jZah\Zebkvm]e_dbkeuc]Za
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73. DZdhch[t_fhahgbjh\Zggh]hdbkehjh^Z\dhlhjhfh[t_fgZy^hey
hahgZjZ\gZg_h[oh^bf^eyihegh]hk`b]ZgbyijhiZgZh[t
_fhfe gm "
74. KieZ\ f_^b k k_j_[jhf fZkkhc  ] jZkl\hjbeb \ ba[uld_ jZk
l\hjZ Zahlghc dbkehlu Ba ihemq_ggh]h jZkl\hjZ [ueZ \u^_e_gZ
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khc]<uqbkeblvagZq_gbyfZkkh\uo^he_cf_lZeeh\\bkoh^
ghckf_kb
75. FZkkh\u_^hebdZ^fbybpbgdZ\bokieZ\_jZ\gukhhl\_lkl\_ggh
bDZdZyfZkkZwlh]hkieZ\Z^he`gZ[ulvjZkl\hj_gZ\kh
eyghc dbkehl_ k p_evx ihemq_gby \h^hjh^Z h[t_fhf  e ijb
l_fi_jZlmj_oKb^Z\e_gbbdIZ"
=E:<:II
HKGH<GU?DE:KKU
G?HJ=:GBQ?KDBOKH?>BG?GBC
<k_\_s_kl\Z^_eylkygZijhklu_bkeh`gu_IjhklufbgZau\Z
xlky\_s_kl\Zkhklhysb_baZlhfh\h^gh]hwe_f_glZZkeh`gufb
khklhysb_baZlhfh\^\mobeb[he__we_f_glh\
GZa\Zgbyijhkluo\_s_kl\dZdijZ\behkh\iZ^ZxlkgZa\Zgbyfb
khhl\_lkl\mxsboobfbq_kdbowe_f_glh\gZijbf_jeblbc[hjk_jZ
Bkdexq_gb_khklZ\eyxlm]e_jh^gZa\Zgbyijhkluo\_s_kl\dhlhjh
]h ZefZa]jZnbldZj[bgnmee_j_gZlZd`_ZeehljhigZyfh^bnbdZ
pbydbkehjh^Zhahg
Keh`gu_g_hj]Zgbq_kdb_\_s_kl\ZihkhklZ\mih^jZa^_eyxlkygZ
^\mowe_f_glgu_ [bgZjgu_ bfgh]hwe_f_glgu_kh_^bg_gby
Kh]eZkghijbgpbimkbkl_fZlbq_kdhcghf_gdeZlmjuobfbq_kdZy
nhjfmeZ keh`gh]h \_s_kl\Z jZa^_ey_lky gZ mkeh\gh we_dljhiheh`b
l_evgmxbmkeh\ghwe_dljhhljbpZl_evgmxkhklZ\eyxsb_I_j\Zykh
klZ\eyxsZyklZ\blky\nhjfme_ke_\ZZ\lhjZykijZ\Z
31

GZa\Zgb_keh`gh]h\_s_kl\ZqblZ_lkykijZ\ZgZe_\hl_\gZqZ
e_ gZau\Z_lky _]h we_dljhhljbpZl_evgZy khklZ\eyxsZy \ bf_gbl_ev
ghfiZ^_`_ZaZl_fwe_dljhiheh`bl_evgZy\jh^bl_evghfiZ^_`_
;bgZjgu_kh_^bg_gby
GZa\Zgby[bgZjguokh_^bg_gbch[jZamxlkybaeZlbgkdh]hdhjgy
gZa\Zgby [he__ we_dljhhljbpZl_evgh]h we_f_glZ k kmnnbdkhf -b^- b
jmkkdh]h gZa\Zgby f_g__ we_dljhhljbpZl_evgh]h we_f_glZ \ jh^b
l_evghf iZ^_`_ ?keb f_g__ we_dljhhljbpZl_evguc we_f_gl fh`_l
gZoh^blvky \ jZaebqguo kl_i_gyo hdbke_gby lh kl_i_gv hdbke_gby
mdZau\Z_lky\kdh[dZojbfkdbfbpbnjZfb
=Zeh]_gb^u: NaCl  oehjb^ gZljby +,  bh^b^ \h^hjh^Z 2)2
nlhjb^dbkehjh^Z ,, )H%U2 [jhfb^`_e_aZ ,, 
Hdkb^u Al2O3  hdkb^ Zexfbgby 34O10  hdkb^ nhknhjZ 9 
KH  hdkb^ m]e_jh^Z ,,  )H2O3  hdkb^ `_e_aZ ,,,  Hdkb^u kh^_j
`Zsb_]jmiimZlhfh\2 22 (HH gZau\Zxlkyi_jhdkb^ZfbG2H2
i_jhdkb^\h^hjh^Z<ZH2 i_jhdkb^[Zjby
OZevdh]_gb^u(kmevnb^uk_e_gb^ul_eemjb^u): CuS kmevnb^
f_^b ,, &X26_k_e_gb^f_^b , 1D2Te l_eemjb^gZljby
:gZeh]bqgh gZau\Zxlky b ^jm]b_ [bgZjgu_ kh_^bg_gby gZijb
f_jnhknb^ulbiZ&D3P2; dZj[b^u CaC2; ]b^jb^u MgH2 b^jm]b_
Bkdexq_gb_fbamdZaZgguoijZ\bey\eyxlky\h^hjh^gu_kh_^b
g_gbyg_f_lZeeh\ijhy\eyxsb_k\hckl\ZdbkehlBogZa\Zgbyh[jZ
amxlkyihijZ\beZfijbgyluf^eydbkehl kfgb`_ 
LjZ^bpbhgghd[bgZjgufkh_^bg_gbyfhlghkyl\_s_kl\Zbf_x
sb_\k\h_fkhklZ\_djhf_Zlhfh\dZdh]heb[hwe_f_glZbhggu_ijhba\h^gu_ \h^hjh^guo kh_^bg_gbc ZahlZ 1+4+  Zffhgbc 1+4Cl
oehjb^ Zffhgby 1+ 2  Zfb^ .1+2  Zfb^ dZeby 1+2  bfb^
Na2NH bfb^gZljby
D ik_\^h[bgZjguf kh_^bg_gbyf hlghkyl _s_ jy^ \_s_kl\ kh
^_j`Zsbomklhcqb\u_]jmiibjh\dbZlhfh\jZaguowe_f_glh\gZijb
f_jpbZgb^-bhgu CN \bkfmlbe BiO+klb[be SbO+.
Ih nmgdpbhgZevguf ijbagZdZf [hevrbgkl\h mdZaZgguo [bgZj
guokh_^bg_gbcy\eyxlkykheyfbbebkhe_ih^h[gufbkh_^bg_gbyfb
djhf_hdkb^guob\h^hjh^guokh_^bg_gbc
Hdkb^u ih^jZa^_eyxlky gZ g_khe_h[jZamxsb_ [_ajZaebqgu_  b
khe_h[jZamxsb_G_khe_h[jZamxsb_hdkb^ug_\aZbfh^_ckl\mxlgbk
dbkehlZfbgbkhkgh\Zgbyfb CO, NO, N22 Khe_h[jZamxsb_hdkb
^u^_eylkygZhkgh\gu_dbkehlgu_bZfnhl_jgu_.
32

Fgh]hwe_f_glgu_kh_^bg_gby
D wlhfm lbim g_hj]Zgbq_kdbo \_s_kl\ hlghkblky [hevrbgkl\h
kh_^bg_gbcdhlhju_bf_xl\k\h_fkhklZ\_we_dljhhljbpZl_evgu_b
we_dljhiheh`bl_evgu_khklZ\eyxsb_kh^_j`Zsb_[he__h^gh]hwe_
f_glZ
Hkgh\Zgby Hkgh\Zgbyfb gZau\Zxlky keh`gu_ \_s_kl\Z kh
klhysb_baZlhfh\f_lZeeZbh^ghcbebg_kdhevdbo]b^jhdkh]jmii
Hgb y\eyxlky l\_j^ufb djbklZeebq_kdbfb \_s_kl\Zfb Hkgh\
gh_obfbq_kdh_k\hckl\hhkgh\Zgbckihkh[ghklv\aZbfh^_ckl\h\Zlv
k dbkehlZfb b dbkehlgufb hdkb^Zfb k h[jZah\Zgb_f khe_c Hkgh\Z
gbys_ehqguo /L1D.5E&V bs_ehqgha_f_evguof_lZeeh\ &D
6U%D jZkl\hjbfu\\h^_bgZau\Zxlkys_ehqZfbKbkl_fZlbq_kdb_
gZa\Zgbywlh]hlbiZkh_^bg_gbckhklhylbakeh\Z]b^jhdkb^bgZa\Z
gbywe_f_glZ\jh^bl_evghfiZ^_`_kmdZaZgb_f_]hkl_i_gbhdbke_
gby_kebwlhg_h[oh^bfh
LiOH ]b^jhdkb^eblby
<Z HG 2 ]b^jhdkb^[Zjby
Fe(OH)3 ]b^jhdkb^`_e_aZ(III); Re(OH)4 ]b^jhdkb^j_gby(IV).
DbkehluWlhkeh`gu_\_s_kl\Zkhklhysb_badbkehlguohklZl
dh\bh^gh]hbebg_kdhevdboZlhfh\\h^hjh^Zkihkh[guoaZf_sZlvky
gZZlhfuf_lZeeh\
Dbkehlu\_kvfZjZaghh[jZagudZdihZ]j_]Zlghfmkhklhygbx ]Z
ahh[jZagu_ `b^db_ l\_j^u_  lZd b ih nbabdh-obfbq_kdbf k\hckl
\Zf ;hevrbgkl\h dbkehl ohjhrh jZkl\hjbfh \ \h^_ Bo \Z`g_cr__
obfbq_kdh_ k\hckl\h  kihkh[ghklv h[jZah\u\Zlv kheb ijb \aZbfh
^_ckl\bbkhkgh\Zgbyfbbhkgh\gufbhdkb^Zfb
Qbkeh Zlhfh\ \h^hjh^Z \ fhe_dme_ dbkehlu kihkh[guo aZf_
sZlvkygZf_lZeegZau\Z_lkyhkgh\ghklvxdbkehlu. HNO3 h^ghhk
gh\gZy+2SO4 ^\mohkgh\gZy+3PO4 lj_ohkgh\gZy+4P2O7 q_lu
j_ohkgh\gZy&+3COOH h^ghhkgh\gZydbkehlu
G_hj]Zgbq_kdb_dbkehlu^_eylkygZkh^_j`Zsb_dbkehjh^ hdkh
dbkehlu lbiZ+nW2mb[_kdbkehjh^gu_lbiZGnXm]^_Wdbkehlh
h[jZamxsbcwe_f_glO Zlhfu]Zeh]_gh\oZevdh]_gh\bg_dhlhjuo
^jm]bowe_f_glh\nbm dhebq_kl\hkhhl\_lkl\mxsboZlhfh\
Ijh^mdluaZf_s_gby\fhe_dmeZohdkhdbkehlZlhfh\dbkehjh^Z
gZ]jmiimHHgZau\Zxlkyi_jhdkhdbkehlZfb(H2SO5 Zijh^mdlu
aZf_s_gbydbkehjh^ZgZZlhfuk_ju lbhdbkehlZfb(H3PS4).
LjZ^bpbhggh_gZa\Zgb_hdkhdbkehlukhklhblba^\mokeh\ijb
eZ]Zl_evgh]h hl dhjgy gZa\Zgby dbkehlhh[jZamxs_]h we_f_glZ b
]jmiih\h]hkeh\ZdbkehlZgZijbf_jk_jgZydbkehlZ[hjgZydbkeh
33

lZ?kebwe_f_glh[jZam_lg_kdhevdhdbkehllhjZaebqb_f_`^mgbfb
j_]mebjm_lky k ihfhsvx kmnnbdkh\ ijbkh_^bgy_fuo d dhjgx jmk
kdh]hgZa\Zgbywe_f_glZ-g-, -\-beb-_\-ijb\ukr_cbeb_^bgkl\_g
ghckl_i_gbhdbke_gbyb-h\-, -bkl-, -gh\Zl-, -gh\Zlbkl-ijbijhf_
`mlhqguobgbarbokl_i_gyohdbke_gby
Khebij_^klZ\eyxlkh[hcijh^mdluaZf_s_gbyZlhfh\\h^hjh^Z\
dbkehl_gZf_lZeebeb]jmiiuHG\hkgh\ZgbbgZdbkehlguchklZlhd
< aZ\bkbfhklb hl kl_i_gb aZf_s_gby bhgZ \h^hjh^Z \ dbkehlZo
bebHG]jmiiu\hkgh\Zgbyoh[jZamxsb_kykhebdeZkkbnbpbjmxlky
gZdbkeu_kheb ]b^jhkheb lbiZ1D+623, Mg(HCO3)2, kj_^gb_ ihegh_
aZf_s_gb_GbHG lbiZ)H2(SO4)3, Na2CO3bhkg\gu_ ]b^jhdkhkh
eb lbiZ)H 2+ &O &X2+ 2CO3.
JZaebqZxllZd`_^\hcgu_khebh[jZah\Zggu_^\mfyf_lZeeZfbb
h^gbfdbkehlgufhklZldhf .$O 624)2, KCr(SO4)2), kf_rZggu_h[jZ
ah\Zggu_ h^gbf f_lZeehf b ^\mfy dbkehlgufb hklZldZfb &D&O2&O
beb &D2&O2 6U +6 &O  b dhfie_dkgu_ kheb >$J 1+3)2]ClO4,
K3[Fe(CN)6]).
;hevrbgkl\h g_hj]Zgbq_kdbo khe_c ij_^klZ\eyxl kh[hc kh_^b
g_gbykbhgghcdjbklZeebq_kdhckljmdlmjhcbhlghkbl_evgh\ukhdb
fbl_fi_jZlmjZfbieZ\e_gbybdbi_gbyFgh]b_khebohjhrhjZkl\h
jbfu\\h^_
LjZ^bpbhggu_gZa\Zgbykhe_ckhklZ\eyxlkybagZa\ZgbcZgbhgh\
\ bf_gbl_evghf iZ^_`_bgZa\ZgbcdZlbhgh\\jh^bl_evghfiZ^_`_
GZa\Zgb_ZgbhgZ\dexqZ_ldhj_gvjmkkdh]hbebeZlbgkdh]hgZa\Zgby
dbkehlhh[jZamxs_]h we_f_glZ k ^h[Z\e_gb_f kmnnbdkZ khhl\_lkl
\mxs_]hlhcbebbghckl_i_gbhdbke_gbywe_f_glZ
?keb dbkehlhh[jZamxsbc we_f_gl bf__l lhevdh h^gm kl_i_gv
hdbke_gbylh^h[Z\ey_lkykmnnbdk-Zl-:
Na2CO3 dZj[hgZlgZljby K2SiO3 kbebdZldZeby
?kebdbkehlhh[jZamxsbcwe_f_glbf__l^\_kl_i_gbhdbke_gby
lh ijb \ukr_c kl_i_gb hdbke_gby ^h[Z\ey_lky kmnnbdk -Zl- Z ijb
gbar_c-bl-:
CaSO4 kmevnZldZevpbyMgSO3 kmevnblfZ]gby
IjbgZebqbbZgbhgh\khhl\_lkl\mxsboq_luj_fkl_i_gyfhdbk
e_gby dbkehlhh[jZamxs_]h we_f_glZ bo gZa\Zgby h[jZamxlky lZdbf
h[jZahf ^ey h[hagZq_gby \ukr_c kl_i_gb hdbke_gby bkihevamxlky
ijbklZ\dZi_j-bkmnnbdk-Zl:
KBr+7O4 i_j[jhfZldZeby
34

aZl_f \ihjy^d_mf_gvr_gbykl_i_g_chdbke_gby [_aijbklZ\dbkmnnbdk-Zl:


KBr+5O3 [jhfZldZeby
kmnnbdk-bl:
KBr+3O2 [jhfbldZeby
^eygZbf_gvr_ciheh`bl_evghckl_i_gbhdbke_gbyijbklZ\dZ ]b
ih-bkmnnbdk-bl:
KBr+1O ]bih[jhfbldZeby
Ijbihkljh_gbbljZ^bpbhgguogZa\Zgbcdbkeuokhe_cdgZa\Zgbx
ZgbhgZkj_^g_ckheb^h[Z\ey_lkyijbklZ\dZ]b^jh-bqbkeh\ZyijbklZ\
dZ_kebdhebq_kl\hZlhfh\\h^hjh^Z\Zgbhg_[hevr__^bgbpu
DGKH3 ]b^jhdZj[hgZldZeby
Fe(H2PO4)2 ^b]b^jhnhknZl`_e_aZ II).
=b^jhdkhkheb ljZ^bpbhggh gZau\Zxl ^h[Z\e_gb_f d gZa\Zgbx
dZlbhgZijbklZ\db]b^jhdkh-:
(CuOH)2CO3 dZj[hgZl]b^jhdkhf_^b II);
Al(OH)2NO3 gbljZl^b]b^jhdkhZexfbgbybl^
GZa\Zgby ^\hcguo b kf_rZgguo khe_c kljhylky h[uqguf h[jZ
ahf ?^bgkl\_ggZy hkh[_gghklv ijb ibkvf_gghc aZibkb  wlh ihklZ
gh\dZ^_nbkZ^eyjZa^_e_gby^\hcghcqZklbdZlbhgZbebZgbhgZ
^\hcgu_kheb
KCr(SO4)2 kmevnZlojhfZ III dZeby;
kf_rZggu_kheb Ca(ClO)Cl oehjb^-]bihoehjbldZevpby
AlNO3SO4 kmevnZl-gbljZlZexfbgby
LjZ^bpbhggu_ gZa\Zgby kj_^gbo khe_c gZb[he__ mihlj_[bl_evguohdkhdbkehlijb\_^_gugb`_
LjZ^bpbhggh_ gZa\Zgb_ dbkehlu

NhjfmeZ

LjZ^bpbhggh_ gZa\Zgb_ kj_^g_c kheb

;hjgZy

H3BO3

;hjZlu

M]hevgZy

H2CO3

DZj[hgZlu

F_lZdj_fgb_\Zy

H2SiO3

F_lZkbebdZlu

Hjlhdj_fgb_\Zy

H4SiO4

HjlhkbebdZlu

Furvydh\Zy

H3AsO4

:jk_gZlu

Furvydh\bklZy

H3AsO3

:jk_gblu

NhknhjgZy

H3PO4

NhknZlu

>bnhknhjgZy

H4P2O7

>bnhknZlu

NhknhjbklZy

H3PO3

Nhknblu

35

LjZ^bpbhggh_ gZa\Zgb_ dbkehlu

NhjfmeZ

LjZ^bpbhggh_ gZa\Zgb_ kj_^g_c kheb

Nhknhjgh\ZlbklZy

H3PO2

=bihnhknblu

:ahlgZy

HNO3

GbljZlu

:ahlbklZy

HNO2

Gbljblu

Ojhfh\Zy

H2CrO4

OjhfZlu

>bojhfh\Zy

H2Cr2O7

>bojhfZlu

K_jgZy

H2SO4

KmevnZlu

K_jgbklZy

H2SO3

Kmevnblu

FZj]Zgph\Zy

HMnO4

I_jfZg]ZgZlu

FZj]Zgph\bklZy

H2MnO4

FZg]ZgZlu

Oehjgh\ZlbklZy

HClO

=bihoehjblu

OehjbklZy

HClO2

Oehjblu

Oehjgh\ZlZy

HClO3

OehjZlu

OehjgZy

HClO4

I_joehjZlu

AZ^Zqb^eyj_r_gby
76. GZibkZlv nhjfmeu hdkb^h\ khhl\_lkl\mxsbo mdZaZgguf
]b^jhdkb^Zf+4SiO4, Cu(OH)2, H3AsO3, H6TeO6, Fe(OH)3.
77. KhklZ\vl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbckihfhsvxdhlhjuofh`ghhkms_
kl\blvij_\jZs_gby
Z) Ba :%D2:%D&O2 :%D 123)2 :%D624;
[) Mg :0J624 :0J 2+ 2 :0JO :0J&O2 .
78. DZdb_bamdZaZgguo]Zah\\klmiZxl\obfbq_kdh_\aZbfh^_ckl\b_
kjZkl\hjhfs_ehqb+&O+2S, NO2, N2, Cl2, CH4, SO2, NH3"GZib
kZlvmjZ\g_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxsboj_Zdpbc
79. DZdb_ kheb fh`ghihemqblvbf_y\k\h_fjZkihjy`_gbb&X624,
AgNO3, K3PO4, BaCl2"GZibkZlvmjZ\g_gbyj_ZdpbcbgZa\Zlvih
emq_ggu_kheb
80. KdZdbfbai_j_qbke_gguogb`_\_s_kl\[m^_lj_Z]bjh\Zlvkhey
gZydbkehlZ<2O3, Zn(OH)2, CaO, AgNO3, SiO2, H3PO4"KhklZ\blv
mjZ\g_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxsboj_Zdpbc
81. DZdb_ ba mdZaZgguo \_s_kl\ j_Z]bjmxl k ]b^jhdkb^hf gZljby
HNO3, CaO, CO2, CuSO4, Cd(OH)2, P4O10"KhklZ\blvmjZ\g_gbyj_
Zdpbc
82. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc k\b^_l_evkl\mxsbo h[ hkgh\guo
k\hckl\Zo)H2&V2O, HgO, Bi2O3.
36

83. GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbc^hdZau\Zxsb_dbkehlgucoZjZdl_j
SeO2, SO3, Mn2O7, P4O6, CrO3.
84. GZah\bl_ kheb: SbCl2NO3, (Fe(OH)2)2CrO4, (AlOH)SO4, Cd(HS)2,
Ca(H2PO4)2.
85. GZibkZlv mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc h[jZah\Zgby 0J2P2O7, Ca3(PO4)2,
Mg(ClO4)2, Ba(NO3)2\j_amevlZl_\aZbfh^_ckl\by
Z hkgh\gh]hbdbkehlgh]hhdkb^h\
[ hkgh\Zgbybdbkehlgh]hhdkb^Z
\ hkgh\gh]hhdkb^Zbdbkehlu
] hkgh\Zgbybdbkehlu
86. GZa\Zlv kheb =Q &+3COO)2, NaH2SbO4, K2H2P2O7, Al(OH)2NO3,
Na2Cr2O7, Ba(HSO3)2, CrOHSO4, NaHS.
87. Ijb\_^bl_ ijbf_ju hdkb^h\ dhlhju_ ijb \aZbfh^_ckl\bb k \h
^hc h[jZamxl ^\_ dbkehlu DZd \aZbfh^_ckl\mxl k jZkl\hjhf
]b^jhdkb^ZdZevpby12O3; N2O5; NO2?
88. Hkms_kl\bl_ ij_\jZs_gby q_j_a ijhf_`mlhqguc ijh^mdl
FeCl3 : Fe2O3; Al(CH3COO)3 : Al2O3; CuSO4 : CuO; MnBr2 : MnO.
DZdfh`gh^eyh^gh]hblh]h`_we_f_glZbah^gh]hhdkb^Zihem
qblv^jm]hcgZijbf_j&X2ba&X2O)H2ba)H2O3; P4O10ba34O6;
0Q2ba0Q2O7; NO2ba12"
89. GZdZdhfjZaebqbb\k\hckl\Zofh`_l[ulvhkgh\ZghjZa^_e_gb_
ke_^mxsbohdkb^h\%D2b0J23E2b=Q26L22b1D220Q2b
=Q2)H2b6L22?
90. Q_fhij_^_ey_lkyhkgh\ghklvdbkehl"Ijb\_^bl_ijbf_judbkehl
jZaghchkgh\ghklbbgZibrbl_bo]jZnbq_kdb_nhjfmeuDZdke_
^m_ljZkkfZljb\Zlvkljh_gb_fhe_dmeunhknhjbklhcdbkehlubk
oh^ybolh]hqlhhgZ\_^_lk_[ylhevdhdZd^\mohkgh\gZy"
91. GZ ijbf_j_ f_lZ- hjlh- ihebnhknhjguo dbkehl ihdZ`bl_ q_f
hlebqZxlkywlbnhjfmeu^jm]hl^jm]ZbijbdZdbomkeh\byoijh
bkoh^ylbo\aZbfhij_\jZs_gby"
92. DZdb_ kh_^bg_gby h[jZamxlky ijb l_jfbq_kdhf jZaeh`_gbb ke_
^mxsbo dbkehl beb ^_ckl\bb gZ gbo \h^hhlgbfZxsbo kj_^kl\
HNO2; HClO; H3PO3; H2WO4; H3AsO4; HBO2; H2B4O7; HAsO3;
H2S3O10?
93. KdZdbfbbai_j_qbke_gguo\_s_kl\\aZbfh^_ckl\m_lkheygZydb
kehlZ&D212O3; AgNO3; SO3; Pb(NO3)2; CuSO4; FeS; FeO; Cu; Zn?
94. Hkgh\gu_k\hckl\ZdZdh]h]b^jhdkb^Z\ujZ`_gukbevg__bihq_
fm $V 2+ 3 beb %L 2+ 3; Sn(OH)2 beb 6Q 2+ 4; Fe(OH)2 beb
Fe(OH)3; Ba(OH)2beb%H 2+ 2?
37

95. Hij_^_ebl_fZkkm]b^jhdkb^ZgZljbydhlhjucfh`_l[ulvihem
q_gbafhjkdhckhebfZkkhclijbmkeh\bbqlhfZkkh\Zy^hey
oehjb^ZgZljby\g_ckhklZ\ey_l
96. GZc^bl_ fZkkh\mx ^hex ]b^jhdkb^Z gZljby ij_\jZlb\r_]hky \
dZj[hgZlaZkq_lih]ehs_gby&22\ha^moZ_kebfZkkZ]b^jhdkb^Z
\hajhkeZk^h]Q_fmjZ\_gh[t_f gm ih]ehs_ggh]h
ijbwlhfKH2?
97. < dZdhf h[t_fghf hlghr_gbb ^he`gu [ulv kf_rZgu jZkl\hju
G3JH4b1D2+h^bgZdh\hcfheyjghcdhgp_gljZpbb^eyihemq_
gby]b^jh-b^b]b^jhnhknZlZgZljby"
98. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc dhlhju_ ihke_^h\Zl_evgh ijhl_
dZxlijbihkl_i_gghf^h[Z\e_gbb
Z 1D2+djZkl\hjm]b^jhkmevnZlZpbgdZ
[ k_jghcdbkehludk\_`_hkZ`^_gghfm]b^jhdkb^mZexfbgby
99. GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbcijbihfhsbdhlhjuoi_j_qbke_g
gu_ gb`_ kheb fh]ml [ulv i_j_\_^_gu \ kj_^gb_ &X2+ 2SO4,
Ca(HCO3)2, [Al(OH)2]2SO4, [Cr(OH)2]2SO4, FeOHSO4, (BiOH)SO4.
100. DZdb_ ba khe_c <ZClNO3, KNa2PO4, Pb(CH3COO)2, (BiO)2SO4,
Fe(OH)2NO3 \aZbfh^_ckl\mxl k Z  H2SO4 [  NaOH" GZah\bl_
bkoh^gu_ kheb b ijh^mdlu \hafh`guo j_Zdpbc gZibrbl_ bo
]jZnbq_kdb_nhjfmeu
101. DZdbfbkihkh[Zfbfh`ghihemqblvbah^ghckheb^jm]mx
[) CuCl2 :&X624,
Z) Pb(NO3)2:3E624,
]) K2CrO4 :%D&U24,
\) Fe2(SO4)3 :)H&O3,
_) BaCO3 :%D&O2?
^) NaAlO2 :$O2(SO4)3,
102. GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbcdhlhju_ijhl_dZxl\\h^ghfjZk
l\hj_f_`^m)H6b+&O &X2+ 2CO3b+2SO4, Ca(HCO3)2b1D2+
NaHSO4b1+3, Al(H2PO4)3b&D 2+ 2.
103. L_jfbq_kdbfjZaeh`_gb_fdZdbokhe_cfh`ghihemqblvljbhd
kb^Z\jZaguoZ]j_]Zlguokhklhygbyo"
104. GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbcdhlhju_ijhl_dZxl\\h^ghfjZk
l\hj_ f_`^m ke_^mxsbfb \_s_kl\Zfb &D 2+ 2 b 122; NH3 b
SO2; CaCl2 b 1D2HPO4; H2SO4 b )H2+624; CaHAsO3 b %D 2+ 2;
Mg(HCO3)2b&D 2+ 2; KAl(SO4)2b.2+1+4Cr(SO4)2b%D&O2.
105. Ijb ihfhsb dZdbo j_Zdpbc fh`gh hkms_kl\blv ke_^mxsb_ i_
j_oh^uhlh^gh]h\_s_kl\Zd^jm]hfm
Z) KAl(SO4)2 :$O&O3 :$O2O3;
[) Fe2(SO4)3 :)H123SO4 :)H&O3 :)H2O3;
\) Fe2(SO4)3 :)H2O3 :)H2: 1+4)2Fe(SO4)2 :)H&O3;
]) Fe :)H&O2 :)H&O3 :)H2+624 :)H&O624 :)H2O3 :)H
^) Zn :=Q6:=Q2: =Q2+ 2SO4 :=Q&O2 :=Q
38

=E:<:,,,
WG?J=?LBD:OBFBQ?KDBOJ?:DPBC
L_jfh^bgZfbdZbamqZ_laZdhghf_jghklbh[f_gZwg_j]b_cf_`^m
kbkl_fhcb\g_rg_ckj_^hc\hafh`ghklvgZijZ\e_gb_bij_^_eukZ
fhijhba\hevgh]hijhl_dZgbyobfbq_kdboijhp_kkh\
Kbkl_fZ  kh\hdmighklv \_s_kl\ beb qZklbp hl^_e_gguo hl
\g_rg_c kj_^u JZaebqZxl ]hfh]_ggu_ b ]_l_jh]_ggu_ kbkl_fu =h
fh]_ggu_ kbkl_fu khklhyl ba h^ghc nZau ]_l_jh]_ggu_ kbkl_fu
ba ^\mo beb [he__ nZa NZaZ  wlh qZklv kbkl_fu h^ghjh^gZy \h
\k_o__lhqdZoihobfbq_kdhfmkhklZ\mbk\hckl\Zfbhl^_e_ggZyhl
^jm]bonZakbkl_fuih\_joghklvxjZa^_eZ
Obfbq_kdZy kbkl_fZ oZjZdl_jbam_lky hij_^_e_ggufb iZjZf_l
jZfb. D iZjZf_ljZf kbkl_fu hlghkylky l_fi_jZlmjZ L ^Z\e_gb_ j,
h[t_fVfZkkZmbdhgp_gljZpbyk
L_jfh^bgZfbq_kdh_khklhygb_kbkl_fuhibku\Z_lkynmgdpbyfb
khklhygby dhlhju_ h^ghagZqgh hij_^_eyxlky q_j_a iZjZf_lju kh
klhygby j, V b L Baf_g_gb_ ohly [u h^gh]h ba gbo \e_q_l aZ kh[hc
baf_g_gb_\k_onmgdpbckhklhygbykbkl_fuIhke_^gb_g_aZ\bkylhl
imlbb\j_f_gbijhp_kkZijb\h^ysbokbkl_fm\^Zggh_khklhygb_D
nmgdpbyf khklhygby gZau\Z_fuo lZd`_ l_jfh^bgZfbq_kdbfb ih
l_gpbZeZfb hlghkylky
U \gmlj_ggyywg_j]by
G wglZeviby
S wgljhiby
G wg_j]by=b[[kZ k\h[h^gZywg_j]by 
<gmlj_ggyy wg_j]by kbkl_fu U  wlh __ ihegZy wg_j]by kh
klhysZy ba dbg_lbq_kdhc b ihl_gpbZevghc wg_j]bb \k_o qZklbp kbk
l_fu fhe_dme Zlhfh\ y^_j we_dljhgh\  Ihkdhevdm iheguc mq_l
\k_o khklZ\eyxsbo g_\hafh`_g ihwlhfm ijb l_jfh^bgZfbq_kdhf
bamq_gbb kbkl_fu ^hklZlhqgh agZlv ebrv baf_g_gb_ __ \gmlj_gg_c
wg_j]bbijbi_j_oh^_bah^gh]hkhklhygby U1 \^jm]h_ U2):
U = U2 U1.
;hevrbgkl\h obfbq_kdbo j_Zdpbc b^_l ijb ihklhygghf ^Z\e_gbb
(bah[Zjgu_ ijhp_kku  b kbkl_fZ fh`_l h[f_gb\Zlvky wg_j]b_c l_iehlhc4 khdjm`Zxs_ckj_^hcbkh\_jrZlvjZ[hlm:ijhlb\kbe\g_rg_]h^Z\e_gbybebgZh[hjhlgZ^kbkl_fhcfh`_l[ulvkh\_jr_gZjZ[hlZ
U = Q + A .
39

<h[s_f\b^_jZ[hlZ
A = p(V2 V1) = pV.
?keb gZ^ kbkl_fhc kh\_jrZ_lky jZ[hlZ lh hgZ kqblZ_lky iheh
`bl_evghc Z _keb kbkl_fZ kZfZ kh\_jrZ_l jZ[hlm lh lZdZy jZ[hlZ
kqblZ_lkyhljbpZl_evghc:
A = pV.
Ihwlhfm\gZr_fkemqZ_ j = const):
U = Qp pV

beb
hldm^Z

U2 U1= Qj p(V2 V1),

Qp = (U2+ pV2) (U1+ pV1).


Nmgdpby U + pV h[hagZq_ggZy q_j_a G gZau\Z_lky wglZevib_c.
WglZeviby_klvnmgdpbykhklhygbybbf__ljZaf_jghklvwg_j]bb d>` 
Qp = H2 H1 = H.
L_ieh\hc wnn_dl j_Zdpbb ijb ihklhygghf ^Z\e_gbb b l_fi_jZ
lmj_khhl\_lkl\m_lbaf_g_gbxwglZevibbkbkl_fu\oh^_j_ZdpbbHg
aZ\bkblhlijbjh^uj_Z]_glh\bijh^mdlh\bonbabq_kdh]hkhklhygby
mkeh\bc L, j  ijh\_^_gby j_Zdpbb Z lZd`_ hl dhebq_kl\Z \_s_kl\
mqZkl\mxsbo\j_Zdpbb
H[uqgh l_jfh^bgZfbq_kdb_ \_ebqbgu hij_^_eyxl ijb klZg
^Zjlguo mkeh\byo: j dIZbL D  hK 
KlZg^ZjlgZywglZevibyj_Zdpbbh[jZah\Zgbyfhev^Zggh]h\_s_
kl\Z ba ijhkluo \_s_kl\ gZoh^ysboky \ klZg^Zjlguo khklhygbyo gZau\Z_lkyklZg^ZjlghcwglZevib_ch[jZah\Zgbywlh]h\_s_kl\ZgZijbf_j
f H 0298 (CO2) =  d>`fhev f H 0298 (HgO) = 90,9 d>`fhev Wg
lZevibyh[jZah\Zgbyijhkluo\_s_kl\\klZg^Zjlghfkhklhygbbijb
gbfZ_lkyjZ\ghc.
Obfbq_kdb_mjZ\g_gby\dhlhjuomdZaZgubaf_g_gbywglZevibb
l_ieh\u_wnn_dluj_Zdpbc gZau\Zxlkyl_jfhobfbq_kdbfb mjZ\g_
gbyfb:
beb

K ]jZnbl H ] KH ] ; G 0298 = d>`

K ]jZnbl H ] KH ] d>`


?keb\j_amevlZl_j_Zdpbbl_iehlZ\u^_ey_lky Q >  lhwglZeviby
kbkl_fuihgb`Z_lky H <  LZdZyj_ZdpbygZau\Z_lkywdahl_jfbq_k40

dhc J_Zdpby ijhl_dZxsZy k ih]ehs_gb_f l_iehlu Q <   l _ k ih\ur_gb_fwglZevibbkbkl_fu H >  gZau\Z_lkywg^hl_jfbq_kdhc.
Hkgh\gufaZdhghfl_jfhobfbby\ey_lkyaZdhg=_kkZ l_ieh
\hcwnn_dlj_Zdpbbhij_^_ey_lkylhevdhgZqZevgufbdhg_qgufkh
klhygb_fkbkl_fubg_aZ\bkblhlimlbi_j_oh^Zkbkl_fubah^gh
]hkhklhygby\^jm]h_.
Ke_^kl\b_baaZdhgZ=_kkZ klZg^Zjlgucl_ieh\hcwnn_dlj_
ZdpbbjZ\_gkmff_klZg^Zjlguol_iehlh[jZah\Zgbyijh^mdlh\j_
Zdpbb aZ \uq_lhf kmffu klZg^Zjlguo l_iehl h[jZah\Zgby bkoh^
guo\_s_kl\kmq_lhfkl_obhf_ljbq_kdbodhwnnbpb_glh\
G 0298  j-pbb  f G 0298  ijh^ f G 0298  bko
Ijbf_j  Ihevamykv ^Zggufb h klZg^Zjlguo wglZevibyo h[jZ
ah\Zgby\_s_kl\\j_Zdpbb0J d + CO ] = 2MgO d + C ]jZnbl \uqbk
eblvGh j_Zdpbb
J_r_gb_
Bkoh^ybalZ[ebqguo^ZgguoihwglZevibyfh[jZah\Zgby&22b
0J2 b mqblu\Zy qlh klZg^Zjlgu_ wglZevibb h[jZah\Zgby \_s_kl\
jZ\gugmexgZoh^bf\_ebqbgmklZg^ZjlghcwglZevibbj_Zdpbb
G 0298 =2f G 0298 (MgO) f G 0298 (CO2) =
= 601,8 .2 + 393,5 = d>`fhev
Ijbf_j  Bkoh^y ba l_iehlu h[jZah\Zgby ]Zahh[jZagh]h ^bhd
kb^Zm]e_jh^Z &22) = d>`fhev bl_jfhobfbq_kdh]hmjZ\g_
gbyK ]jZnbl + 2N2O ]  KH ] + 2N ] ; G 0298 = d>`<uqbkeblv
l_iehlmh[jZah\Zgby12O ] .
J_r_gb_
hldm^Z

G 0298 j-pbb   f G 0298 (CO2) + 0) (2fG 0298 (N2O) + 0),


2fG 0298 (N2O) = f G 0298 (CO2) G 0298  j-pbb 
393,5 (  d>`

Ke_^h\Zl_evghf G 0298 (N22   d>`fhev


GZijZ\e_gb_\dhlhjhfkZfhijhba\hevghijhl_dZ_lobfbq_kdZy
j_Zdpbyhij_^_ey_lkykh\f_klguf^_ckl\b_f^\monZdlhjh\ l_g
^_gpb_c d i_j_oh^m kbkl_fu \ khklhygb_ k gZbf_gvr_c \gmlj_gg_c
wg_j]b_c \kemqZ_bah[Zjguoijhp_kkh\kgZbf_gvr_cwglZevib_c 
  l_g^_gpb_c d ^hklb`_gbx gZb[he__ \_jhylgh]h khklhygby l _
khklhygby dhlhjh_ fh`_l [ulv j_Zebah\Zgh gZb[hevrbf qbkehf
jZ\gh\_jhylguokihkh[h\ fbdjhkhklhygbc 
41

F_jhci_j\hcbawlbol_g^_gpbc^eybah[Zjguoijhp_kkh\kem
`blbaf_g_gb_wglZevibb\obfbq_kdhcj_ZdpbbhljbpZl_evgucagZd
GmdZau\Z_lgZmf_gvr_gb_Ziheh`bl_evgucgZ\hajZklZgb_wg
lZevibbkbkl_fu
F_jhc \_jhylghklb g_mihjy^hq_gghklb [_kihjy^dZ  khklhygby
kbkl_fu \ l_jfh^bgZfbd_ ijbgylh kqblZlv wgljhibx S  \_ebqbgm
ijhihjpbhgZevgmx eh]Zjbnfm qbkeZ jZ\gh\_jhylguo fbdjhkhklhy
gbcq_j_adhlhju_fh`_l[ulvj_Zebah\Zgh^Zggh_fZdjhkhklhygb_
S = k . ln W.
?^bgbpZbaf_j_gbywgljhibb>`fhevK.
Wgljhiby\hajZklZ_lijbi_j_oh^_\_s_kl\ZbadjbklZeebq_kdh]h
khklhygby \ `b^dh_ b ba `b^dh]h \ ]Zahh[jZagh_ ijb jZkl\hj_gbb
djbklZeeh\ijbjZkrbj_gbb]Zah\ijbobfbq_kdbo\aZbfh^_ckl\byo
ijb\h^ysbodm\_ebq_gbxqbkeZqZklbpbij_`^_\k_]hqZklbp\]Z
ahh[jZaghfkhklhygbbGZijhlb\\k_ijhp_kku\j_amevlZl_dhlhjuo
mihjy^hq_gghklv kbkl_fu \hajZklZ_l dhg^_gkZpby ihebf_jbaZpby
k`Zlb_ mf_gvr_gb_ qbkeZ qZklbp  khijh\h`^Zxlky mf_gvr_gb_f
wgljhibb
Ijbf_jG_ijhba\h^y\uqbke_gbchij_^_eblvagZdbaf_g_gby
wgljhibb\ke_^mxsboj_Zdpbyo
NH4NO d = N2O ] G2H ] ;
(1)
(2)
G ] H ]  G2H ] ;
G ] H ]  G2H ` .
(3)
J_r_gb_
<j_Zdpbb  fhev\_s_kl\Z\djbklZeebq_kdhfkhklhygbbh[
jZam_l  fhev ]Zah\ ke_^h\Zl_evgh S1 >  < j_Zdpbyo   b  
mf_gvrZ_lkydZdh[s__qbkehfhe_clZdbqbkehfhe_c]Zahh[jZaguo
\_s_kl\lZdqlhS2 < bS3 < IjbwlhfS3bf__l[he__hljbpZ
l_evgh_agZq_gb_q_fS2lZddZdS(H2O ` ) < S(H2O ] ).
>ey wgljhibb kijZ\_^eb\h ml\_j`^_gb_ ZgZeh]bqgh_ jZkkfhl
j_gghfm \ur_ ^ey G: baf_g_gb_ wgljhibb kbkl_fu \ j_amevlZl_
obfbq_kdhcj_Zdpbb 6 jZ\ghkmff_wgljhibcijh^mdlh\j_ZdpbbaZ
\uq_lhfkmffuwgljhibcbkoh^guo\_s_kl\DZdbijb\uqbke_gbb
wglZevibbkmffbjh\Zgb_ijhba\h^ylkmq_lhfkl_obhf_ljbq_kdbodh
wnnbpb_glh\
KlZg^ZjlgZywgljhibyijhkluo\_s_kl\\hlebqb_hlwglZevibbh[jZah\Zgbyijhkluo\_s_kl\g_jZ\gZgmex
42

Nmgdpb_ckhklhygbyh^gh\j_f_gghhljZ`Zxs_c\ebygb_h[_bo
mihfygmluo\ur_l_g^_gpbcgZgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyobfbq_kdbo
ijhp_kkh\ kem`bl wg_j]by =b[[kZ (k\h[h^gZy wg_j]by  k\yaZggZy k
wglZevib_cbwgljhib_ckhhlghr_gb_f
G = H TS,
]^_L Z[khexlgZyl_fi_jZlmjZ
DZd \b^gh wg_j]by =b[[kZ bf__l lm `_ jZaf_jghklv qlh b wg
lZevibybihwlhfmh[uqgh\ujZ`Z_lky\>`bebd>`
>eybah[Zjgh-bahl_jfbq_kdboijhp_kkh\ l_ijhp_kkh\ijhl_
dZxsboijbihklhygguol_fi_jZlmj_b^Z\e_gbb baf_g_gb_wg_j]bb
=b[[kZjZ\gh
G =H TS.
DZdb\kemqZ_HbS, baf_g_gb_wg_j]bb=b[[kZ G \j_amev
lZl_ obfbq_kdhc j_Zdpbb (wg_j]by =b[[kZ j_Zdpbb  jZ\gh kmff_
wg_j]bc =b[[kZ h[jZah\Zgby ijh^mdlh\ j_Zdpbb aZ \uq_lhf kmffu
wg_j]bc=b[[kZh[jZah\Zgbybkoh^guo\_s_kl\kmffbjh\Zgb_ijhba
\h^ylkmq_lhfqbkeZfhe_cmqZkl\mxsbo\j_Zdpbb\_s_kl\
Wg_j]bx =b[[kZ h[jZah\Zgby \_s_kl\Z hlghkyl d  fhex wlh]h
\_s_kl\Zbh[uqgh\ujZ`Zxl\d>`fhevijbwlhfG0 h[jZah\Zgby
gZb[he__ mklhcqb\hc fh^bnbdZpbb ijhklh]h \_s_kl\Z ijbgbfZxl
jZ\ghcgmex.
Ijbihklhygkl\_l_fi_jZlmjub^Z\e_gbyobfbq_kdb_j_Zdpbbfh]mlkZfhijhba\hevghijhl_dZlvlhevdh\lZdhfgZijZ\e_gbbijbdhlhjhfwg_j]by=b[[kZkbkl_fumf_gvrZ_lky G < 0)Wlh_klvmkeh\b_
ijbgpbibZevghc\hafh`ghklbhkms_kl\e_gby^Zggh]hijhp_kkZ
< ijb\_^_gghc lZ[ebp_ ihdZaZgZ \hafh`ghklv b mkeh\by ijhl_
dZgbyj_ZdpbbijbjZaebqguokhq_lZgbyoagZdh\GbS.
AgZd baf_g_gby nmgdpbb
/

IjbgpbibZevgZy \hafh`ghklv
b mkeh\by ijhl_dZgby j_Zdpbb
<hafh`gZijbex[hcl_fi_jZlmj_
IjbgpbibZevghg_\hafh`gZ
<hafh`gZijbgbadbol_fi_jZlmjZo
<hafh`gZijb\ukhdbol_fi_jZlmjZo

Ijbf_j . Ihevamykv kijZ\hqgufb ^Zggufb mklZgh\blv \ha


fh`ghebijbl_fi_jZlmjZobD\hkklZgh\e_gb_hdkb^ZlblZ
gZ ,9 ^hk\h[h^gh]hf_lZeeZihko_f_
TiO d K ]jZnbl = Ti d KH ] ?
43

