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Lundstrom EE-612 F08 1

EE-612:
Lecture 12:
2D Electrostatics
Mark Lundstrom
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN USA
Fall 2008
www.nanohub.org
NCN
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 2
outline
1) Consequences of 2D electrostatics
2) 2D Poisson equation
3) Charge sharing model
4) Barrier lowering
5) 2D capacitor model
6) Geometric screening length
7) Discussion
8) Summary
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 3
I
D
vs. V
DS
(long channel)
V
GS
I
D
V
DS
I
D
=
W
2L

eff
C
ox
V
GS
V
T
( )
2
m
1) square law
2) low output conductance
g
d
=
I
D
V
DS
V
GS
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 4
I
D
vs. V
DS
(short channel)
V
GS
I
D
V
DS
I
D
= W
sat
C
ox
V
GS
V
T
( )
1) linear with V
GS
2) high output conductance
g
d
=
I
D
V
DS
see Taur and Ning, pp. 154-158
V
GS
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 5
channel length modulation
V
G
V
D
0
x
y
V x
( )
= V
GS
V
T
( )
I
D
=
eff
C
ox
W
2 L
V
GS
V
T
( )
2
V
GS
> V
T
V
DS
> V
GS
V
T
L = L L < L
pinch-off region:
1) high lateral electric field E
y
>>E
x
2) small carrier density
3) under control of drain, not gate (GCA does not apply)
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 6
V
T
roll-off
V
T
L
V
T
= V
FB
+ 2
B
+ 2q
Si
N
A
(2
B
) C
ox
V
T
roll-off
reverse short
channel effect
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 7
DIBL
logI
D
V
GS
V
GS
V
T
( )

e
V
GS
V
T
( )
/mk
B
T
V
DS
= 1.1V
V
DS
= 0.05V
Drain-Induced Barrier Lowering
(DIBL) mV/V
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 8
stronger short channel effects
logI
D
V
GS
V
GS
V
T
( )

e
V
GS
V
T
( )
/mk
B
T
V
DS
= 1.1V
V
DS
= 0.05V
S(V
DS
= 1.1V) > S(V
DS
= 0.05V)
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 9
severe short channel effects
logI
D
e
V
GS
V
T
( )
/mk
B
T
V
GS
V
DS
= 0.05V
current weakly dependent on V
GS
punch through
V
DS
= 1.1V
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 10
E
x
E
C
x ( )
W
D
punched
through
punchthrough
N
A
min ( ):punch through
W
S
+W
D
< L
W
D
W
S
V
D
0
L
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 11
short channel effects
1) I
D
linear not quadratic with gate voltage
2) high output conductance
3) threshold voltage roll-off
4) increased DIBL
5) increased S
6) punchthrough
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 12
outline
1) Consequences of 2D electrostatics
2) 2D Poisson equation
3) Charge sharing model
4) Barrier lowering
5) 2D capacitor model
6) Geometric screening length
7) Discussion
8) Summary
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 13
2D Poisson equation

x
2
=

Si
=
qN
A

Si
(belowV
T
)
p-Si
n+
n+
x
y
1) MOS Capacitor:
2) MOSFET:

x
2
+

2

y
2
=
qN
A

Si
(belowV
T
)
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 14
2D Poisson equation (ii)
1) Long channel MOSFET below threshold:

x
2
>>

2

y
2
gradual channel approximation (GCA):
Q
I
(y) = C
G
V
G
V
T
mV(y)
[ ]
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 15
2D Poisson equation (iii)
1) Short channel MOSFET below threshold:

x
2
=
qN
A

Si

y
2 Increasing V
DS
y (nm) --->

1
(
e
V
)


-
-
-
>

2
E
C
y
2
< 0

x
2
=
q N
A
eff

Si
N
A
eff
< N
A
V
T
< V
T
(longchannel)
explains V
T
roll-off
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 16
2D potential contours
p-Si
x
x
E
E
C
E
V
E
F

S
= 1V
= 1.0
= 0.2
= 0.3
= 0.4
= 0.1
= 0
= 0.5
= 0V
E(x)
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 17
2D potential contours
p-Si
n+
= V
bi
= 0
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 18
2D potential contours (long channel)
p-Si
n+
n+
x
y
like 1D MOS capacitor
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 19
2D potential contours (short channel)
p-Si
n+
n+
= V
bi
= V
bi
= 0
(See Fig. 3.18 of Taur and Ning)
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 20
field lines
p-Si
n+
n+
= V
bi
= V
bi
= 0
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 21
field lines (bulk)
p-Si
n+
n+
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 22
field lines (SOI)
p-Si
n+
n+
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 23
field lines (SOI)
n+
n+
gate all around
FINFET
tri-gate
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 24
outline
1) Consequences of 2D electrostatics
2) 2D Poisson equation
3) Charge sharing model
4) Barrier lowering
5) 2D capacitor model
6) Geometric screening length
7) Discussion
8) Summary
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 25
charge sharing model
p-Si
n+
n+
x
y
+ + + + + +
Q
D
= W LW
DM
( )
qN
A
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 26
charge sharing model (ii)
p-Si
n+
n+
x
y
+ + + + + +
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 27
charge sharing model (ii)
p-Si
n+
n+
x
y
+ + + + + +
Q
D
= W
L + L
2