AZ\bkbfhklvxGhbShhll_fi_jZlmjuij_g_[j_qv
J_r_gb_
AgZq_gbyG 0h[j  \d>`fhev ijbD^eyTiO2 ( bCH
( Lh]^Z^eyjZkkfZljb\Z_fhcj_ZdpbbG 0298 = 137,12 (888,6) =
d>`IhkdhevdmG 0298 !\hkklZgh\e_gb_TiO2 ijbDg_
\hafh`gh
>eyjZkq_lZG 02500 \hkihevam_fkymjZ\g_gb_fG = Ho TSo.
Ijb wlhf \ khhl\_lkl\bb k mdZaZgb_f \ mkeh\bb aZ^Zqb bkihevam_f
agZq_gbyGh bSoijbD>eyjZkq_lZHobSoj_Zdpbcg_h[oh
^bfhgZclb\lZ[ebp_agZq_gbyG 0h[j ^eyTiO2 ( bKH 110,5),
ZlZd`_agZq_gbySo^eyTiO2  K  Ti  bKH  
Lh]^Z^eyjZkkfZljb\Z_fhcj_Zdpbb
Ho = 110,5 2 (  d>`
So = 30,6 + 197,5 2 50,3 5,7 2 = >`D
L_i_jvgZoh^bfG 02500 j_Zdpbb\ujZ`ZySo\d>`D
G 02500 = G 02500 TS 02500 = 722,9 2500 363,9/1000 =
= 722,9 909,8 = d>`
LZdbf h[jZahf G 02500 <  lZd qlh \hkklZgh\e_gb_ TiO2 ]jZnb
lhfijbD\hafh`gh
<hijhku^eykZfhklhyl_evghcih^]hlh\db
1. >Zcl_ hij_^_e_gb_ ihgylbyf kbkl_fZ nZaZ kj_^Z fZdjh- b
fbdjhkhklhygb_.
2. DZdb_kbkl_fugZau\Zxlky]hfh]_ggufbZdZdb_]_l_jh]_ggufb"
3. DZdb_^\ZnZdlhjZhij_^_eyxlkZfhijhba\hevgh_ijhl_dZgb_ob
fbq_kdboj_Zdpbc\^ZgghfgZijZ\e_gbb"
4. GZah\bl_ hkgh\gu_ l_jfh^bgZfbq_kdb_ \_ebqbgu oZjZdl_jb
amxsb_khklhygb_kbkl_fuIhq_fmhgbghkylgZa\Zgb_nmgdpbc
khklhygby?
5. JZkkfhljbl_ kfuke ihgylbc \gmlj_ggyy wg_j]by kbkl_fu b wg
lZeviby Ijb\_^bl_ ijbf_ju j_Zdpbc m dhlhjuo > U b
U > .
6. DZdb_ nZdlhju hij_^_eyxl \_ebqbgm baf_g_gbywglZevibbj_Zd
pbb"DZdaZ\bkblwlZ\_ebqbgZhlwg_j]bbZdlb\Zpbbimlbbmkeh
\byijhl_dZgbyijhp_kkZijbkmlkl\bydZlZebaZlhjh\"
44

7. Fh]ml eb [ulv wdahl_jfbqgufb ijhp_kku ^bkkhpbZpbb fhe_dme


gZ Zlhfubhguwg^hl_jfbqgufbijhp_kkuh[jZah\Zgbyfhe_
dmebaZlhfh\jZ^bdZeh\ba^jm]bofhe_dme"
8. H[tykgbl_ kfuke ihgylby wglZeviby h[jZah\Zgby \_s_kl\Z.
Knhjfmebjmcl_ mkeh\by klZg^ZjlbaZpbb wlhc oZjZdl_jbklbdb
Q_fhlebqZxlkyklZg^Zjlgu_mkeh\byhlghjfZevguo"
9. Knhjfmebjmcl_aZdhg=_kkZDZdZyk\yavf_`^ml_ieh\ufwnn_d
lhf wglZevib_c  j_Zdpbb b wglZevibyfb h[jZah\Zgby bkoh^guo
\_s_kl\bijh^mdlh\j_Zdpbb"
10. Q_f h[tykgy_lky kZfhijhba\hevgh_ ijhl_dZgb_ g_dhlhjuo j_Zd
pbckih]ehs_gb_fl_ieZ >0)?
11. >Zcl_h[tykg_gb_ihgylbywgljhiby.
12. G_ ijh\h^y jZkq_lZ hij_^_ebl_agZdbaf_g_gbywgljhibb\oh^_
ke_^mxsboijhp_kkh\
Z +2 ] + O ] = 2H2O ] ;
[ +2S ] + 3O ] = 2 H2O ` + 2 SO ] ;
\ MgO d + CO ] = MgCO d ;
] e_^\h^ZiZj
^) CH3COOH (j-j) = CH3COO++.
13. >Zcl_hij_^_e_gb_ihgylbywg_j]by=b[[kZ.
14. DZdh\hkhhlghr_gb_f_`^m\_ebqbghcbaf_g_gbywg_j]bb=b[[kZ
b\_ebqbgZfbbaf_g_gbywglZevibbbwgljhibbkbkl_fu"
15. Ihq_fmGfh`_ljZkkfZljb\ZlvkydZddjbl_jbckZfhijhba\hev
ghklbijhl_dZgbyobfbq_kdhcj_Zdpbb"<hafh`guebkemqZbdh
]^Zj_ZdpbbkG < ijZdlbq_kdbg_b^ml">Zcl_h[tykg_gb_
16. Mqblu\ZyjhevwglZevibcgh]hbwgljhibcgh]hnZdlhjh\bl_fi_
jZlmju\hij_^_e_gbb\_ebqbguG\u^_ebl_q_luj_h[sbolbiZ
j_Zdpbc jZaebqZxsboky \hafh`ghklvxbl_fi_jZlmjgufbmkeh
\byfbijhl_dZgby
AZ^Zqb^eyj_r_gby
106. Qlh gZau\Zxl l_ieh\ufb wnn_dlZfb j_Zdpbc" < dZdbo kemqZyo
mjZ\g_gbyobfbq_kdboj_ZdpbcgZau\Zxll_jfhobfbq_kdbfb"
107. DZdb_mkeh\bykhklhygbykbkl_fuijbgbfZxl\l_jfh^bgZfbd_\
dZq_kl\_klZg^Zjlguo"DZdbfbkbf\heZfbboh[hagZqZxl"
108. QlhgZau\Zxl\gmlj_gg_cwg_j]b_ckbkl_fu"Ihq_fm\l_jfh^b
gZfbq_kdbojZkq_lZobkihevamxlg_Z[khexlgu_agZq_gby\gml
j_gg_c wg_j]bb U Z __ baf_g_gb_ U ijb i_j_oh^_ kbkl_fu ba
h^gh]hkhklhygby\^jm]h_"
45

109. DZdbf mjZ\g_gb_f hij_^_ey_lky wglZeviby b __ baf_g_gb_" DZ


dhc aZdhg y\ey_lky hkgh\guf aZdhghf l_jfhobfbb" >Zcl_ _]h
nhjfmebjh\dm
110. DZdhcnmgdpb_ckhklhygbyoZjZdl_jbam_lkyl_g^_gpbykbkl_fud
^hklb`_gbxlZdgZau\Z_fh]hgZb[he__\_jhylgh]hkhklhygbydh
lhjhfm khhl\_lkl\m_l fZdkbfZevgZy [_kihjy^hqghklv jZkij_^_
e_gbyqZklbp"
111. DZdbaf_gy_lkywgljhibykbkl_fukih\ur_gb_fl_fi_jZlmju\
j_Zdpbyokbgl_aZbjZaeh`_gby\_s_kl\"
112. DZd baf_gy_lky wgljhiby kbkl_fu ijb bkiZj_gbb dhg^_gkZpbb
m\_ebq_gbb^Z\e_gbynZah\uoi_j_oh^Zo"
113. DZdbfb h^gh\j_f_ggh ^_ckl\mxsbfb nZdlhjZfb hij_^_ey_lky
gZijZ\e_gghklvobfbq_kdh]hijhp_kkZ"
114. Ijbkh_^bg_gbb]`_e_aZkk_jhc\u^_ebehkvd>`JZk
kqblZlvl_iehlmh[jZah\Zgbykmevnb^Z`_e_aZ
115. Hij_^_eblv klZg^Zjlgmx wglZevibx G 0298  h[jZah\Zgby JG3,
bkoh^ybamjZ\g_gby
2PH ] H ]  J2H d G2H ` ; Gh = d>`
116. Bkoh^ybal_ieh\h]hwnn_dlZj_Zdpbb
KZH d J2H d  KZ3 JH4) d ; Gh = d>`
hij_^_eblvG 0298 h[jZah\ZgbyhjlhnhknZlZdZevpby
117. KjZ\gblvG 0298 j_Zdpbb\hkklZgh\e_gbyhdkb^Z`_e_aZ III jZa
ebqgufb\hkklZgh\bl_eyfbijbD
Z )H2O d + 3H2 = 2 Fe d + 3H2O ] ;
[ )H2O d K ]jZnbl = 2 Fe d KH ] ;
\ )H2O d KH ] = 2 Fe d KH ] .
118. <uqbkeblvagZq_gb_Gh ^eyijhl_dZxsbo\hj]Zgbaf_j_Zdpbc
ij_\jZs_gby]exdhau
Z K6G12H d  K2G5HG ` KH ] ;
[ K6G12H d H ]  KH ] G2H ` .
DZdZybawlboj_ZdpbcihklZ\ey_lhj]Zgbafm[hevr_wg_j]bb"
119. G_ ijhba\h^y \uqbke_gbc mklZgh\blv agZd Sh ke_^mxsbo
ijhp_kkh\
Z 1+ ] = N ] + 3H ] ;
[ KH d  KH ] ;
\ 12 ] + O ] = 2NO ] ;
] +2S ] + 3O ] = 2H2O ` + 2SO ] ;
^ K+3OH ] + 3O ] = 4H2O ] KH ] .
46

120. G_ijhba\h^y\uqbke_gbcmdZaZlv^eydZdbobai_j_qbke_gguo
ijhp_kkh\baf_g_gb_wgljhibbiheh`bl_evgh
Z 0J2 d + H ] = Mg d + H2O ` ;
[ K ]jZnbl KH ]  KH ] ;
\ KG3KHHG \h^g  KG3KHH- \h^g G+ \h^g ;
] G&O ] H ] = 2Cl ] G2H ] ;
^ 1+4NO d = N2O ])G2H ] .
121. MklZgh\blv ijhl_dZgb_ dZdbo ba gb`_ke_^mxsbo j_Zdpbc \ha
fh`gh\klZg^Zjlguomkeh\byo
Z 1 ] + H ] = N2O ] ;
[ +&O ] H ] = 2Cl ] G2H ` ;
\ )H2O d KH ] = 2Fe d KH ] .
122. MdZaZlvdZdb_baj_Zdpbch[jZah\Zgbyhdkb^h\ZahlZbijbdZdbo
l_fi_jZlmjZo \ukhdbobebgbadbo fh]mlijhl_dZlvkZfhijhba
\hevgh
Z 1 ] H ] = 2N2O ] ; Gh298 > 0
[ 1 ] H ] = 2NO ] ; Gh298 > 0
\ 12 ] + O ] = 2NO d ;
Gh298 < 0
] 12 ] + NO ] = N2O d ;Gh298 < 0
123. Hij_^_ebl_agZq_gbyGh298, h298 bSh298 ^eygb`_ijb\_^_gguo
j_ZdpbcbmklZgh\bl_l_fi_jZlmjgu_mkeh\bybohkms_kl\e_gby
\ijyfhfgZijZ\e_gbb
Z 1L2 d +Pb d =Ni d + PbO d ;
[ 1+ ] = 3H ] + N ] ;
\ &D&2 d = CaO d KH ] .
124. Ih baf_g_gbx klZg^Zjlghc wglZevibb b wgljZibb j_Zdpbb \u
qbkeblvbaf_g_gb_wg_j]bb=b[[kZ
H ] + F ] = 2HF ]
125. Hp_gblv l_jfh^bgZfbq_kdmx \hafh`ghklv ijhl_dZgby \ klZg
^Zjlguomkeh\byoj_Zdpbb
N ] + 2H2O ` = NH4NO l .
126. Bkihevamy kijZ\hqgu_ ^Zggu_ hij_^_eblv dZdZy ba j_Zdpbc
l_jfh^bgZfbq_kdb\hafh`gZ\klZg^Zjlguomkeh\byo
a) CaCO3(l) = CaO(l) + CO2(]);
[) CO2(]) + CaO(l) = CaCO3(l);
\) Ca(OH)2(l) + CO2(]) = CaCO3(l) + H2O(`).
127. Hp_gblv ijbgpbibZevgmx \hafh`ghklv hkms_kl\e_gby j_Zdpbb
f_`^m dhfihg_glZfb Zlfhkn_ju Z  ijb klZg^Zjlguo mkeh\byo
[ ijbih\ur_gghcl_fi_jZlmj_
1) N ] + O ] :NO ] ; NO ] ;
2) N2(]) +H2O(`) :1+4NO2(l);
3) N2(]) + H2O(`) + O2(]) :1+4NO3(l);
4) N2(]) + H2O(`) + O2(]) :+123(`).
47

=E:<:IV
HKGH<UOBFBQ?KDHCDBG?LBDB
OBFBQ?KDH?J:<GH<?KB?
NZdlhju\ebyxsb_gZkdhjhklvobfbq_kdhcj_Zdpbb
Kdhjhklv ]hfh]_gghc j_Zdpbb  wlh \_ebqbgZ qbke_ggh jZ\gZy
baf_g_gbxdhgp_gljZpbb h[uqghfheyjghc ex[h]hmqZklgbdZj_Zd
pbb\_^bgbpm\j_f_gb
Kj_^gyykdhjhklvj_Zdpbbvkj \bgl_j\Ze_\j_f_gbhlt1 ^h t2 hi
c c
c
j_^_ey_lkykhhlghr_gb_f vkj = 2 1 =
.
t 2 t1
t
Hkgh\gu_ nZdlhju \ebyxsb_ gZ kdhjhklv ]hfh]_gghc obfbq_
kdhcj_Zdpbb
ijbjh^Zj_Z]bjmxsbo\_s_kl\
dhgp_gljZpby^Z\e_gb_ _keb\j_ZdpbbmqZkl\mxl]Zau 
l_fi_jZlmjZ
dZlZebaZlhj
<k_obfbq_kdb_j_ZdpbbihklZ^bcghklbih^jZa^_eyxlkygZwe_
f_glZjgu_ b keh`gu_ ;hevrbgkl\h obfbq_kdbo j_Zdpbc ij_^klZ\
eyxlkh[hckeh`gu_ijhp_kkuijhl_dZxsb_\g_kdhevdhklZ^bcl_
khklhysb_bag_kdhevdbowe_f_glZjguoijhp_kkh\
>ey we_f_glZjguo j_Zdpbc kijZ\_^eb\ aZdhg ^_ckl\mxsbo
fZkk kdhjhklv we_f_glZjghc obfbq_kdhc j_Zdpbb ijb ^Zgghc l_f
i_jZlmj_ijyfhijhihjpbhgZevgZijhba\_^_gbxdhgp_gljZpbcj_Z]b
jmxsbo\_s_kl\\kl_i_gyojZ\guokl_obhf_ljbq_kdbfdhwnnbpb
_glZf
>eyj_Zdpbb\h[s_f\b^_Z:bB :__kdhjhklvkh]eZkghaZ
dhgm^_ckl\mxsbofZkk\ujZ`Z_lkykhhlghr_gb_f
v = kc a ( A)c b ( B ) ,

]^_ k : bk <  fheyjgu_dhgp_gljZpbbj_Z]bjmxsbo\_s_kl\:b<


k  dhgklZglZ kdhjhklb ^Zgghc j_Zdpbb Nbabq_kdbc kfuke dhg
klZglu kdhjhklb hgZ qbke_ggh jZ\gZ kdhjhklb obfbq_kdhc j_Zd
pbbijbdhgp_gljZpbyoj_Z]bjmxsbo\_s_kl\F : bF <  fheve
DhgklZglZ kdhjhklb ]hfh]_gghc j_Zdpbb aZ\bkbl hl ijbjh^u j_Z]b
jmxsbo\_s_kl\l_fi_jZlmjubdZlZebaZlhjZ
;hevrbgkl\h obfbq_kdbo j_Zdpbc y\eyxlky keh`gufb ijhl_
dZxsbfbq_j_afgh`_kl\hijhf_`mlhqguoklZ^bc<lZdhfkemqZ_aZ
dhg^_ckl\mxsbofZkkijbf_gbflhevdhddZ`^hchl^_evghcklZ^bb
48

>ey]_l_jh]_gguoj_Zdpbc\mjZ\g_gb_aZdhgZ^_ckl\mxsbofZkk
\oh^yl dhgp_gljZpbb g_ \k_o j_Z]_glh\Zlhevdh]Zahh[jZaguobeb
jZkl\hj_gguo LZd ^ey j_Zdpbb ]hj_gby m]ey K d   H ] : KH ]
mjZ\g_gb_kdhjhklbbf__l\b^ v = k c(O 2 ) .
Ijbf_j >eyj_Zdpbb12 ] + O ] <12 ] ijhl_dZxs_c\
]Zah\hc nZa_ dhgklZglZ kdhjhklb jZ\gZ  JZkkqblZcl_ Z  gZqZev
gmx kdhjhklv j_Zdpbb_kebbkoh^gu_dhgp_gljZpbb\_s_kl\jZ\gu
c 12  fheve c(O2  fheve[ kdhjhklvwlhcj_Zdpbb\fh
f_gldh]^Zijhj_Z]bjm_l12
J_r_gb_
Z <khhl\_lkl\bbkaZdhghf^_ckl\mxsbofZkkkdhjhklv^Zgghc
j_Zdpbbhibku\Z_lkymjZ\g_gb_f v = k c 2 ( NO) c(O 2 ). Ke_^h\Zl_evghkdhjhklvj_Zdpbb\gZqZevgucfhf_gl\j_f_gb[m^_ljZ\gZ
vo = 0,8 0,4 2 0,3 = 0,0384 fheve k
[  Kdhjhklv wlhc j_Zdpbb \ fhf_gl dh]^Z ijhj_Z]bjm_l   12
hibku\Z_lky mjZ\g_gb_f v1 = k c12 ( NO) c1 (O 2 ),  ]^_ c1 12  b c1(O2)
gh\u_dhgp_gljZpbb12b22 ihke_lh]hdZdijhj_Z]bjh\Zeh12 
Bkoh^ybamjZ\g_gbyj_ZdpbbjZkkqblZ_f\_ebqbgu c1 12 b c1(O2).
  12 khklZ\ey_l c(NO        fheve lh]^Z
c1(NO) = c0(NO) c(NO) = 0,4  fheve<khhl\_lkl\bbkh
kl_obhf_ljbq_kdbfb dhwnnbpb_glZfb mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbb mf_gvr_
gb_dhgp_gljZpbbH2jZ\ghc(O2) = c(NO   fheve
LZdbfh[jZahf c1 H2) = c0(O2) c(O2) =0,3  fheveKe_
^h\Zl_evgh v1 = 0,8 0,32  fheve k
Ijbf_j  DZd baf_gblky kdhjhklv j_Zdpbb 12 ] + Cl ] <
<12&O ]  _keb Z  m\_ebqblv ^Z\e_gb_ \ j_Zdpbhgghf khkm^_ \ ^\Z
jZaZ[ mf_gvrblvh[t_fkhkm^Z\jZaZ"
J_r_gb_
Z <khhl\_lkl\bbkaZdhghf^_ckl\mxsbofZkkkdhjhklv^Zgghc
j_Zdpbb hibku\Z_lky mjZ\g_gb_f v = k c 2 ( NO) c(Cl 2 ).  Ihkdhevdm
m\_ebq_gb_ ^Z\e_gby ijb\h^bl d ijhihjpbhgZevghfm m\_ebq_gbx
dhgp_gljZpbc ]Zahh[jZaguo \_s_kl\ dhgp_gljZpbb j_Z]_glh\ \ gh
\uo mkeh\byo [m^ml jZ\gu c1(NO) = 2c0(NO), c1(Cl2) = 2c0(Cl2 Dhg
klZglZ kdhjhklb j_Zdpbb ijb m\_ebq_gbb ^Z\e_gby g_ baf_gy_lky b
kdhjhklvj_Zdpbb\gh\uomkeh\byo[m^_ljZ\gZ
v1 = k c12 ( NO) c1 (Cl 2 ) = k (2c0 ( NO)) 2 (2c0 (Cl 2 )) =

= 8 k c 02 (NO) c0(Cl2).
49

v 8 k c0 ( NO) c0 (Cl 2 )
Hlkx^Zke_^m_lqlh 1 =
= 8.
2
v
k c0 ( NO)c0 (Cl 2 )
Kdhjhklvj_Zdpbbm\_ebqblky\jZa
[  Mf_gvr_gb_ h[t_fZ khkm^Z \  jZaZ ijb\h^bl d khhl\_lkl
\mxs_fm m\_ebq_gbx dhgp_gljZpbc j_Z]_glh\ LZdbf h[jZahf
c2(NO) = 4 c0(NO), a c2(Cl2) = 4 c0(Cl2 J_rZyaZ^ZqmihZgZeh]bbk
v
ij_^u^msbfimgdlhfihemqbf 2 = 64 l_mf_gvr_gb_h[t_fZkh
v
km^Z\jZaZijb\_^_ldm\_ebq_gbxkdhjhklb\jZaZ
2

<ebygb_l_fi_jZlmjugZkdhjhklvobfbq_kdhcj_Zdpbb
AZ\bkbfhklvkdhjhklbj_Zdpbbhll_fi_jZlmjuijb[eb`_gghhi
j_^_ey_lky wfibjbq_kdbf ijZ\behf <Zgl-=hnnZ ijb ih\ur_gbb
l_fi_jZlmju gZ dZ`^u_  ]jZ^mkh\ kdhjhklv obfbq_kdhc j_Zdpbb
m\_ebqb\Z_lky\-jZaZ \jZa 
vT2
vT1

T2 T1
10

]^_ vT2 b vT1 kdhjhklbj_Zdpbbkhhl\_lkl\_gghijbl_fi_jZlmjZoL2b


L1;   l_fi_jZlmjguc dhwnnbpb_gl kdhjhklb j_Zdpbb dhlhjuc \u
qbkey_lky gZ hkgh\_ wdki_jbf_glZevguo ^Zgguo b ijbgbfZ_l agZq_
gby^ey[hevrbgkl\Zj_Zdpbchl^h>ey^Zgghcj_Zdpbb\_eb
qbgZijZdlbq_kdbihklhyggZyijbL  100h.
KihfhsvxijZ\beZ<Zgl-=hnnZ\hafh`ghebrvijbf_jghhp_
gblv\ebygb_l_fi_jZlmjugZkdhjhklvj_Zdpbb;he__lhqgh_hibkZ
gb_ aZ\bkbfhklb kdhjhklb j_Zdpbb hl l_fi_jZlmju hkms_kl\bfh \
jZfdZol_hjbbZdlb\guoklhedgh\_gbc:jj_gbmkZ
< l_hjbb Zdlb\Zpbb \ebygb_ l_fi_jZlmju b dZlZebaZlhjZ gZ
kdhjhklv obfbq_kdhc j_Zdpbb hibku\Z_lky ke_^mxsbf mjZ\g_gb_f
^eydhgklZglukdhjhklbobfbq_kdhcj_Zdpbb

Ea
RT

,
k = Ae
]^_:ihklhyggucfgh`bl_evg_aZ\bkysbchll_fi_jZlmjuhij_
^_eyxsbcky ijbjh^hc j_Z]bjmxsbo \_s_kl\ R  mgb\_jkZevgZy ]Z
ah\ZyihklhyggZy?Z wg_j]byZdlb\Zpbb_hkgh\Zgb_gZlmjZevgh]h
eh]ZjbnfZDZdke_^m_lbamjZ\g_gby:jj_gbmkZdhgklZglZkdhjhklb
j_Zdpbbl_f[hevr_q_ff_gvr_wg_j]byZdlb\Zpbb
50

Ijbf_j . L_fi_jZlmjguc dhwnnbpb_gl kdhjhklb obfbq_kdhc


j_Zdpbb jZ\_g  <h kdhevdh jZa \hajZkl_l kdhjhklv j_Zdpbb ijb
m\_ebq_gbbl_fi_jZlmju\j_Zdpbhgghfkhkm^_k^hhK"
J_r_gb_
<khhl\_lkl\bbkijZ\behf<Zgl-=hnnZ
vT2
vT1

T2 T1
10

v38o
v15 o

38 15
2,1 10

= 2,12,3 = 5,5.

Ijbf_qZgb_ ?keb m <Zr_]h dZevdmeylhjZ hlkmlkl\m_l dghidZ


\ha\_^_gby\kl_i_gvlhlZdb_Zjbnf_lbq_kdb_\ujZ`_gbyfh`gh\u
qbkeylv q_j_a klZ^bb eh]Zjbnfbjh\Zgby b ihke_^mxs_]h ihl_gpbb
jh\Zgby
v o
v o
lg 38 = lg 2,12,3 = 2,3 lg 2,1 = 0,74 Z 38 = 100,74 5,5 .
v15o
v15o
Obfbq_kdh_jZ\gh\_kb_
Obfbq_kdb_ j_Zdpbb \ j_amevlZl_ dhlhjuo bkoh^gu_ \_s_kl\Z
iheghklvx ij_\jZsZxlky \ ijh^mdlu j_Zdpbb gZau\Zxlky g_h[jZ
lbfufb J_Zdpbb b^msb_ h^gh\j_f_ggh \ ^\mo ijhlb\hiheh`guo
gZijZ\e_gbyo ijyfhfbh[jZlghf gZau\Zxlkyh[jZlbfufb.
<h[jZlbfuoj_Zdpbyokhklhygb_kbkl_fuijbdhlhjhfkdhjhklb
ijyfhcbh[jZlghcj_ZdpbbjZ\gu vij = vh[j gZau\Z_lkykhklhygb_f
obfbq_kdh]h jZ\gh\_kbyObfbq_kdh_jZ\gh\_kb_y\ey_lky^bgZfbq_
kdbfl__]hmklZgh\e_gb_g_hagZqZ_lij_djZs_gb_j_Zdpbb<h[
s_fkemqZ_^eyex[hch[jZlbfhcj_ZdpbbZ: + bB <dD + eEg_aZ
\bkbfhhl__f_oZgbafZ\uihegy_lkykhhlghr_gb_
K=

c d ( D) c e ( E )
.
c a ( A) c b ( B )

IjbmklZgh\b\r_fkyjZ\gh\_kbbijhba\_^_gb_dhgp_gljZpbcijh
^mdlh\ j_Zdpbb hlg_k_ggh_ d ijhba\_^_gbx dhgp_gljZpbc bkoh^guo
\_s_kl\^ey^Zgghcj_Zdpbbijb^Zgghcl_fi_jZlmj_ij_^klZ\ey_lkh
[hcihklhyggmx\_ebqbgmgZau\Z_fmxdhgklZglhcjZ\gh\_kby(D).
Ijbf_j.GZc^bl_dhgklZglmjZ\gh\_kbyj_Zdpbb: + < <D,
ijhl_dZxs_c \ ]Zah\hc nZa_ \aZdjulhfkhkm^__kebbkoh^gu_dhg
p_gljZpbb : b < jZ\gu khhl\_lkl\_ggh  fheve b  fheve Z d
fhf_glm gZklmie_gby jZ\gh\_kby ijhj_Z]bjh\Zeh   \_s_kl\Z <.
51

JZkkqblZcl_ baf_g_gb_ ^Z\e_gby \ kbkl_f_ ih kjZ\g_gbxki_j\hgZ


qZevguf
J_r_gb_
AZibr_f\ujZ`_gb_dhgklZglujZ\gh\_kby^eywlhcj_Zdpbb
c 2 ( D)
K= 2
.
c ( A) c( B )
Hij_^_ebfjZ\gh\_kgu_dhgp_gljZpbb\_s_kl\
D fhf_glm gZklmie_gby jZ\gh\_kby ijhj_Z]bjh\Zeh   \_s_
kl\Z<ke_^h\Zl_evghk(<) = 0,25 k0(<) = 0,25  fheveJZ\gh\_kgZydhgp_gljZpby\_s_kl\Z<jZ\gZc(<) = c0(<) c(<) = 0,4
 fheve
< khhl\_lkl\bb k mjZ\g_gb_f j_Zdpbb c(:) = 2c(<) = 20,1 =
=  fheve Ke_^h\Zl_evgh jZ\gh\_kgZy dhgp_gljZpby \_s_kl\Z :
jZ\gZ c(:) = c0(:) c(:) = 0,6  fheve
<khhl\_lkl\bbkmjZ\g_gb_fj_Zdpbbdhebq_kl\hh[jZah\Z\r_
]hky \_s_kl\Z D qbke_ggh jZ\gh dhebq_kl\m ijhj_Z]bjh\Z\r_]h \_
s_kl\Z:ihwlhfmc(D  fheveLZddZd\i_j\hgZqZevgucfh
f_gl\_s_kl\hDhlkmlkl\h\ZehlhjZ\gh\_kgZydhgp_gljZpbyDjZ\gZ
c(D) = 0 + c(D    fheve 
Ih^klZ\b\gZc^_ggu_jZ\gh\_kgu_dhgp_gljZpbb\_s_kl\:, <b
D\\ujZ`_gb_^eydhgklZglujZ\gh\_kbyihemqbf
0,2 2
K=
= 0,83 .
0,4 2 0,3
Baf_g_gb_ ^Z\e_gby \ kbkl_f_ ijhihjpbhgZevgh baf_g_gbx
kmffZjghcdhgp_gljZpbb]Zahh[jZaguo\_s_kl\LZdbfh[jZahf
p c( A) + c( B ) + c(C ) 0,4 + 0,3 + 0,2
=
=
= 0,9.
po
co ( A) + co ( B)
0,6 + 0,4
>Z\e_gb_\kbkl_f_\fhf_gljZ\gh\_kby[m^_lkhklZ\eylv
hlbkoh^gh]h
Ijbf_j<kbkl_f_: ] + < ] <D ] jZ\gh\_kgu_dhgp_gljZpbb
jZ\gu c(:  fheve c(<  fheve c(D  fheveGZc^bl_
dhgklZglm jZ\gh\_kby j_Zdpbb b bkoh^gu_ dhgp_gljZpbb : b < \_s_kl\hD\bkoh^ghckf_kbhlkmlkl\m_l 
J_r_gb_
DhgklZglZjZ\gh\_kby^ey^Zgghcj_ZdpbbjZ\gZ
c 2 ( D)
0,6 2
K=
=
= 1.
c( A) c( B ) 0,4 0,9
52

<khhl\_lkl\bbkmjZ\g_gb_fj_ZdpbbgZh[jZah\Zgb_fhevKg_h[oh^bfhihfhex\_s_kl\:b<L d\j_amevlZl_j_Zdpbbh[jZah\Zehkvfheve\_s_kl\ZDke_^h\Zl_evghgZ_]hh[jZah\Zgb_bajZkoh^h\Zehkvihfheve\_s_kl\Z:b\_s_kl\Z<LZdbfh[jZahfbkoh^gZy
dhgp_gljZpby\_s_kl\Z:jZ\gZ cbko(:  fheveZbkoh^gZy
dhgp_gljZpby\_s_kl\Z<jZ\gZ cbko.(<   fheve
<ebygb_baf_g_gby\g_rgbomkeh\bc
gZiheh`_gb_obfbq_kdh]hjZ\gh\_kby
IjbgpbiE_-RZl_ev_
Baf_g_gb_ mkeh\bc l_fi_jZlmjZ ^Z\e_gb_ dhgp_gljZpby  ijb
dhlhjuo kbkl_fZ gZoh^blky \ khklhygbb obfbq_kdh]h jZ\gh\_kby
( vij = vh[j \uau\Z_lgZjmr_gb_jZ\gh\_kby<j_amevlZl_g_h^bgZdh
\h]h baf_g_gby kdhjhkl_c ijyfhc b h[jZlghc j_Zdpbc vij vh[j ) c
l_q_gb_f \j_f_gb \ kbkl_f_ mklZgZ\eb\Z_lky gh\h_ obfbq_kdh_ jZ\
gh\_kb_ vij = vh[j  khhl\_lkl\mxs__ gh\uf mkeh\byf I_j_oh^ ba
h^gh]h jZ\gh\_kgh]h khklhygby \ ^jm]h_ gZau\Z_lky k^\b]hf beb
kf_s_gb_fiheh`_gbyjZ\gh\_kby
GZijZ\e_gb_kf_s_gbyobfbq_kdh]hjZ\gh\_kby\j_amevlZl_ba
f_g_gby\g_rgbomkeh\bchij_^_ey_lkyijbgpbihfE_-RZl_ev_?keb
gZ kbkl_fm gZoh^ysmxky \ khklhygbb obfbq_kdh]h jZ\gh\_kby hdZ
aZlv \g_rg__ \ha^_ckl\b_ lh hgh [m^_l [eZ]hijbylkl\h\Zlv ijh
l_dZgbxlh]hba^\moijhlb\hiheh`guoijhp_kkh\dhlhjuchkeZ[
ey_lwlh\ha^_ckl\b_
Ijbf_j.<dZdmxklhjhgmkf_klblkyobfbq_kdh_jZ\gh\_kb_\
kbkl_f_
CaCO d CaO d + CO ] ; H d>`fhev
Z ijb\\_^_gbb\kbkl_fmm]e_dbkeh]h]ZaZ
[ ijb\\_^_gbb\kbkl_fmhdkb^ZdZevpby
\ ijbm\_ebq_gbb^Z\e_gby
] ijbm\_ebq_gbbl_fi_jZlmju"
J_r_gb_
< khhl\_lkl\bb k ijbgpbihf E_-RZl_ev_ jZ\gh\_kb_ \ kbkl_f_
k^\b]Z_lkylZdbfh[jZahfqlh[umf_gvrblv\g_rg__\ha^_ckl\b_
Z <\_^_gb_m]e_dbkeh]h]ZaZijb\h^bldih\ur_gbxdhgp_gljZ
pbb CO2 >ey hkeZ[e_gby wlh]h \ha^_ckl\by jZ\gh\_kb_ \ kbkl_f_
^he`ghkf_klblvky\e_\h
53

[ <\_^_gb_l\_j^h]hhdkb^ZdZevpbyg_baf_gy_ldhgp_gljZpbx
KZH\nZa_KZH d bobfbq_kdh_jZ\gh\_kb_g_kf_sZ_lky
\  M\_ebq_gb_ ^Z\e_gby ijb\h^bl d m\_ebq_gbx dhgp_gljZpbb
CO2 ] bijZdlbq_kdbgbdZdg_\eby_lgZdhgp_gljZpbbl\_j^uodhf
ihg_glh\JZ\gh\_kb_k^\b]Z_lky\e_\h
]  M\_ebq_gb_ l_fi_jZlmju fh`_l [ulv kdhfi_gkbjh\Zgh wg^h
l_jfbq_kdbfijhp_kkhfIhkdhevdmbf_gghijyfZyj_Zdpbyijhl_dZ_l
kih]ehs_gb_fl_ieZjZ\gh\_kb_\kbkl_f_kf_sZ_lky\ijZ\h
<hijhku^eykZfhklhyl_evghcih^]hlh\db
1. QlhgZau\Z_lkykdhjhklvxobfbq_kdhcj_Zdpbb"
2. DZdb_nZdlhju\ebyxlgZkdhjhklvobfbq_kdhcj_Zdpbb"
3. DZd kdhjhklv obfbq_kdhc j_Zdpbb aZ\bkbl hl dhgp_gljZpbc j_Z
]_glh\" Knhjfmebjmcl_ hkgh\ghc aZdhg obfbq_kdhc dbg_lbdb
aZdhg^_ckl\mxsbofZkkbmdZ`bl_mkeh\by_]hijbf_g_gby
4. GZibrbl_ fZl_fZlbq_kdb_ \ujZ`_gby aZdhgZ ^_ckl\mxsbo fZkk
^eyke_^mxsboj_Zdpbc
Z NOCl ] = 2NO ] + Cl ] ;
[ Fe2O d + 3H ] = 2Fe d + 3H2O ] .
5. HldZdbonZdlhjh\aZ\bkbldhgklZglZkdhjhklbj_Zdpbb"DZdh\__
nbabq_kdbckfuke"
6. DZdh\h\ebygb_^Z\e_gbygZkdhjhklvobfbq_kdhcj_Zdpbb"
7. DZd\eby_lih\ur_gb_ ihgb`_gb_ l_fi_jZlmjugZkdhjhklvob
fbq_kdhcj_Zdpbb"
8. Qlh lZdh_l_fi_jZlmjgucdhwnnbpb_glkdhjhklbobfbq_kdhcj_
Zdpbb"
9. Ihq_fmkdhjhklvobfbq_kdhcj_Zdpbbkih\ur_gb_fl_fi_jZlmju
\hajZklZ_lgZfgh]hkbevg__q_fqbkehklhedgh\_gbcfhe_dme"
10. DZdb_fhe_dmeugZau\ZxlkyZdlb\gufb"
11. QlhlZdh_wg_j]byZdlb\ZpbbbZdlb\bjh\Zggucdhfie_dk"
12. DZdh\hkhhlghr_gb_\_ebqbgwg_j]bbobfbq_kdbok\ya_c\j_Z]b
jmxsbofhe_dmeZobwg_j]bbZdlb\Zpbbj_Zdpbb"
13. Ijb\_^bl_wg_j]_lbq_kdmx^bZ]jZffmkhhlghr_gbywg_j]bbZdlb
\Zpbbbl_ieh\h]hwnn_dlZj_ZdpbbDZdh[tykgblvqlhl_ieh\hc
wnn_dlj_Zdpbbg_aZ\bkblhl__wg_j]bbZdlb\Zpbb"
14. DZd \eby_l \_ebqbgZ wg_j]bb Zdlb\Zpbb gZ kdhjhklv obfbq_kdhc
j_Zdpbb"
15. <hafh`guebj_Zdpbbkwg_j]b_cZdlb\ZpbbjZ\ghcgmex"
16. DZdh\Z \aZbfhk\yav f_`^m dhgklZglhc kdhjhklb j_Zdpbb b __
wg_j]b_cZdlb\Zpbb"
54

17. DZdh\h \ebygb_ \_ebqbgu wg_j]bb Zdlb\Zpbb gZ l_fi_jZlmjguc


dhwnnbpb_glkdhjhklbj_Zdpbb"
18. DZdb_\_s_kl\ZgZau\ZxlkydZlZebaZlhjZfb"
19. <q_faZdexqZ_lkymkdhjyxs__^_ckl\b_dZlZebaZlhjZ"
20. DZdh\h\ebygb_dZlZebaZlhjZgZ\_ebqbgmwg_j]bbZdlb\Zpbbob
fbq_kdhc j_Zdpbb" Ihykgbl_ k bkihevah\Zgb_f wg_j]_lbq_kdhc
^bZ]jZffu
21. GZ ijZdlbq_kdhf ijbf_j_ h[tykgbl_ kmsghklv l_hjbb ijhf_`m
lhqguoijh^mdlh\
22. <q_fkhklhblhkh[_gghklvn_jf_glZlb\guoj_Zdpbc"
AZ^Zqb^eyj_r_gby
128. GZibrbl_fZl_fZlbq_kdb_\ujZ`_gbyaZdhgZ^_ckl\mxsbofZkk
^eyj_Zdpbcb^msboihko_fZf
\ : j + < j ::2< j ;
Z : ] + 2< ] ::< ] ;
] : j + < d :D j + E d .
[ : ] + < d ::< ] ;
129. JZkkqblZcl_dZdbaf_gblkykdhjhklvj_Zdpbb
2: ] + < ] :K ] _keb
Z m\_ebqblvdhgp_gljZpbx\_s_kl\Z:\jZaZ
[ m\_ebqblvdhgp_gljZpbx\_s_kl\Z<\jZaZ
\ m\_ebqblv^Z\e_gb_\kbkl_f_\^\ZjZaZ
] m\_ebqblvh[t_fkbkl_fu\^\ZjZaZ"
130. GZqZevgu_dhgp_gljZpbbj_Z]_glh\jZ\guk0(:  fheveb
k0(<  fheveJZkkqblZcl_dZdbaf_gblkykdhjhklvj_Zdpbb
2: ] + < ] :D ] ihkjZ\g_gbxki_j\hgZqZevghc\lhlfhf_gl
dh]^Zijhj_Z]bjm_l\_s_kl\Z<
131. <khkm^h[t_fhfe\\_eb]H2b]NOJZkkqblZcl_dZd
baf_gblkykdhjhklvj_ZdpbbNO ] H ] :NO ] ihkjZ\g_gbxk
i_j\hgZqZevghc\lhlfhf_gldh]^Zijhj_Z]bjm_lNO.
132. L_fi_jZlmjguc dhwnnbpb_gl kdhjhklb j_Zdpbb jZ\_g  JZk
kqblZcl_ dZd baf_gblky kdhjhklv j_Zdpbb _keb Z  m\_ebqblv
l_fi_jZlmjm\kbkl_f_khK^hhK[ mf_gvrblvl_fi_jZlm
jm\kbkl_f_khK^hhK"
133. Ijbih\ur_gbbl_fi_jZlmjugZ hKkdhjhklvj_Zdpbb\hajZk
lZ_l\jZaZHij_^_ebl_l_fi_jZlmjgucdhwnnbpb_glkdhjh
klbj_Zdpbb
134. Ijbmf_gvr_gbbl_fi_jZlmjuk hK^h hKkdhjhklvj_Zdpbb
mf_gvrbeZkv\jZaHij_^_ebl_l_fi_jZlmjgucdhwnnbpb_gl
kdhjhklbj_Zdpbb
55

135. GZkdhevdh]jZ^mkh\g_h[oh^bfhbaf_gblvl_fi_jZlmjm\kbkl_
f_qlh[ukdhjhklvj_Zdpbbm\_ebqbeZkv\jZa_kebl_fi_jZ
lmjgucdhwnnbpb_gljZ\_g"
136. <dZdmxklhjhgmkf_klblkyjZ\gh\_kb_\kbkl_fZo
Z + ] +I ] <+I ] ;
Ho = d>`
[ 1 ] H ] <12 ] ;
Ho d>`
\ KH ] H ] <KH ] ;
Ho = d>`
] G ] H ] <G2H ] ;
Ho = d>`
ijbm\_ebq_gbb^Z\e_gby
ijbm\_ebq_gbbh[t_fZkbkl_fu
ijbhoeZ`^_gbbkbkl_fu
137. GZibrbl_ fZl_fZlbq_kdh_ \ujZ`_gb_ dhgklZglu jZ\gh\_kby \
kbkl_f_
Z 1 ] H ] <12 ] ;
[) CH3COOH(j) <++(j) + CH3COO-(j);
\ &X2 d G ] <&X d G2H ] ;
] 12 ] H ] <12 ] ;
^ >$J &1 2] j <$J+ j + 2CN j .
138. KlZg^ZjlgZy wglZeviby h[jZah\Zgby 3&O ]  jZ\gZ  d>`fhev
DZdb_ mkeh\by g_h[oh^bfh kha^Z\Zlv ^ey m\_ebq_gby ijZdlbq_
kdh]h\uoh^Z3&O5 ijb_]hkbgl_a_baijhkluo\_s_kl\"
139. Obfbq_kdh_jZ\gh\_kb_12 ] H ] <12 ] mklZgh\behkvijb
dhgp_gljZpbyo hdkb^Z ZahlZ ,,  dbkehjh^Z b hdkb^Z ZahlZ ,9 
jZ\guo khhl\_lkl\_ggh   b  fheve <uqbkebl_ dhg
klZglm jZ\gh\_kby b bkoh^gu_ dhgp_gljZpbb hdkb^Z ZahlZ ,,  b
dbkehjh^Z_keb\bkoh^ghckbkl_f_hdkb^ZahlZ ,9 hlkmlkl\h\Ze
140. <uqbkebl_dhgklZglmjZ\gh\_kbyj_Zdpbb12O ] <12 ] _keb
gZqZevgZydhgp_gljZpby12O4[ueZfheveZdfhf_glmgZ
klmie_gbyjZ\gh\_kbyijh^bkkhpbbjh\Zeh12O4.
141. DZd baf_gblky ^Z\e_gb_ \ kbkl_f_ N ] + 3H ] < NH ]  _keb
gZqZevgu_dhgp_gljZpbbZahlZb\h^hjh^Z\kbkl_f_[uebkhhl
\_lkl\_gghjZ\gubfheveZdfhf_glmgZklmie_gbyjZ\
gh\_kbyijhj_Z]bjh\ZehZahlZ"Hij_^_ebl_dhgklZglmjZ\
gh\_kby\^Zgghckbkl_f_ijbwlbomkeh\byo
142. DhgklZglZjZ\gh\_kby]hfh]_gghckbkl_fu1 ] + 3H ] <1+ ]
ijbl_fi_jZlmj_ hKjZ\gZJZ\gh\_kgu_dhgp_gljZpbb\h
^hjh^ZbZffbZdZkhhl\_lkl\_gghjZ\gubfheve<uqbk
ebl_jZ\gh\_kgmxbgZqZevgmxdhgp_gljZpbbZahlZ_keb\bkoh^
ghckbkl_f_ZffbZdhlkmlkl\h\Ze
56

143. Ijb hKdhgklZglZjZ\gh\_kbykbkl_fu)H2 d + CO ] <)H d +


+ CO ]  jZ\gZ  <uqbkebl_ jZ\gh\_kgu_ dhgp_gljZpbb KH b
KH2_kebbogZqZevgu_dhgp_gljZpbbjZ\gukhhl\_lkl\_ggh
bfheve
144. DhgklZglZjZ\gh\_kbyKH ] G ] <KH ] G2H ] jZ\gZ_^bgb
p_Hij_^_eblvkdhevdhijhp_glh\KH2ih^\_j]g_lkyij_\jZs_
gbx\KH_kebkf_rZlvfhevKH2bfhevG2 .
145. DhgklZglZjZ\gh\_kbyKH ] G ] <KH ] G2H ] jZ\gZ_^bgb
p_ Hij_^_eblv \ dZdbo h[t_fguo hlghr_gbyo [ueb kf_rZgu
KH2 b G2 _keb d fhf_glm gZklmie_gby jZ\gh\_kby \ j_Zdpbx
\klmibehi_j\hgZqZevgh]hdhebq_kl\Z\h^hjh^Z"
146. >ey j_Zdpbb G ] + Br ] < +%U ]  ijb g_dhlhjhc l_fi_jZlmj_
dhgklZglZ jZ\gh\_kby jZ\gZ  Hij_^_eblv h[t_fguc khklZ\
jZ\gh\_kghckbkl_fu_kebbkoh^gZykf_kvkhklhyeZbafhev
\h^hjh^Zbfhev[jhfZ
147. < aZfdgmlhf khkm^_ ijhl_dZ_l j_Zdpby :< ] < : ]   < ]  Dhg
klZglZjZ\gh\_kbyjZ\gZZjZ\gh\_kgZydhgp_gljZpby\_s_
kl\Z:jZ\gZfheveGZc^bl_gZqZevgmxdhgp_gljZpbx\_
s_kl\Z:<ZlZd`_kl_i_gvjZaeh`_gbywlh]h\_s_kl\Z
148. Hij_^_ebl_dhgklZglmjZ\gh\_kbyj_Zdpbb12 ] <12O ] ijb
25 hKbkoh^ybabaf_g_gbybah[Zjgh-bahl_jfbq_kdh]hihl_gpbZ
eZkbkl_fu\j_amevlZl_j_ZdpbbGo298(N2O4  d>`fhev
G 0298 (NO2  d>`fhev
=E:<:9
DHEBQ?KL<?GGUCKHKL:<J:KL<HJH<
JZkl\hjhf gZau\Zxl ]hfh]_ggmx kbkl_fm i_j_f_ggh]h khklZ
\Z khklhysmx ba ^\mo beb [he__ \_s_kl\ <_s_kl\Z khklZ\eyxsb_
jZkl\hjgZau\Zxldhfihg_glZfbjZkl\hjZJZkl\hju[u\Zxl]Zahh[
jZagu_`b^db_bl\_j^u_
>ey[bheh]bbbf_^bpbgugZb[hevrbcbgl_j_kij_^klZ\eyxl`b^
db_\h^gu_jZkl\hjuEx[hcjZkl\hjkhklhblbajZkl\hj_gguo\_s_kl\b
jZkl\hjbl_ey ohly wlb ihgylby \ ba\_klghc kl_i_gb mkeh\gu H[uqgh
jZkl\hjbl_e_f kqblZxl lhl dhfihg_gl dhlhjuc \ jZkl\hj_ gZoh^blky \
lhf`_\b^_qlhb^hjZkl\hj_gbyGZijbf_j\\h^ghfjZkl\hj_]exdhau
l\_j^h_ \_s_kl\h  jZkl\hjbl_e_f y\ey_lky \h^Z Z kf_kv kibjlZ `b^
dhklv  b \h^u `b^dhklv  fh`gh gZa\Zlv \ aZ\bkbfhklb hl dhebq_kl\Z
dhfihg_glZjZkl\hjhfkibjlZ\\h^_beb\h^u\kibjl_
57

<jZkl\hjZowe_dljheblh\\g_aZ\bkbfhklbhlkhhlghr_gbydhf
ihg_glh\bboZ]j_]Zlgh]hkhklhygbywe_dljheblu\k_]^ZjZkkfZljb
\ZxlkydZdjZkl\hj_ggu_\_s_kl\Z
K\hckl\Z jZkl\hjZ hij_^_eyxlky dZq_kl\_gguf b dhebq_kl\_g
guf khklZ\hf jZkl\hjZ GZ ijZdlbd_ dhebq_kl\_gguc khklZ\ jZkl\h
jh\ \ujZ`Zxl ijb ihfhsb ke_^mxsbo \_ebqbg Z  [_ajZaf_jguo
fZkkh\Zy h[t_fgZy b fheyjgZy ^heb [  jZaf_jguo  fZkkh\Zy dhg
p_gljZpby \_s_kl\Z fheyjgZy dhgp_gljZpby \_s_kl\Z fheyjgZy
dhgp_gljZpbywd\b\Ze_glZ\_s_kl\Zbfheyevghklv
FZkkh\Zy^heyjZkl\hj_ggh]h\_s_kl\Z Z-^m[ev-\w \ujZ`Z_l
ky\^heyo_^bgbpuijhp_glZo  ijhfbee_ lukyqgZyqZklv b\
fbeebhgguo^heyo feg1 FZkkh\Zy^heyqbke_gghjZ\gZhlghr_gbx
fZkkujZkl\hj_ggh]h\_s_kl\Zm1 dh[s_cfZkk_jZkl\hjZ
m1 ( X )
w( X ) =
100% .
m(j jZ )
H[t_fgZy^heyjZkl\hj_ggh]h\_s_kl\Z nb \ujZ`Z_lky\
^heyo_^bgbpubebijhp_glZo  bqbke_gghjZ\gZhlghr_gbxh[t
_fZ`b^dh]hbeb]Zahh[jZagh]h\_s_kl\ZV1 dh[s_fmh[t_fmjZkl\h
jZbebkf_kbV:
V (X )
( X ) = 1
100 %.
V
>ey jZkl\hjh\ kibjlZ ijbgylh  h[t_fguc ijhp_gl h[hagZqZlv
dZdh.
GZijbf_j_kebfZkkh\Zy^hey+&O \jZkl\hj_lhwlhagZ
qblqlh\]jZkl\hjZkh^_j`blky]+&Ob]jZkl\hjbl_ey?k
eb h[t_fgZy ^hey 22 \ \ha^mo_ khklZ\ey_l    wlh agZqbl qlh \
100 e\ha^moZkh^_j`blkyedbkehjh^Zbl^
FheyjgZy^heyjZkl\hj_ggh]h\_s_kl\Z ob)\ujZ`Z_lky\
^heyo _^bgbpubebijhp_glZo   bqbke_gghjZ\gZhlghr_gbxob
fbq_kdh]hdhebq_kl\ZjZkl\hj_ggh]h\_s_kl\Zn1 dkmffZjghfmqbkem
fhev\k_odhfihg_glh\jZkl\hjZni:
n (X )
( X ) = 1
100%
n
i
FZkkh\Zydhgp_gljZpby\_s_kl\Z7 X), beblblj\ujZ`Z_lky
\ d]^f3 ]kf3 ]e ]fe f]fe Qbke_ggh jZ\gZ hlghr_gbx fZkku
jZkl\hj_ggh]h\_s_kl\Z X)dh[t_fmjZkl\hjZV:
m( X )
T(X ) =
.
V (j jZ )
58

< debgbq_kdhc ijZdlbd_ g_j_^dh \ujZ`Zxl fZkkh\mx dhgp_g


ljZpbxbhgh\\fbeeb]jZffZogZfejZkl\hjZ f] 
FheyjgZy dhgp_gljZpby \_s_kl\Z k(X) \ujZ`Z_lky \ fheve
fhev^f3fhevkf3fhevfeQbke_gghjZ\gZhlghr_gbxobfbq_kdh]h
dhebq_kl\ZjZkl\hj_ggh]h\_s_kl\Z X)dh[t_fmjZkl\hjZV:
n( X )
c( X ) =
.
V (j jZ )
FheyjgZydhgp_gljZpbywd\b\Ze_glZ\_s_kl\Z wd\b\Ze_gl
1

gZy dhgp_gljZpby  k * ( X )  \ujZ`Z_lky \ fheve fhev^f3,


z

3
fhevkf  fhevfe Qbke_ggh jZ\gZ hlghr_gbxobfbq_kdh]hdhebq_
1

kl\Zwd\b\Ze_glZjZkl\hj_ggh]h\_s_kl\Z * ( X ) dh[t_fmjZkl\hjZ
z

n * ( X )
1

z
.
c * ( X ) =
z
V (j jZ )
Fheyevghklv jZkl\hjZ E ;  fhevd]  qbke_ggh jZ\gZ hlghr_
gbxobfbq_kdh]hdhebq_kl\ZjZkl\hj_ggh]h\_s_kl\Z X dfZkk_jZk
l\hjbl_eym d] 
b( X ) =

n( X )
.
m(j ey)

Dhwnnbpb_gl jZkl\hjbfhklb \_s_kl\Z s fZdkbfZevgZy


fZkkZ \_s_kl\Z kihkh[gZy jZkl\hjblvky \  ] \h^u ijb ^Zgghc
l_fi_jZlmj_ k h[jZah\Zgb_f gZkus_ggh]h jZkl\hjZ JZkl\hjbfh
klvxlZd`_gZau\Zxlfheyjgmxdhgp_gljZpbx\_s_kl\Z\_]hgZ
kus_gghfjZkl\hj_
Ijbf_jDZdb_h[t_fu\h^ubjZkl\hjZ%D&O2kfZkkh\hc^he_c
kheb   b iehlghklvx  ]fe ihlj_[mxlky ^ey ijb]hlh\e_gby
gh\h]h jZkl\hjZ h[t_fhf e k fZkkh\hc ^he_c kheb jZ\ghc   b
iehlghklvx]fe"
J_r_gb_
Z <uqbkebffZkkmihemq_ggh]hjZkl\hjZh[t_fhfem j-jZ
= 1000 ]
[ <uqbkebffZkkm%D&O2\ihemq_gghfjZkl\hj_m(BaCl2):
\]jZkl\hjZkh^_j`blky ]\_s_kl\Z %D&O2),
59

\]

x ] (BaCl2),

100 2
x ]
=
1012 x
<uqbkebffZkkmbkoh^gh]hjZkl\hjZkh^_j`Zs_]h]oehjb
^Z[Zjby
\]jZkl\hjZkh^_j`blky ]%D&O2,
\y ]
]%D&O2,

y ]
<uqbkebfh[t_fbkoh^gh]hjZkl\hjZfZkkhc]
202
m(j jZ )
V j-jZ  
 fe
=
(j jZ ) 1,09
FZkkZ ^h[Z\e_gghc \h^u khklZ\beZ m(H2O) = m j-jZ m j-jZ
BaCl2) = 1012  ]ldiehlghklv\h^uijbdhfgZlghcl_f
m(H 2 O) 810
i_jZlmj_[ebadZd_^bgbp_lh V (H 2O) =
=
= 810 fe.
1
(H 2O)
Ijbf_j  GZc^bl_ fZkkm \h^u b f_^gh]h dmihjhkZ &X624
5H2O), g_h[oh^bfu_^eyijb]hlh\e_gbyjZkl\hjZh[t_fhfekfZk
kh\hc ^he_c CuSO4 jZ\ghc   b iehlghklvx lZdh]h jZkl\hjZ
1,084 ]kf3.
J_r_gb_
FZkkZihemq_ggh]hjZkl\hjZ[m^_lkhklZ\eylv
m j-jZ  V j-jZ j-jZ    ]
<uqbkebffZkkm&X624\wlhfjZkl\hj_
m(CuSO4) = w(CuSO4) m j-jZ = 0,08 108 ]
<uqbkebffZkkmf_^gh]hdmihjhkZkh^_j`Zs_]h]&X624:
M(CuSO4 5H2O) = 160 + 90 = ]fhev
\]dmihjhkZkh^_j`blky ]&X624,
x]

]&X624, x =]
FZkkZ\h^ukhklZ\blm(H2O) = 1084  ]
Ijbf_j  DZdb_ h[t_fu jZkl\hjZ k_jghc dbkehlu k fZkkh\hc
^he_ciehlghklvx]feb\h^ug_h[oh^bfh\aylv^eyijb
]hlh\e_gbyjZkl\hjZ+2SO4h[t_fhffekfZkkh\hc^he_cb
iehlghklvx]kf3.
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkmfejZkl\hjZ
m(j jZ ) = V (j jZ ) (j jZ ) = 100  ]
60

15 110
= 16,5 ]
100
GZc^_ffZkkmjZkl\hjZ+2SO4kh^_j`Zs_]h]+2SO4:
100 16,5
m1 j-jZ 
= ]
96
AgZyfZkkmjZkl\hjZbiehlghklvgZc^_fh[t_fjZkl\hjZ
m(j jZ ) 17,19
=
= 9,34 fe.
V1 (j jZ ) =
(j jZ ) 1,84
FZkkZ+2SO4\wlhfjZkl\hj_ m(H2SO4) =

<uqbkebffZkkm\h^ug_h[oh^bfmx^eyijb]hlh\e_gbyjZkl\hjZ
m(H2O) = m j-jZ m1 j-jZ   ]
LZd dZd iehlghklv \h^u ijb dhfgZlghc l_fi_jZlmj_ [ebadZ d
_^bgbp_lhh[t_f^h[Z\e_gghc\h^u\uqbkey_lky
m(H 2O) 92,81
V(H2O) =
=
= 92,81 fe
1
(H 2O)
Ijbf_jDZdhch[t_fjZkl\hjZkfZkkh\hc^he_ck_jghcdbkehlu
  b iehlghklvx  ]fe ihlj_[m_lky ^ey ijb]hlh\e_gby  fe
jZkl\hjZfheyjghcdhgp_gljZpbbwd\b\Ze_glZH2SO4fheve"
J_r_gb_
FheyjgZyfZkkZwd\b\Ze_glZk_jghcdbkehlu
1
98
F = (H 2SO 4 ) =
= 49 ]fhev
z*
2
Dhebq_kl\h wd\b\Ze_glZH2SO4\jZkl\hj_dhlhjucg_h[oh^bfh
ijb]hlh\blv
fhevwd\b\Ze_glh\H2SO4kh^_j`blky\fejZkl\hjZ
ofhevwd\b\Ze_glh\H2SO4kh^_j`blky\fejZkl\hjZ
o= 0,125 fhev
FZkkZH2SO4\jZkl\hj_dhlhjucg_h[oh^bfhijb]hlh\blv
m(H2SO4) = 0,125  ]
FZkkZbkoh^gh]hjZkl\hjZkh^_j`Zs_]h]H2SO4:
\]jZkl\hjZkh^_j`blky]H2SO4,
\y ]

]H2SO4,
y ]
<uqbkebfh[t_fbkoh^gh]hjZkl\hjZk_jghcdbkehlu
m(j jZ ) 7,66
=
= 4,4 fe
V=
(j - jZ 1,732
61

Ijbf_j . Dhwnnbpb_glu jZkl\hjbfhklb gbljZlZ dZeby ijb


60 KbhKkhhl\_lkl\_gghjZ\gub]\]\h^uDZdh\Z
fZkkZgbljZlZdZeby\u^_eb\r_]hky\hkZ^hdijbhoeZ`^_gbbhl
^hhKgZkus_ggh]hijbhKjZkl\hjZwlhckhebfZkkhc]"
J_r_gb_
FZkkZgZkus_ggh]hjZkl\hjZijbhKjZ\gZ
m j-jZ   ]
FZkkZgbljZlZdZeby\wlhfjZkl\hj_
\jZkl\hj_fZkkhc]kh^_j`blkyKNO3fZkkhc]
-]
-o]
110,1 40
= 20,96 ]
o= m(KNO3) =
210,1
h

FZkkZ\h^u\]jZkl\hjZ[m^_ljZ\gZ
m(H2O) = 40  ]
<uqbkebffZkkmKNO3\gZkus_gghfjZkl\hj_ijbhK\ ]
H2O:

\]H2OjZkl\hjy_lky]KNO3,
\]
-y]KNO3,
y = m(KNO3  ]
IjbhoeZ`^_gbb\u^_eblkygbljZldZebyfZkkhc
m(KNO3) = 20,96  ]
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63

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ghc dhgp_gljZpb_c  fheve ^h[Z\beb  fe jZkl\hjZ
( = ]kf3 wlhckhebkfheyjghcdhgp_gljZpb_cfheve
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emq_gghfjZkl\hj_
155. >hdZdh]hh[t_fZg_h[oh^bfhjZa[Z\blvfejZkl\hjZkheyghc
dbkehlukfZkkh\hc^he_c  ]kf3 qlh[uihemqblv
jZkl\hj  ]kf3 bdZdh\Z[m^_l_]hfheyjgZydhgp_g
ljZpby"
156. DZdhch[t_fZffbZdZ gm g_h[oh^bfhjZkl\hjblv\fe\h
^u^eyihemq_gbyjZkl\hjZkfZkkh\hc^he_cZffbZdZ
157. <uqbkebl_k(HNO3 _kebgZg_cljZebaZpbxwlh]hjZkl\hjZh[t
_fhffejZkoh^m_lkykf_kvdZj[hgZlh\khklhysZybaK2CO3
fZkkhc]bNa2CO3fZkkhc]
158. DZdhch[t_fih^dbke_ggh]hjZkl\hjZi_jfZg]ZgZlZdZebykwd\b
\Ze_glghcdhgp_gljZpb_cfheveihlj_[m_lky^eydhebq_kl
\_ggh]h hij_^_e_gby `_e_aZ \ gZ\_kd_ djbklZeeh]b^jZlZ
(NH4)2SO4 FeSO4 6H2OfZkkhc]"
159. DZdhch[t_fjZkl\hjZZahlghcdbkehlu ]fe k__fZkkh
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]kf3 kfheyjghc^he_cdbkehluqlh[uihemqblvjZkl\hjk
fZkkh\hc^he_cHNO3 20 %?
160. Kf_rZebfejZkl\hjZk_jghcdbkehlu  ]kf3 kwd\b\Z
e_glghcdhgp_gljZpb_cfhevebfe__jZkl\hjZkfheyj
ghc ^he_c     ]kf3  <uqbkeblv fZkkh\mx ^hex
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gbybojhfZfZkkhc]cfheyjghc^he_cCr2O3jZ\ghc"
162. Kf_kv f_^b b hdkb^Z f_^b II  k fZkkh\hc ^he_c f_lZeebq_kdhc
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aZl_fhoeZ^beb^hhK<uqbkebl_fZkkm\udjbklZeebah\Z\r_cky
khebDZdh\ug_ba[_`gu_ihl_jbgbljZlZdZebyhlghkbl_evghbk
oh^gh]hh[jZapZ_kebdhwnnbpb_gljZkl\hjbfhklbgbljZlZdZeby
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kl\_gghjZ\gu]b]\]\h^uDZdmxfZkkmqbklh]hgbl
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l\hjZ[uehaZljZq_ghfe\h^u"DZdh\Z[m^_lfZkkh\Zy^hey
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nbabheh]bq_kdhfjZkl\hj_ ! ]kf3).
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l_dhebq_kl\hZahlZ\kmlhqghcfhq_\fheyo
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dbkehluHij_^_ebl_fZkkh\mx^hexdZ`^hcbadbkehl\jZkl\h
j_ _keb ijb g_cljZebaZpbb  ] wlh]h jZkl\hjZ jZkoh^m_lky
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djZkl\hjmdZj[hgZlZgZljbyh[t_fhffe ! ]fe kfZk
kh\hc^he_ckhebqlh[uihemqblvjZkl\hj\dhlhjhffZk
kh\Zy^heydZj[hgZlZgZljbyjZ\gZ"
172. KieZ\ jZ\guo ih fZkk_ f_^b `_e_aZ b pbgdZ h[s_c fZkkhc  ]
ihf_klbeb\jZkl\hjfZkkhc]kfZkkh\hc^he_ckheyghcdb
kehluJZkkqblZcl_fZkkh\u_^heb\k_o\_s_kl\\ihemqb\
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khc]]b^jhdkb^ZgZljbykfZkkh\hc^he_cs_ehqbJZk
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65

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175. D jZkl\hjm h[t_fhf  fe !   ]kf3  k fZkkh\hc ^he_c
Zahlghc dbkehlu   ijb[Z\beb jZkl\hj ]b^jhdkb^Z dZeby k
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khebkhklZ\ey_l"
176. >ey ihemq_gby kl_deZ kf_kv ihlZrZ b ba\_klgydZ ijhdZebeb k
dj_fg_a_fhf Z \u^_eb\rbcky ]Za ih]ehlbeb jZkl\hjhf ]b^jh
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ih]ehlb\r_]hky]ZaZ
177. GZjZkl\hj_gb_kf_kbf_^bbhdkb^Zf_^b II fZkkhc]bajZk
oh^h\Zgh]jZkl\hjZkw(H2SO4) = 90 <uqbkebl_fZkkmf_^b
\bkoh^ghckf_kb
=E:<:VI
J:<GH<?KBY<J:KL<HJ:OWE?DLJHEBLH<
We_dljheblu^bkkhpbbjmxsb_\jZkl\hjZog_iheghklvxgZ
au\ZxlkykeZ[ufbwe_dljheblZfb<bojZkl\hjZomklZgZ\eb\Z_lky
jZ\gh\_kb_ f_`^m g_ijh^bkkhpbbjh\Z\rbfb fhe_dmeZfb bkoh^gh]h
\_s_kl\ZbbhgZfbh[jZah\Z\rbfbky\j_amevlZl_^bkkhpbZpbbGZ
ijbf_j\\h^ghfjZkl\hj_mdkmkghcdbkehlumklZgZ\eb\Z_lkyjZ\gh
\_kb_
KG3KHHG<G+KG3KHH,
dhgklZglZ dhlhjh]h dhgklZglZ ^bkkhpbZpbb  k\yaZgZ k dhgp_gljZpbyfbkhhl\_lkl\mxsboqZklbpkhhlghr_gb_f
K=

c(H + ) c(CH 3COO )


.
cg_^bk (CH 3COOH)

Kl_i_gvx ^bkkhpbZpbb . we_dljheblZ gZau\Z_lky ^hey _]h fh


e_dme ih^\_j]rboky ^bkkhpbZpbb l _ hlghr_gb_ qbkeZ fhe_dme
66

jZkiZ\rbokygZbhguN^bkdh[s_fmqbkemfhe_dme\\_^_gguo\jZk
l\hjNh[s.:
N
= ^bk .
N h[s
G_ljm^gh ihdZaZlv qlh hlghr_gb_ qbkeZ fhe_dme fh`gh aZf_
gblvhlghr_gb_ffheyjghcdhgp_gljZpbbijh^bkkhpbbjh\Z\rbofh
e_dme k^bk dh[s_cfheyjghcdhgp_gljZpbbkeZ[h]hwe_dljheblZk:
c (CH 3COOH)
,
= ^bk
c(CH 3COOH )
ZlZddZd
k^bk KG3KHHG  k G+) = k KG3KHH),
lh
c(CH 3COO )
c( H + )
.
=
=
c(CH 3COOH ) c(CH 3COOH)
< p_eyo mijhs_gby \b^Z nhjfme h[hagZqbf h[smx dhgp_gljZ
pbxmdkmkghcdbkehlu[md\hckl_k KG3KHHG  k
Lh]^Zke_^m_lqlh
k G+) = k KG3KHH) = . k,
Zkg_^bk KG3KHHG  k . k = (1 .)k.
Ihke_ ih^klZgh\db k^bk b kg_^bk ihemqZ_f mjZ\g_gb_ dhlhjh_ gZ
au\ZxlaZdhghfjZa[Z\e_gbyHkl\Zev^Z
c 2 2
c 2
K=
.
=
(1 )c 1
?kebkl_i_gv^bkkhpbZpbbagZqbl_evghf_gvr__^bgbpulhijb
ijb[eb`_gguo\uqbke_gbyofh`ghijbgylvqlh.Lh]^Z\u
jZ`_gb_aZdhgZjZa[Z\e_gbymijhsZ_lky
K
.
c
Ihke_^g__ khhlghr_gb_ ihdZau\Z_l qlh ijb jZa[Z\e_gbb jZk
l\hjZ l _ ijb mf_gvr_gbb dhgp_gljZpbb we_dljheblZ c  kl_i_gv
^bkkhpbZpbbwe_dljheblZ\hajZklZ_l
?keb\jZkl\hj_we_dljheblZAXkl_i_gv_]h^bkkhpbZpbbjZ\gZ
.lhdhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\A+bX\jZkl\hj_h^bgZdh\ubkhklZ\eyxl
k(:+) = k(O) = . k.
D = .2khldm^Z. =

67

Ih^klZ\b\kx^ZagZq_gb_.baij_^u^ms_]hkhhlghr_gbygZoh^bf
K
= Kc .
c
Ijbf_j.Hij_^_ebl_dhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\bg_ijh^bkkhpbbjh
\Zgguofhe_dme\\h^ghfjZkl\hj_+)kk(HF) = fheveKl_i_gv
^bkkhpbZpbb+)\wlbomkeh\byojZ\gZ
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_we_dljheblbq_kdhc^bkkhpbZpbb+)
HF H+ + F.
Ihmkeh\bxaZ^Zqbkl_i_gv^bkkhpbZpbb+)jZ\gZihwlh
fm dhgp_gljZpbb dZ`^h]h ba bhgh\ ++ b ) jZ\gu    
= 0,0025 fheve .103fheveDhgp_gljZpbyg_ijh^bkkhpbbjh\Zgguofhe_dme+)khklZ\ey_lk(HF) = 0,01   fheve  
= 7,5 103 fheve 
Ijbf_j  Q_fm jZ\gZ kl_i_gv we_dljheblbq_kdhc ^bkkhpbZpbb
mdkmkghcdbkehlu\__F\h^ghfjZkl\hj_"DZdh\Zdhgp_gljZpby
bhgh\G+\wlhfjZkl\hj_"D^bk(CH3COOH) = 1,80 105.
J_r_gb_
AZibr_f fZl_fZlbq_kdh_ \ujZ`_gb_ aZdhgZ jZa[Z\e_gby Hkl
c 2
.
\Zev^Z K =
1
LZddZd\gZrbomkeh\byolhfh`gh\hkihevah\Zlvkymi
jhs_gghcnhjfhcD= 2khldm^Z
k :+) = k O) = c

K
1,8 10 5
=
=
= 9,5 10 3 , beb
C
0,2
Dhgp_gljZpbybhgh\G+[m^_ljZ\gZ
k G+) = k = 9,5 10-3 0,2 = 1,9 10-3fheve
Bhggh_ijhba\_^_gb_\h^u
<h^hjh^gucihdZaZl_ev
<h^Z[m^mqbhq_gvkeZ[ufwe_dljheblhf\g_agZqbl_evghckl_
i_gb^bkkhpbbjm_lh[jZamybhgu\h^hjh^Zb]b^jhdkb^-bhgu
G2H<G+HG.
Wlhfmijhp_kkmkhhl\_lkl\m_ldhgklZglZ^bkkhpbZpbb
c(H + ) c(OH )
K=
= 1,8 1016 ijbhK 
c ( H 2 O)
68

Ihkdhevdmkl_i_gv^bkkhpbZpbb\h^uhq_gvfZeZlhjZ\gh\_kgZy
dhgp_gljZpbyg_^bkkhpbbjh\Zgguofhe_dme\h^uk G2H k^hklZlhq
ghclhqghklvxjZ\gZh[s_cdhgp_gljZpbb\h^ufheveLh]^Z
\ujZ`_gb_ ^ey dhgklZglu ^bkkhpbZpbb \h^u fh`gh ij_h[jZah\Zlv
ke_^mxsbfh[jZahf
k G+) k HG) = D k G2H  14 = DW.
DhgklZglZDWgZau\Z_lkybhggufijhba\_^_gb_f\h^u
>ey \h^u b jZa[Z\e_gguo \h^guo jZkl\hjh\ ijb g_baf_gghc
l_fi_jZlmj_DW \_ebqbgZihklhyggZyIjbhKDW =1014.
Ihkdhevdm ^bkkhpbZpby \h^u  wg^hl_jfbq_kdbc ijhp_kk lh k
jhklhfl_fi_jZlmju^bkkhpbZpbymkbeb\Z_lkybagZq_gb_DW\hajZk
lZ_l
<qbklhc\h^_dhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\\h^hjh^Zb]b^jhdkb^-bhgh\
h^bgZdh\ubijbhKkhklZ\eyxl7fheve
JZkl\hju\dhlhjuodhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\\h^hjh^Zb]b^jhdkb^bhgh\ h^bgZdh\u gZau\Zxlky g_cljZevgufb jZkl\hjZfb < g_c
ljZevguojZkl\hjZok G+  k HG) = 107fheve
<dbkeuojZkl\hjZok G+) > 107fhevebk G+ !k HG Z\s_
ehqguojZkl\hjZok G+) < 107fhevebk G+ k HG).
<f_klh dhgp_gljZpbc bhgh\ G+ b HG m^h[g__ ihevah\Zlvky bo
^_kylbqgufbeh]ZjbnfZfb\aylufbkh[jZlgufagZdhfwlb\_ebqb
guh[hagZqZxlkykbf\heZfbS+bS2+bgZau\Zxlkykhhl\_lkl\_ggh
\h^hjh^gufb]b^jhdkb^gufihdZaZl_eyfb
pH = lg c(H+); pOH = lg c(OH).
<qZklghklb^ey\h^uijbhK
jG lg107 = 7, pOH = lg107 = 7.
Ke_^h\Zl_evgh\g_cljZevguojZkl\hjZo
pH = pOH ZkmffZpH + pOH = 14.
<dbkeuojZkl\hjZojG < Z\s_ehqguojZkl\hjZoS+!
Ijbf_j Hij_^_ebl_S+\h^gh]hjZkl\hjZ+2SO4kk +2SO4) =
= fheve
J_r_gb_
LZd dZd k_jgZy dbkehlZ \ jZa[Z\e_gghf jZkl\hj_ ^bkkhpbbjm_l
iheghklvx+2SO4 2H+ + SO42, lhdhgp_gljZpbybhgh\G+[m^_ljZ\gZk G+  . k 2 = 1 0,02  fheveHlkx^ZS+ OJk ++) =
= lg 0,04 = lg 4 102 = lg 4 lg102 = 0,6 +2 = 1,4.
Bkoh^ybajZ\_gkl\ZS+S2+ ke_^m_lqlhS2+  1,4 =
= 12,6.
69

Ijbf_jJZkkqblZcl_fheyjgmxdhgp_gljZpbx+&O_keb\h^h
jh^gucihdZaZl_ev\h^gh]hjZkl\hjZoehjh\h^hjh^ZjZ\_g
J_r_gb_
LZddZdS+ ke_^h\Zl_evghOJk ++) = 1,85; lg c(H+) = 1,85 =

= 2,15  l_2 + 0,15 =  Hlkx^Zk ++) = 1,4 102LZddZdkhey


gZy dbkehlZ y\ey_lky kbevghc h^ghhkgh\ghc dbkehlhc lh b
k +&O = 1,4 102fheve
Ijhba\_^_gb_jZkl\hjbfhklb
JZkkfhljbf]_l_jh]_ggmxkbkl_fmgZkus_ggucjZkl\hjfZehjZkl\hjbfh]hwe_dljheblZgZoh^ysbcky\jZ\gh\_kbbkhk\hbfhkZ^dhf
KnAm(d) <nKm+(j) + mAn(j).
>ey l\_j^hc nZau hkZ^dZ  k(DnAm) = const b fZl_fZlbq_kdh_
\ujZ`_gb_dhgklZglu^Zggh]hjZ\gh\_kbybf__l\b^
Ds = kn(Dm+) km(:n)
LZdZydhgklZglZjZ\gh\_kbygZau\Z_lkyijhba\_^_gb_fjZkl\h
jbfhklb IJ bebdhgklZglhcjZkl\hjbfhklb (Ds):
Ds IJ k n(Dm+) k m(:n)
LZdbf h[jZahf \ gZkus_gghf jZkl\hj_ fZehjZkl\hjbfh]h
we_dljheblZ ijhba\_^_gb_ dhgp_gljZpbc _]h bhgh\ \ kl_i_gyo jZ\
guokl_obhf_ljbq_kdbfdhwnnbpb_glZfijb^Zgghcl_fi_jZlmj_
\_ebqbgZihklhyggZy
Ijhba\_^_gb_ jZkl\hjbfhklb oZjZdl_jbam_l kjZ\gbl_evgmx jZk
l\hjbfhklv h^ghlbiguo \_s_kl\ q_f [hevr_ IJ ^Zggh]h \_s_kl\Z
l_f[hevr__]hjZkl\hjbfhklv
Mkeh\byh[jZah\ZgbyhkZ^dZ
ID k(Dm+)n k(:n)m!IJKnAm,
]^_ ID  ijhba\_^_gb_ dhgp_gljZpbc bhgh\ gZoh^ysboky \ ^Zgghf
jZkl\hj_
JZkl\hj\dhlhjhfkha^Z_lkywlhmkeh\b_ i_j_kus_gguchl
ghkbl_evgh^Zggh]hwe_dljheblZbag_]h[m^_l\uiZ^ZlvhkZ^hd
>Zggh_mkeh\b_fh`_l^hklb]ZlvkygZijbf_j\\_^_gb_fh^gh
bf_ggh]hbhgZ\gZkus_ggucjZkl\hjKnAm.
Mkeh\b_jZkl\hj_gbyhkZ^dZID < IJKnAm.
JZkl\hj \ ^Zgghf kemqZ_ g_gZkus_gguc djbklZeeu fZehjZk
l\hjbfh]hwe_dljheblZKnAmijb\\_^_gbb\g_]h[m^mljZkl\hjylvky
70

Mkeh\by ID  IJKnAm fh`gh ^hklb]gmlv ijbeb\Zy ^hklZlhqgh


[hevrh_dhebq_kl\hjZkl\hjbl_eyeb[h`_k\yau\Zy\fZeh^bkkhpbb
jmxsb_qZklbpul_bhgudhlhju_hkZ^hdKnAmihkueZ_l\jZkl\hj
Ih \_ebqbg_ IJ fh`_l [ulv gZc^_gZ jZkl\hjbfhklv \_s_kl\Z
s fheve >ey[bgZjguowe_dljheblh\gZijbf_j%D624 IJ 10),
jZkl\hjbfhklvs = k(Ba2+) = c(SO42 ihwlhfm
IJ = k(Ba2+) c(SO42) = s2hldm^Z s = IJ = 1,1 1010 10 5 fheve
Ijbf_j  Ijhba\_^_gb_ jZkl\hjbfhklb $J2SO4 jZ\gh .105
(25 hK Hij_^_eblvjZkl\hjbfhklvwlhckheb\fheveb\]e
J_r_gb_
Khev^bkkhpbbjm_lihko_f_$J2SO4 :Ag+ + SO42.
H[hagZqbfbkdhfmxjZkl\hjbfhklvkhebq_j_as fheve 
Lh]^Zk(Ag+) = 2sZk(SO42) = s.
IJ $J2SO4 k2(Ag+ k 6242) = (2s)2 s = 4s3.
1,6 10 5 3
= 4 10 6 1,6102 fheve
Hlkx^Zs = IJ / 4 =
4
LZd dZd fheyjgZy fZkkZ $J2SO4 jZ\gZ  ]fhev lh jZkl\hjb
fhklv$J2SO4\]e[m^_ljZ\gZ2 312 ]e
Ijbf_j  JZkl\hjbfhklv 3E,2 ijb  hKjZ\gZ 104fheve
JZkkqblZlvIJ 3E,2 ijbhK
J_r_gb_
LZddZdjZkl\hjbfhklv3E,2jZ\gZ 104fhevelhdhgp_gljZpby
bhgh\3E2+\gZkus_gghfjZkl\hj_kheb[m^_llZdZy`_ 6,5 104 fheve
dhgp_gljZpby,[m^_l\^\ZjZaZ[hevr_
PbI2 :3E2+ + 2Il_
Bafhev3E,2ijb^bkkhpbZpbbh[jZam_lkyfhev,Lh]^Z
IJ PbI2) = c( Pb2+) c2(I) = 6,5 104 (2 6,5 104)2 1,1 109.
Ijbf_j . Kf_rZeb jZ\gu_ h[t_fu  F jZkl\hjh\ &D&O2 b
Na2SO4H[jZam_lkyebhkZ^hd&D624"IJ &D624) = 2,5 105 .
J_r_gb_
Ba\_klgh qlh hkZ^hd kheb h[jZam_lky _keb ijhba\_^_gb_ dhg
p_gljZpbckhhl\_lkl\mxsbobhgh\kheb\fhf_glkf_rb\Zgby[m^_l
[hevr_ijhba\_^_gbyjZkl\hjbfhklbwlhckhebLZddZdijbkf_rb\Z
gbbjZ\guoh[t_fh\^\mokhe_cdhgp_gljZpbydZ`^hckhebmf_gvrZ
_lky \^\h_ lh \ fhf_gl kf_rb\Zgby dhgp_gljZpbb khe_c \ gZr_f
kemqZ_ [m^ml jZ\gu ih  fheve Dhgp_gljZpbb bhgh\ &D2+ b
SO42\wlhl`_fhf_gl[m^mljZ\guihfheveKe_^h\Zl_evgh
3

71

k(Ca2+) k(SO42) = 0,0005 0,0005 = 2,5107qlhagZqbl_evghf_gvr_


\_ebqbguIJ &D624 AgZqblhkZ^hdg_h[jZam_lky
Ijbf_jKhihklZ\blvjZkl\hjbfhklv$J&Oijb hK\\h^_b\
jZkl\hj_ 1D&O k dhgp_gljZpb_c F 1D&O    fheve IJ $J&O  
=1,81010.
J_r_gb_
ImklvjZkl\hjbfhklv$J&Oijbwlbomkeh\byo\\h^_jZ\gZVLh
]^Zc(Ag+) = c(Cl) = s kfijbf_j 
IJ $J&O  c(Ag+) c(Cl) = s2;
s = IJ = 1,34 105 fheve
ImklvjZkl\hjbfhklv$J&O\FjZkl\hj_1D&OjZ\gZs1lh]^Z
k(Ag ) = s1, k(Cl) = s1   Ih^klZ\bf wlb agZq_gby \ \ujZ`_gb_
IJ $J&O 
IJ(AgCl) = s1(s1 + 0,1) = 1,8 1010. LZddZd >> s1lhs1 + 0,1 0,1
bij_^u^ms__\ujZ`_gb_fh`ghmijhklblvs1 0,1 = 1,8 1010Hl
kx^Zs1 = 1,8109.
KjZ\gbfjZkl\hjbfhklvAgCl\\h^_b\FjZkl\hj_NaCl.
<FjZkl\hj_1D&OjZkl\hjbfhklv$J&O[m^_lf_gvr_\
+

s 1,34 10 5
=
= 7,4 103 jZa
9
s1 1,8 10
=b^jhebakhe_c
=b^jhebakheb ijhp_kk\aZbfh^_ckl\bykhebk\h^hcijb\h^y
sbc d h[jZah\Zgbx keZ[h^bkkhpbbjmxsbo qZklbp fhe_dme beb bh
gh\ =b^jhebakhe_cdZq_kl\_gghfh`ghjZkkfZljb\ZlvdZdj_amevlZl
iheyjbaZpbhggh]h \aZbfh^_ckl\by bhgh\ kheb k bo ]b^jZlghc h[h
ehqdhcbmijhs_gghij_^klZ\blvke_^mxsbfbko_fZfb
Kn+ + HOH KOH(n1)+ + H+,
An + HOH HA(n1) + OH-.
=b^jheba h[mkeh\e_g h[jZah\Zgb_f fZeh^bkkhpbbjmxsbo qZklbpDHG(n1)+bG:(n1).
Q_f [hevr_ aZjy^ b f_gvr_ jZ^bmk bhgh\ kheb l_f kbevg__ bo
iheyjbaZpbhggh_ \aZbfh^_ckl\b_ k \h^hc keZ[__ ^bkkhpbZpby h[jZ
amxsboky qZklbp DHG(n1)+ b G:(n1) b \ [hevr_c kl_i_gb ijhbkoh
^bl]b^jheba
Iheyjbamxs__ \ebygb_ gZ fhe_dmeu \h^u g_\_ebdh m dZlbhgh\
s_ehqguobs_ehqgha_f_evguof_lZeeh\h^ghaZjy^guoZgbhgh\gZ
72

ijbf_j&O, Br, NO 3 mg_dhlhjuo^\moaZjy^guogZijbf_j62 24 Ih


wlhfm kheb h[jZah\Zggu_ Zgbhghf kbevghc dbkehlu b dZlbhghf
kbevgh]hhkgh\Zgby]b^jhebamg_ih^\_j]Zxlky
<hafh`gu ke_^mxsb_ kemqZb ]b^jhebaZ khe_c ]b^jheba ih
ZgbhgmihdZlbhgmihdZlbhgmbZgbhgmh^gh\j_f_ggh
=b^jheba ih Zgbhgm ?fm ih^\_j]Zxlky kheb h[jZah\Zggu_ dZ
lbhghf kbevgh]h hkgh\Zgby b Zgbhghf keZ[hc dbkehlu (K2CO3, Na2S,
Na2SO3, K3PO4b^j Ijb]b^jheba_kha^Z_lkys_ehqgZykj_^Z S+ > 7).
GZijbf_j
CH3COONa CH3COO + Na+,
Na+ + HOH j_Zdpbyg_b^_l
CH3COO + HOH CH3COOH + OH.
Fhe_dmeyjgh_mjZ\g_gb_]b^jhebaZ
CH3COONa + HOH <&+3COOH + NaOH.
>Zgguc ijhp_kk h[jZlbfuc jZ\gh\_kb_ ]b^jhebaZ kbevgh kf_
s_gh\e_\hihkdhevdmD +2O) <D &+3COOH).
=b^jheba fgh]haZjy^gh]h ZgbhgZ ijhl_dZ_l klmi_gqZlh b ijb
h[uqguomkeh\byo]eZ\gufh[jZahfb^_llhevdhihi_j\hcklmi_gb
GZijbf_j:
Na2SO3 2Na+ + SO 32 ,
Na+ + HOH j_Zdpbyg_b^_l
SO 32 + HOH <+62 3 + OH klmi_gv 
HSO 3 + HOH <+2SO3 + OH klmi_gv 
Fhe_dmeyjgu_mjZ\g_gbykhhl\_lkl\_gghbf_xl\b^
Na2SO3 GHG<1DG623 +NaOH,
NaHSO3 + HOH <+2SO3 + NaOH.
=b^jheba ih dZlbhgm. ?fm ih^\_j]Zxlky kheb h[jZah\Zggu_ dZ
lbhghf keZ[h]h hkgh\Zgby b Zgbhghf kbevghc dbkehlu (NH4Br, ZnCl2,
Cu(NO3)2b^j Kj_^Zijb]b^jheba_dbkeZy jG GZijbf_j
CuCl2 Cu2+ + Cl,
Cl + HOH j_Zdpbyg_b^_l
Cu2+ + HOH <CuOH+ + H+ klmi_gv 
Fhe_dmeyjgh_mjZ\g_gb_i_j\hcklmi_gb]b^jhebaZ
CuCl2 + HOH <&X2+&O+&O
=b^jhebahf ih \lhjhc klmi_gb ijb h[uqguo mkeh\byo fh`gh
ij_g_[j_qv
73

=b^jheba ih dZlbhgm b Zgbhgm. Ih dZlbhgmbZgbhgm]b^jheb


amxlky kheb h[jZah\Zggu_ dZlbhghf keZ[h]h hkgh\Zgby b Zgbhghf
keZ[hcdbkehluGZijbf_j
CH3COONH4 CH3COO + NH4+,
CH3COO + HOH <CH3COOH + OH,
NH4+ + HOH <NH4OH + H+,
CH3COO + NH4+ + HOH <CH3COOH + NH4OH.
Fhe_dmeyjgh_mjZ\g_gb_
CH3COONH4 + HOH <CH3COOH + NH4OH.
=b^jheba\^ZgghfkemqZ_ijhl_dZ_l^h\hevghbgl_gkb\ghH[jZ
amxsb_ky ijb ]b^jheba_ bhgu G+ b HG k\yau\Zxlky \ fhe_dmeu
G2Hqlhmkbeb\Z_l]b^jhebabihdZlbhgmbihZgbhgmJ_Zdpbykj_
^uaZ\bkblhlkhhlghr_gbydhgklZgl^bkkhpbZpbbh[jZamxsbokydb
kehlu b hkgh\Zgby < ^Zgghf kemqZ_ S+  lZd dZd K(NH3 H2O)
K(CH3COOH).
?keb dbkehlZ b hkgh\Zgb_ h[jZamxsb_ky \ ijhp_kk_ ]b^jhebaZ
moh^ylbaahguijhl_dZgbyj_Zdpbb \\b^_hkZ^dZbeb]ZaZ lh]b^
jheba fh`_l ijhl_dZlv ijZdlbq_kdb g_h[jZlbfh LZd gZijbf_j
Al2S3ijbdhglZdl_k\h^hciheghklvxij_\jZsZ_lky\fZehjZkl\hjb
fuc]b^jhdkb^Zexfbgbyb\]Zahh[jZaguck_jh\h^hjh^
Al2S3GHG 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2S.
Ih wlhc `_ ijbqbg_ kf_rb\Zy \h^gu_ jZkl\hju AlCl3 b Na2S,
g_evayihemqblvAl2S3 :
2AlCl3 + 3Na2S + 6HOH 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2S + 6NaCl,
2Al3+ + 3S2 + 6H2O 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2S.
Ba-aZ\aZbfgh]hmkbe_gby]b^jhebaZihdZlbhgmbihZgbhgm kh
\f_klgh]h]b^jhebaZ \\h^ghfjZkl\hj_lZd`_g_\hafh`ghkbgl_ab
jh\Zlv dZj[hgZlu Zexfbgby ojhfZ III  `_e_aZ III  kmevnb^ ojh
fZ III g_dhlhju_^jm]b_khebIjb\_^_f_s_h^bgijbf_jkh\f_kl
gh]h]b^jhebaZ
2AlCl3 + 3Na2CO3 + 3HOH 2Al(OH)3 + 3CO2+6NaCl,
2Al3+ + 3CO32- + 3HOH 2Al(OH)3 + 3CO2.
Dhebq_kl\_ggu_ oZjZdl_jbklbdb ]b^jhebaZ. Dhebq_kl\_ggh
]b^jhebakheboZjZdl_jbam_lkykl_i_gvx]b^jhebaZK bdhgklZglhc
]b^jhebaZD].
74

c
h= ] ,
k
]^_k] dhgp_gljZpby]b^jhebah\ZgghcqZklbkhebk h[sZydhgp_g
ljZpbyjZkl\hj_gghckheb
>ey]b^jhebaZihZgbhgm\h[s_f\b^_:GHG<G:HG
ijb[eb`_gghkijZ\_^eb\h
c(HA) c(OH )
= K c(H 2O ) = K ] , ]^_D] dhgklZglZ]b^jhebaZ.
c( A )
Bkihevamykhhlghr_gb_ c(OH ) =
K] =