W
DM
qN
A
L
L
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 28
S/D extensions
charge sharing model (iii)
V
T
= V
FB
+ 2
B

Q
D
C
OX
< V
T
long channel ( )
=
L + L
2L
= 1
x
j
L
1+
2W
DM
x
j
1

x
j
<< L
W
DM
<< x
j
for ~ 1, need:
p-Si
n+
n+ (prob. 3.6, Taur and Ning)
increase channel doping
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 29
outline
1) Consequences of 2D electrostatics
2) 2D Poisson equation
3) Charge sharing model
4) Barrier lowering
5) 2D capacitor model
6) Geometric screening length
7) Discussion
8) Summary
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 30
barrier lowering
E
C
(y)
y
lowV
DS
highV
DS
q V
bi

S
( )
drain depletion
layer expands
gate controls
barrier height I
D
~e
E
B
/k
b
T
current
does not
change
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 31
barrier lowering (ii)
logI
D
V
GS
e
V
GS
V
T
( )
/mk
B
T
V
DS
= 1.1V
V
DS
= 0.05V
no DIBL
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 32
barrier lowering (iii)
E
C
(y)
y
lowV
DS
highV
DS
q V
bi

S
( )
E
B
I
D
~e
E
B
/k
b
T
I
D
= e
E
B
/k
b
T
drain-induced
barrier lowering
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 33
barrier lowering (iv)
logI
D
V
GS
V
DS
= 1.1V
V
DS
= 0.05V
I
D
= e
E
B
/k
b
T
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 34
punchthrough
E
C
(y)
y
lowV
DS
highV
DS
q V
bi

S
( )
I
D
~e
E
B
/k
b
T
decreasing N
A
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 35
punchthrough (ii)
E
C
(y)
y
lowV
DS
q V
bi

S
( )
I
D
~e
E
B
/k
b
T
increasing V
DS
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 36
punchthrough (iii)
p-Si
n+
n+
surface punchthrough
bulk punchthrough
p-Si
n+
n+
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 37
punchthrough (iv)
logI
D
e
V
GS
V
T
( )
/mk
B
T
V
GS
V
DS
= 0.05V
V
DS
= 1.1V
I
D
V
DS
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 38
outline
1) Consequences of 2D electrostatics
2) 2D Poisson equation
3) Charge sharing model
4) Barrier lowering
5) 2D capacitor model
6) Geometric screening length
7) Discussion
8) Summary
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 39
2D capacitor model
y

S
C
DB
C
SB
C
GB
E
C
C
D
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 40
2D capacitor model (V = 0)

S
C
DB
C
SB
C
D
+ C
GB
Q

S
=
Q
C

= C
GB
+ C
SB
+ C
DB
+ C
D
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 41
2D capacitor model (Q = 0)

S
C
DB
C
SB
C
D

S
=
C
GB
C

V
G
V
S
= V
D
= 0
C
GB
V
G
V
D
V
S

S
C
SB
+ C
DB
+ C
D
V
G
C
GB
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 42
2D capacitor model (general solution)

S
=
C
GB
C

V
G
+
C
SB
C

V
S
+
C
DB
C

V
D
+
Q
C

recall:
V
G
=
S

Q
C
ox
C

= C
GB
+ C
SB
+ C
DB
+ C
D
C
GB
= C
ox
WL
C
D
= depletion layer capacitance
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 43
2D capacitor model (V
S
= Q = 0)

S
=
C
GB
C

V
G
+
C
DB
C

V
D

S
V
G
=
C
GB
C

S
V
D
=
C
DB
C

S
V
G
>>

S
V
D
C
GB
>> C
DB
need t
ox
<< L
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 44
2D capacitor model
I
D
e
q
S
/k
B
T
= e
qV
GS
mk
B
T
m = C

C
GB
m = C
GB
+ C
DB
+ C
D
( )
C
GB
= 1+ C
DB
+ C
D
( )
/ C
GB

2D electrostatics: C
DB
not
negligible S increases.