Kw
ihemqZ_f
c(H + )

Kw
K
beb K ] = w .
K HA
K dbk

A^_kvDdbk dhgklZglZ^bkkhpbZpbblhcdbkehludhlhjZyh[jZam
_lky\j_amevlZl_]b^jhebaZ
>ey]b^jhebaZihdZlbhgm.+ + HOH <.2+++ZgZeh]bqgh

( )
( )

c(KOH ) c H +
= K] ,
c K+

K] =

Kw
.
K hkg

A^_kvDhkg dhgklZglZ^bkkhpbZpbblh]hhkgh\Zgbydhlhjh_h[
jZam_lky\j_amevlZl_]b^jhebaZ
>ey]b^jhebaZihdZlbhgmbZgbhgm
K+ + A + HOH <.2++$
Kw
c(KOH) c(HA)
K] =
.
= K] ,
+

K dbk K hkg
c(K ) c(A )
DZ`^Zyklmi_gv]b^jhebaZfgh]haZjy^guobhgh\oZjZdl_jbam_lky
k\h_cD]LZdklmi_gqZlu_dhgklZglu]b^jhebaZ^\moaZjy^gh]hZgbh
gZke_^mxsb_
Kw
, D] > D] ,
D] = K w , D] =
K dbk
K dbk
]^_Dd bDd dhgklZglu^bkkhpbZpbbdbkehluihbklmi_gbBa
khhlghr_gbc ke_^m_l q_f keZ[__ dbkehlZ hkgh\Zgb_  h[jZamxsZy
h[jZamxs__  khev l_f kbevg__ khev ]b^jhebam_lky b dhgklZglZ
]b^jhebaZ __ [hevr_ =b^jheba  ijhp_kk wg^hl_jfbq_kdbc ihwlhfm
ijbih\ur_gbbl_fi_jZlmjuD]m\_ebqb\Z_lky
75

>ey]b^jhebaZihdZlbhgmbebihZgbhgmaZ\bkbfhklvf_`^mhbk
hibku\Z_lky\ujZ`_gb_fZgZeh]bqgufaZdhgmjZa[Z\e_gbyHkl\Zev^Z
K]
,
c
l_jZa[Z\e_gb_jZkl\hjZkhebmkbeb\Z_l__]b^jheba
?kebkhev]b^jhebam_lkyh^gh\j_f_gghbihdZlbhgmbihZgbh
gmlhdhgp_gljZpbykheb\jZkl\hj_ijZdlbq_kdbg_\eby_lgZh:
D] ch2bebh

D]

< khhl\_lkl\bb k ijbgpbihf E_ RZl_ev_ ]b^jheba ih dZlbhgm


mkbeb\Z_lky hm\_ebqb\Z_lky ijb^h[Z\e_gbbhkgh\ZgbydjZkl\hjm
khebZ]b^jhebaihZgbhgmmkbeb\Z_lkyijb^h[Z\e_gbbdbkehlu
<hijhku^eykZfhklhyl_evghcih^]hlh\db
Obfbq_kdh_jZ\gh\_kb_

1. DZdh_ khklhygb_ j_Zdpbhgghc kbkl_fu gZau\Z_lky obfbq_kdbf


jZ\gh\_kb_f"
2. DZdhij_^_eblvfhf_glgZklmie_gbyobfbq_kdh]hjZ\gh\_kby"
3. Fh`ghebkqblZlvihklhygkl\hdhgp_gljZpbcj_Z]_glh\\kbkl_f_
^hdZaZl_evkl\hfbklbgghklbobfbq_kdh]hjZ\gh\_kby"
4. Qlh lZdh_ dhgklZglZ obfbq_kdh]h jZ\gh\_kby" DZdh\ __ nbabq_
kdbckfuke"
5. AZibrbl_ fZl_fZlbq_kdb_ \ujZ`_gby dhgklZgl jZ\gh\_kby ^ey
kbkl_f
Z HCl ] + O ] 2Cl2 ] + 2H2O ]
[ Fe d + 3Cl ] 2FeCl d
6. DZdh\h \ebygb_ l_fi_jZlmju ^Z\e_gby dhgp_gljZpbb b ijbkml
kl\bydZlZebaZlhjZgZ\_ebqbgmdhgklZgluobfbq_kdh]hjZ\gh\_
kby"
7. DZdh\h \ebygb_ l_fi_jZlmju ^Z\e_gby dhgp_gljZpbb b ijbkml
kl\bydZlZebaZlhjZgZkhklhygb_obfbq_kdh]hjZ\gh\_kby"
8. Knhjfmebjmcl_ijbgpbiE_-RZl_ev_
9. < dZdmx klhjhgm kf_klblky jZ\gh\_kb_ NO ] + O ] 2NO2 ] ;
H0 = d>`ijbZ mf_gvr_gbb^Z\e_gby[ \\_^_gbb\kbk
l_fmdbkehjh^Z\ ih\ur_gbbl_fi_jZlmju"
10. <dZdhfgZijZ\e_gbbijhbahc^_lkf_s_gb_jZ\gh\_kby
Fe3O d + 4H ] 3Fe d + 4H2O ]
ijbZ \\_^_gbb\kbkl_fm\h^hjh^Z[ \\_^_gbb\kbkl_fmijh
dZe_ggh]hhdkb^ZdZevpby\ m\_ebq_gbb^Z\e_gby"
76

11. DZdb_j_Zdpbbhlghkylkydnhlhobfbq_kdbf"
12. Ijb\_^bl_ ijbf_ju g_jZa\_l\e_gguo b jZa\_l\e_gguo p_iguo
j_Zdpbc
13. DZdh\hagZq_gb_nhlhobfbq_kdboj_Zdpbc^ey`b\hcijbjh^u"
JZkl\hjuwe_dljheblh\

14. <q_fkhklhblkmsghklvl_hjbbwe_dljheblbq_kdhc^bkkhpbZpbb"
15. Hlq_]haZ\bkbljZkiZ^gZbhgu\ijhp_kk_jZkl\hj_gby\_s_kl\\
\h^_"
16. JZaebqZxlkyebf_oZgbafu^bkkhpbZpbb ijbjZkl\hj_gbb\\h^_ 
\_s_kl\kbhggufbdh\Ze_glguflbiZfbk\ya_c"
17. Qlh lZdh_ ^bwe_dljbq_kdZy ihklhyggZy jZkl\hjbl_ey b dZdh\h __
\ebygb_gZijhp_kk^bkkhpbZpbb"
18. <q_faZdexqZ_lkydZq_kl\_ggh_jZaebqb_ijhp_kkh\^bkkhpbZpbb
kbevguobkeZ[uowe_dljheblh\"
19. DZd fh`gh dhebq_kl\_ggh hoZjZdl_jbah\Zlv ^bkkhpbZpbx
we_dljheblh\"
20. QlhoZjZdl_jbam_ldhgklZglZ^bkkhpbZpbbwe_dljheblZ"
21. Hl dZdbo nZdlhjh\ aZ\bkbl kl_i_gv ^bkkhpbZpbb keZ[h]h
we_dljheblZ"
22. DZdh\Zk\yavf_`^mkl_i_gvx^bkkhpbZpbbbdhgp_gljZpb_ckeZ
[h]hwe_dljheblZ"
23. Ihq_fm ^ey oZjZdl_jbklbdb ^bkkhpbZpbb kbevguo we_dljheblh\
ijbf_gyxll_jfbgdZ`msZykykl_i_gv^bkkhpbZpbb?
24. QlhlZdh_Zdlb\ghklvbdhwnnbpb_glZdlb\ghklb"
25. >Zcl_hij_^_e_gbydbkehlhkgh\Zgbcbkhe_cklhqdbaj_gbyl_h
jbbwe_dljheblbq_kdhc^bkkhpbZpbb
26. GZah\bl_kbevgu_hkgh\Zgbybkbevgu_dbkehlu
27. DZdbaf_gyxlkydbkehlgh-hkgh\gu_k\hckl\Z]b^jhdkb^h\ihi_
jbh^Zfb]jmiiZfI_jbh^bq_kdhckbkl_fu"
28. <dZdmxklhjhgmkf_klblkyjZ\gh\_kb_^bkkhpbZpbbmdkmkghcdb
kehluijb^h[Z\e_gbbZ Zp_lZlZgZljby[ \h^u\ oehjh\h^h
jh^Z] ]b^jhdkb^ZgZljby"
29. >h[Z\e_gb_f dZdbo \_s_kl\ fh`gh Z  mkbeblv beb [  hkeZ[blv
^bkkhpbZpbxZffbZdZ\\h^ghfjZkl\hj_"
30. DZdb_we_dljheblu^bkkhpbbjmxlklmi_gqZlh"Ihq_fm\_ebqbgu
dhgklZgl dZ`^hc ihke_^mxs_c klmi_gb ^bkkhpbZpbb j_adh
mf_gvrZxlky"
77

>bkkhpbZpby\h^u<h^hjh^gucihdZaZl_ev

31. DZdh\Z\aZbfhk\yavf_`^mdhgp_gljZpbyfbbhgh\]b^jhdkhgbyb
]b^jhdkb^-bhgh\\\h^guojZkl\hjZo"
32. QlhgZau\Z_lky\h^hjh^guf ]b^jhdkb^guf ihdZaZl_e_f"
33. <dZdbo_^bgbpZoke_^m_l\ujZ`Zlvdhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\ijbjZk
q_l_jG jHG "
34. DZdb_ \_s_kl\Z fh]ml kem`blv bg^bdZlhjZfb" DZdh\u hdjZkdb
eZdfmkZn_ghenlZe_bgZbf_lbeh\h]hhjZg`_\h]h\jZkl\hjZodb
kehlbs_ehq_c"
35. I_j_qbkebl_ mkeh\by ijb dhlhjuo j_Zdpbb h[f_gZ \ jZkl\hjZo
ijhl_dZxlijZdlbq_kdb^hdhgpZ
36. GZibrbl_\bhggh-fhe_dmeyjghcnhjf_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbc\jZk
l\hjZof_`^m
Z oehjb^hfdZevpbyb]b^jhdZj[hgZlhfgZljby
[ nhknZlhfdZevpbybkheyghcdbkehlhc
\ f_^gufdmihjhkhfbk_jh\h^hjh^hf
=b^jhebakhe_c

37. DZdh\uf_oZgbafu]b^jhebaZkhebihdZlbhgmbihZgbhgm"
38. DZdb_nZdlhju\ebyxlgZijhp_kk]b^jhebaZkheb"
39. DZdh\h \ebygb_ ijbjh^u kheb dhgp_gljZpbb kheb \ jZkl\hj_
l_fi_jZlmjubjGkj_^ugZkl_i_gv]b^jhebaZ"
40. >h[Z\e_gb_f dZdbo \_s_kl\ fh`gh Z  hkeZ[blv beb [  mkbeblv
ijhp_kk]b^jhebaZkheb"Ijb\_^bl_ijbf_ju
41. DZdhcfh`_l[ulvj_Zdpbykj_^u\\h^ghfjZkl\hj_khebh[jZah
\ZgghckeZ[ufhkgh\Zgb_fbkeZ[hcdbkehlhc"
42. DZdh\Zj_Zdpbykj_^u\\h^ghfjZkl\hj_
Z kmevnb^ZZffhgby
[ bh^b^ZZexfbgby
\ kmevnblZdZeby"
43. GZibrbl_ fZl_fZlbq_kdb_ \ujZ`_gby ^ey dhgklZgl ]b^jhebaZ
Z Zp_lZlZgZljby[ oehjb^ZZffhgby
44. DZdb_ bhgu ih^\_j]Zxlky klmi_gqZlhfm ]b^jhebam" Ijb\_^bl_
ijbf_ju
45. <dZdbokemqZyo]b^jhebakhebh[jZah\ZgghckeZ[ufhkgh\Zgb_f
b keZ[hc dbkehlhc ijhl_dZ_l ^h dhgpZ" Ijb\_^bl_ ijbf_ju
ihevamykvlZ[ebp_cjZkl\hjbfhklb
78

Ijhba\_^_gb_jZkl\hjbfhklb

46. QlhgZau\Z_lkyijhba\_^_gb_fjZkl\hjbfhklb IJ "


47. >eydZdbo\_s_kl\ijbf_gbfhihgylb_IJ"
48. GZibrbl_ fZl_fZlbq_kdh_ \ujZ`_gb_ IJ ^ey nlhjb^Z dZevpby
Baf_gblky eb \_ebqbgZIJ CaF2 ijb^h[Z\e_gbb\gZkus_gguc
jZkl\hjCaF2ke_^mxsbo\_s_kl\
Z kmoh]hnlhjb^ZdZeby
[ kmoh]hoehjb^ZdZevpby"
DZd^h[Z\e_gb_wlbo\_s_kl\\eby_lgZjZkl\hjbfhklvCaF2?
49. <dZdbo_^bgbpZoke_^m_l\ujZ`Zlvdhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\ijbjZk
q_l_IJ"
50. DZdh\umkeh\byh[jZah\ZgbyhkZ^dh\"<k_]^Zeb\uiZ^Z_lhkZ^hd
ijbkeb\ZgbbjZkl\hjh\ih\Zj_gghckhebbgbljZlZk_j_[jZ"
51. KjZ\gb\\_ebqbguIJhp_gbl_\hafh`ghklvijhl_dZgbyj_Zdpbc
Z) AgCl + KI = AgI + KCl;
[) AgI + KCl = AgCl + KI;
IJ $J&O  10IJ $J,  16.
52. Ihq_fmhkZ^dbkhe_ckeZ[uodbkehlh[uqghjZkl\hjyxlky\kbev
guodbkehlZo"
53. Ihq_fmkmevnb^f_^b ,, \hlebqb_hlkmevnb^ZfZj]ZgpZ ,, g_
jZkl\hjbf\kheyghcdbkehl_"
AZ^Zqb^eyj_r_gby
178. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby we_dljheblbq_kdhc ^bkkhpbZpbb ke_^mx
sbo\_s_kl\+123, H2SO4, H3PO4, CH3COOH, Ba(OH)2, Al(OH)3,
Al2(SO4)3, KHSO4, Ba(OH)NO3, Fe(OH)(NO3)2.
179. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc \ fhe_dmeyjghc b bhgghfhe_dmeyjghcnhjfZo ijhl_dZxsbo\\h^guojZkl\hjZof_`^m
ke_^mxsbfbkh_^bg_gbyfb
Z) BaCl2 + Al2(SO4)3 :
[) Fe(OH)SO4 + BaCl2 :
\) CaCO3 + CH3COOH :
]) Ca(HCO3)2 + HNO3 :
^) KHS + H2SO4 :
_)AgCl + NaI :
`) FeCl3 + Na4[Fe(CN)6] :
a) Fe(NO3)2 + K3[Fe(CN)6] :
180. Hij_^_ebl_fheyjgu_dhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\\ke_^mxsbo\h^guo
jZkl\hjZoFHNO3; 0,1M H2SO4; 0,01M Ba(OH)2; 0,2M AlCl3;
0,2M Al2(SO4)3.
79

181. Kl_i_gv we_dljheblbq_kdhc ^bkkhpbZpbb +122 \ F \h^ghf


jZkl\hj_ jZ\gZ  JZkkqblZcl_ dhgp_gljZpbb qZklbp G+, NO 2 ,
HNO2\wlhfjZkl\hj_
182. Q_fmjZ\gZi_j\ZydhgklZglZ^bkkhpbZpbbm]hevghcdbkehlu_k
ebkl_i_gv^bkkhpbZpbb__ihi_j\hcklmi_gb\jZkl\hj_kh^_j
`Zs_f3fhevedbkehlujZ\gZ
183. Ijb dZdhc fheyjghc dhgp_gljZpbb mdkmkghc dbkehlu __  
[m^_l gZoh^blvky \ jZkl\hj_ \ g_ijh^bkkhpbbjh\Zgghf \b^_"
D KH3COOH) = 1,8 105.
184. Hij_^_ebl_dhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\G+\FjZkl\hjZoke_^mxsbo
dbkehl +&O +2SO4, HCOOH, CH3COOH. K(HCOOH) = 1,8 104;
K(CH3COOH) = 1,8 105.
185. DZdbaf_gblkydhgp_gljZpbyG+bkl_i_gv^bkkhpbZpbbmdkmkghc
dbkehlu_keb\eF&+3&22+jZkl\hjblveoehjh\h
^hjh^Z mkeh\byghjfZevgu_ Baf_g_gb_fh[t_fZjZkl\hjZij_
g_[j_qv
186. Hij_^_eblv dhgp_gljZpbx bhgh\ G+ b kl_i_gv ^bkkhpbZpbb md
kmkghcdbkehlu\__jZkl\hj_  ]kf3). D(CH3COOH) =
= 1,810 5.
187. Hij_^_ebl_S+ jZkl\hjh\\dhlhjuodhgp_gljZpbbG+ \fheve 
jZ\guZ [ 3\ 11.
188. Hij_^_ebl_ S+ b S2+ jZkl\hjh\ \ dhlhjuo dhgp_gljZpbb HG
\ fheve jZ\guZ [ 5\ ,4 1012 .
189. Hij_^_ebl_S+ ke_^mxsbo\h^guojZkl\hjh\Z F+2SO4;
[ F%D 2+ 2.
190. Hij_^_ebl_ S+ \h^gh]h jZkl\hjZ k_jghc dbkehlu _keb
w(H2SO4) = iehlghklvjZkl\hjZ ]kf3.
191. Hij_^_ebl_S+ bS2+ \h^gh]hjZkl\hjZkh^_j`Zs_]hfheve
NH3.H2O.
192. Hij_^_ebl_S+ bS2+ \h^gh]hjZkl\hjZmdkmkghcdbkehlu_keb
w(CH3&22+  biehlghklvjZkl\hjZjZ\gZ]kf3.
193. <uqbkebl_ dhgklZglm ^bkkhpbZpbb keZ[hc h^ghhkgh\ghcdbkeh
lu _keb jZkl\hj kh^_j`Zsbc  fheve dbkehlu bf__l
pH = 4,15.
194. Hij_^_ebl_ SH b pOH jZkl\hjZ kh^_j`Zs_]h  fheve \blZ
fbgZ C Zkdhj[bgh\hc dbkehlu  DhgklZglZ ^bkkhpbZpbb Zkdhj
[bgh\hc dbkehlu keZ[Zy h^ghhkgh\gZy hj]Zgbq_kdZy dbkehlZ 
jZ\gZ.105.
80

195. JZkkqblZcl_k(H+ \`_em^hqghfkhd_b\djh\bq_eh\_dZ_kebS+


`_em^hqgh]h khdZ b djh\b a^hjh\h]h q_eh\_dZ jZ\gu khhl\_lkl
\_gghb
196. DZdbaf_gblkyS+ F&+3&22+_kebjZkl\hjblv]Zp_lZ
lZgZljby\ewlh]hjZkl\hjZ"
197. GZ hkgh\Zgbb lZ[ebqguo ^Zgguo ih \_ebqbgZf ijhba\_^_gbc
jZkl\hjbfhklb$J&O$J%U$J,b$J26jZkkqblZcl_jZkl\hjbfh
klbwlbokhe_c \fheveb\]e 
198. Kdhevdh]bhgh\$J+kh^_j`blky\fegZkus_ggh]hjZkl\hjZ
Ag2SO4"IJ $J2SO4 ) = 1,6 105.
199. <h kdhevdh jZa mf_gvrblky dhgp_gljZpby 3E2+ \ gZkus_gghf
jZkl\hj_ 3E&O2 _keb \  fe lZdh]h jZkl\hjZ ^hihegbl_evgh
jZkl\hjblvfhev1D&O"
200. <uiZ^Z_lebhkZ^hd_kebkf_rZlvfejZkl\hjZ$J123kdhg
p_gljZpb_ck(AgNO3) = 2,5 103fhevebfejZkl\hjZ&D&l2 c
dhgp_gljZpb_ck(CaCl2  fheve"
201. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby ]b^jhebaZ \ fhe_dmeyjghc b bhgghfhe_dmeyjghcnhjfZoihdZ`^hcklmi_gb^eyke_^mxsbokhe_c
AlI3, K3PO4, ZnSO4, Al2(SO4)3, NH4CN, NH4HCO3, Al2Se3.
202. Ijb]hlh\e_gu F jZkl\hju ke_^mxsbo \_s_kl\ .&O2 1+4I,
1D&1JZkkqblZcl_kl_i_gb]b^jhebaZkhe_cbjGjZkl\hjh\
203. KjZ\gbl_]b^jhebam_fhklvkhe_c
Z) FeCl2 FeCl3;
[)Na2CO3 Na2SiO3;
\)NaHCO3 Na2CO3;
]) Be(NO3)2 Mg(NO3)2;
^) Na2CO3 (NH4)2CO3;
_) Na2S Na2Se.
204. DZdh\Z kj_^Z dbkeZy s_ehqgZy g_cljZevgZy  \h^gh]h jZkl\hjZ
dZ`^hc ba ke_^mxsbo khe_c NaHCO3, KHSO3, Cs2SO4, K2HPO4,
RbH2PO4GKHHNH4, Ba(OH)Cl"Hl\_lh[hkgh\Zlv
205. Ijb\_^bl_ fhe_dmeyjgu_ b bhggh-fhe_dmeyjgu_ mjZ\g_gby j_
Zdpbc ijhl_dZxsbo \ \h^guo jZkl\hjZo f_`^m dZj[hgZlhf gZ
ljbybZ oehjb^hf`_e_aZ III [ kmevnZlhfZexfbgby\ gbl
jZlhfojhfZ III oehjb^hff_^b II DZdb_[m^mlh[jZah\u\Zlv
ky ijh^mdlu j_Zdpbb _keb dZj[hgZl gZljby aZf_gblv gZ ]b^jh
dZj[hgZlgZljby

81

=E:<:9,,
KLJH?GB?:LHF:
BI?JBH>BQ?KDBCA:DHG>BF?G>?E??<:
1. MdZ`bl_hkgh\gu_oZjZdl_jbklbdb fZkkmaZjy^bhlghkbl_evgu_
jZaf_ju we_f_glZjguoqZklbp\oh^ysbo\khklZ\ZlhfZ
2. >Zcl_ hij_^_e_gb_ ihgylbc fZkkh\h_ qbkeh Zlhfguc ghf_j
bahlhiubah[Zjubahlhgugmdeb^u.
3. QlhlZdh_jZ^bhZdlb\ghklv"DZdh\u__ijbqbgu"Ijb\_^bl_ijb
f_juhkgh\guolbih\jZ^bhZdlb\guoij_\jZs_gbc
4. H[tykgbl_ ijbqbgu dhjimkdmeyjgh-\hegh\hc ^\hckl\_gghklb
fbdjhh[t_dlh\
5. Qlh lZdh_ we_dljhggh_ h[eZdh \hegh\Zy nmgdpby we_dljhggZy
iehlghklvZlhfgZyhj[blZev"<q_fjZaebqb_ihgylbchj[blZevb
hj[blZ?
6. DZdhckfukebf_xld\Zglh\u_qbkeZoZjZdl_jbamxsb_khklhygb_
we_dljhgZ \ Zlhf_" DZdb_ qbke_ggu_ agZq_gby hgb fh]ml ijbgb
fZlv"
7. >Zcl_ lhedh\Zgb_ ihgylbc we_dljhggZy h[hehqdZ wg_j]_lbq_
kdbcmjh\_gvwe_dljhgguckehcih^mjh\_gvZlhfgZyhj[blZev
8. QlhlZdh_wnn_dlb\gucaZjy^y^jZ"
9. Ihykgbl_hkgh\gu_ijbgpbiujZkij_^_e_gbywe_dljhgh\ihhj[b
lZeyf\Zlhf_
10. >Zcl_ nhjfmebjh\dm ijZ\beZ De_qdh\kdh]h DZd hgh hij_^_ey_l
ihjy^hd aZiheg_gby Zlhfguo hj[blZe_c :H " DZdb_ :H bf_xl
h^bgZdh\u_agZq_gb_kmffunOjZ\gh_beb"
11. GZibrbl_ nhjfmeu we_dljhgguo dhgnb]mjZpbc Zlhfh\ i_j\uo
q_luj_oi_jbh^h\, La, Ru, W, Hg, Po, U, Bk, Md&Gwe_f_glh\k
Zlhfgufb ghf_jZfb   Bah[jZabl_ ]jZnbq_kdb kljmdlmjm
bo^\moihke_^gbowg_j]_lbq_kdbomjh\g_c
12. DZdb_jZaebqby\ihgylbyogmdeb^ubbahlhiu?
13. Q_fhlebqZ_lkyjZ^bhgmdeb^hlklZ[bevgh]hgmdeb^Zlh]h`_we_
f_glZ"
14. Qlhy\ey_lky]eZ\ghcoZjZdl_jbklbdhcZlhfZ"
15. >Zcl_kh\j_f_ggmxoZjZdl_jbklbdmi_jbh^bq_kdh]haZdhgZbih
ykgbl__]hnbabq_kdbckfuke
16. DZdh\uhkgh\gu_lbiubah[jZ`_gbyi_jbh^bq_kdhckbkl_fuwe_
f_glh\"MdZ`bl_bokoh^kl\ZbjZaebqby
17. DZdh\nbabq_kdbckfukeghf_jZi_jbh^Zghf_jZ]jmiiu"
82

18. Qlh lZdh_ s-, p-, d-, f-we_f_glu" DZdh\h bo jZkiheh`_gb_ ih i_
jbh^Zfb]jmiiZf"DZdh\ufZdkbfZevgu__fdhklbi_jbh^h\"
19. <q_fijhy\ey_lkykoh^kl\hbjZaebqb_we_f_glh\]eZ\guobih
[hqguoih^]jmii"Ihykgbl_ihgylb_we_f_glu-ZgZeh]b.
20. DZdh\unZdlhjuhij_^_eyxsb_oZjZdl_jbaf_g_gbyobfbq_kdbo
k\hckl\we_f_glh\ihi_jbh^Zfb]jmiiZf"
21. >Zlv lhedh\Zgb_ ihgylbc wnn_dlb\guc dh\Ze_glguc bhgguc
\Zg-^_j-<ZZevkh\kdbc f_lZeebq_kdbc hj[blZevguc jZ^bmku <
q_fbokoh^kl\hbjZaebqb_"
22. DZdb_ jZ^bmku hl\_qZxl ih kfukem ihgylbx Zlhfguc jZ^bmk?
Ihykgbl_ dZd \ebyxl gZ \_ebqbgm Zlhfgh]h jZ^bmkZ ke_^mxsb_
nZdlhjuwnn_dlb\gucaZjy^y^jZdhgnb]mjZpby\g_rg_]hwe_d
ljhggh]hkehyqbkehwe_dljhgguokeh_\lbiobfbq_kdhck\yabb
__djZlghklv
23. Qlh lZdh_ ihl_gpbZe bhgbaZpbb b wg_j]by bhgbaZpbb" Hl dZdbo
nZdlhjh\aZ\bkbl_]h\_ebqbgZ"
24. IjhZgZebabjmcl_baf_g_gb_i_j\h]hbhgbaZpbhggh]hihl_gpbZeZ
mwe_f_glh\\lhjh]hi_jbh^Z
25. >Zcl_hij_^_e_gb_ihgylbykjh^kl\hdwe_dljhgm.
26. DZdb_ nZdlhju hij_^_eyxl \_ebqbgm kjh^kl\Z d we_dljhgm" DZd
fh`gh h[tykgblv jZaebqgu_ agZdb wlhc oZjZdl_jbklbdb ^ey jZa
ebqguowe_f_glh\"
27. Fh]ml eb kms_kl\h\Zlv \ k\h[h^ghf khklhygbb Zgbhgu 22 62
N3"Ihq_fm"
28. Qlh lZdh_ we_dljhhljbpZl_evghklv" DZdmx kihkh[ghklv ZlhfZ
hgZoZjZdl_jbam_l"
29. DZdh\u ijbgpbiu ihkljh_gby rdZeu we_dljhhljbpZl_evghkl_c
we_f_glh\" DZd baf_gy_lky wlZ oZjZdl_jbklbdZ ih i_jbh^Zf b
]jmiiZfi_jbh^bq_kdhckbkl_fu"
=E:<:VIII
OBFBQ?KD:YK<YAV
BF?@FHE?DMEYJGH?<A:BFH>?CKL<B?
1. Qlh lZdh_ obfbq_kdZy k\yav" MdZ`bl_ mkeh\by __ h[jZah\Zgby b
hkgh\gu_iZjZf_lju
2. DZdh\Zijbjh^Zobfbq_kdhck\yab"
3. DZdh\u hkgh\gu_ lbiu obfbq_kdhc k\yab" MdZ`bl_ koh^kl\h b
jZaebqbyf_`^mgbfb
83

4. >Zcl_hij_^_e_gb_dh\Ze_glghck\yabDZdh\Zko_fZ__h[jZah\Z
gby gZijbf_j_fhe_dme+2, Cl2b+&O "
5. GZah\bl_bijhbeexkljbjmcl_dhgdj_lgufbijbf_jZfbhkgh\gu_
kihkh[uh[jZah\Zgbydh\Ze_glghck\yab
6. Knhjfmebjmcl_hkgh\gu_iheh`_gbyf_lh^Z\Ze_glguok\ya_c
7. I_j_qbkebl_hkgh\gu_k\hckl\Zdh\Ze_glghck\yab
8. H[tykgbl_f_oZgbafh[jZah\Zgby-, -b-k\ya_c
9. QlhlZdh_djZlghklvk\yab"DZdh\h__\ebygb_gZ^ebgmbijhq
ghklvk\yabf_`^mZlhfZfb"
10. QlhlZdh_\Ze_glghklv"Q_fhij_^_ey_lkydhebq_kl\_ggZyoZjZd
l_jbklbdZ\Ze_glghklb"
11. DZdh\umkeh\byh[jZah\Zgbyiheyjghcbg_iheyjghcdh\Ze_glghc
k\yab"Ihykgbl_ihgylb_wnn_dlb\gucaZjy^ZlhfZgZdhgdj_l
guoijbf_jZo
12. QlhlZdh_we_dljbq_kdbc^bihev"<dZdhfkhhlghr_gbbgZoh^ylky
^ebgZ^biheyb^ebgZk\yab\^\moZlhfghcfhe_dme_"
13. Qlhy\ey_lkyf_jhciheyjghklbk\yab"
14. IjhZgZebabjmcl_\kjZ\gbl_evghfieZg_iheyjghklvfhe_dme&22
b622, NH3b1)3, H22b+2S.
15. QlhlZdh_kl_j_hobfby"
16. Q_fhij_^_ey_lky]_hf_ljbykljmdlmjfhe_dmekdh\Ze_glguflb
ihfk\ya_c"
17. >Zcl_h[tykg_gb_dhgp_ipbb]b[jb^baZpby.
18. Ihykgbl_hkgh\gu_mkeh\bymklhcqb\hc]b[jb^baZpbb
19. DZdh\ulbiu]b[jb^baZpbbb]_hf_ljbq_kdb_kljmdlmjudhlhju_
bfkhhl\_lkl\mxl"
20. Qlh lZdh_ k\yau\Zxsb_ b g_k\yau\Zxsb_ hj[blZeb" DZdh\h bo
\ebygb_gZ]_hf_ljbxdh\Ze_glguokljmdlmj"
21. DZd \eby_l ijbjh^Z eb]Zg^Z b djZlghklv k\yab gZ]_hf_ljbxh^
ghlbiguokljmdlmj"
22. QlhlZdh_dhhj^bgZpbhggh_ qbkehDZdh\Z_]hdhebq_kl\_ggZybg
l_jij_lZpby"
23. Ijb\_^bl_ijbf_jukljmdlmjkfgh]hp_gljh\ufbk\yayfb
24. Q_fm jZ\gZ \Ze_glghklv b kl_i_gv hdbke_gby ZahlZ b m]e_jh^Z \
fhe_dmeZo 12, NH3, N2H4, NH2OH, NF3, CH4, CCl4, C2H6, C2H4,
C2H2, CO2, CO?
25. IjhZgZebabjmcl_ke_^mxsb_fhe_dmeyjgu_kljmdlmju mklZgh\b
l_oZjZdl_jjZkij_^_e_gby\Ze_glguowe_dljhgh\lbi]b[jb^baZ
pbbp_gljZevguoZlhfh\m]euk\ya_ciheyjghklv\Ze_glghklvb
84

kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyhl^_evguoZlhfh\ &2&22, N2O, NO2, N2O5,


HNO3, H2SO4, BF, BF3, NH3, NF3, CO 32 , ClO 3 , ClO 4 , HN3, SO2,
26.
27.
28.

29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

35.

SO 32 , NO 3 , NH +4 , BF 4 .
>Zcl_ hij_^_e_gb_ bhgghc k\yab DZdh\Z __ ijbjh^Z b f_oZgbaf
h[jZah\Zgby"
QlhlZdh_^heybhgghklbk\yab?
I_j_qbkebl_bh[tykgbl_hkgh\gu_oZjZdl_jbklbdbbhgghck\yab
MdZ`bl_\q_f__koh^kl\hbjZaebqb_\kjZ\g_gbbkdh\Ze_glghc
k\yavx"
Q_fhij_^_ey_lky\_ebqbgZdhhj^bgZpbhggh]hqbkeZ\bhgguokh
_^bg_gbyo"
DZdZyk\yav\dZ`^hfbakh_^bg_gbc+&O21D+624, KOH, H2CO3
bf__lgZb[he__bhggucoZjZdl_j"
>Zcl_hij_^_e_gb_f_lZeebq_kdhck\yabDZdh\Z__ijbjh^Zbf_
oZgbafh[jZah\Zgby"
< q_f aZdexqZxlky hkh[_gghklb lj_o lbih\ f_`fhe_dmeyjgh]h
\aZbfh^_ckl\by.
JZkkfhljbl_f_oZgbafh[jZah\Zgby\h^hjh^ghck\yab__hlebqb_
hlobfbq_kdhck\yabbkbef_`fhe_dmeyjgh]h\aZbfh^_ckl\by
DZd \eby_l gZebqb_ \h^hjh^ghc k\yab gZ nbabq_kdb_ b obfbq_
kdb_ k\hckl\Z \_s_kl\" Ihykgbl_ gZ ijbf_j_ baf_g_gby k\hckl\
\_s_kl\\jy^Zo+) HJ; H2O H2Te; NH3 SbH3; CH4 SnH4.
Ihykgbl_ jhev \h^hjh^ghc k\yab \ [bheh]bq_kdbo h[t_dlZo gZ
ijbf_j_\h^u[_edh\ihebi_ilb^h\>GDJGD
=E:<:,;
HDBKEBL?EVGH-<HKKL:GH<BL?EVGU?J?:DPBB

Dhdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgufhlghkylkyj_Zdpbbijhl_
dZxsb_kbaf_g_gb_fkl_i_g_chdbke_gbyZlhfh\\oh^ysbo\khklZ\
j_Z]bjmxsbo\_s_kl\
Kl_i_gvhdbke_gby mkeh\gucaZjy^ZlhfZjZkkqblZggucbk
oh^yba^hims_gbyqlh\_s_kl\hkhklhblbabhgh\
IhkdhevdmlZdh_^hims_gb_y\ey_lkymkeh\gufihgylb_kl_i_gv
hdbke_gbyghkbllZd`_mkeh\gucoZjZdl_jby\ey_lky\_ebqbghcnhj
fZevghc g_ hljZ`Zxs_c j_Zevgh]h jZkij_^_e_gby aZjy^h\ f_`^m
ZlhfZfb H^gZdh wlh ihgylb_ rbjhdh bkihevam_lky ijb khklZ\e_gbb
mjZ\g_gbcH<J
85

&l_i_gbhdbke_gbywe_f_glh\ijbgbfZxlagZq_gbyhl^h\
khhl\_lkl\bbkijZ\beZfb
 Kl_i_gv hdbke_gby we_f_glh\ \ ijhkluo \_s_kl\Zo jZ\gZ 
gZijbf_j2 02 D0, S 80 .
<h^hjh^\[hevrbgkl\_k\hbokh_^bg_gbcgZoh^blky\kl_i_gb
hdbke_gby jZ\ghc  H^gZdh \ kh_^bg_gbyo kh s_ehqgufb b s_
ehqgha_f_evgufbf_lZeeZfbhgijhy\ey_lkl_i_gvhdbke_gbyjZ\gmx
gZijbf_j1D+-1<ZG 21 .
Dbkehjh^\ih^Z\eyxs_f[hevrbgkl\_kh_^bg_gbcgZoh^blky
\kl_i_gbhdbke_gbyjZ\ghcgZijbf_jKZH-2, HNO 32 <i_jhdkb
^Zo hg ijhy\ey_l kl_i_gv hdbke_gby jZ\gmx  gZijbf_j G2H 21 ,
<ZH 21 Iheh`bl_evgu_kl_i_gbhdbke_gbydbkehjh^ijhy\ey_lebrv
\kh_^bg_gbyoknlhjhfgZijbf_jH+2F2.
 Nlhj \ kh_^bg_gbyo \k_]^Z ijhy\ey_l lhevdh h^gm kl_i_gv
hdbke_gbyjZ\gmx1.
We_f_glu]jmiiu,-$ s_ehqgu_f_lZeeu \kh_^bg_gbyo\k_
]^Zijhy\eyxlkl_i_gvhdbke_gbyjZ\gmx
We_f_glu]jmiiu,,-$ %H0Js_ehqgha_f_evgu_f_lZeeu Z
lZd`_ =Q b &G \ kh_^bg_gbyo ijhy\eyxl \k_]^Z kl_i_gv hdbke_gby
jZ\gmx
:exfbgbc\kh_^bg_gbyoijhy\ey_lkl_i_gvhdbke_gby
Kl_i_gb hdbke_gby ^jm]bo we_f_glh\ fh]ml bf_lv i_j_f_ggu_
agZq_gbybjZkkqblu\Zxlkybkoh^ybalh]hqlhkmffZkl_i_g_chdbk
e_gbywe_f_glh\\fhe_dme_bebnhjfmevghc_^bgbp_jZ\gZZ\bh
g__]haZjy^m
Ijbf_j JZkkqblZlv kl_i_gv hdbke_gby nhknhjZ \ hjlhnhknZl_
dZevpbyKZ3 JH4)2.
P_r_gb_
H[hagZqbfbkdhfmxkl_i_gvhdbke_gbynhknhjZq_j_aoMqblu
\ZyqbkehZlhfh\dZ`^h]hwe_f_glZ\nhjfmevghc_^bgbp_bagZq_gby
kl_i_g_cbohdbke_gbykhklZ\bfmjZ\g_gb_
3 (+2) + 2 o + 8 (  hldm^Zo= +5.
<oh^_ex[hcH<Jh^gh\j_f_gghijhl_dZxlijhp_kkZhdbk
e_gb_b\hkklZgh\e_gb_Klhqdbaj_gbywe_dljhgghcl_hjbbhdbke_
gb_ijhp_kkhl^Zqbwe_dljhgh\\oh^_dhlhjh]hkl_i_gvhdbke_gby
ZlhfZih\urZ_lkyZ\hkklZgh\e_gb_ijhp_kkijbkh_^bg_gbywe_d
ljhgh\\oh^_dhlhjh]hkl_i_gvhdbke_gbyZlhfZihgb`Z_lky
86

QZklbpudhlhju_\oh^_j_Zdpbbhl^Zxlwe_dljhgugZau\Zxl
ky\hkklZgh\bl_eyfbQZklbpudhlhju_\oh^_j_Zdpbbijbkh_^bgy
xlwe_dljhgugZau\Zxlkyhdbkebl_eyfb.
LZdbf h[jZahf \ oh^_ H<J \hkklZgh\bl_ev hl^Z\Zy we_dljh
gu hdbkey_lky Z hdbkebl_ev ijbgbfZy we_dljhgu \hkklZgZ\eb\Z
_lkyIjbwlhfqbkehwe_dljhgh\hl^Zgguo\hkklZgh\bl_e_f\k_]^Z
jZ\ghqbkemwe_dljhgh\ijbgyluohdbkebl_e_f
Hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Z\_s_kl\fh`ghhij_
^_eblvbkoh^ybaagZq_gbckl_i_g_chdbke_gbywe_f_glh\\oh^ysbo
\bokhklZ\
?keb\khklZ\\_s_kl\Z\oh^ylZlhfuwe_f_glZ\fbgbfZevghc
kl_i_gbhdbke_gbylhhghfh`_lijhy\eylvlhevdh\hkklZgh\bl_ev
gu_k\hckl\Z
?keb\khklZ\\_s_kl\Z\oh^ylZlhfuwe_f_glZ\fZdkbfZevghc
kl_i_gb hdbke_gby lh hgh fh`_l ijhy\eylv lhevdh hdbkebl_evgu_
k\hckl\Z
?keb\khklZ\\_s_kl\Z\oh^ylZlhfuwe_f_glZ\ijhf_`mlhq
ghckl_i_gbhdbke_gbylhhghfh`_lijhy\eylvdZd\hkklZgh\bl_ev
gu_lZdbhdbkebl_evgu_k\hckl\Z
<Z`g_crb_\hkklZgh\bl_eb
Z  ijhklu_ \_s_kl\Z  \k_ f_lZeeu b g_dhlhju_ g_f_lZeeu gZ
ijbf_jG2K6L34b^j
[  \h^hjh^gu_ kh_^bg_gby s_ehqguo b s_ehqgha_f_evguo f_
lZeeh\ Z lZd`_ \h^hjh^gu_ kh_^bg_gby g_dhlhjuo g_f_lZeeh\ gZ
ijbf_j +, +%U +2O2, H2S, H2Se, H2Te, NH3, PH3, AsH3, SbH3, SiH4,
SnH4;
\ hdkb^uwe_f_glh\ZlhfudhlhjuogZoh^ylky\ijhf_`mlhqghc
kl_i_gbhdbke_gbyWlhhdkb^ujy^Zg_f_lZeeh\KH622, NO, P2O3,
ZlZd`_gbarb_hdkb^ug_dhlhjuoj-bd-we_f_glh\6Q2)H2KU2
92bkhhl\_lkl\mxsb_bfkhebgZijbf_j6Q&O2, FeSO4b^j
]  g_dhlhju_ dbkehjh^kh^_j`Zsb_ dbkehlu b bo kheb \ khklZ\
dhlhjuo\oh^ylZlhfuwe_f_glh\\ijhf_`mlhqguokl_i_gyohdbke_
gbygZijbf_j+2SO3, H3PO2, H3PO3bbokhebZlZd`_lbhkmevnZlu
(Na2S2O3 ^bkmevnblu 1D2S2O5 ^blbhgblu 1D2S2O4 gbljblu
^  g_dhlhju_ hj]Zgbq_kdb_ \_s_kl\Z gZijbf_j kibjlu Zev^_
]b^u g_dhlhju_ dZj[hgh\u_dbkehlu +COOH, HOOC&22+ m]
e_\h^u K6H12O6).
87

<Z`g_crb_hdbkebl_eb
Z ijhklu_\_s_kl\Z]Zeh]_guhahgdbkehjh^k_jZ
[ hdkb^ug_dhlhjuoj-bd-we_f_glh\\\ukhdbokl_i_gyohdbk
e_gbygZijbf_j&O2O7, ClO2, I2O5, SO3, SeO3, SeO2, N2O5, NO2, PbO2,
Mn2O7, MnO2, CrO3, V2O5;
\  Dbkehjh^kh^_j`Zsb_ dbkehlu g_dhlhjuo j- b d-we_f_glh\ \
\ukhdbo kl_i_gyo hdbke_gby gZijbf_j +&O23, H5IO6, HIO3, HBrO4,
HBrO3, H2SO4, H2SeO4, H2SeO3, HNO3, H2CrO4, H2Cr2O7, HMnO4bkheb
wlbo dbkehl D hdbkebl_eyf hlghkylky lZd`_ dbkehjh^kh^_j`Zsb_
dbkehlu]Zeh]_gh\\dhlhjuohgbijhy\eyxlb[he__gbadb_kl_i_gb
hdbke_gbygZijbf_j+&O+1O, HCl+3O2ZlZd`_bokheb
] i_jhdkb^ \h^hjh^Z G2H2 i_jhdkb^u s_ehqguo b s_ehqgha_
f_evguof_lZeeh\ Na2O2, BaO2).
DeZkkbnbdZpbyhdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evguoj_Zdpbc
DeZkkbnbdZpbyihkh^_j`Zgbx\hkklZgh\bl_eybhdbkebl_ey\
h^ghfbeb\g_kdhevdbobkoh^guo\_s_kl\Zo
Z _keb\hkklZgh\bl_evbhdbkebl_evkh^_j`Zlky\h^ghfbkoh^
ghf \_s_kl\_ lh H<J hlghkblky d j_Zdpbyf \gmljbfhe_dmeyjgh]h
hdbke_gby-\hkklZgh\e_gbygZijbf_j
(N3H4)2Cr2+6O7 :12+0 + Cr+32O3 + H2O.
< ^Zgghc j_Zdpbb hdbkebl_ev Cr+6  b \hkklZgh\bl_ev N3  kh
^_j`Zlky\h^ghf\_s_kl\_
[ _keb\hkklZgh\bl_evbhdbkebl_evkh^_j`Zlky\jZaguobkoh^
guo \_s_kl\Zo lh H<J hlghkblky d j_Zdpbyf f_`fhe_dmeyjgh]h
hdbke_gby-\hkklZgh\e_gbygZijbf_j
N3H3 + KCl+5O3 :120 + KCl + H2O.
< wlhc j_Zdpbb hdbkebl_ev Cl+5  b \hkklZgh\bl_ev N3  gZoh^ylky\jZaguo\_s_kl\Zo
 DeZkkbnbdZpby ih oZjZdl_jm baf_g_gby kl_i_gb hdbke_gby
Zlhfh\h^gh]hwe_f_glZ
Z _keb\bkoh^ghf\_s_kl\_Zlhfuwe_f_glZgZoh^ylky\h^ghc
kl_i_gbhdbke_gbyZ\ijh^mdlZoj_Zdpbb\^\mo^jm]bo [he__\u
khdhcb[he__gbadhcihhlghr_gbxdbkoh^ghckl_i_gbhdbke_gby 
lh khhl\_lkl\mxsb_ H<J hlghkylky d j_Zdpbyf ^bkijhihjpbhgbjh
\Zgby beb^bkfmlZpbbgZijbf_j
N+4O2 + H2O :+1+5O3 + HN+3O2;
88

[ _keb\bkoh^guo\_s_kl\Zoh^bgblhl`_we_f_glgZoh^blky\
^\mojZaguokl_i_gyohdbke_gbyZ\ijh^mdl_j_Zdpbblhevdh\h^
ghc ijhf_`mlhqghcihhlghr_gbxdbkoh^gufkl_i_gyfhdbke_gby 
lh khhl\_lkl\mxsb_ H<J hlghkylky d j_Zdpbyf dhfijhihjpbhgbjh
\ZgbybebdhgfmlZpbbgZijbf_j
H2S2 + H2S+6O dhgp :6+4O2 + H2O
JZkklZgh\dZdhwnnbpb_glh\\mjZ\g_gbyoH<J
f_lh^hfwe_dljhggh]h[ZeZgkZ
H[jZlbl_\gbfZgb_gZlhqlh\kemqZ_j_Zdpbcf_`fhe_dmeyjgh
]hhdbke_gby-\hkklZgh\e_gbyjZkklZgh\dZdhwnnbpb_glh\ijh\h^blky
ke_\Z gZijZ\h ijbf_j   Z \ kemqZ_ j_Zdpbc \gmljbfhe_dmeyjgh]h
hdbke_gby-\hkklZgh\e_gbykijZ\ZgZe_\h ijbf_j 
Ijbf_jF_lh^hfwe_dljhggh]h[ZeZgkZjZkklZ\blvdhwnnbpb
_glu\mjZ\g_gbbj_Zdpbbijhl_dZxs_cihko_f_
H2O-12 + K2Cr+62O7 + H2SO4 :202 + Cr+32(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + H2O
J_r_gb_
1. >ZggZyH<Jhlghkblkydj_Zdpbyff_`fhe_dmeyjgh]hhdbke_
gby-\hkklZgh\e_gby ihwlhfm jZkklZgh\dm dhwnnbpb_glh\ ijh\h^bf
ke_\ZgZijZ\h
2. Hij_^_ey_fwe_f_gluZlhfudhlhjuo\oh^_j_Zdpbbbaf_gb
ebkl_i_gvhdbke_gby<^ZgghfkemqZ_wlhdbkehjh^bojhfDbkeh
jh^baf_gbekl_i_gvhdbke_gbyhl^hZojhfhl^h
3. AZibku\Z_f we_dljhggu_ mjZ\g_gby ijhp_kkh\ hdbke_gby b
\hkklZgh\e_gby<wlbomjZ\g_gbyoqbkehZlhfh\dZ`^h]hwe_f_glZ
jZ\ghboqbkem\nhjfmeZokhhl\_lkl\mxsbobkoh^guo\_s_kl\GZ
oh^bfgZbf_gvr__h[s__djZlgh_qbkeZhl^ZgguobqbkeZijbgyluo
we_dljhgh\bkhklZ\ey_fko_fmwe_dljhggh]h[ZeZgkZ
2O1 :220
6 3 O1 \hkklZgh\bl_evhdbkey_lky
2Cr+6:&U+3 2 1 KU+6 hdbkebl_ev\hkklZgZ\eb\Z_lky
4. GZoh^bfqbkehZlhfh\dbkehjh^ZbojhfZmfgh`b\dZ`^h_ba
mjZ\g_gbcgZkhhl\_lkl\mxsbcfgh`bl_ev i_j\h_mjZ\g_gb_gZ
\lhjh_  gZ   IhemqZ_f qbkeh Zlhfh\ dbkehjh^Z baf_gb\rbo kl_
i_gvhdbke_gbydhlhjh_jZ\gh ZqbkehZlhfh\ojhfZjZ\gh
2 1=2.
5. JZkklZgh\dmdhwnnbpb_glh\ijh\h^bf\ke_^mxs_fihjy^d_
Z mjZ\gb\Z_fqbkeZZlhfh\ojhfZihklZ\b\i_j_^nhjfmeZfb
K2Cr2O7bCr2(SO4)3dhwnnbpb_gl
89

[ mjZ\gb\Z_f qbkeZ Zlhfh\ dbkehjh^Z baf_gb\rbo kl_i_gv


hdbke_gbyihklZ\b\i_j_^nhjfmeZfbO2bH2O2dhwnnbpb
_glu
\ mjZ\gb\Z_f qbkeZ Zlhfh\ dZeby ihklZ\b\ i_j_^ nhjfmehc
K2SO4dhwnnbpb_gl
] mjZ\gb\Z_fqbkeZdbkehlguohklZldh\62 24 ihklZ\b\i_j_^
nhjfmehck_jghcdbkehludhwnnbpb_gl
^ mjZ\gb\Z_f qbkeZ Zlhfh\ \h^hjh^Z ihklZ\b\ i_j_^ nhjfm
ehc\h^udhwnnbpb_gl
_ ijh\_jy_fh^bgZdh\uebqbkeZZlhfh\dbkehjh^Z\e_\hcb
ijZ\hcqZklyomjZ\g_gby
3H2O2 + K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 = 3O2 + Cr2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + 7H2O
Ijbf_jF_lh^hfwe_dljhggh]h[ZeZgkZjZkklZ\blvdhwnnbpb
_glu\mjZ\g_gbbj_Zdpbb
Fe+3(N+5O 32 )3 :)H +23 O3 + N+4O2 + O02
J_r_gb_
>ZggZyH<Jhlghkblkydj_Zdpbyf\gmljbfhe_dmeyjgh]hhdbk
e_gby-\hkklZgh\e_gby ihwlhfm jZkklZgh\dm dhwnnbpb_glh\ ijh\h
^bfkijZ\ZgZe_\h
Hij_^_ey_fwe_f_gluZlhfudhlhjuobaf_gbebkl_i_gvhdbk
e_gby < ^Zgghf kemqZ_ wlh Zahl b dbkehjh^ :ahl baf_gbe kl_i_gv
hdbke_gbyhl^hdbkehjh^hl^h
 AZibku\Z_f we_dljhggu_ mjZ\g_gby ijhp_kkh\ hdbke_gby b
\hkklZgh\e_gby<wlbomjZ\g_gbyoqbkehZlhfh\dZ`^h]hwe_f_glZ
jZ\ghboqbkem\nhjfmeZoijh^mdlh\j_ZdpbbGZoh^bfgZbf_gvr__
h[s__ djZlgh_qbkeZhl^Zgguobijbgyluowe_dljhgh\bkhklZ\ey_f
ko_fmwe_dljhggh]h[ZeZgkZ
1
3
H-2 :H 02
N+5 :1+4
4
12
GZoh^bfqbkehZlhfh\ZahlZbdbkehjh^Zmfgh`b\dZ`^h_ba
we_dljhgguo mjZ\g_gbc gZ khhl\_lkl\mxsbc fgh`bl_ev i_j\h_
mjZ\g_gb_mfgh`Z_fgZ\lhjh_gZIhemqZ_fqlhqbkehZlhfh\
dbkehjh^Zbaf_gb\rbokl_i_gvhdbke_gbyjZ\gh Zkhhl\_l
kl\mxs__ qbkeh Zlhfh\ ZahlZ jZ\gh      Gh ihkdhevdm \ nhj
fmevghc _^bgbp_ Fe(NO3)3 kh^_j`blky  ZlhfZ ZahlZ i_j_^ ^Zgghc
nhjfmehc ijb^_lky ihklZ\blv ^jh[guc dhwnnbpb_gl  qlh g_ kh
\k_f m^h[gh Ihwlhfm ^ey ba[Z\e_gby hl ^jh[gh]h dhwnnbpb_glZ
90

gZc^_ggu_qbkeZZlhfh\ZahlZbdbkehjh^Zmfgh`bfgZIhemqZ_l
ky qlh kl_i_gv hdbke_gby baf_gbeZkv m  Zlhfh\ dbkehjh^Z b m 
Zlhfh\ZahlZ
5. JZkklZgh\dm dhwnnbpb_glh\ ijh\h^bf \ ke_^mxs_c ihke_^h\Z
l_evghklb
Z  mjZ\gb\Z_f qbkeZ Zlhfh\ ZahlZ ihklZ\b\ i_j_^ nhjfmehc
Fe(NO3)3 dhwnnbpb_glZi_j_^nhjfmehcNO2 dhwnnb
pb_gl
[  mjZ\gb\Z_f qbkeZ Zlhfh\ `_e_aZ ihklZ\b\ i_j_^ nhjfmehc
Fe2O3dhwnnbpb_gl
\  mjZ\gb\Z_f qbkeh Zlhfh\ dbkehjh^Z ihklZ\b\ i_j_^ nhjfm
ehcO2dhwnnbpb_gl
6. Ijh\_jy_fh^bgZdh\hebh[s__qbkehZlhfh\dbkehjh^Z\e_\hc
bijZ\hcqZklyomjZ\g_gby
4Fe+3(N+5O 32 )3 :)H +23 O3 + 12N+4O2 + 3O 02 .
We_dljh^gu_bhdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_
ihl_gpbZeubbobkihevah\Zgb_
Dhebq_kl\_gghc oZjZdl_jbklbdhc hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evguok\hckl\\_s_kl\\\h^guojZkl\hjZoy\eyxlkyagZq_gbywe_d
ljh^guo beb hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evguo ihl_gpbZeh\ khhl\_l
kl\mxsboihemj_ZdpbcWe_dljh^gucihl_gpbZeij_^klZ\ey_lkh
[hc jZaghklv ihl_gpbZeh\ \hagbdZxsmx gZ ]jZgbp_ jZa^_eZ we_d
ljh^  jZkl\hj we_dljheblZ :[khexlgu_ agZq_gby ihl_gpbZeh\
wdki_jbf_glZevgh hij_^_eblv g_\hafh`gh ihwlhfm gZ ijZdlbd_ bk
ihevamxlkybohlghkbl_evgu_agZq_gbybaf_j_ggu_ihhlghr_gbxd
klZg^Zjlghfm \h^hjh^ghfm we_dljh^m ihl_gpbZe dhlhjh]h mkeh\gh
ijbjZ\gb\Z_lkydIhl_gpbZeubaf_j_ggu_\klZg^Zjlguomkeh\b
yo dhgp_gljZpbb bhgh\ jZ\gu  fheve ^Z\e_gb_ \h^hjh^Z jZ\gh
dIZl_fi_jZlmjZ 25 hK gZau\ZxlkyklZg^Zjlgufbwe_dljh^gufb beb klZg^Zjlgufb hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgufb
ihl_gpbZeZfb b h[hagZqZxlky kbf\hehf ?h Bo agZq_gby bkihevam
xlky^eyoZjZdl_jbklbdbj_Zdpbcijhl_dZxsbo\klZg^Zjlguomkeh
\byo?keb`_j_Zdpbyijhl_dZ_l\^jm]bomkeh\byolh^ey__hibkZ
gby bkihevamxlky jZ\gh\_kgu_ ihl_gpbZeu ? dhlhju_ jZkkqblu\Z
xlkyihmjZ\g_gbxG_jgklZ
2,303 R T c(\hkkl)
.
E = E0
lg
nF
k(hdbke)
91

<wlhfmjZ\g_gbb
2,303 dhwnnbpb_gli_j_oh^ZhlgZlmjZevguoeh]Zjbnfh\d^_
kylbqguf
R mgb\_jkZevgZy]Zah\ZyihklhyggZy
T Z[khexlgZyl_fi_jZlmjZ
n qbkehwe_dljhgh\ijbgbfZxsbomqZklb_\ihemj_Zdpbb
F ihklhyggZyNZjZ^_yjZ\gZyijbf_jghDefhev
k \hkkl dhgp_gljZpby\hkklZgh\e_gghcnhjfuwe_f_glZ\dh
lhjhchggZoh^blky\[he__gbadhckl_i_gbhdbke_gby
k hdbke dhgp_gljZpbyhdbke_gghcnhjfuwe_f_glZ\dhlhjhc
hggZoh^blky\[he__\ukhdhckl_i_gbhdbke_gby
?keb \ mjZ\g_gb_ G_jgklZ ih^klZ\blv qbkeh\u_ agZq_gby
R (8,314), F  bijbgylvl_fi_jZlmjmjZ\ghcDlhhghijb
gbfZ_l\b^
E = E0

0,059 c(\hkkl)
.
lg
n
k(hdbke)

BamjZ\g_gbyG_jgklZke_^m_lqlh\_ebqbgZihl_gpbZeZaZ\bkblhl
dhgp_gljZpbc\hkklZgh\e_gghcbhdbke_gghcnhjfwe_f_glZ?keb\j_
Zdpbb ijbgbfZ_l mqZklb_ f_lZee lh \_ebqbgZ _]h we_dljh^gh]h ihl_g
pbZeZaZ\bkblebrvhldhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\wlh]hf_lZeeZ _]hhdbke_g
ghcnhjfu \jZkl\hj_Dhgp_gljZpbykZfh]hf_lZeeZ \hkklZgh\e_gghc
nhjfu dZd\_ebqbgZihklhyggZy\mjZ\g_gb_G_jgklZg_ih^klZ\ey_lky
Djhf_lh]h_keb\ihemj_ZdpbbijbgbfZxlmqZklb_bhguH+bebHGbo
dhgp_gljZpbblZd`_\ebyxlgZ\_ebqbgmihl_gpbZeZ
Bkihevamy
agZq_gby
we_dljh^guo
beb
hdbkebl_evgh\hkklZgh\bl_evguoihl_gpbZeh\ihemj_Zdpbcfh`gh\uihegblvke_
^mxsb_hi_jZpbb
1. Hp_gblv hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_ k\hckl\Z khhl\_lkl
\mxsbo\_s_kl\
2. Ij_^kdZaZlv ijbgpbibZevgmx \hafh`ghklv hkms_kl\e_gby j_
Zdpbb\mdZaZgghfgZijZ\e_gbb
3. Hij_^_eblvgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyj_Zdpbb
4. <u[jZlv gZb[he__ \_jhylgmx j_Zdpbx ba g_kdhevdbo \hafh`
guo
5. JZkkqblZlvagZq_gb_dhgklZgluobfbq_kdh]hjZ\gh\_kby^Zgghc
j_Zdpbb
Knhjfmebjm_f khhl\_lkl\mxsb_ ijZ\beZ b jZkkfhljbf bo ijb
f_g_gb_gZdhgdj_lguoijbf_jZo
92

;he__ kbevgufb \hkklZgh\bl_evgufb k\hckl\Zfb h[eZ^Z_l


\_s_kl\h dhlhjhfm khhl\_lkl\m_l ihemj_Zdpby k [he__ gbadbf
agZq_gb_fihl_gpbZeZ;he__kbevgufbhdbkebl_evgufbk\hckl
\Zfbh[eZ^Z_l\_s_kl\hdhlhjhfmkhhl\_lkl\m_lihemj_Zdpbyk
[he__\ukhdbfagZq_gb_fihl_gpbZeZ
Ijbf_jHij_^_ebl_dZdhcba\hkklZgh\bl_e_cijhy\ey_lgZb
[he__kbevgu_\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\ZijbklZg^Zjlguomkeh\b
yo\j_Zdpbyo
Z) FeSO4 + O2 + H2SO4 :)H2(SO4)3 + H2O;
[) HI + O2 :,2 + H2O;
\) H2SO3 + O2 :+2SO4.
J_r_gb_
Hij_^_ey_fdZdb_\_s_kl\Z\^Zgguoj_Zdpbyoy\eyxlky\hk
klZgh\bl_eyfb < j_Zdpbb Z \hkklZgh\bl_e_f y\ey_lky FeSO4 ih
kdhevdmm`_e_aZkl_i_gvhdbke_gbyih\urZ_lkyhl^h\khhl
\_lkl\bbkmjZ\g_gb_fihemj_Zdpbb
Fe+2 :)H+3
< j_Zdpbb [ \hkklZgh\bl_e_f y\ey_lky HI ihkdhevdm m bh^Z
kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyih\urZ_lky\khhl\_lkl\bbkmjZ\g_gb_fihemj_
Zdpbb:
I :I0
<j_Zdpbb\\hkklZgh\bl_e_fy\ey_lkyH2SO3ihkdhevdmmk_
jukl_i_gvhdbke_gbym\_ebqb\Z_lky\khhl\_lkl\bbkmjZ\g_gb_fih
emj_Zdpbb
H2SO3 + H2O :+2SO4 + 4H+
GZoh^bfagZq_gbyklZg^Zjlguoihl_gpbZeh\Fhhl\_lkl\mxsbo
ihemj_Zdpbc
0
Z EFe
3+

Fe 2+

= 0,77 B [  EI00

2I

0
= 0,54 < \  ESO
2
4

H 2 SO 3

= 0,17 < .

 GZoh^bf gZb[he__ kbevguc \hkklZgh\bl_evIhkdhevdmkZfh_


gbadh_agZq_gb_ihl_gpbZeZmihemj_Zdpbbhdbke_gbyk_jgbklhcdb
kehlulhwlh\_s_kl\hb[m^_ly\eylvkygZb[he__kbevguf\hkklZgh
\bl_e_f
Ijhl_dZgb_hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evghcj_Zdpbb\^ZgghfgZijZ\e_gbb\hafh`ghebrvlh]^Zdh]^Zihl_gpbZe\hkklZgh\e_gbybkihevam_fh]hhdbkebl_ey[hevr_ihl_gpbZeZhdbke_gby
bkihevam_fh]h\hkklZgh\bl_ey
93

Ijbf_j  Hij_^_eblv fh`gh eb bkihevah\Zlv \ klZg^Zjlguo


mkeh\byokheb`_e_aZ III ^eyhdbke_gbybhgh\), BrbI^hijhkluo
\_s_kl\"Hl\_lih^l\_j^blvjZkq_lZfb
J_r_gb_
GZoh^bfagZq_gby?hihemj_Zdpbc
EI00

2I

EF00

2F

0
= 0,53 <; EBr
0
2

0
= 2,85 <; EFe
3+

0
IhkdhevdmagZq_gb_ EFe
3+

Fe 2+

2 Br
Fe 2+

= 1,08 <;
= 0,77 <.

[hevr_agZq_gby EI00

2I

lhbhgu

Fe3+kihkh[guhdbkeblvbhgu, ^hijhklh]h\_s_kl\ZI2Ke_^h\Zl_ev
gh ba mdZaZgguo Zgbhgh\ lhevdh bhgu , [m^ml hdbkeylvky bhgZfb
`_e_aZ ,,, 
Ex[Zy H<J \k_]^Z ijhl_dZ_l \ lhf gZijZ\e_gbb dhlhjhfm
khhl\_lkl\m_l iheh`bl_evgh_ agZq_gb_ jZaghklb ihl_gpbZeh\
hdbkebl_eyb\hkklZgh\bl_ey.
H^gZdhg_h[oh^bfhihfgblvqlh\^ZgghfgZijZ\e_gbbj_Zdpby
ijhl_dZ_l ijZdlbq_kdb g_h[jZlbfh ijb jZaghklb ihl_gpbZeh\ ?,
[hevr_ceb[hjZ\ghc<?keb`_jZaghklvihl_gpbZeh\?hdZau
\Z_lkyf_gvr_<lhH<Jijhl_dZ_lh[jZlbfhbgZijZ\e_gb_j_Zd
pbbhij_^_ey_lkymkeh\byfb__ijh\_^_gby
Ijbf_jMklZgh\blv\dZdhfgZijZ\e_gbb\hafh`ghkZfhijh
ba\hevgh_ijhl_dZgb_j_Zdpbb
SnCl4 + 2FeCl2 <6Q&O2 + 2FeCl3.
J_r_gb_
GZoh^bfagZq_gby?hihemj_Zdpbc
0
ESn
4+

Sn 2+

= 0,15 <,

0
EFe
3+

Fe 2+

= 0,77 <.

IhkdhevdmagZq_gb_Ehihemj_ZdpbbkmqZklb_fbhgh\`_e_aZ
[hevr_ agZq_gby ?h ihemj_Zdpbb k mqZklb_f bhgh\ heh\Z lh bhgu
Fe3+[m^mlhdbkeylvbhgu6Q2+kh[jZah\Zgb_fbhgh\)H2+b6Q4+Wlh
khhl\_lkl\m_lijhl_dZgbxmdZaZgghcj_ZdpbbkijZ\ZgZe_\h
Ba \k_o \hafh`guo H<J gZb[he__ \_jhylghc [m^_l lZ j_Zd
pby dhlhjhc khhl\_lkl\m_l fZdkbfZevgh_ agZq_gb_ jZaghklb
ihl_gpbZeh\bkihevam_fuohdbkebl_eyb\hkklZgh\bl_ey
Ijbf_j  Bkihevamy agZq_gby E0 ihemj_Zdpbc hij_^_eblv gZb[he__\_jhylgucijh^mdl\hkklZgh\e_gbybh^Zl-bhgh\k_jgbklhcdbkehlhc
Z IO 3 + 6H+:IH2O, E0 = 1,08 <;
[ IO 3 + 6H+ + 5:I2 + 3H2O, E0 = 1,19 <;
94

\ IO 3 + 5H+:HIO + 2H2O, E0 = 1,14 <;


]) SO 24 + 4H+:+2SO3 + H2O, E0 = 0,17 <.
J_r_gb_
IhkdhevdmagZq_gb_ihl_gpbZeZihemj_Zdpbb]f_gvr_agZ
q_gbcihl_gpbZeh\ihemj_ZpbcZ[b\lhkmevnbl-bhgu[m^ml
y\eylvky\hkklZgh\bl_eyfbihhlghr_gbxdbh^Zl-bhgZf
 >ey dZ`^hc ba ihemj_Zdpbc Z [ b \ gZc^_f jZaghklv
f_`^m__ihl_gpbZehfbihl_gpbZehfihemj_Zdpbb]
E0 Z  E0 ]  < 0,17 < = 0,91 <;
E0 [  E0 ]  < 0,17 < = 1,02 <;
E0 \  E0 ]  < 0,17 < = 0,97 <.
<b^ghqlhfZdkbfZevgh_agZq_gb_E0khhl\_lkl\m_ljZaghklb
f_`^mihl_gpbZeZfbihemj_Zdpbc[b]Ke_^h\Zl_evghk_jgbklZy
dbkehlZ[m^_l\hkklZgZ\eb\Zlvbh^Zl-bhgu^hk\h[h^gh]hbh^Z
Q_f [hevr_ agZq_gb_ ? j_Zdpbb l_f [hevr_ agZq_gb_ dhg
klZglu obfbq_kdh]h jZ\gh\_kby b l_f kbevg__ hgh kf_s_gh \
klhjhgmh[jZah\Zgbyijh^mdlh\.
Ijbf_jJZkkqblZlvagZq_gb_dhgklZgluobfbq_kdh]hjZ\gh\_
kby^eyj_Zdpbbhdbke_gbykmevnZlZ`_e_aZ II i_jfZg]ZgZlhfdZeby
\ k_jghdbkehf jZkl\hj_ \ dhlhjhf dhgp_gljZpbb \k_o ihl_gpbZeh
ij_^_eyxsbobhgh\jZ\gufheve
J_r_gb_
 KhklZ\bf mjZ\g_gb_ ^Zgghc H<J jZkklZ\bf dhwnnbpb_glu
f_lh^hfwe_dljhggh]h[ZeZgkZbgZc^_fagZq_gb_n.
2KMnO4 + 10FeSO4 + 8H2SO4 :)H2(SO4)3 + 2MnSO4 + K2SO4 + 8H2O
Mn+7:0Q+2
1
2
+2
+3
Fe :)H
5
10
BamjZ\g_gbcwe_dljhggh]h[ZeZgkZ\b^ghqlhqbkehwe_dljhgh\
hl^Zgguo \hkklZgh\bl_e_f b ijbgyluo hdbkebl_e_f l _ qbkeh n
jZ\gh
GZc^_fagZq_gbyihl_gpbZeh\ihemj_Zdpbchdbke_gbybhgh\`_
e_aZ Z b\hkklZgh\e_gbyi_jfZg]ZgZl-bhgh\\dbkehckj_^_ [ 
0
Z  EFe
= 0,77 < ;
3+
Fe 2+
0
[  EMnO

Mn 2+

= 1,51< .

JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gb_E0j_Zdpbb
0
E0 = EMnO

Mn 2+

0
EFe
3+

Fe 2+

= 1,51 < 0,77 < = 0,74 <

95

<uqbkebfagZq_gb_dhgklZglujZ\gh\_kby
K jZ\g = 10

E n
0 , 059

= 10

0 , 745
0 ,059

5 1062 .

LZdh_h]jhfgh_agZq_gb_dhgklZglujZ\gh\_kbyk\b^_l_evkl\m_l
hlhfqlh^ZggZyj_Zdpbyijhl_dZ_lke_\ZgZijZ\hijZdlbq_kdbg_h[
jZlbfh
<ebygb_jZaebqguonZdlhjh\gZgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgby
hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evguoj_Zdpbc
Hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgZyj_Zdpbyijhl_dZ_l\lhfgZ
ijZ\e_gbb \ dhlhjhf hkms_kl\ey_lky ihemj_Zdpby k [he__ \ukhdbf
agZq_gb_fihl_gpbZeZIhwlhfmnZdlhju\ebyxsb_gZ\_ebqbgmih
l_gpbZeZ hdZau\Zxl \ebygb_ b gZ gZijZ\e_gb_ ijhl_dZgby H<J D
lZdbfnZdlhjZfhlghkylky
 dhgp_gljZpbyihl_gpbZehij_^_eyxsbobhgh\
 \_ebqbgZjGjZkl\hjZ
 l_fi_jZlmjZjZkl\hjZ
 \_ebqbgZIJfZehjZkl\hjbfh]hijh^mdlZj_Zdpbb
 <_ebqbgZdhgklZglug_klhcdhklbh[jZamxs_]hkydhfie_dkgh
]hbhgZ
JZkkfhljbf oZjZdl_j \ebygby dZ`^h]h ba wlbo nZdlhjh\ gZ gZ
ijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyH<J
<ebygb_dhgp_gljZpbcihl_gpbZehij_^_eyxsbobhgh\
Baf_gyy agZq_gby dhgp_gljZpbcbhgh\\jZkl\hj_fh`ghbaf_
gblvgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyH<J
Ijbf_jHij_^_eblvgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyj_Zdpbb
Sn0 + Pb2+ <6Q2+ + Pb0
ijbke_^mxsboagZq_gbyodhgp_gljZpbcbhgh\
Z k(Pb2+  fhevek(Sn2+  fheve
[ k(Pb2+  fhevek(Sn2+  fheve
J_r_gb_
 JZkkqblZ_f agZq_gby jZ\gh\_kguo we_dljh^guo ihl_gpbZeh\
^eykemqZyZbhij_^_ebfgZijZ\e_gb_j_Zdpbb
0,059
1
0,059 1
o

lg
= 0,13
lg = 0,13B
EPb 2+ Pb 0 = EPb
2+
2+
Pb 0
2
1
n
c(Pb )
96

:gZeh]bqghkqblZ_fagZq_gb_ihl_gpbZeZheh\Z
0,059 1
lg = 0,14 B .
ESn 2+ Sn 0 = 0,14
2
1
Ihkdhevdm agZq_gb_ we_dljh^gh]h ihl_gpbZeZ k\bgpZ [hevr_
q_fmheh\Zlhbhguk\bgpZ[m^mly\eylvkyhdbkebl_eyfbihhlghr_
gbxdheh\mbmdZaZggZyj_Zdpby[m^_lijhl_dZlvke_\ZgZijZ\h.
1) JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gbyjZ\gh\_kguoihl_gpbZeh\^eykemqZy[b
hij_^_ebfgZijZ\e_gb_j_Zdpbb
0,059
1
0,059
1
o
EPb 2+ Pb 0 = EPb
lg
0
,
13
lg

= 0,15B ;
2+
0
Pb
n
2
0,15
c(Pb 2 + )
0,059
1
lg
= 0,13B .
ESn 2+ Sn 0 = 0,14
2
1,5
<^ZgghfkemqZ_we_dljh^gucihl_gpbZe[hevr_mheh\Zihwlh
fm_]hbhgu[m^mly\eylvkyhdbkebl_eyfbihhlghr_gbxdk\bgpmb
mdZaZggZyH<J\^Zgguomkeh\byoijhl_dZ_lkijZ\ZgZe_\h.
<ebygb_\_ebqbgujGjZkl\hjZ
Baf_gyy agZq_gb_ jG jZkl\hjZ fh`gh baf_gblv gZijZ\e_gb_
ijhl_dZgbyH<J_keb\g_cijbgbfZxlmqZklb_bhguG+bebHG.
Ijbf_jBaf_gblkyebgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyj_Zdpbb\kbk
l_f_K3AsO4 + KI + H2SO4 <K3AsO3 + I2 + K2SO4 + H2O
ijbbaf_g_gbbjGjZkl\hjZhl^h_kebdhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\
AsO 34 , AsO 33 , Ibfhe_dmeI2\jZkl\hj_jZ\gufheve"
J_r_gb_:
1. >ZggZyH<Jhkms_kl\ey_lky[eZ]h^Zjyijhl_dZgbx^\moihem
j_Zdpbc
Z AsO4 3 + 2H+:AsO33 + H2O; E0 = 0,57 <;
[) I2:,; E0 = 0,54 <.
Ihkdhevdm\ihemj_ZdpbbZijbgbfZxlmqZklb_bhgu\h^hjh^Z__
ihl_gpbZeaZ\bkblhl\_ebqbgujGjZkl\hjZ<ihemj_Zdpbb[bhguG+
g_mqZkl\mxlihwlhfm__ihl_gpbZeg_aZ\bkblhl\_ebqbgujG
JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gb_ihl_gpbZeZihemj_ZdpbbZijbjGjZ\
ghfbhij_^_ebfgZijZ\e_gb_H<J
?kebjGjZkl\hjZjZ\ghlhdhgp_gljZpbybhgh\\h^hjh^ZjZ\gZ
fheveLh]^Z
0,059
1
EAsO 3- AsO 3- = 0,57
lg 2 = 0,57 B .
4
3
2
1 1
97

IhkdhevdmijbjGjZ\ghfihl_gpbZeihemj_ZdpbbZ[hevr_
ihl_gpbZeZ ihemj_Zdpbb [ Zjk_gZl-bhgu [m^ml ijhy\eylvhdbkeb
l_evgu_Zbh^b^-bhgu\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\ZbmdZaZggZyj_
Zdpby\p_ehfijhl_dZ_lke_\ZgZijZ\h.
JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gb_ihl_gpbZeZihemj_ZdpbbZijbjGjZ\
ghfbhij_^_ebfgZijZ\e_gb_H<J
?keb jG jZkl\hjZ jZ\_g  lh dhgp_gljZpby bhgh\ \h^hjh^Z kh
klZ\ey_l0-8 fheveLh]^Z
EAsO 34

AsO 33-

= 0,57

0,059
1
lg
= 0,098B .
2
1 (10 8 ) 2

Ihkdhevdm ijb jG jZ\ghf  ihl_gpbZe ihemj_Zdpbb Z f_gvr_


ihl_gpbZeZihemj_Zdpbb[lhZjk_gbl-ZgbhguAsO 33 [m^mlijhy\eylv
\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_Zfhe_dmeuI2 hdbkebl_evgu_k\hckl\ZWlhagZqbl
qlh\^Zgguomkeh\byomdZaZggZyj_Zdpbyijhl_dZ_lkijZ\ZgZe_\h
<ebygb_l_fi_jZlmjugZgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyH<J
BamjZ\g_gbyG_jgklZ\b^ghqlh\_ebqbgZwe_dljh^gh]hihl_gpbZeZ
aZ\bkbl b hl agZq_gby l_fi_jZlmju Ihwlhfm baf_gyy l_fi_jZlmjm jZkl\hjZfh`ghbaf_gblvgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyg_dhlhjuoH<J
Ijbf_jIhdZaZlvdZd\eby_lbaf_g_gb_l_fi_jZlmjuhloK
^hoKgZgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyj_Zdpbb
Na2Cr2O7 + 14HCl <&O2 + 2CrCl3 + 2NaCl + 7H2O,
_kebdhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\Cr2O 72 bCr3+jZ\gufhevedhgp_gljZpby
kheyghc dbkehlu jZ\gZ  fheve Z iZjpbZevgh_ ^Z\e_gb_oehjZ
dIZ
J_r_gb_
1. MdZaZggZyj_Zdpbykhklhblba^\moihemj_Zdpbc
Z &U2O 72 + 14H+:Cr3+ + 7H2O?0 = 1,333 <;
[ Kl2:Cl?0 = 1,359 <.
2. JZkkqblZ_f agZq_gby ihl_gpbZeh\ihemj_ZdpbcZb[ijb
l_fi_jZlmj_hKbhij_^_ebfgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyH<J
2,303RT
c 2 (Cr 3 + )
o
Z ECr O 2 Cr 3+ = ECr O 2 Cr 3+
lg
=
2 7
2 7
nF
c(Cr2O 72 ) c14 (H + )
2,303 8,314 298
1
= 1,333
lg 14 = 1,350B ;
6 96500
11
98

[ ECl 0

Cl

o
= ECl
0

Cl

2,303RT
c 2 (Cl )
lg
=
0
nF
p(Cl 2 )

2,303 8,314 298 1,322


= 1,359
lg
= 1,352 B .
2 96500
1
Ihkdhevdm \ ^Zgghf kemqZ_ jZaghklv ihl_gpbZeh\ E hdZaZeZkv
f_gvr_ < \ kbkl_f_mklZgZ\eb\Z_lkyobfbq_kdh_jZ\gh\_kb_Gh
mqblu\Zy[he__\ukhdh_agZq_gb_ihl_gpbZeZihemj_Zdpbb[^_eZ
_f\u\h^qlhijboK[he__kbevgufbhdbkebl_evgufbk\hckl\Zfb
h[eZ^Z_loehjbqlhmdZaZggh_jZ\gh\_kb_kf_s_gh\e_\h
3. JZkkqblZ_f agZq_gby ihemj_Zdpbc ijb  oK b hij_^_ebf gZ
ijZ\e_gb_kf_s_gbyjZ\gh\_kby
2,303RT
c 2 (Cr 3+ )
o
Z ECr O 2 Cr 3+ = ECr O 2 Cr 3+
lg
=
2
2 7
2 7
nF
c(Cr2O 7 ) c14 (H + )
2,303 8,314 363
1
= 1,333
lg 14 = 1,353B .
6 96500
1 1
c 2 (Cl )
2,303RT
o
[ ECl 0 Cl = ECl 0 Cl
lg
=
2
2
nF
p(Cl02 )
2,303 8,314 363 1,322
= 1,359
lg
= 1,350B .
2 96500
1
LZdbf h[jZahf ijb l_fi_jZlmj_  oK [he__ \ukhdh_ agZq_gb_
ihl_gpbZeZ m ihemj_Zdpbb Z Wlh agZqbl qlh [he__ kbevgu_ hdbk
ebl_evgu_k\hckl\Zijhy\eyxlbhguCr2O 72 bjZ\gh\_kb_j_Zdpbb\
p_ehfkf_s_gh\ijZ\h
<ebygb_\_ebqbguIJfZehjZkl\hjbfh]hijh^mdlZ
gZgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyH<J
?keb\j_amevlZl_H<Jh[jZam_lkyfZehjZkl\hjbfucijh^mdllh
dhgp_gljZpby h[jZamxsbo _]h bhgh\ \ jZkl\hj_ j_adh mf_gvrZ_lky
<ke_^kl\b_ wlh]h baf_gy_lky ihl_gpbZe khhl\_lkl\mxs_c ihemj_Zd
pbbqlhfh`_lijb\_klbdbaf_g_gbxgZijZ\e_gbyH<J
Ijbf_j  Hij_^_eblv gZijZ\e_gb_ ijhl_dZgby j_Zdpbc ijb
o
25 K\kbkl_fZo
Z $J+&O<+2 + 2AgCl;
[) 2Ag + 2HI <+2 + 2AgI,
_kebdhgp_gljZpbboehjh\h^hjh^Zbbh^h\h^hjh^Z\jZkl\hj_jZ\gu
1 fheveZ^Z\e_gb_\h^hjh^ZjZ\ghdIZ
99

J_r_gb_
JZkkqblZ_fdhgp_gljZpbxbhgh\k_j_[jZ\jZkl\hj_gZ^hkZ^
dhfAgCl^himklb\qlhdhgp_gljZpbyoehjb^-bhgh\\jZkl\hj_jZ\gZ
dhgp_gljZpbbGClbkhklZ\ey_lfheve
c(Ag+) =

IJ(AgCl) 1,8 1010


=
= 1,8 1010 fheve

1
c(Cl )

 JZkkqblZ_f agZq_gb_ jZ\gh\_kgh]h ihl_gpbZeZk_j_[jZ\^Zg


ghfjZkl\hj_
0,059
1
o

=
EAg + Ag 0 = EAg
lg
0
+
Ag
n
c(Ag + )
0,059
1
= 0,8
lg
= 0,225B.
1
1,8 1010
Hij_^_ebfgZijZ\e_gb_j_ZdpbbZ
Ihkdhevdm\mdZaZgguomkeh\byoihl_gpbZe\h^hjh^ZjZ\_gZ
ihl_gpbZek_j_[jZjZ\_g<lhbhguk_j_[jZijhy\eyxlhdbkeb
l_evgu_k\hckl\Zihhlghr_gbxd\h^hjh^mbjZ\gh\_kb_j_ZdpbbZ
kf_s_gh\e_\hIhwlhfmf_lZeebq_kdh_k_j_[jhg_jZkl\hjy_lky\kh
eyghcdbkehl_
JZkkqblZ_fdhgp_gljZpbxbhgh\k_j_[jZ\jZkl\hj_gZ^hkZ^
dhf AgI ^himklb\ qlh dhgp_gljZpby bh^b^-bhgh\ \ jZkl\hj_ jZ\gZ
dhgp_gljZpbbHIbkhklZ\ey_lfheve
c(Ag+) =

IJ(AgI) 8,3 1017


=
= 8,3 1017 fheve .

1
c(I )

 JZkkqblZ_f agZq_gb_ jZ\gh\_kgh]h ihl_gpbZeZk_j_[jZ\^Zg


ghfjZkl\hj_
0,059
1
o

lg
=
EAg + Ag 0 = EAg
+
Ag 0
n
c(Ag + )
0,059
1
= 0,8
lg
= 0,14 B.
1
8,3 1017
Hij_^_ebfgZijZ\e_gb_j_Zdpbb[
Ihkdhevdm\jZkl\hj_HIihl_gpbZek_j_[jZf_gvr_ihl_gpbZeZ
\h^hjh^Z jZ\gh]h lhk_j_[jh[m^_lhdbkeylvkybhgZfb\h^hjh^Zb
jZ\gh\_kb_j_Zdpbb[ijZdlbq_kdbiheghklvxkf_s_gh\ijZ\h
LZdbf h[jZahf f_lZeebq_kdh_ k_j_[jh \ul_kgy_l \h^hjh^ ba
jZkl\hjZbh^h\h^hjh^ghcdbkehlu
100

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gZgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyH<J
?keb \ j_amevlZl_ H<J h[jZamxlky dhfie_dkgu_ kh_^bg_gby \
dhlhjuo jhev dhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_ey b]jZxl ihl_gpbZehij_^_eyx
sb_bhgulhdhgp_gljZpbywlbobhgh\\jZkl\hj_j_adhmf_gvrZ_lky
<ke_^kl\b_ wlh]h ihl_gpbZeu khhl\_lkl\mxsbo ihemj_Zdpbc baf_
gyxlkyqlhfh`_lijb\_klbdbaf_g_gbxgZijZ\e_gbyH<J
Ijbf_j  Hij_^_eblv gZijZ\e_gb_ ijhl_dZgby j_Zdpbc ijb
h
25 K \kbkl_fZo
Z Hg + 4HBr <H2 + H2[HgBr4];
[ Hg + 4HI <H2 + H2[HgI4],
_kebdhgp_gljZpbbHBrbHI\jZkl\hjZojZ\gufhevedhgp_gljZ
pbbbhgh\>HgBr4]2b>HgI4]2jZ\gufheve^Z\e_gb_\h^hjh^ZjZ\
ghdIZ
J_r_gb_
JZkkqblZ_fdhgp_gljZpbxbhgh\Hg2+h[jZamxsboky\j_amev
lZl_ ^bkkhpbZpbb bhgh\ >HgBr4]2 Ijb wlhf ^himkdZ_f qlh dhgp_g
ljZpby bhgh\ Br \ jZkl\hj_ jZ\gZ dhgp_gljZpbb HBr b khklZ\ey_l
2 fheve
D g_kl [HgBr4]2 =

k(Hg 2 + ) c 4 (Br )
= 2 10 22 .
2
c([HgBr4 ] )

Hlkx^Z
2+

c(Hg ) =

K (gg_k) k([HgBr4 ] )
2

c 4 (Br )

2 1022 1
= 1,25 10 23 fheve.
4
2

 JZkkqblZ_f agZq_gb_ jZ\gh\_kgh]h ihl_gpbZeZ EHg 2+

Hg 0

ijb

^Zgghcdhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\Hg2+:
EHg 2+

Hg 0

0
= EHg
2+

= 0,85

Hg 0

0,059
1
lg
=
2
c(Hg 2 + )

0,059
1
lg
= 0,174B.
2
1,25 10 23

 JZkkqblZ_f agZq_gb_ ihl_gpbZeZ E2H +

H 02

 ^himklb\ qlh dhg

p_gljZpbybhgh\G+jZ\gZdhgp_gljZpbbHIbkhklZ\ey_lfheve
0,059
1
0,059
1
lg 2 + = 0
lg 2 = 0,018B .
E2H + H 0 = E2H + H 0
2
2
2
2
c (H )
2
101

Hij_^_ebfgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyj_ZdpbbZIhkdhevdm\
^ZgghfkemqZ_[he__\ukhdbfy\ey_lkyagZq_gb_ihl_gpbZeZjlmlblh
bhguHg2+ h[jZah\Z\rb_kyba>HgBr4]2 hdbkeyxlfhe_dmeu\h^hjh
^Zbj_ZdpbyZijhl_dZ_lkijZ\ZgZe_\h.
JZkkqblZ_fdhgp_gljZpbxbhgh\Hg2+h[jZamxsboky\j_amev
lZl_^bkkhpbZpbbbhgh\>HgI4]2-Ijbwlhf^himkdZ_fqlhdhgp_gljZ
pbybhgh\I-\jZkl\hj_jZ\gZdhgp_gljZpbbHIbkhklZ\ey_lfheve
c(Hg 2 + ) c 4 (I )
= 1,48 10 30 .
D g_kl [HgI4] =
2
c([HgI 4 ] )
2

Hlkx^Z
2+

c(Hg ) =

K ( g_kl ) k([HgI 4 ]2 )
c 4 (I )

1,48 10 30 1
= 9,25 10 32 fheve.
4
2

 JZkkqblZ_f agZq_gb_ jZ\gh\_kgh]h ihl_gpbZeZ EHg 2+

Hg 0

ijb

^Zgghcdhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\Hg2+:
EHg 2+

Hg

= 0,85

0
= EHg
2+

Hg

0,059
1
lg
=
2
c(Hg 2 + )

0,059
1
lg
= 0,065B.
2
9,25 10 32

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5. Ijb\_^bl_ijbf_julbibqguo\hkklZgh\bl_e_c
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14. DZd fh`gh hij_^_eblv gZb[he__ \_jhylgmx H<J ba g_kdhevdbo
\hafh`guoj_Zdpbc"
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H<J"HoZjZdl_jbamcl_\ebygb_dZ`^h]hbagbo
17. DZdh\Z jhev hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evguo j_Zdpbc \ ijhp_k
kZo`bag_^_yl_evghklb"
18. <q_faZdexqZ_lkyijbgpbibZevgh_hlebqb_H<Jijhl_dZxsbo\
`b\uohj]ZgbafZohlH<Jijhl_dZxsbo\g_`b\hcijbjh^_"
AZ^Zqb^eyj_r_gby
206. F_lh^hf we_dljhggh]h [ZeZgkZ jZkklZ\blv dhwnnbpb_glu \
mjZ\g_gbyoH<JmdZaZlvhdbkebl_evb\hkklZgh\bl_ev
Z) SnCl2+K2Cr2O7 +H2SO4 :
: SnCl4+Sn(SO4)2+Cr2(SO4)3+K2SO4+G2H;
[) FeSO4+HNO3 :)H2(SO4)3+Fe(NO3)+NO2+H2O;
\) P4+Sr(OH)2 :3+3+Sr(H2PO2)2+H2O;
103

]) KMnO4+FeSO4+H2O :
: K2SO4+MnO2+Fe(OH)SO4+[(Fe(OH)2]2SO4;
^) Al+HClO3 :$O&O3+Al(ClO3)3+H2O;
_) FeS2+KOH+Cl2 :.2FeO4+K2SO4+KCl+H2O;
`) H2O2+Mn3O4+H2SO4 :22+MnSO4+H2O;
a) Fe(OH)2 + NO2 :)H 123)3 + NO + H2O;
b) P2S3+H2SO4(dhgp.) :+3PO4+SO2+H2O;
d) (NH4)2CrO4 :12+NH3+Cr2O3+H2O.
207. AZdhgqblv mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc f_lh^hf we_dljhggh]h [ZeZgkZ
jZkklZ\blvdhwnnbpb_glumdZaZlvhdbkebl_evb\hkklZgh\bl_ev
Z) I2+Cl2+H2O :+&O
[) Ba(OH)2+Br2 :%D %U23)2 +
\) KMnO4+PH3+H2SO4 :+3PO4 +
]) H3AsO4+Al+H2SO4 :$V+3 +
^) Ca(ClO)2+HCl :&O2 +
208. Hij_^_eblv gZijZ\e_gb_ ijhl_dZgby \ klZg^Zjlguo mkeh\byo
ke_^mxsboj_Zdpbc
Z) H2O2+HOCl <+&O22+H2O;
[) H3PO4+2HI < H3PO3+I2+H2O;
\) 2FeCl3+Cu <)H&O2+CuCl2;
]) SnCl4+2KI <6Q&O2+I2+2KCl;
^) H2SO3+Cl2+H2O <+2SO4+2HCl.
209. DZdb_ ba mdZaZgguoj_Zdpbcfh]mlijhl_dZlv\klZg^Zjlguomk
eh\byo
Z) MnO 4 +Ag0 :0Q2 24 +Ag+;
[) MnO 4 +3Ag0+2H2O :0Q22+3Ag++4OH-;
\) MnO 4 +8H++5Ag0 :0Q2++5Ag++4H2O?
210. < \h^ghf jZkl\hj_ k(Hg2+    fheve c(Fe3+   fheve
c(Fe2+    fheve DZdZy ba j_Zdpbc fh`_l ijhl_dZlv kZfh
ijhba\hevgh
Z FeCl3+Hg :FeCl2+HgCl2;
[) HgCl2+2FeCl2 :+J)H&O3?
211. AZdhgqblvmjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbc^bkfmlZpbbjZkklZ\blvdhwnnbpb
_gluf_lh^hfwe_dljhggh]h[ZeZgkZ
Z) K2SO3 :.2S +
[) HClO3 :&O22 +
\) P4O6+H2O :3+3 +
]) NO2+Ca(OH)2 :&D 122)2 +
^) Se+KOH :.2SeO3 +
104

212. AZdhgqblvmjZ\g_gbyj_ZdpbcdhgfmlZpbbjZkklZ\blvdhwnnbpb
_gluf_lh^hfwe_dljhggh]h[ZeZgkZ
Z) SO2+H2S :
[) Ca(ClO3)2+HCl(dhgp.) :
\) H2S+H2SO4(dhgp.) :
]) KMnO4+MnSO4+H2O :
213. Fh`gheboehjb^hf`_e_aZ III \jZkl\hj_hdbkeblvkmevnb^gZ
ljby^hk_ju^hkmevnblZgZljby^hkmevnZlZgZljby"Ijh\_^b
l_ khhl\_lkl\mxsb_ jZkq_lu KhklZ\vl_ mjZ\g_gb_ \hafh`ghc
H<J
214. ;m^_lebhdbkeylvkynhknhjbklZydbkehlZijbklZg^Zjlguomkeh
\byoihke_^mxsbfko_fZf"
Z) H3PO3 + I2 + H2O :
[) H3PO3 + AgNO3 +H2O :$J0 +
\) H3PO3 + Cd(NO3)2 + H2O :&G0 +
]) H3PO3 + Hg(NO3)2 + H2O :+J0 +
AZdhgqbl_mjZ\g_gby\hafh`guoj_ZdpbcjZkklZ\vl_dhwnnbpb
_glu
215. Fh`gh eb ijb klZg^Zjlguo mkeh\byo ijb]hlh\blv jZkl\hj kh
^_j`Zsbch^gh\j_f_ggh
[ CuSO4bNaBr;
\ H2O2bH2S;
Z DMnO4bKI;
_ D2Kr2O7bK2S?
] Cu(NO3)2b<ZI2; ^ Cl2bCrCl2;
Ijh\_^bl_ khhl\_lkl\mxsb_ jZkq_lu KhklZ\vl_ mjZ\g_gby \ha
fh`guoH<J
216. JZkkqblZcl_ agZq_gby dhgklZgl jZ\gh\_kby j_Zdpbc \ klZg^Zjl
guomkeh\byo
Z) SnCl4 + 2TiCl3 = SnCl2 + 2TiCl4;
[) SnCl4 + 2CrCl2 = SnCl2 + 2CrCl3.
<dZdhcba^Zgguoj_Zdpbcijhbkoh^bl[he__ihegh_\hkklZgh\
e_gb_bhgh\heh\Z"
217. DZdb_bamdZaZgguogb`_\_s_kl\fh]mlijhy\eylvlhevdhhdbk
ebl_evgu_k\hckl\Zlhevdh\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_dZdhdbkebl_ev
gu_lZdb\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Z
Z) KMnO4; MnO2; V2O5; KI;
[) PbO2; NH3; KNO2; (NH4)2S;
\) K2SO3; HNO3; CaCrO4; P4O6?
218. Hp_gblv\hafh`ghklvijhl_dZgbyH<Jf_`^m\_s_kl\Zfb
\ K2Cr2O7bHClO4;
Z HNO3bP2O5; [ H2SbH2SO dhgp ;
^ SnObCrO3;
_ KH2ObO2.
] H2SbNH3;
GZibkZlvmjZ\g_gby\hafh`guoH<JjZkklZ\blvdhwnnbpb_glu
105

219. < dZdhf gZijZ\e_gbb ijhl_dZxl mdZaZggu_ j_Zdpbb \klZg^Zjl


guomkeh\byo
Z) NO 3 + Cr3+ + H2O <12&U2O 72 + H+;
[) Fe2+ + MnO 4 + H+ <)H3+ + Mn2+ + H2O;
\) Co2+ + MnO 4 + H+ <&R3+ + Mn2+ + H2O.
220. Fh`ghebbkihevah\Zlvhdkb^k\bgpZ IV \dZq_kl\_hdbkebl_ey
^eyhkms_kl\e_gby\klZg^Zjlguomkeh\byomdZaZgguoj_Zdpbc
Z) I2 + 6H2O -:,23- + 12H+;
[) Mn2+ + 4H2O -:0Q24- + 8H+;
\ Sn2+ -:Sn4+;
] Cr3+ + 7H2O -:Cr2O72- + 14H+.
221. Hij_^_eblvgZijZ\e_gb_ijhl_dZgbyj_Zdpbb\kbkl_f_
2Co2+ + Pb4+ <&R3+ + Pb2+,
_kebdhgp_gljZpbbbhgh\jZ\gu
c(Co2+) = 1101fhevec(Co3+) = 1 105fheve
c(Pb2+) = 1104fhevec(Pb4+) = 1 102fheve
222. DZd\eby_lihgb`_gb_\_ebqbgujGjZkl\hjZgZ\_ebqbgmhdbk
ebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgh]hihl_gpbZeZihemj_Zdpbb
Z MnO4H+:Mn2+ + 4H2O;
[) Fe3+:)H2+;
\) CrO 24 +2H22:&U2 4 + 4OH.
223. DZdZybaj_ZdpbcgZb[he__\_jhylgZ\klZg^Zjlguomkeh\byo
Z) SnCl4 + Fe :6Q&O2 + FeCl2;
[) SnCl4 + 2Fe :6Q)H&O2.
224. Fh]mleb\klZg^Zjlguomkeh\byoijhl_dZlvj_Zdpbb
Z) Ag + H2SO4 (jZa[.) :$J2SO4 + H2;
[) Fe + FeCl3 :)H&O2;
\) Cu + Fe2(SO4)3 :&X624 + FeSO4;
]) Hg + H2S :+2 + HgS?
225. Kihfhsvxkhhl\_lkl\mxsbojZkq_lh\ihdZ`bl_dZdbaf_gblky
ihl_gpbZeihemj_ZdpbbCr2O 72 + 14H+:Cr3+ +7H2Oijb
m\_ebq_gbb jG jZkl\hjZ hl  ^h  _keb dhgp_gljZpbb bhgh\
Cr2O 72 bCr3+jZ\gufheve
226. DZdhcbahdbkebl_e_c KMnO4., PbO2bebK2Cr2O7ijbklZg^Zjl
guo mkeh\byo y\ey_lky gZb[he__ wnn_dlb\guf ih hlghr_gbx d
HClijbihemq_gbboehjZ"Ijh\_^bl_khhl\_lkl\mxsb_jZkq_lu
khklZ\vl_mjZ\g_gbyj_ZdpbckmqZklb_fmdZaZgguohdbkebl_e_c
jZkklZ\vl_dhwnnbpb_glu
106

227. We_dljh^guc ihl_gpbZe pbgdZ ihf_s_ggh]h \ jZkl\hj gbljZlZ


pbgdZjZ\_g0,85 <<uqbkeblvagZq_gb_fheyjghcdhgp_gljZ
pbbbhgh\pbgdZ\^ZgghfjZkl\hj_
228. Hij_^_ebl_ gZb[he__ \_jhylgu_ ijh^mdlu j_Zdpbc \ klZg^Zjl
guomkeh\byo
Z) KMnO4 + K2S + H2O :
[) NaNO2 + NaI + HCl :
\ H2O2 + HI :
229. <dZdhckj_^_i_jfZg]ZgZluijhy\eyxlgZb[he__kbevgu_hdbk
ebl_evgu_k\hckl\Z"Ihq_fm"KhklZ\vl_mjZ\g_gbyH<J\aZbfh
^_ckl\by i_jfZg]ZgZlZ dZeby k kmevnblhf gZljby \ jZaguo kj_
^ZojZkklZ\vl_dhwnnbpb_glu
230. >hibrbl_ ijb\_^_ggu_ gb`_ ko_fu \ dhlhjuo mdZaZgu bhgu
lhevdhbkoh^guo\_s_kl\Ih^[_jbl_dhwnnbpb_glubgZibrbl_
khhl\_lkl\mxsb_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbc\fhe_dmeyjghcnhjf_
Z) Fe3+ + I [) Kr2O 72 + NO 2 + H+ :\) NO 3 + Zn + H+ :
231. JZkkqblZcl_fZkkmi_jfZg]ZgZlZdZebyg_h[oh^bfh]h^eyijb]h
lh\e_gby jZkl\hjZ h[t_fhf  ^f3 k fheyjghc dhgp_gljZpb_c
wd\b\Ze_glZ^Zgghckhebfheve_kebba\_klghqlhijb]h
lh\e_ggucjZkl\hj[m^_lbkihevah\Zg^eyhdbke_gby\g_cljZev
ghckj_^_
232. <uqbkebl_ fheyjgmx dhgp_gljZpbx wd\b\Ze_glZ ^bojhfZlZ dZ
eby\jZkl\hj_kfZkkh\hc^he_c_]h biehlghklvxjZkl\hjZ
d]f3_keb^bojhfZl-bhg\hkklZgZ\eb\Z_lky^hCr3+.
233. DZdhc ba hdbkebl_e_c MnO2; PbO2; K2Cr2O7 y\ey_lky gZb[he__
wnn_dlb\gufihhlghr_gbxdHClijbihemq_gbboehjZ"
:

=E:<:X
DHHJ>BG:PBHGGU?KH?>BG?GBY
GZb[he__ h[rbjguc b jZaghh[jZaguc deZkk g_hj]Zgbq_kdbo\_
s_kl\ij_^klZ\eyxldhfie_dkgu_bebdhhj^bgZpbhggu_kh_^bg_gby
DK  < ihke_^g__ \j_fy \ gZmqghc ebl_jZlmj_ gZjy^m k l_jfbghf
dhfie_dkgu_ kh_^bg_gby qZklh mihlj_[ey_lky lh`^_kl\_gguc _fm
l_jfbg dhhj^bgZpbhggu_ kh_^bg_gby H^gZdh l_jfbg dhfie_dkgh_
kh_^bg_gb_ \ gZmqghc obfbq_kdhc ebl_jZlmj_ ijh^he`Z_l rbjhdh
ijbf_gylvky<gZklhys__\j_fy_]hqZs_ijbf_gyxldbhgZf dhf
ie_dkgucbhgIjhp_kkh[jZah\Zgbydhfie_dkguokh_^bg_gbcgZau
\Zxlijhp_kkhfdhfie_dkhh[jZah\ZgbyIhf_j_lh]hdZdddhhj^bgZ
107

pbhgguf hlghkbeb \k_ gh\u_ lbiu kh_^bg_gbc klZgh\behkv \k_


ljm^g__ ^Zlv bf hij_^_e_gb_ ;_amkeh\gh [_amij_qgh_ hij_^_e_gb_
dhhj^bgZpbhgghfm kh_^bg_gbx ^Zlv hq_gv ljm^gh L_f g_ f_g__
fh`gh ij_^eh`blv ke_^mxs__ Dhhj^bgZpbhggufb gZau\Zxlky kh
_^bg_gby\maeZodjbklZeebq_kdboj_r_lhddhlhjuogZoh^ylkydhf
ie_dkgu_ qZklbpu kihkh[gu_ d kms_kl\h\Zgbx \ jZkl\hjZo Wlb
qZklbpuh[jZah\ZguaZkq_ldhhj^bgZpbbwe_dljhgh^_nbpblgufZlh
fhf beb dZlbhghf Zdp_ilhju we_dljhgh\  we_dljhg_cljZevguo qZk
lbpbebZgbhgh\ ^hghjuwe_dljhgh\ 
Hkgh\gu_iheh`_gbydhhj^bgZpbhgghcl_hjbb
Lbiudhfie_dkguokh_^bg_gbc
Kljh_gb_bk\hckl\Zdhhj^bgZpbhgguokh_^bg_gbch[tykgyxlky
dhhj^bgZpbhgghcl_hjb_chkgh\udhlhjhc[uebaZeh`_gu\]h
^m:<_jg_jhfHgijbr_edaZdexq_gbxqlh\khklZ\dhfie_dkgh]h
kh_^bg_gby \oh^bl keh`gZy qZklbpZ khklhysZy ba p_gljZevgh]h
ZlhfZ lZd`_ gZau\Z_fh]h dhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_e_f bhgf_lZeeZ 
\hdjm]dhlhjh]hjZkiheZ]Zxlky dhhj^bgbjmxlky g_cljZevgu_fhe_
dmeu beb Zgbhgu gZau\Zxsb_ky eb]Zg^Zfb Qbkeh dhhj^bgbjh\Zg
guoeb]Zg^h\qZs_\k_]hjZ\ghbebDhhj^bgZpby m^_j`b\Z
gb_ eb]Zg^h\hdhehp_gljZevgh]hZlhfZhkms_kl\ey_lkyaZkq_lh[
jZah\Zgbyobfbq_kdbok\ya_cWlbk\yabgZau\Zxldhhj^bgZpbhggu
fb k\yayfbDhebq_kl\hdhhj^bgZpbhgguok\ya_cdhlhju_h[jZam_l
h^bg eb]Zg^ k dhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_e_f gZau\Z_lky ^_glZlghklvx
eb]Zg^Z ^b-ljb-l_ljZ^_glZlgucbl^ H[s__qbkehobfbq_kdbo
k\ya_cdhlhjh_dhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_evh[jZam_lkeb]Zg^ZfbgZau\Z
_lkydhhj^bgZpbhggufqbkehfdhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_ey
Kh\hdmighklv bhgZ f_lZeeZ b hdjm`Zxsbo _]h eb]Zg^h\ [ueZ
gZa\ZgZ<_jg_jhf\gmlj_gg_ckn_jhcdhfie_dkZ<nhjfmeZodhhj
^bgZpbhgguokh_^bg_gbc__aZdexqZxl\d\Z^jZlgu_kdh[db<k_qlh
gZoh^blky aZ d\Z^jZlgufb kdh[dZfb khklZ\ey_l \g_rgxx kn_jm <
aZ\bkbfhklbhlagZdZaZjy^Z\gmlj_gg_ckn_jujZaebqZxlZgbhggu_
dhfie_dkugZijbf_j.2[Zn(CN)4@]^_\gmlj_ggyykn_jZ>=Q &1 4]2
Zgbhg; dZlbhggu_ dhfie_dku [Cu(NH3)4]SO4]^_\gmlj_ggyykn_jZ
[Cu(NH3)4]2+ dZlbhg b g_cljZevgu_ dhfie_dku >3W 1+3)2Cl2]0.
G_cljZevgu_dhfie_dkgu_kh_^bg_gbyg_bf_xl\g_rg_ckn_juAZ
jy^\gmlj_gg_ckn_jujZ\_gZe]_[jZbq_kdhckmff_aZjy^Zp_gljZev
gh]hbhgZbaZjy^Zeb]Zg^h\
Ijbf_j JZkkfhljbfkljh_gb_dhfie_dkgh]hkh_^bg_gbykhklZ
\Z.4[Fe(CN)6].
108

J_r_gb_
BhguD+ \g_rgyykn_jZ>)H &1 6]4 \gmlj_ggyykn_jZdhf
ie_dkgh]h kh_^bg_gby khklhysZy ba dhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_ey bhg
Fe3+  b eb]Zg^h\ bhgh\ &1  H^bg eb]Zg^ &1 k\yau\Z_lky k dhf
ie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_e_f )H3+ lhevdhh^ghck\yavxihwlhfm^_glZlghklv
wlh]heb]Zg^ZjZ\gZDhebq_kl\hdhhj^bgZpbhgguok\ya_cdhlhju
fb dhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_ev k\yaZg kh \k_fb eb]Zg^Zfb jZ\gh  ke_
^h\Zl_evgh dhhj^bgZpbhggh_ qbkeh `_e_aZ \ ^Zgghf dhfie_dkghf
kh_^bg_gbbjZ\gh
< ijb\_^_gghc lZ[ebp_ jZkkfhlj_gh kljh_gb_ g_dhlhjuo dhf
ie_dkguokh_^bg_gbc
Kljmdlmjguc we_f_gl
<gmlj_ggyykn_jZ
<g_rgyy cn_jZ
P_gljZevgucZlhf
Eb]Zg^
>_glZlghklv
Dhhj^bgZpbhggh_
qbkeh

Dhfie_dkgh_ kh_^bg_gb_
[Cr(H2O)6]Cl3

[Cr(H2O)6]
ClCr3+

3+

K[Ag(CN)2]

[Ag(CN)2]
K+
Ag+

[Pt(NH3)2Cl2]

K3[Ag(S2O3)2]

[Pt(NH3)2Cl2]

Pt2+

[Ag(S2O3)2]3
K+
Ag+

H2O

CN-

NH3; Cl-

1
6

1
2

1, 1
4

S2O 3
2
4

Ijbdhhj^bgZpbbbaf_gyxlkyk\hckl\ZdZdeb]Zg^h\lZdbbhgZ
f_lZeeZ-dhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_eyQZklhdhhj^bgbjh\Zggu_eb]Zg^ub
bhgf_lZeeZg_\hafh`ghh[gZjm`blv\jZkl\hj_dhfie_dkgh]hkh_^b
g_gbyijbihfhsbobfbq_kdboj_ZdpbcoZjZdl_jguo^eygbo\k\h
[h^ghf g_dhhj^bgbjh\Zgghf  khklhygbb l d hgb gZoh^ylky \ k\y
aZgghfkhklhygbb\khklZ\_dhfie_dkghcqZklbpu
Ghf_gdeZlmjZdhhj^bgZpbhgguokh_^bg_gbc
Ihjy^hd gZa\Zgby dhfie_dkguo kh_^bg_gbc ZgZeh]bq_g gZa\Z
gbyfh[uqguokhe_cl_kgZqZeZmdZau\Z_lkyZgbhg\bf_gbl_evghf
iZ^_`_ZaZl_fdZlbhg\jh^bl_evghfih^_`_Nhjfmeudhfie_dkh\
qblZxlky kljh]h kijZ\Z gZe_\h kh[ex^Zy mdZaZgguc \ gbo ihjy^hd
jZkiheh`_gbyeb]Zg^h\
?keb kh_^bg_gb_ g_we_dljheblgh]h lbiZ \gmljbdhfie_dkgh_
kh_^bg_gb_ lh_]hgZau\Zxl\h^ghkeh\hDZlbhggu_bebg_cljZev
gu_DKg_ihemqZxl\gZa\Zgbyoki_pbZevguohdhgqZgbc\gZa\Zgb
yoZgbhgguodhfie_dkh\dhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_evgZau\ZxleZlbgkdbf
l_jfbghf k ^h[Z\e_gb_f kmnnbdkZ(-Zl  b mdZaZgb_f jbfkdbfb qbk
109

eZfb kl_i_gb hdbke_gby p_gljZevgh]h ZlhfZ _keb hg fh`_l bf_lv


i_j_f_ggu_kl_i_gbhdbke_gby 
GZa\Zgbyg_cljZevguoeb]Zg^h\g_baf_gyxlkyZgZa\ZgbyZgb
hgguoeb]Zg^h\hdZgqb\ZxlkygZ h>eyh[hagZq_gbyqbkeZh^bgZdh
\uo eb]Zg^h\ \h \gmlj_gg_c kn_j_ dhfie_dkZ \ dZq_kl\_ ijbklZ\db
i_j_^ gZa\Zgb_f eb]Zg^h\ bkihevamxl ]j_q_kdb_ qbkebl_evgu_ ^b-;
ljb-l_ljZi_glZ]_dkZ-bl^IjbklZ\dmfhghg_mihlj_[eyxl
GZa\Zgb_\gmlj_gg_ckn_juaZibku\Zxl\h^ghkeh\h
<h^ZbZffbZdy\eyxlkyg_cljZevgufbeb]Zg^ZfbbgZau\Zxlky
khhl\_lkl\_gghZd\Z-bZffbg
DZd ihdZaZgh \ gZa\Zgbyo _keb eb]Zg^ k\yaZg k p_gljZevguf
Zlhfhfg_kdhevdbfbkihkh[ZfbwlhjZaebqb_hlf_qZ_lkykihfhsvx
kbf\heh\ Zlhfh\ q_j_a dhlhju_ h[jZam_lky dhhj^bgZpbhggZy k\yav
dhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_eykeb]Zg^hf
GZa\Zgbyg_cljZevguoeb]Zg^h\djhf_+2O, NH3, NO, NO2, CO
b &6 aZdexqZxlky \ djm]eu_ kdh[db b i_j_^ kdh[dhc ijb\h^yl qb
keh\u_ijbklZ\db
Ijbf_j  Ijb\_klb ijbf_ju dhhj^bgZpbhgguo kh_^bg_gbc
jZaebqguolbih\bgZa\Zlvbo
J_r_gb_
DZlbhggu_dhfie_dku
[Co(NH3)6]3+Cl3 oehjb^]_dkZZffbgdh[ZevlZ (III);
[Co(NH3)5H2O]3+Cl3 oehjb^Zd\Zi_glZZffbgdh[ZevlZ III).
:gbhggu_dhfie_dku
(NH4)2[PdCl4]2 l_ljZoehjhiZeeZ^Zl ,, Zffhgby
K[PtNH3Br5] i_glZ[jhfoZffbgieZlbgZl IV dZeby
K4[Fe(CN)6] ]_dkZpbZghn_jjZl II dZeby
G_cljZevgu_dhfie_dku
[Fe(H2O)3(ClO4)(SCN)2] ^blbhpbZghi_joehjZlhljbZd\Z`_e_ah III);
[Co(N2H4)2(NO2)2] ^bgbljblh^b]b^jZabgdh[Zevl ,, 
[Hg(H2O)2(NCS)2] ^bbahlbhpbZgh^bZd\Zjlmlv ,, 
Dhhj^bgZpbhggu_kh_^bg_gby\\h^guojZkl\hjZo
Ijb jZkl\hj_gbb djbklZeebq_kdh]h dhhj^bgZpbhggh]h kh_^bg_
gby \ \h^__]hdjbklZeebq_kdZyj_r_ldZjZajmrZ_lkyZdhhj^bgZpb
hggZykn_jZb\g_rg_kn_jgu_bhgu]b^jZlbjmxlky^bihevgufbfh
e_dmeZfb \h^u Wlhl ijhp_kk ijhl_dZ_l ih f_oZgbafm ^bkkhpbZpbb
kbevguowe_dljheblh\GZijbf_j
K4[Fe(CN)6] :K+ [Fe(CN)6]4
110

Dhfie_dkgucbhg\\h^ghfjZkl\hj_g_h[eZ^Z_lZ[khexlghcmk
lhcqb\hklvxEb]Zg^u_]hdhhj^bgZpbhgghckn_jufh]mlaZf_sZlvky
fhe_dmeZfb\h^udhlhjZylZd`_y\ey_lkyeb]Zg^hfLhqghlZd`_ijb
\aZbfh^_ckl\bb Zd\Zdhfie_dkZ k ^jm]bfb eb]Zg^Zfb \ jZkl\hj_ fh
`_lijhbkoh^blvihkl_i_ggh_aZf_s_gb_fhe_dme\h^udhhj^bgZpb
hgghckn_juZd\Zdhfie_dkZgZwlbeb]Zg^uLZdhcijhp_kk\obfbb
dhfie_dkh\gZau\Z_lkyeb]Zg^gufh[f_ghf.
JZkkfhljbf \aZbfh^_ckl\b_ ]Zahh[jZagh]h ZffbZdZ k \h^guf
jZkl\hjhfkhebgbd_ey<\h^ghfjZkl\hj_dZlbhg1L2+kms_kl\m_l\
\b^_dhfie_dkgh]hbhgZ>1L +2O)6]2+<aZbfh^_ckl\b_wlh]hZd\Zdhf
ie_dkZ k ZffbZdhf ijhbkoh^bl \ r_klv klZ^bc dZ`^Zy ba dhlhjuo
ij_^klZ\ey_lkh[hch[jZlbfmxj_ZdpbxboZjZdl_jbam_lkykh[kl\_g
ghcdhgklZglhcjZ\gh\_kby DhgklZglujZ\gh\_kbydZ`^hcbaklZ^bc
h[jZah\Zgby dhfie_dkghc qZklbpu gZau\Zxlky qZklgufb dhgklZg
lZfbmklhcqb\hklb.
GZ dZ`^hc klZ^bb f_klh h^ghc fhe_dmeu \h^u \h \gmlj_gg_c
kn_j_aZgbfZ_lh^gZfhe_dmeZZffbZdZ
[Ni(H2O)6]2+ j + NH j <>NiNH3(H2O)5]2+(j + H2O `
H[uqgh ^ey ijhklhlu aZibkb nhjfmeu fhe_dme \h^u \ mjZ\g_
gbyoih^h[guoj_ZdpbchimkdZxl
Ni2+ j + NH j <>Ni(NH3)]2+ j
bqZklgZydhgklZglZmklhcqb\hklb dhgklZglZjZ\gh\_kby ^eyi_j\hc
klmi_gbh[jZah\Zgbydhfie_dkgh]hbhgZaZibku\Z_lkylZd
c([ Ni(NH 3 )]2 + )
K1mkl =
bl^Zh[sZyDmkl^eyi-klZ^bc
c( Ni 2 + ) c( NH 3 )
c([ Ni(NH 3 )i ]2 + )
K mkl =
bebDi mkl=K1 K2 ... Ki.
c( Ni 2 + ) c i ( NH 3 )
J_Zdpby h[jZlgZy j_Zdpbb dhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zgby ^bkkhpbZpby
dhfie_dkZ y\ey_lkyj_Zdpb_ceb]Zg^gh]hh[f_gZ\dhlhjhceb]Zg^u
dhfie_dkgh]hbhgZaZf_sZxlkyfhe_dmeZfbjZkl\hjbl_ey
[Ni(NH3)6]2+ j + H2O ` <>Ni(NH3)5(H2O)]2+ j + NH j beb
[Ni(NH3)6]2+ j <>Ni(NH3)5]2+ j + NH j
>eyj_Zdpbb^bkkhpbZpbbdhfie_dkgh]hbhgZdhgklZglmjZ\gh\_
kbygZau\ZxldhgklZglhcg_klhcdhklbDg_kl.ihdZ`^hcklZ^bb
c( Ni( NH 3 ) 5 ]2 + ) c( NH 3 )
K1g_kl =
ijbq_fK1 > K2 > ... > Ki.
c([ Ni( NH 3 ) 6 ]2 + )
111

Ijhba\_^_gb_ qZklguo dhgklZgl g_klhcdhklb ^Z_l h[smx dhg


klZglm g_klhcdhklb Kg_kl = K1 K2 ... Ki DhgklZglu mklhcqb\hklb b
g_klhcdhklbwlh\aZbfghh[jZlgu_\_ebqbgu
1
K mkl =
.
K g_kl
DhgklZglumklhcqb\hklbbg_klhcdhklb\gmlj_gg_ckn_jukeZ[h
aZ\bkylhll_fi_jZlmju
Ijbf_jGZibrbl_dhhj^bgZpbhggmxnhjfmemmdZ`bl_dhhj
^bgZpbhggh_qbkehbaZjy^dhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_eyaZjy^\gmlj_gg_c
kn_jub\ujZ`_gb_dhgklZglug_klhcdhklbke_^mxs_]hdhfie_dkgh
]hkh_^bg_gby]_dkZgbljblhdh[ZevlZl ,,, dZevpby
J_r_gb_
<mkeh\bbijb\_^_ghgZa\Zgb_Zgbhggh]hdhfie_dkgh]hkh_^bg_
gby Eb]Zg^hf y\ey_lky gbljbl-bhg Z p_gljZevguf bhghf  Kh3+.
<gmlj_ggyy kn_jZ [Co(NO2)6]3- ke_^h\Zl_evgh nhjfmeZ dhfie_dk
gh]hkh_^bg_gby[m^_lKZ3[Co(NO2)6]2.
Dhhj^bgZpbhggh_qbkehjZ\gh
6
AZjy^dhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_ey
3+
AZjy^\gmlj_gg_ckn_ju
3
MjZ\g_gb_i_j\bqghc^bkkhpbZpbb dZdkbevgucwe_dljhebl 
KZ3[Co(NO2)6]2 :KZ2+ + 2[Co(NO2)6]3.
H[s__mjZ\g_gb_\lhjbqghc^bkkhpbZpbb keZ[ucwe_dljhebl 
[Co(NO2)6]3 <Kh3+ + 6NO 2 .
<ujZ`_gb_h[s_cdhgklZglug_klhcdhklb dhgklZglZjZ\gh\_kby 
c(Co3 + ) c 6 ( NO 2 )
K g_kl =
.
c([Co( NO 2 ) 6 ]3 )
Ijbf_j.Fh`ghebjZajmrblvdhfie_dkgucbhg>Ag(NH3)2]+k
_]hfheyjghcdhgp_gljZpb_c\jZkl\hj_fheve^h[Z\e_gb_fjZ\
gh]h h[t_fZ jZkl\hjZ .&O k lZdhc `_ dhgp_gljZpb_c ijb gZebqbb \
dhg_qghf jZkl\hj_ ba[uldZ ZffbZdZ k _]h fheyjghc dhgp_gljZpb_c
fheve"
J_r_gb_
JZkkqblZ_ffheyjgmxdhgp_gljZpbxbhgh\>Ag(NH3)2]+ \jZk
l\hj_ihke_^h[Z\e_gbyjZ\gh]hh[t_fZjZkl\hjZKClIhkdhevdmh[t
_fbkoh^gh]hjZkl\hjZm\_ebqbeky\jZaZlhfheyjgZydhgp_gljZpby
bhgh\>Ag(NH3)2]+mf_gvrbeZkv\jZaZbkhklZ\ey_lfheve
112

JZkkqblZ_ffheyjgmxdhgp_gljZpbxbhgh\Ag+\ihemq_gghf
jZkl\hj_ Ihkdhevdm dhgp_gljZpb_c ZffbZdZ h[jZah\Z\r_]hky ijb
^bkkhpbZpbb dhfie_dkgh]h bhgZ fh`gh ij_g_[j_qv ^himkdZ_f qlh
dhgp_gljZpbyZffbZdZ\ihemq_gghfjZkl\hj_jZ\gZ_]hba[ulhqghc
dhgp_gljZpbbbkhklZ\ey_lfheveBkdhfmxdhgp_gljZpbxbhgh\
Ag+h[hagZqbfq_j_ao:
< Ag+ +
2NH3
[Ag(NH3)2]+
fheve
ofheve
fheve
AgZq_gbydhgp_gljZpbcbhgh\ih^klZ\bf\\ujZ`_gb_dhgklZglu
g_klhcdhklbdhfie_dkgh]hbhgZ
K ( g_kl ) =

c(Ag + ) c 2 ( NH 3 )
x 102
8
1
10
.
=

=
0,05
c([Ag( NH 3 ) 2 ]+ )

Hlkx^Zo = 51012fheve
JZkkqblZ_fagZq_gb_IDbhgh\Ag+bCl\ihemq_gghfjZkl\hj_
ID k Ag+) c(Cl) =5 1012 101 = 51013.
 Ihkdhevdm agZq_gb_ ID f_gvr_ agZq_gby IJ(AgCl) jZ\gh]h
10
10 lhhkZ^hdAgClg_\uiZ^Z_lbdhfie_dk>Ag(NH3)2]+\wlbomkeh
\byobhgZfb&Og_jZajmrZ_lky
Ijbf_j.;m^_lebjZajmrZlvkydhfie_dkgucbhg>Ag(NH3)2]+\
mkeh\byoijbf_jZijbaZf_g_.&OgZ.,"
J_r_gb_:
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb\aZbfh^_ckl\bydhfie_dkgh]hbhgZ
kbh^b^-ZgbhgZfb
[Ag(NH3)2]+ + I< AgI + 2NH3.
IJ $J,   1016LZddZd 1013 > 1 1016lhhkZ^hdAgI\u
iZ^Z_lbke_^h\Zl_evghdhfie_dkgucbhg>$J 1+3)2]+\l_o`_mkeh
\byobhgZfb,jZajmrZ_lky
<hijhku^eykZfhklhyl_evghcih^]hlh\db
1. Knhjfmebjmcl_ hkgh\gu_ iheh`_gby dhhj^bgZpbhgghc l_hjbb
: <_jg_jZbijhbeexkljbjmcl_bogZijbf_jZo
2. DZdh\hkljh_gb_dhfie_dkguokh_^bg_gbc"
3. DZdhij_^_eblvaZjy^dhfie_dkgh]hbhgZbaZjy^dhfie_dkhh[jZ
ah\Zl_ey"
4. DZdh\Zijbjh^Zobfbq_kdhck\yab\dhfie_dkguokh_^bg_gbyo"
5. Q_f h[tykgy_lky hkh[Zy kdehgghklv d-we_f_glh\ h[jZah\u\Zlv
dhfie_dkgu_kh_^bg_gby"
113

6. GZq_fhkgh\Zgukihkh[udeZkkbnbdZpbbdhfie_dkguokh_^bg_
gbc"
7. Ijb\_^bl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbcdhlhjufbfh`ghih^l\_j^blvgZ
oh`^_gb_ bhgh\ Cl b SO 24  \h \gmlj_gg_c beb \g_rg_c kn_jZo
dhfie_dkh\
8. GZah\bl_ lbiu bahf_jbb b ijb\_^bl_ ijbf_ju bahf_jh\ \ dhf
ie_dkguokh_^bg_gbyo
9. Hlq_]haZ\bkbl\_ebqbgZdhhj^bgZpbhggh]hqbkeZdhfie_dkhh[
jZah\Zl_ey"
10. Q_fh[mkeh\e_gZ^_glZlghklveb]Zg^h\"
11. GZhkgh\Zgbbf_lh^Z\Ze_glguok\ya_ch[tykgbl_khklZ\bkljh_
gb_ZffbZdZlZpbgdZdjbheblZdZj[hgbeZgbd_ey
12. Bah[jZabl_kljh_gb_hdkZeZlgh]hbpbljZlgh]hdhfie_dkh\Fe3+b
Zn2+.
13. <q_faZdexqZ_lkyjZaebqb_f_`^mdhfie_dkgufbkh_^bg_gbyfb
b^\hcgufbkheyfb"
14. DZdb_nZdlhju\ebyxlgZmklhcqb\hklvdhfie_dkguokh_^bg_gbc
\jZkl\hjZo"
15. QlhgZau\Z_lkyo_eZlgufwnn_dlhfbq_fhgh[mkeh\e_g"
16. DZd fh`gh h[tykgblv \ukhdmx lhdkbqghklv khe_c ly`_euo f_
lZeeh\"
17. DZdb_k\hckl\Zdhfie_dkh\bkihevamxlijbih^[hj_e_dZjkl\^ey
e_q_gbyijbhljZ\e_gbyo"QlhlZdh_Zglb^hl?
18. Ihq_fm fh`gh hkeZ[blv k ihfhsvx dhfie_dkhgh\ lhdkbq_kdh_
^_ckl\b_bhgh\ly`_euof_lZeeh\gZhj]Zgbafq_eh\_dZ"
19. Qlhkh[hcij_^klZ\ey_l]_fdjh\b"Ihq_fm]_fh]eh[bgjZ\ghp_g
gh\aZbfh^_ckl\m_ldZdkdbkehjh^hflZdbkm]Zjguf]Zahf"
AZ^Zqb^eyj_r_gby
234. Ba jZkl\hjZ kheb khklZ\Z 3W&O4 6NH3 gbljZl k_j_[jZ hkZ`^Z_l
\_kv oehj \ \b^_ oehjb^Z k_j_[jZ Z ba jZkl\hjZ kheb
PtCl4 3NH3  lhevdh  qZklv \oh^ys_]h \ __ khklZ\ oehjZ GZ
ibkZlv dhhj^bgZpbhggu_ nhjfmeu b ^Zlv gZa\Zgby wlbo khe_c
hij_^_eblv dhhj^bgZpbhggh_ qbkeh ieZlbgu \ dZ`^hc ba gbo
DZd[m^ml^bkkhpbbjh\Zlvwlb\_s_kl\Z\jZkl\hj_"
235. >\Zdhhj^bgZpbhgguokh_^bg_gbydh[ZevlZkh^bgZdh\hcwfib
jbq_kdhcnhjfmehc&R%U6245NH3JZaebqbyf_`^mgbfbijhy\
eyxlky \ j_Zdpbyo bo \aZbfh^_ckl\by \ jZkl\hjZo k %D&O2 b
AgNO3 H^gZ khev ^Z_l hkZ^hd lhevdh k oehjb^hf [Zjby Z \lh
114

jZy  lhevdh k gbljZlhf k_j_[jZ GZibrbl_ dhhj^bgZpbhggu_


nhjfmeu ^Zcl_ gZa\Zgby h[_bo khe_c b mjZ\g_gby bo we_dljheblbq_kdhc^bkkhpbZpbb
236. DjZkl\hjmkh^_j`Zs_fm]Z^^mdlZ&R&O2 4NH3^h[Z\beb\^hklZlhqghfdhebq_kl\_jZkl\hj$J123FZkkZhkZ^dZkhklZ\beZ]Hij_^_ebl_dhhj^bgZpbhggmxnhjfmemdhfie_dkZ
bgZah\bl__]h
237. GZibrbl_ \ fhe_dmeyjghc b bhggh-fhe_dmeyjghc nhjfZo mjZ\
g_gbyh[f_gguoj_Zdpbcijhbkoh^ysbof_`^mZ .4[Fe(CN)6@b
CuSO4[ 1D3[Co(CN)6@b)H624\ .3[Fe(CN)6@b$J123bf_y\
\b^mqlhh[jZamxsb_kydhhj^bgZpbhggu_khebg_jZkl\hjbfu\
\h^_Ijb\_^bl_bogZa\Zgby
238. GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbch[jZah\Zgbydhfie_dkguodbkehlb
hkgh\Zgbcijb\aZbfh^_ckl\bb3W&O4b+&O$J&Ob+&O3E&O2b
HCl; SiF4 b +) )H &1 2 b +&1 %)3 b +) &X OH)2 b 1+3;
Ni(OH)2 b 1+3 Ijb\_^bl_ mjZ\g_gby we_dljheblbq_kdhc ^bkkh
pbZpbbihemq_gguokh_^bg_gbc
239. GZibrbl_dhhj^bgZpbhggu_nhjfmeuke_^mxsbodhfie_dkguo
kh_^bg_gbc Z  ]_dkZgbljblhdh[ZevlZl ,,,  dZeby [  Zffbggbl
jhl_ljZoehjhdh[ZevlZl ,,,  Zffhgby \  ljbnlhjh]b^jhdkh[_
jbeeZl ]Zeeby ,,,  ^  l_ljZlbhpbZgh^bZffbgojhfZl ,,,  Zffh
gby MdZ`bl_ dhhj^bgZpbhggh_ qbkeh dhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_ey b
aZjy^\gmlj_gg_ckn_judZ`^h]hdhfie_dkZ
240. >Zcl_gZa\Zgbyke_^mxsbokh_^bg_gbc>3G 1+3)3Cl]Cl; K4[Fe(CN)6];
[Pd(H2O)2NH3Cl]Cl; [Co(H2O)(NH3)4CN]Br2; [Co(NH3)5SO4]NO3;
(NH4)2[Rh(NH3)Cl5]; Na2[PdI4@>&X 1G3)4](NO3)2; K2[Co(NH3)2(NO2)4].
GZibrbl_\ujZ`_gbydhgklZglg_klhcdhklbdhfie_dkh\bmdZ`bl_dhhj^bgZpbhggu_qbkeZdhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zl_e_c
241. DZd h[tykgblv qlh dhfie_dkguc bhg >$J 1+3)2]+ jZajmrZ_lky
m`_ ijb ih^dbke_gbb jZkl\hjZ Z ZgZeh]bqguc bhg >3W 1+3)4]2+
khojZgy_lky^Z`_ijb^_ckl\bbdhgp_gljbjh\Zgghckheyghcdb
kehlu"
242. Ihq_fmijbh^ghfblhf`_fheyjghfba[uld_j_Z]_glZZ hkZ
^hd $J&O g_ jZkl\hjy_lky \ kheyghc dbkehl_ gh jZkl\hjy_lky \
jZkl\hj_ZffbZdZ[ hkZ^hd$J,g_jZkl\hjy_lky\jZkl\hj_Zf
fbZdZghjZkl\hjy_lky\jZkl\hj_pbZgb^ZgZljby"
243. Q_f hij_^_ey_lky \hafh`ghklv aZf_gu h^gbo eb]Zg^h\ \ dhhj
^bgZpbhgghf kh_^bg_gbb gZ ^jm]b_" Hij_^_ebl_ gZijZ\e_gb_
j_Zdpbc\jZkl\hjZo
115

Z) [Ag(CN)2]122<>$J 122)2]&1
[) [Ag(NO2)2]&1<>$J &1 2]122
244. Fh`ghebbaZffbZqgh]hdhfie_dkZk_j_[jZ^_ckl\b_fkhhl\_l
kl\mxsbo eb]Zg^h\ ihemqblv >$J 122)2] b >$J &1 2]" Hl\_l
fhlb\bjmcl_
245. H[tykgbl_ ijhp_kk jZkl\hj_gby hkZ^dh\ Zfnhl_jguo ]b^jhdkb
^h\\dbkehlZobs_ehqZodZdij_\jZs_gb_h^gbodhfie_dkh\\
^jm]b_>hibrbl_mjZ\g_gby
Z >&U +2O)6]3+ + OH
:hkZ^hd
3+

[ >&U +2O)6] + OH ba[ :


:hkZ^hd
\ >&U 2G 6]3 + 3H3H+
3
+
] >&U 2G 6] + H3H ba[ :
246. >hibrbl_ijb\_^_ggu_gb`_mjZ\g_gbyj_ZdpbcMdZ`bl_ddZ
dhfm lbim hlghkblky dZ`^Zy ba gbo b q_f hij_^_ey_lky __ gZ
ijZ\e_gghklv"
K2[CuCl4] + NH3 :
Fe3+ + [Fe(CN)6]4- :
Fe2+ + [Fe(CN)6]3- :
[Co(NO2)6]3- + K+ :
Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO3 :>&X 623)4]6-+
[Co(NO2)6]3- + N2H4:1D122 + N2 +

Na3[Ag(S2O3)2] + Na2S :
[Ni(NH3)6]SO4 + NaOH :1L 2+ 2+
K4[Fe(CN)6] + Cl2 :
[Co(H2O)6]3+ + Cl- :&O2 +
CoSO4 + NaNO2 + CH3COOH :
:1D3[Co(NO2)6] + NO +

247. GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gbyj_ZdpbcoZjZdl_jbamxsb_ij_\jZs_gby
Ag+ :>Ag(NH3)2]+ :AgI :>Ag(CN)2]:Ag2S.
DZdh[tykgblv\hafh`ghklvdZ`^h]hbagbo"

116

,,G?HJ=:GBQ?KD:YOBFBY
IJBF?JG:YKO?F:HIBK:GBYOBFBQ?KDBO
WE?F?GLH<BBOKH?>BG?GBC
1. H[sb_k\_^_gbyhobfbq_kdbowe_f_glZo iheh`_gb_\i_jbh^b
q_kdhc kbkl_f_ hldjulb_ kh^_j`Zgb_ \ a_fghc dhj_ hkgh\gu_
ijbjh^gu_kh_^bg_gby 
2. We_dljhggu_dhgnb]mjZpbbZlhfh\
3. OZjZdl_jbaf_g_gbyZlhfguooZjZdl_jbklbdwe_f_glh\ih]jmii_
ZlhfgZy fZkkZ dh\Ze_glguc f_lZeebq_kdbc b bhgguc jZ^bmku
ihl_gpbZeubhgbaZpbbkjh^kl\hdwe_dljhgmwe_dljhhljbpZl_ev
ghklvkl_i_gbhdbke_gby 
4. Hkgh\gu_ nbabdh-obfbq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z ijhkluo \_s_kl\ Z]j_
]Zlgh_ khklhygb_ p\_l iehlghklv l_fi_jZlmju ieZ\e_gby b db
i_gbywe_dljhijh\h^ghklv 
5. Kihkh[uihemq_gby ijhfure_ggu_beZ[hjZlhjgu_ \_s_kl\
6. Obfbq_kdb_k\hckl\Zijhkluo\_s_kl\
Z j_Zdpbbkijhklufb\_s_kl\Zfb \h^hjh^dbkehjh^]Zeh]_gu
k_jZZahlnhknhjm]e_jh^f_lZeeu 
[ j_Zdpbb k \Z`g_crbfb j_Z]_glZfb \h^Z dbkehlu s_ehqb
hdkb^ukheb 
7. Ihemq_gb_ kljh_gb_ b obfbq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z hkgh\guo lbih\ kh
_^bg_gbc
: ;bgZjgu_kh_^bg_gby
Z kh_^bg_gbyk\h^hjh^hf
[ ]Zeh]_gb^u
\ hdkb^u
] kh_^bg_gbyk^jm]bfbg_f_lZeeZfb
^ kh_^bg_gbykf_lZeeZfb
;Fgh]hdhfihg_glgu_kh_^bg_gby
Z ]b^jhdkb^u dbkehluhkgh\Zgby 
[ kheb
\ dhfie_dkgu_kh_^bg_gby
8. <aZbfhk\yavf_`^mhkgh\gufblbiZfbkh_^bg_gbc
9. Ijbf_g_gb_
Z ijhkluo\_s_kl\
[ kh_^bg_gbc
10. ;bheh]bq_kdZyjhevwe_f_glh\bbokh_^bg_gbc\hj]Zgbaf_q_eh
\_dZb`b\hlguoIjbf_g_gb_kh_^bg_gbcwe_f_glh\\f_^bpbg_
117

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.
13.
14.

15.
16.
17.

J-WE?F?GLU9,,=JMIIU
IjhZgZebabjh\ZlvaZdhghf_jghklb\baf_g_gbbjZ^bmkh\Zlhfh\
bhgbaZpbhgguoihl_gpbZeh\kjh^kl\Zdwe_dljhgmwe_dljhhljb
pZl_evghklbZlhfh\ZlZd`_wg_j]bbobfbq_kdhck\yabbl_jfb
q_kdhcmklhcqb\hklbfhe_dme\jy^m]Zeh]_gh\
DZdb_kl_i_gbhdbke_gbyijhy\eyxl]Zeh]_gu\k\hbokh_^bg_gb
yo"DZdh\uhkh[_gghklb\Ze_glguokhklhygbcnlhjZ"
Ijhbeexkljbjh\Zlv j_Zdpbyfb ijhfure_ggu_ b eZ[hjZlhjgu_
kihkh[uihemq_gby]Zeh]_gh\
>Zlv kjZ\gbl_evgmx oZjZdl_jbklbdm hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evguok\hckl\]Zeh]_gh\gZijbf_jZojZaebqguoj_Zdpbc
GZibkZlvmjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbcihemq_gby\k_o]Zeh]_gh\h^hjh^h\
DZdh\uhkh[_gghklbwlboijhp_kkh\"
DZd baf_gyxlky hkgh\gu_ nbabq_kdb_ k\hckl\Zbijhqghklvfh
e_dme\jy^m+) HI?
IjhZgZebabjmcl_ oZjZdl_j baf_g_gby hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evguobdbkehlguok\hckl\\jy^m]Zeh]_gh\h^hjh^h\
GZibkZlvmjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbc\aZbfh^_ckl\by]Zeh]_gh\k\h^hcb
jZkl\hjZfbs_ehq_c oheh^gufbb]hjyqbfb 
DZdb^_ljZaeh`_gb_oehjgh\Zlbklhcdbkehluih^^_ckl\b_fk\_
lZijbgZ]j_\Zgbb\ijbkmlkl\bb\h^hhlgbfZxs_]h\_s_kl\Z"
DZdb_ j_Zdpbb bkihevamxlky h[uqgh ^ey ihemq_gby oehjZlh\ b
i_joehjZlh\"
>_ckl\b_f dZdbo ]Zeh]_gh\fh`gh\u^_eblvk\h[h^guc[jhfba
jZkl\hjh\Z [jhfb^ZdZeby[ [jhfZlZdZeby"H[hkgh\Zlv^Zg
gufbhklZg^Zjlguowe_dljh^guoihl_gpbZeZobijhbeexkljbjh
\Zlvj_Zdpbyfb
DZd baf_gyxlky kbeZ dbkehl b hdbkebl_evgu_ k\hckl\Z \ jy^Zo
HClO HClO2 HClO3 HClO4b+&O2 HBrO +,2"Ihq_fm"
Qlh lZdh_ oehjgZy ba\_klv `Z\_e_\Zy \h^Z" Ijhbeexkljbjh\Zlv
j_Zdpbyfbbok\hckl\Z
KjZ\gblv]b^jhebam_fhklvkhe_c\jy^Zo
1) KClO KClO2 KClO3 KClO4;
2) KClO KBrO KIO?
H[hkgh\Zlvg_\hafh`ghklvihemq_gbyhdkb^h\]Zeh]_gh\boijy
fuf\aZbfh^_ckl\b_fkdbkehjh^hf
DZdmx ]_hf_ljbq_kdmx dhgnb]mjZpbx bf_xl bhgu &O2-, ClO2-,
ClO3-, ClO4-?
DZdb_ g_hj]Zgbq_kdb_ kh_^bg_gby oehjZ nlhjZ [jhfZ b bh^Z
ijbf_gyxlky\f_^bpbg_"
118

18. G_ba\_klguc]Zeh]_gh\h^hjh^ijhimklbeb\jZkl\hjs_ehqbfZk
khc]kfZkkh\hc^he_cDHG<h[jZah\Z\r_fkyg_c
ljZevghfjZkl\hj_fZkkh\Zy^heykhebjZ\gZHij_^_eblv
]Zeh]_gh\h^hjh^
19. JZkkqblZlvh[t_foehjZ gm bh[t_fjZkl\hjZ]b^jhdkb^ZdZeby
k_]hfZkkh\hc^he_cbiehlghklvx]feg_h[oh^bfuo
^eyihemq_gby[_jlhe_lh\hckhebfZkkhc]_keb__fZkkh\Zy
^hey\uoh^ZjZ\gZ
20. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ijb ihfhsb dhlhjuo fh`gh hkm
s_kl\blvij_\jZs_gby
Z) PbBr2 HBr Br2 KBrO3 HBrO3 FeBr3;
[) Cl2 HCl KCl Cl2 BaCl2 HCl;
\) Cl2 KClO3 KClO4 HClO4 ClO2 HClO3.
21. GZibkZlvmjZ\g_gbyke_^mxsboj_Zdpbc
Z .2Cr2O7+&O dhgp 
[) KI + H2SO4 (dhgp.)
\) HBrO3 + I2
] I2 + HNO3 dhgp 
^) HClO3 + HCl
_) K2Cr2O7 + KI + H2SO4 (jZa[.)
`) I2 + H2S (j-j)
a) KI + H2O2 + H2SO4
b) Cl2 + I2 + Ba(OH)2
d &O2 + KI + KOH
e) HClO4 + P2O5
f) CaOCl2 + HCl
g +&O3E22
h %U2 + F2 + H2O
i) HClO3 + P + H2O
J-WE?F?GLU9,=JMIIU
JZkkfhljbl_ kljh_gb_ Zlhfh\ b \Ze_glgu_ khklhygby we_f_glh\
]eZ\ghcih^]jmiiu9,]jmiiu
2. DZdbaf_gyxlkyjZ^bmkubhgbaZpbhggu_ihl_gpbZeukjh^kl\hd
we_dljhgmbwe_dljhhljbpZl_evghklv\jy^mdbkehjh^ihehgbc"
3. DZdbihq_fmbaf_gy_lkyZ]j_]Zlgh_khklhygb_bkhklZ\ijhkluo
\_s_kl\\jy^m2 Po?
4. Ijhbeexkljbjmcl_khhl\_lkl\mxsbfbj_ZdpbyfboZjZdl_jbaf_
g_gby hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evguo k\hckl\ \ jy^m dbkehjh^ ihehgbc

1.

119

5. DZd baf_gyxlky l_fi_jZlmju ieZ\e_gbydbi_gbybl_jfbq_kdZy


mklhcqb\hklv\jy^m+2O H2Po?
6. >Zlv kjZ\gbl_evgmx oZjZdl_jbklbdm baf_g_gby dbkehlgh-hkgh\guo b hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evguo k\hckl\ \h^hjh^guo kh
_^bg_gbcwe_f_glh\9,]jmiiu
7. JZkkfhljbl_ jZkl\hjbfhklv b ]b^jhebam_fhklv kmevnb^h\ jZa
ebqguof_lZeeh\
8. JZkkfhljbl_ kihkh[u ihemq_gby hdkb^h\ k_ju DZd baf_gyxlky
hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Zmwlbokh_^bg_gbc"
9. K_jgbklZy dbkehlZ b __ kheb Kljh_gb_ hdbkebl_evgh\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Zijbf_g_gb_
10. DZdbaf_gy_lkymklhcqb\hklvdbkehlgu_k\hckl\Zbhdbkebl_ev
gh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgZykihkh[ghklv\jy^m+2SO3 H2TeO3?
11. DZdmx j_Zdpbx kj_^u bf_xl jZkl\hju Na2SO3 b NaHSO3" <u
qbkebl_D]^eykmevnbl-b]b^jhkmevnbl-bhgh\ihevamykvagZq_
gb_fdhgklZgl^bkkhpbZpbbk_jgbklhcdbkehlu
12. K_jgZy dbkehlZ ?_ kljh_gb_ ihemq_gb_ dbkehlgu_ b hdbkeb
l_evgu_k\hckl\ZOZjZdl_j\aZbfh^_ckl\bykf_lZeeZfbbg_f_
lZeeZfbIjhbeexkljbjh\Zlvj_Zdpbyfb
13. DZdh\oZjZdl_jbaf_g_gbydbkehlguobhdbkebl_evguok\hckl\\
jy^mk_jgZyl_eemjh\Zydbkehlu"
14. QlhlZdh_he_mf"DZdh\Z_]hobfbq_kdZyijbjh^Z"QlhlZdh_ih
ebk_jgu_dbkehlu"GZjbkh\Zlvkljmdlmjm^bk_jghcdbkehlu
15. >ZlvoZjZdl_jbklbdmiheblbhgh\ufdbkehlZfbbokheyf
16. Lbhk_jgZy dbkehlZ ?_kljh_gb_bhdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\ZlbhkmevnZl-bhgZ
17. Qlh lZdh_ i_jhdkh^bk_jgZy dbkehlZ" Kihkh[u __ ihemq_gby
k\hckl\Zbijbf_g_gb_
18. Kf_kv [_jlhe_lh\hckhebkdZlZebaZlhjhf MnO2 h[s_cfZkkhc
]gZ]j_ebbihemqbebkf_kvl\_j^uo\_s_kl\\dhlhjhcfZk
kh\Zy^heydZlZebaZlhjZjZ\gZ<uqbkeblvh[t_f]ZaZ gm 
\u^_eb\r_]hkyijbijhdZeb\Zgbbbkoh^ghckf_kb_kebfZkkh\Zy
^heyMnO2\g_cjZ\gZ
19. GZibkZlvmjZ\g_gbyke_^mxsboj_Zdpbc
Z )H62 + O2
[) S + NaOH
\) H2S + SO2
]) Na2S + S
^) NaBr + H2SO4 (dhgp.)
_ +2SO4 dhgpjZa[ + Fe, Al, Cu, Zn
120

` +2SO4 dhgpjZa[ + C, P, I2
a) Na2S2O3+ Cl2
b) Na2S2O3 + I2
d) H2S + K2Cr2O7 + HCl
e) SO2 + KMnO4 + H2O
f) Na2SO3 + K2S + H2SO4
g) H2SeO4 + Au
h) SO2 + NO2
i) As2S3 + HNO3 + H2O
j) Se + NaOH
k) Al2Te3 + H2O
l) H2S + HNO3
m) SO2 + SeO2
n) H2Se + S
o) Na2SeO3 + HI
p) Na2S2O4 + K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4
q) K2S2O8 + FeSO4
20. Fh`gh eb ihemqblv +2O2 g_ihkj_^kl\_gguf \aZbfh^_ckl\b_f
\h^hjh^Zbdbkehjh^Z"Hl\_lh[hkgh\Zlv
21. MdZaZlv kihkh[u ihemq_gby i_jhdkb^Z \h^hjh^Z ijb\_klb mjZ\
g_gbyj_Zdpbc
22. HibkZlvkljh_gb_fhe_dmeu+2O2Ihq_fmwlZfhe_dmeZiheyjgZ"
23. GZibkZlv mjZ\g_gb_ j_Zdpbb jZaeh`_gby i_jhdkb^Z \h^hjh^Z D
dZdhfmlbimhdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evguoj_ZdpbchgZhlgh
kblky"
24. Ijb\_klb ijbf_ju hdbkebl_evgh]h b \hkklZgh\bl_evgh]h ^_ckl
\byG2H2GZq_fhkgh\Zghijbf_g_gb_G2H2\f_^bpbg_
25. GZibkZlv \ bhggh-fhe_dmeyjghc nhjf_ mjZ\g_gb_ j_Zdpbb ]b^
jhebaZ1D2O2KhojZgblebjZkl\hji_jhdkb^ZgZljbyk\hb[_ey
sb_k\hckl\Z\dbiys_fjZkl\hj_"
26. GZibkZlvmjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbc\aZbfh^_ckl\byi_jhdkb^Z\h^hjh^Z
k i_jfZg]ZgZlhf dZeby \ dbkehc kj_^_ bh^b^hf dZeby \ dbkehc
kj_^_ojhfblhfdZeby\s_ehqghckj_^_
27. Ijb\_klbijbf_jubgZibkZlvkljmdlmjgu_nhjfmeui_jhdkhdbk
ehl
28. DZdhc ba hkmrbl_e_c  dhgp_gljbjh\Zggmx k_jgmx dbkehlm
l\_j^mxs_ehqvbeb[_a\h^gucoehjb^dZevpbyfh`ghbkihev
ah\Zlv^eyhkmr_gbyk_jh\h^hjh^Z"
121

29. DZdb_khebk_jghcdbkehlubihq_fmijbf_gyxl\f_^bpbgkdhc
ijZdlbd_"
30. AZdhgqblvmjZ\g_gbyke_^mxsboj_Zdpbc
Z +2O2 + NaI
[) Na2O2 + NaBr + H2SO4
\ +2O2 + KMnO4
]) H2O2 + K2Cr2O7 + HCl
^) H2O2 + As2S3 + NaOH
_) Na2SH3 + KMnO4 + H2SO4
`) TeO2 + KOH
a) PoO2 + HNO3
b) TeO2 + H2O2 + H2O
d) O3 + CrCl3 + KOH
e) O3 + PbS
f) H2O2 + I2
31. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ijb ihfhsb dhlhjuo fh`gh hkm
s_kl\blvij_\jZs_gby
Z) S H2S Na2S Na2Sn SO2 S;
[) SO2 NaHSO3 Na2SO3 Na2SO4 NaHSO4 Na2S2O7;
\) KMnO4 O2 Na2O2 H2O2 I2;
]) NaHSO3 Na2S2O5 NaHSO3 Na2SO3 Na2S2O3
Na2S4O6.
J-WE?F?GLU9=JMIIU
JZkkfhljbl_ hkh[_gghklb kljh_gby ZlhfZ ZahlZ b _]h \Ze_glguo
khklhygbc\kjZ\g_gbbklZdh\ufb^eynhknhjZbhklZevguowe_
f_glh\ih^]jmiiu
2. DZd baf_gyxlky jZ^bmk ZlhfZ b wg_j]by _]h bhgbaZpbb \ jy^m
Zahl  \bkfml" DZdh\Z bo \aZbfhk\yav k nbabq_kdbfb b obfbq_
kdbfbk\hckl\Zfbkh_^bg_gbcwlbowe_f_glh\"
3. DZdbaf_gy_lkymklhcqb\hklvkh_^bg_gbc\kl_i_gbhdbke_gby
\jy^mnhknhj\bkfml"
4. KhklZ\vl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ihemq_gby ZahlZ b nhknhjZ ba bo
kh_^bg_gbc
5. DZdh\umkeh\bykbgl_aZZffbZdZbaijhkluo\_s_kl\"Hl\_lfh
lb\bjmcl_
6. DZdbaf_gyxlkywg_j]bybiheyjghklvk\yabW-G\jy^mZffbZd
\bkfmlbgbdZdh\hbo\ebygb_gZnbabq_kdb_bobfbq_kdb_k\hc
kl\Zwlbokh_^bg_gbc"

1.

122

7. DZdh\uhkh[_gghklbijhl_dZgbyj_Zdpbbhdbke_gbyZffbZdZdb
kehjh^hf\ha^moZ"
8. DZdb_ \_s_kl\Z h[jZamxlky ijb ijhimkdZgbb q_j_a jZkl\hj Zf
fbZdZ]Zah\&22, NO, NO2, SO2, SO3?
9. Ijb\_^bl_ oZjZdl_jgu_ ^ey ZffbZdZ j_Zdpbb ijbkh_^bg_gby
aZf_s_gby 
10. DZdb_ \_s_kl\Z fh`gh bkihevah\Zlv ^ey hkmrdb ]Zahh[jZagh]h
ZffbZdZ nhknhjguc Zg]b^jb^ dhgp_gljbjh\Zggmx k_jgmx db
kehlmdZmklbq_kdmxkh^ml\_j^ucDHG"Hl\_lfhlb\bjmcl_
11. KhklZ\vl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc l_jfbq_kdh]h jZaeh`_gbygbljZlZ
gbljblZ nhknZlZ oehjb^Z b ^bojhfZlZ Zffhgby DZd ^hdZaZlv
qlhi_j_qbke_ggu_kheby\eyxlkykheyfbZffhgby"
12. Bah[jZabl_kljmdlmjmhdkb^h\ZahlZbgZibrbl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zd
pbcbo\aZbfh^_ckl\byk\h^hcbjZkl\hjhfs_ehqb
13. Hlghkylkyebj_Zdpbb\aZbfh^_ckl\by^bhdkb^ZZahlZk\h^hcbk
jZkl\hjhf s_ehqb d hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evguf" Hl\_l
ih^l\_j^bl_mjZ\g_gbyfbj_Zdpbc
14. KhklZ\vl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbc\dhlhjuoZahlbklZydbkehlZy\ey
_lkyZ \hkklZgh\bl_e_f[ hdbkebl_e_f
15. Bah[jZabl_ kljmdlmjm Zahlghc dbkehluKhklZ\vl_mjZ\g_gb_j_
Zdpbb__jZaeh`_gby
16. <u^_ey_lky eb \h^hjh^ ijb \aZbfh^_ckl\bb jZa[Z\e_gghc Zahl
ghcdbkehlukZdlb\gufbf_lZeeZfb"
17. DZdh\h ^_ckl\b_ dhgp_gljbjh\Zgghc Zahlghc dbkehlu gZ f_lZe
eu" >h dZdhc kl_i_gb hdbke_gby ijb wlhf \hkklZgZ\eb\Z_lky
Zahl"QlhlZdh_iZkkb\Zpbyf_lZeeZ"
18. KhklZ\vl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbcl_jfbq_kdh]hjZaeh`_gbygbljZlh\
dZebyf_^b ,, k\bgpZbk_j_[jZ
19. Q_f h[mkeh\e_gZ jZaebqgZy obfbq_kdZy Zdlb\ghklv [_eh]h b
djZkgh]hnhknhjZ"Bah[jZabl_bokljmdlmjm
20. KhklZ\vl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbc]hj_gbynhknbgZbZffbZdZ
21. KhklZ\vl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc \aZbfh^_ckl\by k \h^hc nhknb^h\
dZevpbyZexfbgbybpbgdZbkihevam_fuo\dZq_kl\_y^hobfbdZ
lh\ Y\eyxlky eb ^Zggu_j_Zdpbbhdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgufb"
22. KhklZ\vl_]jZnbq_kdb_nhjfmeuhdkb^h\bdbkehlnhknhjZHi
j_^_ebl_\Ze_glghklvdhhj^bgZpbhggh_qbkehbkl_i_gvhdbke_
gby nhknhjZ \ wlbo fhe_dmeZo Z lZd`_ hkgh\ghklv nhknhjguo
dbkehl
123

23. KhklZ\vl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ihemq_gby nhknhjghc dbkehlu


^\mfykihkh[Zfb \ijhfure_gghklbZlZd`_nhknhjguom^h[
j_gbc ijhklh]h b ^\hcgh]hkmi_jnhknZlZij_pbiblZlZbZffh
nhkZ 
24. GZibrbl_\bhgghcbbhggh-fhe_dmeyjghcnhjf_mjZ\g_gbyj_
Zdpbb ]b^jhebaZ nhknZlZ gZljby DZdh\Z j_Zdpby kj_^u \h^guo
jZkl\hjh\nhknZlZb^b]b^jhnhknZlZgZljby"
25. DZdb_ ihebf_jgu_ kh_^bg_gby nhknhjZ b]jZxl \Z`gmx jhev \
`bag_^_yl_evghklb`b\uohj]Zgbafh\"
26. KhklZ\vl_mjZ\g_gby]b^jhebaZoehjb^h\nhknhjZQlhlZdh_]Z
eh]_gZg]b^jb^"
27. DZd baf_gyxlky dbkehlgh-hkgh\gu_ k\hckl\Z ]b^jhdkb^h\
j-we_f_glh\9]jmiiu"
28. <khklZ\dZdbo[bhfhe_dmehj]ZgbafZ\oh^ylnhknhjbZahl"
29. <k_hdkb^uZahlZiheghklvxj_Z]bjmxlkjZkdZe_gghcf_^vxh[
jZamy CuO b N2 DZdh\Z nhjfmeZ hdkb^Z ZahlZ _keb fZkkZ ihem
q_ggh]h CuO khklZ\beZ  ] b Zahl \u^_ebeky h[t_fhf
200 kf3 gm "
30. AZdhgqbl_mjZ\g_gbyj_ZdpbcbjZkklZ\vl_dhwnnbpb_glu
Z /L12
[) Mg3N2 + H2O
\ +122 + H2O2
]) HNO2 + H2S
^) KNO2 + K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4
_) KNO2 + KI + H2SO4
`) NO2 + H2O
a) N2O4 + Ca(OH)2
b 12H4 + O2
d 1+4Cl + CuO
e +123 dhgp + Cu (Ag, Zn, Fe, Al, Mg)
f +123 jZa[ + Cu (Ag, Zn, Fe, Al, Mg)
g) Sb2O5 + KOH + H2O
h) H3PO3 + AgNO3 + H2O
i) H3PO4 + CaCl2
j) As2S5 + HNO3(dhgp.)
k) PH3 + KMnO4 + H2SO4
l) HNO3 + Cu2S
m) NaBiO3 + NaI + H2SO4
n) Sb + HNO3(dhgp.)
124

31. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ijb ihfhsb dhlhjuo fh`gh hkm


s_kl\blvij_\jZs_gby
Z) NH3 N2 NO NO2 KNO3 O2;
[) Ca3(PO4)2 P4 H3PO4 (ZnOH)3PO4 Zn(H2PO4)2
Zn3(PO4)2;
\) P4 Ca3P2 PH3 P4O10 Ca3(PO4)2 Ca(H2PO4)2;
]) HNO3 NH3 (NH4)2Cr2O7 N2 Na3N NH4NO3.
J-WE?F?GLU,9=JMIIU
JZkkfhljbl_kljh_gb_Zlhfh\b\hafh`gu_\Ze_glgu_khklhygby
j-we_f_glh\,9]jmiiuDZdb_kl_i_gbhdbke_gbyijhy\eyxlmdZ
aZggu_we_f_glu\kh_^bg_gbyo"
2. HoZjZdl_jbamcl_ baf_g_gb_ Zlhfguo jZ^bmkh\ wg_j]bb bhgbaZ
pbb kjh^kl\Z d we_dljhgm b we_dljhhljbpZl_evghklb \ jy^m K
Pb.
3. DZd b ihq_fm baf_gy_lky mklhcqb\hklv kh_^bg_gbc mdZaZgguo
we_f_glh\\bo\ukr_ckl_i_gbhdbke_gby\jy^mC Pb?
4. DZdb_ijhklu_\_s_kl\Zh[jZamxlj-we_f_glu,9]jmiiu"DZdb_
lbiudjbklZeebq_kdboj_r_lhdoZjZdl_jgu^eygbo"JZkkfhljbl_
kljh_gb_ ZefZaZ ]jZnblZ dZj[bgZ ihebdmfme_gZ nmee_j_gh\
\b^uk\ya_clbiu]b[jb^baZpbbZlhfguohj[blZe_cijhkljZg
kl\_ggh_jZkiheh`_gb_Zlhfh\ Ihq_fmg_kms_kl\m_l]jZnblh
ih^h[gZyfh^bnbdZpbydj_fgby"
5. DZd b ihq_fm baf_gy_lky wg_j]by k\yab W  W \ jy^m m]e_jh^
]_jfZgbc" Q_f h[tykgy_lkykihkh[ghklvZlhfh\m]e_jh^Zkh_^b
gylvky\^ebggu_p_ib"
6. DZd baf_gyxlky hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_ k\hckl\Z ijh
kluo \_s_kl\ ijb i_j_oh^_ hl m]e_jh^Z d k\bgpm" HoZjZdl_jb
amcl_bohlghr_gb_d\h^_dbkehlZfs_ehqZfkheyfGZibrbl_
mjZ\g_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxsboj_Zdpbc
7. JZkkfhljbl_ kljh_gb_ fhe_dme mklhcqb\hklv hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Z\h^hjh^guokh_^bg_gbcDZdbaf_gy_l
kyl_fi_jZlmjZdbi_gby\jy^m&+4 SnH4 kjZ\gblvkZgZeh]bq
gufb aZ\bkbfhklyfb ^ey ]b^jb^h\ j-we_f_glh\ 99,, ]jmii "
<hafh`gh eb kms_kl\h\Zgb_ g_ij_^_evguo kbeZgh\ ijb klZg
^Zjlguomkeh\byo"
8. IjhZgZebabjmcl_ kljh_gb_ fhe_dmeu KH Q_f fh`gh h[tykgblv
\ukhdmxwg_j]bxk\yab\g_c"DZdwg_j]byk\yabkdZau\Z_lkygZ
mklhcqb\hklbbobfbq_kdhcZdlb\ghklbhdkb^Zm]e_jh^Z ,, "

1.

125

9. Ihq_fmwg_j]byk\yabSi O[hevr_wg_j]bbk\yabKH"
10. Ihq_fm hdkb^ dj_fgby ,9  \ hlebqb_ hl KH2,  l\_j^h_ \_s_kl\h"
11. HoZjZdl_jbamcl_ aZ\bkbfhklv dbkehlgh-hkgh\guo k\hckl\ hdkb
^h\b]b^jhdkb^h\mdZaZgguowe_f_glh\hlkl_i_gbbohdbke_gby
DZd baf_gyxlky dbkehlgh-hkgh\gu_ k\hckl\Z h^ghlbiguo hdkb
^h\b]b^jhdkb^h\\jy^mm]e_jh^k\bg_p"Ijb\_^bl_khhl\_l
kl\mxsb_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbc
12. H[tykgbl_jZaebqby\kljh_gbbb\obfbq_kdbok\hckl\Zo]Zeh]_
gb^h\j-we_f_glh\,9]jmiiuDdZdbfdeZkkZfkh_^bg_gbchlgh
kylky6L&O4, GeCl4, SnCl4; SnCl2,PbCl2"GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zd
pbc]b^jhebaZSiCl4bSiF4.
13. DZdh\Z kl_i_gv hdbke_gby k\bgpZ \ hdkb^Zo 3E2 3E22, Pb3O4?
DZdwlbkh_^bg_gby\aZbfh^_ckl\mxlkjZa[Z\e_ggufbbdhgp_g
ljbjh\ZggufbjZkl\hjZfb+&O+2SO4?
14. DZdb_ ba kh_^bg_gbc j-we_f_glh\ ,9 ]jmiiu bkihevamxlky \
eZ[hjZlhjghc ijZdlbd_ \ dZq_kl\_ lbibqguo hdbkebl_e_c" <
dZq_kl\_ \hkklZgh\bl_e_c" Ijb\_^bl_ ijbf_ju j_Zdpbc c bo
mqZklb_f
15. DZdihemqZxlKH2\eZ[hjZlhjbb"DZdb_baijb\_^_gguo\_s_kl\
fh`gh bkihevah\Zlv ^ey hkmrdb m]e_dbkeh]h ]ZaZ dhgp_gljbjh
\Zggmxk_jgmxdbkehlml\_j^uc_^dbcgZljnhknhjgucZg]b^
jb^"
16. DZdb_ ba mdZaZgguo khe_c ]b^jhebamxlky kbevg__ Sn(NO3)2 beb
Pb(NO3)2; Na2CO3bebNa2SiO3"Ihq_fm"
17. Ihq_fm\\h^guojZkl\hjZog_\hafh`ghkbgl_abjh\ZlvdZj[hgZ
lu `_e_aZ ,,,  ojhfZ ,,,  Zexfbgby"DZdb_\_s_kl\Zfh]mlih
emqblvkyijbkf_rb\ZgbbjZkl\hjh\3E 123)2b1D2CO3?
18. <hafh`gheb\mkeh\byo[ebadboda_fguf\hagbdgh\_gb_`ba
gb g_ gZ hkgh\_ kh_^bg_gbc m]e_jh^Z Z gZ hkgh\_ kh_^bg_gbc
dj_fgby"
19. Qlhij_^klZ\ey_lkh[hcZdlb\bjh\Zggucm]hev"=^_hgbkihevam
_lky"Q_fh[tykgy_lky_]h\ukhdZykhj[bjmxsZykihkh[ghklv"
20. Kf_kvdj_fgbykhdkb^hfdj_fgby IV h[jZ[hlZebba[uldhfjZk
l\hjZ ]b^jhdkb^Z gZljby \ j_amevlZl_ q_]h \u^_ebeky ]Za h[t_
fhfe gm Bah[jZah\Z\r_]hkyjZkl\hjZ[ue\u^_e_gf_lZ
kbebdZl gZljby fZkkhc  ] <uqbkeblv agZq_gb_fZkkh\hc^heb
dj_fgby\bkoh^ghckf_kb
21. Kf_kvm]e_jh^Zkhk\bgphfh[jZ[hlZebijbgZ]j_\Zgbbba[uldhf
dhgp_gljbjh\Zggh]hjZkl\hjZZahlghcdbkehlu\j_amevlZl_q_]h
126

\u^_ebeZkvkf_kv]Zah\h[t_fhfe gm IjbijhimkdZgbb


wlhc kf_kb q_j_a ba[ulhd ba\_kldh\hc \h^u h[jZah\Zeky hkZ^hd
fZkkhc  ] <uqbkeblv agZq_gb_ fZkkh\hc ^heb m]e_jh^Z \ bk
oh^ghckf_kb
22. AZdhgqbl_mjZ\g_gbyke_^mxsboj_Zdpbc
Z) NaOH + H2O + Si (C,Sn,Pb)
[) NaOH + H2O2 + Ge
\) H2SO4 (dhgp) + Sn (C,Si,Pb)
] +12 dhgp + Sn (C,Si,Pb)
^) MgSi + H2SO4(jZa[Z\e.)
_) MnSO4 + PbO2 + H2SO4
`) Sn + KOH + H2O
a) SiO2 + HF
b) SnCl2 + NaBiO3 + HCl H2[SnCl6] + ...
d) GeCl2 + O2 + NaOH + H2O
e) Pb + KOH + H2O
f) PbS + H2O2 .
23. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ijb ihfhsb dhlhjuo fh`gh hkm
s_kl\blvij_\jZs_gby
Z) CO2 COCl2 CO2 C Al4C3 CH4;
[) Si Na2SiO3 H4SiO4 SiO2 SiCl4 K2SiO3;
\) CO2 NH4HCO3 BaCO3 CO2 CO COBr2;
]) Pb :3E 2+ 2 :3E22 :3E3O4 :3E&O2 :+2[PbCl6].
P-WE?F?GLU,,,=JMIIU
1.

2.

3.

HoZjZdl_jbamcl_kljh_gb_Zlhfh\j-we_f_glh\III]jmiiuDZdh\u
we_dljhggu_ dhgnb]mjZpbb bo \g_rgbo wg_j]_lbq_kdbo mjh\g_c
\ hkgh\ghf b \ha[m`^_gghf khklhygbyo" DZdb_ hj[blZeb \ Zlh
fZo mdZaZgguo we_f_glh\ y\eyxlky \Ze_glgufb" Ihq_fm wlb
we_f_gluhlghkylkydk_f_ckl\mj-we_f_glh\"
IjhZgZebabjmcl_oZjZdl_jbaf_g_gbyZlhfguojZ^bmkh\wg_j]bc
bhgbaZpbb kjh^kl\Z d we_dljhgm b we_dljhhljbpZl_evghklb Zlh
fh\ \ jy^m < Al Q_f h[mkeh\e_gZ g_fhghlhgghklv baf_g_gby
wlbo Zlhfguo oZjZdl_jbklbd \ hlebqb_ hl ^jm]bo ]jmii j-we_f_glh\"
DZdb_ kl_i_gb hdbke_gby ijhy\eyxl mdZaZggu_ we_f_glu \ kh
_^bg_gbyo" DZd b ihq_fm baf_gy_lky mklhcqb\hklv h^ghlbiguo
kh_^bg_gbc wlbo we_f_glh\ \ \ukrbo kl_i_gyo hdbke_gby ijb
i_j_oh^_hl[hjZdlZeebx"
127

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

DZd fh`gh h[tykgblv j_adh_ hlebqb_ nbabq_kdbo b obfbq_kdbo


k\hckl\ijhkluo\_s_kl\[hjZbZexfbgby"KjZ\gbl_bohlghr_
gb_ d \h^_ jZkl\hjZf dbkehl s_ehq_c b khe_c KhklZ\vl_ mjZ\
g_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxsboj_Zdpbc
Q_ffh`ghh[tykgblvqlhZexfbgbc\h[uqguomkeh\byokh\_j
r_gghg_\aZbfh^_ckl\m_lkqbklhc\h^hcohly_]hwe_dljh^guc
ihl_gpbZeagZqbl_evghf_gvr_gh[mjgh\ul_kgy_l\h^hjh^ba
\h^guojZkl\hjh\s_ehq_c"
DZdbihq_fmbaf_gyxlky\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\\
jy^mAl Tl? CjZ\gbl_oZjZdl_jbo\aZbfh^_ckl\byk\h^hcjZk
l\hjZfbdbkehls_ehq_cbkhe_cQ_ffh`ghh[tykgblvkihkh[
ghklvlZeebyj_Z]bjh\Zlvk\h^hcijbdhfgZlghcl_fi_jZlmj_"
Q_fihobfbq_kdbfk\hckl\ZfhlebqZxlkyhdkb^[hjZhlhdkb^Z
Zexfbgby]b^jhdkb^[hjZhl]b^jhdkb^ZZexfbgby"Mkh_^bg_
gbcdZdh]hwe_f_glZkbevg__\ujZ`_gudbkehlgu_k\hckl\Z"GZ
ibrbl_mjZ\g_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxsboj_Zdpbc
DZdfh`ghh[tykgblvqlhijbdhfgZlghcl_fi_jZlmj_Zexfbgbc
ijZdlbq_kdb g_ j_Z]bjm_l \ jZkl\hj_ k CuSO4 gh [mjgh \aZbfh
^_ckl\m_lkCuCl2?
HoZjZdl_jbamcl_ dbkehlgh-hkgh\gu_ k\hckl\Z hdkb^h\ b ]b^jh
dkb^h\Al, Ga, InbTlKjZ\gbl_bohlghr_gb_djZkl\hjZfdbkehl
bs_ehq_cIjbkmsZebZfnhl_jghklvkh_^bg_gbyflZeeby"
DZdb_ijhp_kkuijhl_dZxlijbihkl_i_gghf^h[Z\e_gbbba[uldZ
jZkl\hjZ _^dh]h gZljZ d jZkl\hjm gbljZlZ Zexfbgby" GZibrbl_
mjZ\g_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxsboj_ZdpbcgZah\bl_ijh^mdlu<\b^_
dZdboqZklbpZexfbgbckh^_j`blky\s_ehqguog_cljZevguob
dbkeuojZkl\hjZo"
DZd b ihq_fm baf_gy_lky kl_i_gv ]b^jhebaZ khe_c \ jy^m
Al(NO3)3 Ga(NO3)3 In(NO3)3 Tl(NO3)3\jZkl\hjZokboh^bgZ
dh\hc dhgp_gljZpb_c" DZdZy ba khe_c TlNO3 beb Tl(NO3)3 ]b^
jhebam_lkykbevg__"Ihq_fm"
CmevnZlZexfbgbyrbjhdhbkihevam_lky^eyhqbkldb\h^ugZ\h
^hhqbklbl_evguo klZgpbyo GZ q_f hkgh\Zgh _]h ijbf_g_gb_ \
^Zgghf ijhp_kk_" GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby khhl\_lkl\mxsbo j_Zd
pbc\bhgghcbbhggh-fhe_dmeyjguonhjfZo
F_^bpbgkdbcij_iZjZl:efZ]_evij_^klZ\ey_lkh[hcklZ[beb
abjh\Zggmxkmki_gabx]b^jhdkb^h\ZexfbgbybfZ]gbyGZq_f
hkgh\Zgh_]hijbf_g_gb_ijbba`h]_"Fh`ghebijbgbfZlv^Zg
guc ij_iZjZl ijb ]bihZpb^ha_ ihgb`_gghc dbkehlghklb `_em
^hqgh]hkhdZ "
128

14. DZdh\obfbq_kdbckhklZ\ZexfhdZeb_\uod\Zkph\"GZq_fhkgh
\Zgh bkihevah\Zgb_ wlh]h \_s_kl\Z \ f_^bpbg_ \ dZq_kl\_ djh
\_hklZgZ\eb\Zxs_]hkj_^kl\Z"
15. DZdb_ ijhp_kku ijhl_dZxl ijb himkdZgbb Zexfbgby \aylh]h \
ba[uld_ \ \h^guc jZkl\hj oehjb^Z Zexfbgby" GZibrbl_ mjZ\
g_gbyj_ZdpbcgZah\bl_ijh^mdlu
16. Fh`gh eb ihemqblv kmevnb^ Zexfbgby kf_rb\Zgb_f \h^guo
jZkl\hjh\kmevnZlZZexfbgbybkmevnb^ZdZeby"Ihq_fm"DZdb_
khebZexfbgbyijbgpbibZevghg_\hafh`ghkbgl_abjh\Zlv\\h^
guojZkl\hjZo"GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxsboj_Zdpbc
17. <q_fijbgpbibZevgh_hlebqb_\h^hjh^guokh_^bg_gbc[hjZhl
]b^jb^h\^jm]boj-we_f_glh\III]jmiiu"DZdh\ukhklZ\bkljh_
gb_ ijhkl_cr_]h ]b^jb^Z [hjZ" < q_f hkh[_gghklv obfbq_kdbo
k\ya_c \ g_f" DZd fh`gh h[tykgblv g_\hafh`ghklvkms_kl\h\Z
gbyfhe_dmeuBH3?
18. AZkq_lq_]hfhe_dmeuBF3ijbkh_^bgyxldk_[_^jm]b_fhe_dmeu
bebbhgugZijbf_jH2O, NH3, F-"<hafh`ghebijbkh_^bg_gb_
fhe_dmeuCH4"Ihq_fm"DZd\j_amevlZl_ijbkh_^bg_gbybaf_gy
_lky lbi]b[jb^baZpbbhj[blZe_c[hjZb_]h]_hf_ljbq_kdh_hd
jm`_gb_"
19. < \h^ghf jZkl\hj_ [hjghc dbkehlu ijbkmlkl\mxl Zgbhgu
[B(OH)4]-Mqblu\ZywlhgZibrbl_mjZ\g_gb_we_dljheblbq_kdhc
^bkkhpbZpbb [hjghc dbkehlu \ jZkl\hj_ Q_fm jZ\gZ __ hkgh\
ghklv"
20. Qlhh[jZam_lkyijb\aZbfh^_ckl\bb[hjghcdbkehlukjZkl\hjhf
]b^jhdkb^Z gZljby" Qlh lZdh_ [mjZ" DZdh\ __ obfbq_kdbc kh
klZ\" GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ]b^jhebaZ l_ljZ[hjZlZ gZ
ljby\aZbfh^_ckl\by_]hkk_jghcdbkehlhc\jZkl\hj_
21. DZdb_\_s_kl\Zh[jZamxlkyijb]b^jheba_nlhjb^Zboehjb^Z[h
jZ"GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxsboj_Zdpbc
22. HoZjZdl_jbamcl_ [bheh]bq_kdmx jhev [hjZ \ ijhp_kkZo `bag_
^_yl_evghklb jZkl_gbc `b\hlguo b q_eh\_dZDZdb_kh_^bg_gby
[hjZbkihevamxlky\f_^bpbg_\k_evkdhfohayckl\_\[ulm"
23. Kh_^bg_gbydZdh]hbajZkkfZljb\Z_fuowe_f_glh\gZb[he__lhd
kbqgu"=^_hgbgZoh^ylijbf_g_gb_"DZdb_f_juij_^hklhjh`
ghklbg_h[oh^bfhkh[ex^ZlvijbjZ[hl_kgbfb"
24. Kf_kv Zexfbgby k kmevnb^hf Zexfbgby jZa^_ebeb gZ  jZ\gu_
qZklbIjb\g_k_gbbh^ghcbagbo\\h^m\u^_ebeky]Zah[t_fhf
e gm Ijb\g_k_gbb^jm]hcqZklbkf_kb\jZkl\hjoehjh
129

\h^hjh^Z \ayluc \ ba[uld_ \u^_ebeZkv kf_kv ]Zah\ h[t_fhf


e gm JZkkqblZlvfZkkmbkoh^ghckf_kbbfZkkh\u_^heb
\_s_kl\\g_c
25. >eyih^dhjfdbdhfgZlguojZkl_gbcbkihevam_lkyjZkl\hj\fe
dhlhjh]hkh^_j`blky[hjfZkkhc-4]JZkkqblZcl_fZkkm[mju
g_h[oh^bfhc^eyijb]hlh\e_gbylZdh]hjZkl\hjZh[t_fhfe
26. AZdhgqbl_mjZ\g_gbyj_ZdpbcjZkklZ\vl_dhwnnbpb_glu
Z B + HNO dhgp :
[) B2H6 + NaH :
\ Na[BH4] + H2O :
] H3BO3 + NaOH jZkl\hj :
^) Na2B4O7 + H2SO4 + H2O :
_) Al + KOH + H2O :
`) Al+ NaOH(jZkieZ\) :
a) Al + HNO3(hq. jZa[Z\e.) :
b) Al + NaNO3 + NaOH + H2O :
t

d) Al2O3 + K2CO3
e) Al2O3 + KOH + H2O :
f) Na3[Al(OH)6] + CO2 :
t

g) Na[Al(OH)4(H2O)2]
h) K3AlO3 + H2O :
i) AlN + HCl(ba[ulhd) :
j) Al(OH)3 + NaF(ba[ulhd) :
k) Al2(SO4)3 + Na2CO3 + H2O :
t

l) Al(NO3)3
m) Al(OH)3 + Al2(SO4)3 :
n) Al2S3 + KOH(ba[ulhd) + H2O :
o Al4C3 + H2O :
27. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ijb ihfhsb dhlhjuo fh`gh hkm
s_kl\blvke_^mxsb_ij_\jZs_gby
Z) Al :1D3AlO3 :$O2O3 :>$O 2+ 2]2SO4 :$O&O3;
[) Na3[Al(OH)6] :$O2(SO4)3 :$O2O3 :$O 2+ 3 :$O2O3;
\) Al(NO3)3 :$O&O3 :1D3[Al(OH)6] :$O 2+ 3 :$O2S3;
]) Al :$O1:$O 123)3 :$O:.$O22 :$O2O3.
S-WE?F?GLU,B,,=JMII
1. K mq_lhf we_dljhgghc kljmdlmju Zlhfh\ hoZjZdl_jbamcl_ \ha
fh`gu_\Ze_glgu_khklhygbys-we_f_glh\,b,,]jmii<q_fkh
klhbl hkh[_gghklv \Ze_glguo khklhygbc s-we_f_glh\ ih kjZ\g_
gbxkj-we_f_glZfb"
130

2. DZd \ ]jmiiZo V-we_f_glh\ baf_gyxlky jZ^bmku Zlhfh\ wg_j]by


bhgbaZpbb kjh^kl\h d we_dljhgm we_dljhhljbpZl_evghklv" DZd
wlbZlhfgu_oZjZdl_jbklbdbbaf_gyxlkyijbi_j_oh^_hl,dh,,
]jmii_\ij_^_eZoh^gh]hi_jbh^Z"
3. Ijb\_klbijbf_jukh_^bg_gbcs_ehqguof_lZeeh\kjZaebqgufb
lbiZfbobfbq_kdhck\yab
4. HoZjZdl_jbamcl_ kihkh[ghklv s-we_f_glh\ h[jZah\u\Zlv dhhj^b
gZpbhggu_kh_^bg_gby
5. H[tykgbl_ \aZbfgh_ jZkiheh`_gb_ s_ehqguo f_lZeeh\ \ we_d
ljhobfbq_kdhfjy^mgZijy`_gbcf_lZeeh\
6. Bkoh^ybaiheh`_gby%Hb0J\we_dljhobfbq_kdhfjy^mgZijy
`_gbc f_lZeeh\ hoZjZdl_jbamcl_ bo kihkh[ghklvd\aZbfh^_ckl
\bxk\h^hc
7. H[hkgmcl_ \hafh`ghklv ihemq_gby s_ehqguo f_lZeeh\ obfbq_
kdbfiml_fGZibrbl_khhl\_lkl\mxsb_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbc
8. DZdbaf_gyxlkyhkgh\gu_k\hckl\Zhdkb^h\b]b^jhdkb^h\s-we_f_glh\ihf_j_m\_ebq_gbyihjy^dh\h]hghf_jZwe_f_glZ"GZib
rbl_ j_Zdpbb oZjZdl_jbamxsb_ Zfnhl_jgu_ k\hckl\Z hdkb^Z b
]b^jhdkb^Z[_jbeeby
9. JZkkfhljbl_ obfbq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z ]b^jb^h\ s-we_f_glh\ DZdb_
hkh[_gghklb kljh_gby ]b^jb^Z [_jbeeby" GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby
j_Zdpbc\aZbfh^_ckl\by/L+b%D+2k\h^hcbjZa[Z\e_gghc+&O
10. DZdb_ ijhp_kku ijhl_dZxl ijb we_dljheba_ jZkieZ\Z 1D&O ijb
we_dljheba_jZkl\hjZ1D&l?
11. DZdb_kh_^bg_gbyh[jZamxlkyijb\aZbfh^_ckl\bbV-we_f_glh\k
dbkehjh^hf"DZdb_bhgugZoh^ylky\maeZodjbklZeebq_kdboj_
r_lhd /L2O, Na2O2, KO2, KO3, BaO, BaO2" Hij_^_ebl_ kl_i_gv
hdbke_gbywe_f_glh\\wlbokh_^bg_gbyoHoZjZdl_jbamcl_hdbk
ebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_ k\hckl\Z kh_^bg_gbc s-we_f_glh\ k
dbkehjh^hf
12. KieZ\ gZljby k g_ba\_klguf s_ehqguf f_lZeehf h[s_cfZkkhc
]jZkl\hjbeb\\h^_fZkkhc]<j_amevlZl_j_Zdpbb\u^_
ebeky]Zah[t_fhfe gm bh[jZah\ZekyjZkl\hj\dhlhjhf
fZkkh\Zy ^hey NaOH jZ\gZ   Hij_^_eblv g_ba\_klguc
f_lZee
13. Kf_rZebfhevhdkb^ZdZevpbyfhevdZj[b^ZdZevpbybfhev
nhknb^Z dZevpby DZdhc h[t_f \h^u ijhj_Z]bjm_l k  ] lZdhc
kf_kb"Q_fmjZ\gZfZkkZh[jZah\Z\r_]hkyhkgh\Zgby"
14. AZdhgqbl_mjZ\g_gbyke_^mxsboijhp_kkh\
Z) Na2O + H2SO4
131

[) Na2O2 + H2SO4 (j)


\) BaO2 + KMnO4 + H2SO4
] 1+4Cl + Mg(OH)2
^) BeCl2 + KOH
t
_) Ca(HCO3)2

`) Be + KOH + H2O .
15. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ijb ihfhsb dhlhjuo fh`gh hkm
s_kl\blvke_^mxsb_ij_\jZs_gby
Z) Na NaH NaOH NaHCO3 Na2CO3 NaOH;
[) K KO2 K2O2 K2O KHSO4 KCl.
H;S:YO:J:DL?JBKLBD: D-WE?F?GLH<
KhihklZ\vl_ baf_g_gb_ Zlhfguo jZ^bmkh\ wg_j]bb bhgbaZpbb b
we_dljhhljbpZl_evghklb we_f_glh\ \ ]eZ\guo b ih[hqguo ih^
]jmiiZo
2. Q_fh[tykgy_lky[ebahklvZlhfguojZ^bmkh\d-we_f_glh\9i_jbh^Zbd-we_f_glh\9,i_jbh^Zh^ghc]jmiiu"
3. JZkkfhljbl_ hkh[_gghklb baf_g_gby hkgh\guo oZjZdl_jbklbd
ZlhfZ^eyd-we_f_glh\,,,]jmiiu
4. Ihq_fm fgh]b_ ba d-we_f_glh\ ijhy\eyxl i_j_f_ggmx kl_i_gv
hdbke_gby"DZdb_bad-we_f_glh\ijhy\eyxlihklhyggmxkl_i_gv
hdbke_gby"
5. DZd baf_gyxlky mklhcqb\hklv b hdbkebl_evgu_ k\hckl\Z kh_^b
g_gbcd-we_f_glh\\\ukrbokl_i_gyohdbke_gby\ih^]jmiiZo"
6. JZkkfhljbl_hkh[_gghklbobfbbd-we_f_glh\\kjZ\g_gbbkobfb
_cs-bS-we_f_glh\
7. DZdbaf_gyxlkydbkehlgh-hkgh\gu_k\hckl\Z]b^jhdkb^h\h^gh]h
blh]h`_d-we_f_glZ\aZ\bkbfhklbhlkl_i_gbhdbke_gby"
8. DZd baf_gyxlky dbkehlgu_ k\hckl\Z dbkehl d-we_f_glh\ 9VIII
]jmii\\ukrbokl_i_gyohdbke_gby"
9. Q_fh[mkeh\e_gZ[hevrZykdehgghklvddhfie_dkhh[jZah\Zgbxm
d-we_f_glh\" >ey dZdbo ba d-we_f_glh\ hgZ ijhy\ey_lky \ gZb
[hevr_c gZbf_gvr_c kl_i_gb"
10. JZkkfhljbl_dhhj^bgZpbhggucbhgbaZpbhgguc]b^jZlgucpbkljZgk- b hilbq_kdbc a_jdZevguc  lbiu bahf_jbb dhfie_dkguo
kh_^bg_gbc
11. DZdb_ dZlbhggu_bebZgbhggu_ nhjfu[he__oZjZdl_jgu^eydwe_f_glh\
Z  \ gbarbo kl_i_gyo hdbke_gby [  \ \ukrbo kl_i_gyo hdbke_
gby"

1.

132

D-WE?F?GLU9,,,=JMIU
1. DZdb_kl_i_gbhdbke_gbyoZjZdl_jgu^ey`_e_aZdh[ZevlZbgb
d_ey"Ijb\_^bl_ih^\Zijbf_jZkh_^bg_gbcwlbowe_f_glh\\oZ
jZdl_jguokl_i_gyohdbke_gbybgZah\bl_bo
2. DZd\aZbfh^_ckl\mxl`_e_ahdh[Zevlbgbd_evkZahlghck_jghc
bkheyghcdbkehlZfb"DZdwlbf_lZeeu\aZbfh^_ckl\mxlk\h^hc
k\h^gufbjZkl\hjZfbkhe_c"
3. JZkkfhljbl_ijhp_kkudhjjhabbhpbgdh\Zggh]hbem`_gh]h`_e_
aZ<eby_lebgZdhjjhabxijbkmlkl\b_22b&22\hdjm`Zxs_c
kj_^_"
4. H[tykgbl_agZqbl_evgh_mf_gvr_gb_klZg^Zjlgh]hwe_dljh^gh]h
ihl_gpbZeZkbkl_fu&R3+ + e = Co2+\s_ehqguokj_^ZobjZkl\h
jZokh^_j`Zsbo&1-.
5. Bkihevamy agZq_gby dhgklZgl g_klhcdhklb bhgh\ >&R 1+3)6]3+ b
[Co(CN)6]3+hij_^_ebl_\hafh`ghklvijhl_dZgbyijhp_kkZ
[Co(NH3)6]3+ + 6CN- [Co(CN)6]3- + 6NH3
6. JZkkfhljbl_ khklhygb_ bhgh\ )H3+ \ \h^guo jZkl\hjZo ijb jZa
ebqguojG
7. IjhZgZebabjmcl_ ]b^jhebam_fhklv )H6 b )H624  >ey )H624 gZ
ibrbl_mjZ\g_gbyi_j\hcklmi_gb]b^jhebaZ
8. Qlh[hevr_]b^jhebam_lky
Z )H&O3 beb)H&O2;
[) FeCl3 beb K3[Fe(CN)6];
\ )H&O3beb.3[Fe(OH)6];
] )H&O3beb.2FeO4.
9. IjhZgZebabjmcl_klhqdbaj_gbyl_jfh^bgZfbdbZexfhl_jfbq_
kdbckihkh[ihemq_gby`_e_aZ=^_gZoh^blijbf_g_gb_wlhlkih
kh["Fh`ghebbkihevah\ZlvpbgdbfZ]gbc^ey\hkklZgh\e_gby
`_e_aZ"
10. DZdbaf_gy_lkymklhcqb\hklvdhdbke_gbx\jy^m)H ,,  Co(II)
1L ,, "DZdbaf_gy_lkyhdbkebl_evgZykihkh[ghklv\jy^m)H ,,, 
Co(III)  1L ,,, " HoZjZdl_jbamcl_ mkeh\by ihemq_gby ]b^jhdkb
^h\0H 2+ 2 b0H 2+ 3 .
11. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ijb ihfhsb dhlhjuo fh`gh hkm
s_kl\blvij_\jZs_gby
Z) Fe FeCl2 Fe(OH)2 Fe(OH)3 Na2FeO4 ;
[) Na2FeO4 Fe(OH)3 NaFeO2 Fe(OH)3 Fe2O3 FeO;
\) Fe3O4 Fe FeCl3 FeS Fe(NO3)3.
133

12. AZdhgqbl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbc
Z) Fe + O2 + H2O
[) Fe(OH)2 + O2 + H2O
\) FeSO4 + O2 + H2O
]) FeSO4 + KBrO3 + H2SO4
^) Fe(OH)3 + HCl
_) Co(OH)3 + HCl
`) Ni(OH)3 + HCl
a) FeCl3 + KI
b )H 2+ 3 + Cl2 + KOH
d )H62 + HNO3 dhgp 
e) K4[Fe(CN)6] + KMnO4 + H2O
f) K2FeO4 + H2O
g .2FeO4+&O dhgp 
h) K2FeO4 + HNO3
13. Ijb\_^bl_oZjZdl_jgu_j_ZdpbbgZbhgu)H2+b)H3+.
14. DZdb_ j_Zdpbb e_`Zl \ hkgh\_^_fhgkljZpbhggh]hhiulZihj_a
jmdbbkp_e_gb_"
15. JZkkfhljbl_kljmdlmjm]_fh]eh[bgZDZdh\ijbgpbi^_ckl\by]_
fh]eh[bgZ\`b\hfhj]Zgbaf_"
D-WE?F?GLU9,,=JMIIU
DZdb_ kl_i_gb hdbke_gby oZjZdl_jgu ^ey d-we_f_glh\ 9,, ]jmi
iu"Ijb\_^bl_ih^\Zijbf_jZkh_^bg_gbcwlbowe_f_glh\\oZ
jZdl_jguokl_i_gyohdbke_gbybgZah\bl_bo
2. Ijb\_^bl_ ijbf_ju dZlbhgghc b Zgbhgghc nhjf kh_^bg_gbc
fZj]ZgpZ ,,, bfZj]ZgpZ ,9 
3. MdZ`bl_jZaebqby\kljh_gbbZlhfh\we_f_glh\ih^]jmiiufZj
]ZgpZ b ]Zeh]_gh\ < dZdhc kl_i_gb hdbke_gby fZj]Zg_p b oehj
ijhy\eyxlgZb[hevr__koh^kl\h\k\hckl\Zo"Ijb\_^bl_khhl\_l
kl\mxsb_ijbf_ju
4. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc \ dhlhjuo kh_^bg_gby fZj]ZgpZ
ijhy\eyxl
Z hdbkebl_evgu_[ \hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Z\ hdbkebl_ev
gu_ b \hkklZgh\bl_evgu_ h^gh\j_f_ggh DZdb_ kh_^bg_gbyfZj
]ZgpZ fh]ml ijhy\eylv hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgmx ^\hckl
\_gghklv"

1.

134

5. HoZjZdl_jbamcl_iheh`_gb_0Q7F5H\jy^mgZijy`_gbcbbo
hlghr_gb_d\h^_dbkehlZfs_ehqZf
6. IjhZgZebabjmcl_ dbkehlgh-hkgh\gu_ k\hckl\Z ]b^jhdkb^h\ hd
kb^h\ fZj]ZgpZ II, IV, VII).
7. JZkkfhljbl_hdbkebl_evgu_k\hckl\Z.0Q24\jZaebqguokj_^Zo
Qlhij_^klZ\eyxlkh[hcijh^mdlu\hkklZgh\e_gby.0Q24\dbk
euo g_cljZevguo b s_ehqguo kj_^Zo" DZd baf_gy_lky hdjZkdZ
jZkl\hjh\\ijhp_kk_\hkklZgh\e_gby.0Q24?
8. HoZjZdl_jbamcl_ \aZbfh^_ckl\b_ kheyghc dbkehlu k hdkb^Zfb
fZj]ZgpZ0Q20Q22, Mn2O7.
9. Qlh[hevr_]b^jhebam_lky
Z MnCl2bebMnCl4;
[ K2MnO4bebKMnO4.
10. GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbcijbihfhsbdhlhjuofh`ghhkm
s_kl\blvij_\jZs_gby
Z) KMnO4 MnO2 MnCl2 HMnO4 KMnO4;
[) KMnO4 MnSO4 MnCO3 MnO Na2MnO4;
\) Na2MnO4 NaMnO4 Na2MnO4 MnO2 Na2MnO4.
11. AZdhgqbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc mdZ`bl_ hdbkebl_ev \hkklZgh\b
l_evblbihdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evghcj_Zdpbb
Z) MnCl2 + Br2 + KOH
[) MnSO4 + NaBiO3 + H2SO4
\) MnO2 + PbO2 + HNO3
]) MnO2 + KI + H2SO4
^) KMnO4 + SO2 + H2SO4
_) KMnO4 + K2S + KOH
`) KMnO4 + FeSO4 + H2O
a) KMnO4 + C3H5(OH)3 + H2SO4
b) KMnO4 + H2O2 + H2SO4
d) KMnO4 + MnCl2 + H2O
t
e) KMnO4

f) K2MnO4 + H2O
12.JZkkfhljbl_ [bheh]bq_kdmx jhev fZj]Zg_pkh^_j`Zsbo kh_^bg_
gbcMdZ`bl_[bheh]bq_kdb_wnn_dlubhgh\Mn2+.

D-WE?F?GLU9,=JMIU

135

1. DZdb_kl_i_gbhdbke_gbyoZjZdl_jgu^eyG-we_f_glh\9,]jmiiu"
Ijb\_^bl_ ih ^\Z ijbf_jZ kh_^bg_gbc wlbo we_f_glh\ \ oZjZd
l_jguokl_i_gyohdbke_gbybgZah\bl_bo
2. KjZ\gbl_ we_dljhggmx kljmdlmjm Zlhfh\ ojhfZ b k_ju DZdb_
kl_i_gbhdbke_gbyj_Zebamxlky^eywlbowe_f_glh\"<dZdhckl_
i_gbhdbke_gbywlbwe_f_gluijhy\eyxlkoh^kl\h\k\hckl\Zo"
3. DZdb_hdkb^uh[jZamxlkyijbijhdZeb\ZgbbojhfZfheb[^_gZb
\hevnjZfZgZ\ha^mo_"
4. HoZjZdl_jbamcl_hlghr_gb_ojhfZfheb[^_gZb\hevnjZfZd\h
^_dbkehlZfbs_ehqZfIhq_fmojhfg_jZkl\hjy_lky\\h^_oh
ly(oCr3+/Cr = -0.74 B?
5. DZd baf_gyxlky dbkehlgh-hkgh\gu_ k\hckl\Z hdkb^h\ \ jy^m
CrO CrO3" Ijb\_^bl_ j_Zdpbb ihdZau\Zxsb_ Zfnhl_jghklv
]b^jhdkb^ZojhfZ ,,, DZd\aZbfh^_ckl\mxlhdkb^uojhfZ ,,,,,
9, kkheyghcbk_jghcdbkehlZfb"
6. DZdbaf_gyxlkydbkehlgu_k\hckl\Z\jy^m+2CrO4 H2WO4?
7. GZibrbl_dhhj^bgZpbhggu_nhjfmeukh_^bg_gbc
CrCl3.&11+3;
Cr(NO3)31D,1D%U
K2SO3&U2(SO3)3+2O.
GZah\bl_ wlb dhfie_dkgu_ kh_^bg_gby GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby
i_j\bqghcb\lhjbqghcwe_dljheblbq_kdhc^bkkhpbZpbbwlbokh
_^bg_gbcGZibrbl_\ujZ`_gb_dhgklZglug_klhcdhklb^eybhgZ
[Cr(NO3)3BrI2]3- .
8. < dZdbo nhjfZo gZoh^blky &U3+ \ \h^guo jZkl\hjZo ijb jZaebq
guojG"Ijb\_^bl_bgZah\bl_\hafh`gu_dhfie_dkgu_kh_^bg_
gby&U3+dhlhju_fh]mlijbwlhfh[jZah\u\Zlvky
9. GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gby]b^jhebaZ&U2(SO4)3ihi_j\hcb\lhjhcklm
i_gyfDZdb_mkeh\byg_h[oh^bfhkh[ex^Zlvijbijb]hlh\e_gbb
jZkl\hjh\ khe_c &U3+ qlh[u mf_gvrblv ]b^jhebam_fhklv dZlbh
gZ"Fh`ghebihemqblv\\h^guojZkl\hjZo&U2S3?
10. Ihq_fm \h^gu_ jZkl\hju ^bojhfZlZ s_ehqgh]h f_lZeeZ bf_xl
dbkemxkj_^m"DZdbaf_gblkyhdjZkdZlZdh]hjZkl\hjZijb^h[Z\
e_gbb s_ehqb" Ijhbeexkljbjmcl_ khhl\_lkl\mxsbfb mjZ\g_
gbyfbj_Zdpbckhklhygb_jZ\gh\_kby
Cr2O72- + H2O 2CrO42- +2H+?
11. Ihq_fmijb\aZbfh^_ckl\bbkhe_c[ZjbykjZkl\hjZfbojhfZlZb
^bojhfZlZ dZeby \uiZ^Zxl hkZ^db h^bgZdh\h]h khklZ\Z" JZk
kfhljbl_hdbkebl_evgu_k\hckl\Z.2Cr2O7ijbjZaebqguojGjZk
l\hjh\
136

12. Ijh\_^bl_l_jfh^bgZfbq_kdbcZgZebaj_Zdpbb
(NH4)2Cr2O7 N2 + Cr2O3 + H2O.
IjhZgZebabjmcl_mkeh\byijh\_^_gbywlhcj_Zdpbb
13. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ijb ihfhsb dhlhjuo fh`gh hkm
s_kl\blvij_\jZs_gby
Z) Cr(NO3)3 Cr(OH)3 K3[Cr(OH)6] K3CrO3 Cr(H2PO4)3
CrPO4;
[) Cr2O3 K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 Cr2(SO4)3 K3[Cr(OH)6];
\) Cr SO4 Cr2(SO4)3 K2CrO4 CrO3 Cr2O3.
14. Qlh [hevr_ ih^\_j]Z_lky ]b^jhebam: CrCl2 beb CrCl3; CrCl3 beb
Na3[Cr(OH)6]; CrCl3 beb Cr(CH3COO)3; CrCl3 beb MoCl3; K2CrO4
beb K2WO4.
15. AZdhgqbl_mjZ\g_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxsboj_Zdpbc
Z) K2Cr2O7 + HCl
[) CrCl3 + Na2S + H2O
\ 0R+123
]) Cr + KClO3 + KOH
^) Cr2(SO4)3 + Cl2 + KOH
_) NaCrO2 + PbO2 + NaOH
`) Cr2O3 + NaNO3 + NaOH
a) K2Cr2O7 + H2S + H2SO4
b) Na2CrO4 + NaBr + HCl
d 0R62 + HNO3 dhgp 
e &U23+&O dhgp 
f) K2Cr2O7 + H2O2 + HCl
16. DZdmxjhev\uihegy_lfheb[^_g\khklZ\_fheb[^_gkh^_j`Zsbo
n_jf_glh\"
D-WE?F?GLU,,=JMIU
1.

2.

HoZjZdl_jbamcl_kljh_gb_Zlhfh\d-we_f_glh\II]jmiiuDZdh\u
bo we_dljhggu_ dhgnb]mjZpbb \ hkgh\ghf b \ha[m`^_gghf kh
klhygbyo"DdZdbfwe_dljhggufk_f_ckl\Zffh`ghhlg_klb^Zg
gu_we_f_glubihq_fm"
IjhZgZebabjmcl_oZjZdl_jbaf_g_gbyZlhfguojZ^bmkh\wg_j]bc
bhgbaZpbbkjh^kl\Zdwe_dljhgmwe_dljhhljbpZl_evghklbZlhfh\
\jy^mZn HgQ_fh[mkeh\e_gZg_fhghlhgghklvbaf_g_gbymdZ
aZgguo Zlhfguo oZjZdl_jbklbd" Ihq_fm jZ^bmk ZlhfZ pbgdZ
(Z  f_gvr_Zlhfgh]hjZ^bmkZdZevpby Z = 20)?
137

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.
10.

11.

12.

13.

DZdb_hj[blZeb\ZlhfZojZkkfZljb\Z_fuowe_f_glh\fh]mlijb
gbfZlv mqZklb_ \ h[jZah\Zgbb obfbq_kdbo k\ya_c" DZdb_ lbiu
k\ya_coZjZdl_jgu^eyZn, CdbHg\bokh_^bg_gbyo"
DZdb_agZq_gby\Ze_glghklbbdZdb_kl_i_gbhdbke_gbyoZjZdl_j
gu^eymdZaZgguowe_f_glh\"DZdfh`ghh[tykgblvihq_fmhgb
g_ ijhy\eyxl kl_i_g_c hdbke_gby [hevr_  " Q_fm jZ\gu \Z
e_glghklvbkl_i_gvhdbke_gbyjlmlb\bhgZo Hg2)2+b Hg3)2+?
DZd baf_gyxlky \hkklZgh\bl_evgu_ f_lZeebq_kdb_  k\hckl\Z
ijhkluo \_s_kl\ \ jy^m Zn Hg" DZdh\u h[sb_ obfbq_kdb_
k\hckl\Zwlbof_lZeeh\b\q_fbojZaebqb_"HoZjZdl_jbamcl_hl
ghr_gb_f_lZeeh\d\h^_jZkl\hjZfdbkehls_ehq_cbkhe_cgZ
ibrbl_mjZ\g_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxsboj_Zdpbc
Ihq_fm lZd kbevgh hlebqZxlky agZq_gby klZg^Zjlguo we_dljh^
guo ihl_gpbZeh\ f_^b b pbgdZ ohly \ lZ[ebp_ i_jbh^bq_kdhc
kbkl_fuwe_f_gluCubZnjZkiheh`_gujy^hf"
DZd baf_gyxlky dbkehlgh-hkgh\gu_ b hdbkebl_evgh-\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_ k\hckl\Z hdkb^h\ b ]b^jhdkb^h\ \ jy^m Zn Hg?
GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc oZjZdl_jbamxsbo Zfnhl_jgu_
k\hckl\Zhdkb^Zb]b^jhdkb^ZpbgdZ
DZd baf_gy_lky l_jfbq_kdZy mklhcqb\hklv hdkb^h\ ]b^jhdkb^h\
bkhe_cdbkehjh^kh^_j`Zsbodbkehl\jy^mZn Hg"GZibrbl_
mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ijhl_dZxsbo ijb ^h[Z\e_gbb ba[uldZ jZk
l\hjZNaOHdjZkl\hjmHg(NO3)2djZkl\hjmHg2(NO3)2.
GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc l_jfbq_kdh]h jZaeh`_gby
Hg(NO3)2; Hg2(NO3)2; HgSO4.
DZdbaf_gy_lkydhfie_dkhh[jZamxsZyZdlb\ghklvdZlbhgh\\jy
^m Zn2+ Hg2+" GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc \aZbfh^_ckl\by
oehjb^h\ pbgdZ dZ^fby b jlmlb I b II  k dhgp_gljbjh\Zgguf
jZkl\hjhf ZffbZdZ < dZdbo mkeh\byo h[jZamxlky ZffbZqgu_
dhfie_dkujlmlb"
GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb\aZbfh^_ckl\byhdkb^Zjlmlb II k
bh^b^hfdZeby\\h^ghfjZkl\hj_GZah\bl_ihemq_ggh_kh_^bg_
gb_
< q_f aZdexqZ_lky hkh[_gghklv we_dljheblbq_kdhc^bkkhpbZpbb
]Zeh]_gb^h\pbgdZdZ^fbybjlmlb II "Ihq_fmwe_dljhijh\h^b
fhklvjZkl\hjZHgCl2y\ey_lkyhq_gvgbadhc^Z`_\jZa[Z\e_gguo
jZkl\hjZo"
DZdbihq_fmbaf_gy_lkykl_i_gv]b^jhebaZgbljZlh\pbgdZdZ^
fbybjlmlb II \jZkl\hjZokboh^bgZdh\ufbdhgp_gljZpbyfb"
138

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

Ihq_fm ijb ijb]hlh\e_gbb jZkl\hjZ Hg(NO3)2 j_dhf_g^m_lky


\ghkblvkhev\aZjZg__ih^dbke_ggmx\h^m"GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gby
khhl\_lkl\mxsboj_Zdpbc]b^jhebaZ
HoZjZdl_jbamcl_[bheh]bq_kdmxjhevkh_^bg_gbcpbgdZdZ^fby
b jlmlb DZdb_ f_ju ij_^hklhjh`ghklb g_h[oh^bfh kh[ex^Zlv
ijbjZ[hl_khjlmlvxb__kh_^bg_gbyfb"DZdb_kihkh[u^_aZdlb
\Zpbbjlmlb<uagZ_l_"DZdb_j_Zdpbbe_`Zl\bohkgh\_"
=^_ bkihevamxlky kh_^bg_gby pbgdZ dZ^fby b jlmlb" DZdb_ ba
gbogZoh^ylijbf_g_gb_\f_^bpbg_"QlhlZdh_kme_fZQdZQehf_ev
dbQgh\Zjv" DZdh_ ba wlbo \_s_kl\ qj_a\uqZcgh y^h\blh Z dZdh_
kh\_jr_gghg_y^h\blh"Q_fwlhfh`ghh[tykgblv"
Kf_kvhdkb^Zbkmevnb^ZpbgdZh[s_cfZkkhc]ihf_klbeb
\jZkl\hjfZkkhc]kh^_j`Zsbcba[ulhdGKlIhke_hdhgqZ
gby j_Zdpbc h[jZah\Zeky jZkl\hj \ dhlhjhf fZkkh\Zy^heykheb
pbgdZjZ\gZ<uqbkeblvagZq_gbyfZkkh\uo^he_ckh_^b
g_gbcpbgdZ\bkoh^ghckf_kb
Kf_kv pbgdZ b dZ^fby jZa^_ebeb gZ  jZ\gu_ qZklb I_j\mx ba
gbo h[jZ[hlZeb ba[uldhf jZkl\hjZ HCl\j_amevlZl_q_]h\u^_
ebeky]Zah[t_fhfe gm <lhjmxqZklvkf_kbihf_klbeb\
]hjyqbcjZkl\hjkh^_j`Zsbcba[ulhdDHGIjbwlhf\u^_ebeky
]Zah[t_fhfe gm JZkkqblZlvh[t_f\ha^moZ gm g_h[oh
^bfh]h^eyihegh]hk]hjZgbybkoh^ghckf_kbf_lZeeh\
AZdhgqblvmjZ\g_gbyj_ZdpbcjZkklZ\blvdhwnnbpb_glu
Z Zn + KOH + H2O :
[ Zn + NaOH jZkieZ\ :
t

\) ZnO + K2CO3
]) ZnO + H2O + Ba(OH)2 :
^) K2[Zn(OH)4] + CO2 :
_) Na2ZnO2 + H2SO4 (ba[ulhd) :
`) Zn + HNO3 (hq. jZa[.) :
a) Zn(OH)2 + NH3(ba[ulhd) :
b) Zn(OH)2 + Zn(NO3)2 :
d) ZnSO4 + NH3 + H2O :
e) Na2[Zn(OH)4] + ZnSO4 :
f) ZnSO4 + K2CO3 + H2O :
t

g Cd(NO3)2
t

h Cd + H2SO dhgp


i CdCl2 + NH4I ba[ulhd :
j Hg + HNO dhgp + HCl dhgp :
139

k HgCl2 + NH3 :
l) Hg2Cl2 + NH3 :
t

m) Hg(NO3)2
n) Hg(NO3)2 + KOH :
o) Hg2(NO3)2 + NaOH :
p) HgO + KI + H2O :
19. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ijb ihfhsb dhlhjuo fh`gh hkm
s_kl\blvke_^mxsb_ij_\jZs_gby
Z Zn(OH)2 :Zn :Zn(OH)NO3 :K2ZnO2 :Zn(OH)2;
[ Na2[Zn(OH)4] :ZnO :>Zn(OH)]2SO4 :Zn :Na2ZnO2;
\) CdSO4 :&G:>&G 1+3)6]SO4 :&G6:&G 2+ 2;
]) HgO :+J2Cl2 :+J 123)2 :+J&O2 :.2[HgI4] :+J6
D-WE?F?GLU,=JMIIU
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we_dljhggZydhgnb]mjZpbyboij_^\g_rgbob\g_rgbowg_j]_lb
q_kdbomjh\g_c\hkgh\ghfkhklhygbb"DZdb_hj[blZeb\ZlhfZo
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kjh^kl\Z d we_dljhgm b we_dljhhljbpZl_evghklb \ jy^m Cu Au.
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(Z  " Ihq_fm jZ^bmku Zlhfh\ k_j_[jZ Z   b ahehlZ Z=79)
ijZdlbq_kdbh^bgZdh\u"
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j_[jZ^eyahehlZ"
4. Hp_gbl_ \hkklZgh\bl_evgu_ k\hckl\Z ijhkluo \_s_kl\ DZd hgb
baf_gyxlky\jy^mCu Au?
5. DZdb_k\hckl\ZahehlZiha\heyxlhlghkblv_]hd[eZ]hjh^guff_
lZeeZf" JZkkfhljbl_ hlghr_gb_ mdZaZgguo f_lZeeh\ d dbkehjh
^m]Zeh]_gZfk_j_
6. H[tykgbl_ ihq_fm f_^v g_ j_Z]bjm_l k qbklhc \h^hc gh \ul_k
gy_l\h^hjh^ba\h^gh]hjZkl\hjZpbZgb^ZdZeby"Ihq_fmk_j_[jh
bahehlhjZkl\hjyxlky\\h^guojZkl\hjZopbZgb^h\ebrv\ijb
kmlkl\bbhdbkebl_e_cgZijbf_jdbkehjh^Z"DZdh_ijZdlbq_kdh_
ijbf_g_gb_gZoh^blwlhk\hckl\hahehlZ"
7. HoZjZdl_jbamcl_hlghr_gb_f_^bk_j_[jZbahehlZdjZa[Z\e_g
gufbdhgp_gljbjh\ZggufjZkl\hjZfdbkehldjZkl\hjZfs_eh

1.

140

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.
14.
15.
16.

17.
18.
19.
20.

q_c b khe_c GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby khhl\_lkl\mxsbo j_Zdpbc


mdZ`bl_mkeh\bybohkms_kl\e_gby
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\h^d_\dhgp_gljbjh\Zgghckheyghcdbkehl_gZkus_gghcoeh
jhf\k_e_gh\hcdbkehl_"
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ihq_jg_gb_k_j_[jyguoij_^f_lh\ijb^ebl_evghfij_[u\Zgbbbo
gZ\ha^mo_"GZibrbl_mjZ\g_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxsboj_Zdpbc
<\b^_dZdboqZklbpfh]mlgZoh^blvky\\h^guojZkl\hjZof_^v
k_j_[jh b ahehlh" OZjZdl_jgh eb ^ey ahehlZ III  h[jZah\Zgb_
]b^jZlbjh\ZgguodZlbhgh\"
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jZkl\hjZo DZdhc ba gbo \hkklZgZ\eb\Z_lky gZ dZlh^_ ijb we_d
ljheba_\i_j\mxhq_j_^v"
DZdh\h\ebygb_kl_i_gbhdbke_gbyf_lZeeZgZdbkehlgh-hkgh\gu_
k\hckl\Zhdkb^h\b]b^jhdkb^h\f_^bbahehlZ"DZdb_bagboh[
eZ^ZxlZfnhl_jgufbk\hckl\Zfb"MdZdh]h]b^jhdkb^Z Cu(OH)2
beb Au(OH)3 kbevg__ \ujZ`_gu dbkehlgu_ k\hckl\Z" DZdh_ kh
_^bg_gb_ahehlZgZau\Z_lkyahehlZydbkehlZ"GZibrbl_mjZ\g_
gbyj_Zdpbcijhl_dZxsboijbjZkl\hj_gbbmdZaZgguo]b^jhdkb
^h\\ba[uld_jZkl\hjZHCl\ba[uld_jZkl\hjZDHG
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jhah\ucp\_l"
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eb ^h hdhgqZgby j_Zdpbb H[jZah\Z\rmxky kf_kv l\_j^uo \_
s_kl\h[jZ[hlZebba[uldhfdhgp_gljbjh\Zgghck_jghcdbkehlu
\j_amevlZl_q_]h\u^_ebeky]Zah[t_fhfeJZkkqblZlvh[t
_f]Zah\ gm \u^_eb\rbokyijbijhdZeb\Zgbbbkoh^ghckf_kb
22. AZdhgqbl_mjZ\g_gbyj_ZdpbcjZkklZ\vl_dhwnnbpb_glu
Z Ku + HCl + O2 :
[ Cu + HNO3 (jZa[ :
t

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] Cu + CuCl2 :
t

^) KuCl + H2SO4 (dhgp)

_) Cu2S + O2
t

`) Cu2S + HNO3 (dhgp)


t

a) CuO + NH3
b) CuCl + O2 + H2O :
d) Cu + FeCl3 :
e) CuCl2 + KI :
f) Ag + HNO3 (jZa[) :
g AgNO3 + KOH :
t

h AgNO3
i) AgNO3 + SnCl2 :
j) Ag2O + NH3 + H2O :
k) [Ag(NH3)2]Cl + H2S :
l) Au + NaCl + Cl2 :
m AuCl3 + KI :
n) AuCl3 + FeSO4 :
t

o Au2O3
23. GZibrbl_ mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbc ijb ihfhsb dhlhjuo fh`gh hkm
s_kl\blvke_^mxsb_ij_\jZs_gby
Z Cu2S :CuSO4 :CuO :CuCl :>Cu(NH3)4]Cl2;
[ Ku(OH)2 :>Cu(NH3)2]Cl :CuO :Cu2O :CuSO4;
\) Ag :$J2O :>:g(NH3)2]OH :$J2S :$J2SO4;
]) Au :$X&O3 :$X2O3 :1D$uO2 :$X:$X&O

142

LZ[ebpZ
KlZg^Zjlgu_wglZevibbh[jZah\Zgbyfo298
bwgljhibbSo298g_dhlhjuo\_s_kl\ijbD DK

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Al2O3
C ]jZnbl
KH4
C2H4
C2H6
C6H6
C2H5OH
K6G12H6
CO
CO2
CCl4
CaCO3
CaO
Ca(OH)2
Cl2
Cr2O3
CuO
Fe
FeO
F2O3
Fe3O4
Ni
H2
HBr
HCl
HF
HI
H2O
H2O
G2S
KCl
KClO3

Kh
klhygb_
dj
dj
]
]
]
`
`
dj
]
]
`
dj
dj
dj
]
dj
dj
dj
dj
dj
dj
dj
]
]
]
]
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fo298

d>`fhev

-1673,7
0
-74,9
52,3
-89,7
82,9
-277,6
-1273,0
-110,5
-393,5
-132,8
-1207,0
-635,1
-985,0
0
-1140,6
-162,0
0
-264,8
-822,2
-1117,1
0
0
-36,3
-92,2
-270,7
26,6
-241,8
-285,6
-20,2
-435,6
-390,8

So298

>`
fhevD
51
5,7
186,2
219,4
229,5
269,2
160,7

197,5
213,7
216,2
88,7
38,1
83,4
222,9
81,2
42,6
27,2
60,8
87,4
146,2
29,76
130,5
198,6
186,8
178,7
206,5
188,7
70,1
205,5
82,4
142,8

143

<_s_kl\h

KClO4
MgO
MgCO3
NaCl
N2
NH3
NH4Cl
N2O
NO
N2O3
NO2
N2O4
N2O5
NH4NO2
NH4NO3
O2
PH3
P4O6
J4H10
Pb
PbO
S
SO2
SO3
SiH4
SiOd\Zjp
SiCl4
Ti
G2H
H2O2
TiO2
ZnO

Kh
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dj
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dj
dj
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]
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dj
`
dj
dj
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dj
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fo298

d>`fhev

So298

>`
fhevD
-433,1 150,9
-601,8 27,1
-1096,0 65,1
-412,2 72,7
0
191,5
-46,2
192,6
-314,2 96,0
82,0
219,9
90,2
210,6
83,6

33,5
240,2
9,6
303,8
-42,7
178
-256,2

-365,4 151,0
0
205,0
17,1
210,2
-1097,0 142,0
-1546,6 135,9
0
64,8
-219,0 67,7
0
31,9
-296,9 248,1
-395,8 256,7
34,73
204,6
-910,9 41,8
-687,9 239,7
0
30,6
-286,1 44,1
-187,9 109,6
-943,9 50,3
-348,1 43,5

DhgklZglu^bkkhpbZpbbg_dhlhjuokeZ[uowe_dljheblh\
\\h^guojZkl\hjZoijbDK

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:ab^h\h^hjh^gZydbkehlZ
:ahlbklZydbkehlZ
:ffbZdZjZkl\hj
;hjgZydbkehlZ
;jhfgh\ZlbklZydbkehlZ
<h^Z
F_lZdj_fgb_\ZydbkehlZ

HN3
HNO2
NH3H2O
H3BO3
HBrO
H2O
H2SiO3

Hjlhdj_fgb_\ZydbkehlZ
FmjZ\vbgZydbkehlZ
Furvydh\ZydbkehlZ

H4SiO4
HCOOH
H3AsO4

Furvydh\bklZydbkehlZ
K_e_gbklZydbkehlZ

H3AsO3
H2SeO3

K_e_gh\ZydbkehlZ
K_e_gh\h^hjh^gZydbkehlZ

H2SeO4
H2Se

K_jgZydbkehlZ
K_jgbklZydbkehlZ

H2SO4
H2SO3

K_jh\h^hjh^gZydbkehlZ

H2S

M]hevgZydbkehlZ

H2CO3

MdkmkgZydbkehlZ
Oehjgh\ZlbklZydbkehlZ
NhknhjgZydbkehlZ

CH3COOH
HClO
H3PO4

Nlhjh\h^hjh^gZydbkehlZ
PbZgh\h^hjh^gZydbkehlZ
SZ\_e_\ZydbkehlZ

HF
HCN
H2C2O4

144

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1
2
1
1
2
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2
1
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2
1
2
2
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2
3

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2,6 10-5
4,0 10-4
1,8 10-5
5,8 10-10
2,1 10-9
1,8 10-16
2,2 10-10
1,6 10-12
1,3 10-10
1,8 10-4
5,6 10-3
8,3 10-8
3,0 10-12
5,7 10-10
3,5 10-3
5,0 10-8
8,9 10-3
1,7 10-4
1,0 10-11
1,2 10-2
1,6 10-2
6,3 10-8
9,0 10-8
1,0 10-14
4,5 10-7
4,7 10-11
1,8 10-5
5,0 10-8
7,5 10-3
6,3 10-8
1,3 10-12
6,6 10-4
7,9 10-10
5,4 10-2
5,4 10-5

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AgBr
AgCN
AgSCN
AgCH3COO
Ag2CO3
AgCl
Ag2CrO4
Ag2Cr2O7
AgI
AgIO3
AgNO2
Ag2OH2O
Ag3PO4
Ag2S
Ag2SO4
Al(OH)3
AlAsO4
AlPO4
BaCO3
BaC2O4
BaCrO4
BaSO4
BaSO3
Be(OH)2
BiI3
CaCO3
CaC2O4
CaF2
Ca(OH)2
Ca3(PO4)2
CaSO4
CdS

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1,1 10-22
5,3 10-13
1,4 10-16
1,1 10-12
4,4 10-3
1,2 10-12
1,8 10-10
1,1 10-12
1,0 10-10
8,3 10-17
3,0 10-8
6,0 10-4
1,6 10-8
1,3 10-20
6,0 10 50
1,6 10-5
1,1 10-32
1,6 10-16
5,8 10-19
4,0 10-10
1,1 10-7
1,2 10-10
1,1 10-10
8,0 10-7
2,0 10-14
8,1 10-19
3,8 10-9
2,3 10-9
4,0 10-11
1,4 10-4
2,0 10-29
2,5 10-5
1,6 10-28

Cr(OH)3
CrPO4
CuCl
CuS
Cu(OH)2
FeCO3
Fe(OH)3
FeS
FePO4
HgS
MgCO3
Mg(OH)2
Mg3(PO4)2
MnCO3
Mn(OH)2
MnS
NiCO3
Ni(OH)2
NiS
PbBr2
PbCO3
PbCrO4
PbCl2
PbI2
Pb(OH)2
PbS
PbSO4
Sb2S3
SnS
SrCO3
SrSO4
Zn(OH)2
ZnS

145

IJ

6,3 10-31
1,0 10-17
1,2 10-6
6,3 10-36
2,2 10-20
3,5 10-11
6,3 10-38
5,0 10-18
1,3 10-22
1,6 10-52
2,1 10-5
7,1 10-12
1,0 10-13
1,8 10-11
1,9 10-13
2,5 10-10
1,3 10-7
2,0 10-15
2,0 10-26
9,1 10-6
7,5 10-14
1,8 10-14
1,6 10-5
1,1 10-9
7,9 10-16
2,5 10-27
1,6 10-8
2,9 10-59
2,5 10-27
1,1 10-10
3,2 10-7
1,2 10-17
1,6 10-24

DhgklZglug_klhcdhklbdhfie_dkguobhgh\
ijbl_fi_jZlmj_DK

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[Ag(NH3)2]+
[Ag(CN)2][Ag(CN)4]3[Ag(SCN)2][Ag(SCN)4]3[Ag(SO4)2]3[AgCl2][AgBr2][Ag(NO2)2][AgI4]3[Ag(S2O3)2]3[Ag(SO3)2]3[AlF6]3[AlF4][Au(CN)2][Au(SCN)2][Au(SCN)4][AuCl4][AuBr2][Cd(NH3)4]2+
[Cd(NH3)6]2+
[Cd(CN)4]2[Cd(SCN)6]4[CdCl4]2[CdCl6]4[CdBr4]2[CdI4]2[Co(NH3)6]2+
[Co(NH3)6]3+
[Co(CN)6]3[Co(CN)6]4[Co(SCN)4]2-

,g_kl
9,31 10-8
8,0 10-22
2,1 10-21
2,7 10-8
1,3 10 11
5,9 10-1
1,8 10-5
7,8 10-8
1,8 10-3
1,8 10-14
2,5 10-14
4,5 10-8
1,4 10-20
1,8 10-18
5,0 10-39
1,0 10-23
1,0 10-42
5,0 10-22
4,0 10-13
7,6 10-8
7,3 10-6
1,4 10-19
1,033
9,3 10-3
2,6 10-3
2,0 10-4
8,0 10-7
7,8 10-6
3,1 10-33
1,0 10-64
1,0 10-19
5,5 10-3

NhjfmeZ
[Cu(NH3)2]+
[Cu(NH3)4]2+
[Cu(CN)2][Cu(CN)4]3[Cu(CN)4]2[CuCl4]2[CuI2][Cu(OH)4]2[Cu(SO3)2]3[Fe(CN)6]4[Fe(CN)6]3[Fe(C2O4)3]3[Fe(SO4)2][Hg(CN)4]2[HgCl4]2[HgBr4]2[HgI4]2[Hg(SCN)4]2[Hg(S2O3)2]2[Mg(NH3)4]2+
[Mg(NH3)6]2+
[Ni(NH3)4]2+
[Ni(NH3)6]2+
[Ni(CN)4]2[Zn(NH3)4]2+
[Zn(CN)4]2[Zn(SCN)4]2[Zn(OH)4]2[Zn(H2O)6]2+
[ZnCl4]2[ZnBr3][ZnI4]2-

146

LZ[ebpZ

,g_kl
2,2 10-8
2,1 10-13
1,0 10-24
5,0 10-31
5,0 10-28
6,3 10-6
1,8 10-9
7,6 10-17
3,1 10-9
1,0 10-24
1,0 10-31
6,3 10-21
1,1 10-3
4,0 10-42
8,5 10-16
2,0 10-22
1,5 10-30
5,9 10-22
3,6 10-30
1,1 101
2,0 103
1,1 10-8
1,9 10-9
1,8 10-14
3,5 10-10
1,3 10-17
5,0 10-2
3,6 10-16
2,5 10-10
1
50
220

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WE?DLJH>GUC IJHP?KK

Ag

Ag+:$J

Al

Al :$O

?h, B

0,80


3+

1,66
Br

Br2(`):%U

Cd

Cd :&G

Cl

Cl2:&O

1,07
2+

0,40

HClO + H  :&O + H2O


+

1,36

1,49
Co

Co :&R

Cr

Cr :&U

3+

2+

1,808
3+

Cr :&U
3+

2+

CrO42 + 4H22:&U 2+ 3 + 5OH


Cr2O7 + 14H :&U + 7H2O
2

3+



0,407

1,33

Cu

Cu :&X
2+

Cu + I :&X,
2+

0,15

Cu :&X

0,86

2+

0,34
F

F2:)

Fe

Fe :)H

2,87
2+

Fe :)H
3+

2+

147



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F?GL

WE?DLJH>GUC IJHP?KK

?h, B

0,77

Fe :)H
3+


0

2H :+2
Hg22+:+J
+

H
Hg

0,79

Hg :+J
2+

0,85
I2(d):,

0,54

HIO + H :, + H2O


+

2IO3 + 12H :I2(d) + 6H2O

0,99

1,19

IO3 + 6H :, + 3H2O

1,08

IO3 + 5H :+,2+2O

2IO3 + 6H22:,2 + 12OH

1,14

IO3 + 3H22:, + 6OH

0,21

0,26
Li

Li :/L

Mn

MnO4:0Q24

Mn :0Q


0,56

2+

1,179

3+

Mn +:0Q

2+

MnO4+22:0Q22 + 4OH
MnO2 +4H :0Q + 2H2O
+

0,60

2+

MnO4+ :0Q + 4H2O


+

1,23

2+

MnO4 + 4H :0Q22 + 2H2O


2

1,51

148

1,51

WE?
F?GL

WE?DLJH>GUC IJHP?KK

?h, B

MnO2 + 2H22:0Q 2+ 2 + 2OH

2,26

0,50

NO3 + 10H :1+4 + 3H2O

0,87

NO3 + 2H :122 + H2O

NO3 + 3H :+122 + H2O

0,80

0,94

NO3 + 4H :12+2O

NO3 + H22:122 + 2OH

0,957

NO3 + 2H22:122+

0,10

NO2 + H22:122+

0,14

0,46

Na

Na :1D

Ni

Ni :Ni

O2 + 2H :+2O2



2+



0,68

O2 + 4H :+2O
+

1,23

O2 + 2H22:2+

0,40

O2 + 2H :+2O2
+

0,68

O3 + 2H :22 + H2O
+

O3 + H22:22 + 2OH

2,07

H2O2 + 2H :+2O

1,24

1,78
P

H3PO4 + 2H :+3PO3 + H2O


+

149



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F?GL

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?h, B

Pb2+:3E

Pb

Pb :3E
4+



2+

1,694

PbO2 + 4H :3E + 2H2O


+

2+

PbO2 + SO4 + 4H :3E624 + 2H2O


2

1,449

1,685

PbO2 + H22:3E22+

0,28
6:6

0,48

S + 2H :+2S
+

0,17

SO3 + 6H :6 + 3H2O


2

0,231

SO4 + 10H :+2S + 4H2O


2

0,311

SO4 + 8H :6 + 4H2O


2

0,15

SO4 + 4H :+2SO3 + H2O


2

SO4 + 2H22:623 + 2OH


2

H2SO3 + 4H :6+2O

0,17

0,93

0,45
Sn

Sn :6Q
4+

2+

Sn :Sn

0,15

2+

Ti

Ti :7L

Zn

Zn2+:=Q

4+

150

3+



0,04


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152