S
=
C
GB
C

V
G
+
C
DB
C

V
D
V
S
= Q = 0 C

= C
DB
+ C
D
( )
DIBL = C
DB
C
GB
S = 2.3m k
B
T q
( )
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 45
outline
1) Consequences of 2D electrostatics
2) 2D Poisson equation
3) Charge sharing model
4) Barrier lowering
5) 2D capacitor model
6) Geometric screening length
7) Discussion
8) Summary
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 46
screening by free carriers
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
r
(r)
(r) =
q
4
Si
r
e
r /L
D
L
D
=

Si
k
B
T
q
2
N
D
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 47
geometric screening
p-Si
n+
n+
x
y

x
2
+

2

y
2
=
qN
A

Si
(belowV
T
)
convert this to a 1D equation
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 48
recall 1D
E
C
E
V
x
E
x

S
V
G

x
2
=
qN
A

Si

x
2

V
G

S
( )

2
= ?
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 49
geometric screening length

x
2
=
qN
A

Si
we will write this as:
in 1D:
(1)

x
2

V
G

S
( )

2
=
qN
A

Si
(2)
the solution to the 1D Poisson equation gives:
V
G
=
S
Q
S
C
ox
=
S
+ qN
A
W
DM
C
ox
(3)
use (3) in (2) to find
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 50
geometric screening length (ii)
=

Si

OX
W
DM
t
OX

y
2
+
V
G

S
( )

2
=
qN
A

Si

y
2
<<

2

y
2
when
we get the correct 1D result
How do we interpret ?
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 51
geometric screening length (iii)

y
2
+
V
G

S
( )

2
=
qN
A

Si
d
2

dy
2

2
= 0
=
S
V
G
+
qN
A

Si

2
= 0 ( ) = L ( )
source drain
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 52
geometric screening length (iv)
(0)
(L)
(y) = Acosh(y / )+ Bsinh(y / )

2
>
1
L >> (longchannel)
L 1.5 2 ( ) (typical)
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 53
analytical solutions
V
T
8 m1 ( ) V
bi
V
bi
+V
DS
( )
e
L/
= 2mW
DM

x
j
W
DM
S
2.3mk
B
T
q
1+
11t
ox
W
DM
e
L/

See Taur and Ning, Appendix 6


Lundstrom EE-612 F08 54
geometric screeing length vs. device geometry

BULK


Si

OX
W
DM
t
OX

SOI


Si

OX
t
Si
t
OX
<
BULK

DG SOI


Si
2
OX
t
Si
t
OX
<
SOI

CYL
<
DG SOI
see:
D.J . Frank, Y. Taur, and H.S.P. Wong,
Generalized scale length for 2D Effects in
MOSFETs,IEEE EDL, 19, p. 385, 1998.
L 1.5 2 ( ) (typical)
The objective in
MOSFET design is
to make L >
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 55
outline
1) Consequences of 2D electrostatics
2) 2D Poisson equation
3) Charge sharing model
4) Barrier lowering
5) 2D capacitor model
6) Geometric screening length
7) Discussion
8) Summary
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 56
controlling 2D electrostatics
halos
p-Si
n+
n+
1) t
ox
<< L
2) shallow x
j
3) thin W
DM
4) non-uniform doping
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 57
reverse short channel effect
V
T
L
V
T
roll-off
reverse short
channel effect
halos
p-Si
n+
n+
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 58
double gate transistors

DG SOI
<
BULK
channel length scaling
L >>
geometric screening length

<< L
nanoMOS simulations by Himadri
Pal and Raseong Kim (Purdue)
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 59
nonplanar MOSFETS
J . Kavalieros, B. Doyle, S. Datta, G. Dewey, M. Doczy, B. J in, D. Lionberger, M. Metz, W.
Rachmady, M. Radosavljevic, U. Shah, N. Zelick, and R. Chau. Tri-Gate Transistor
Architecture with High-k Gate Dielectrics, Metal Gates, and Strain Engineering,VLSI
Technology Digest, J une 2006, pp. 62-63.
Intel Tri-Gate
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 60
nanowire transistors
coaxial gate
n
+
n
+
p
t
ins
L

CYL
t
wire
<
DG SOI
<
BULK
C. P. Auth and J .D. Plummer, Scaling Theory for Cylindrical, Full-Depleted,
Surrounding Gate MOSFETs,IEEE EDL, 18, p. 74, 1997.
channel length scaling
L >>
drain
source
geometric screening length

Lundstrom EE-612 F08 61


outline
1) Consequences of 2D electrostatics
2) 2D Poisson equation
3) Charge sharing model
4) Barrier lowering
5) 2D capacitor model
6) Geometric screening length
7) Discussion
8) Summary
Lundstrom EE-612 F08 62
summary
1) 2D electrostatics is a critical issue in device scaling
2) Understanding 2D electrostatics is essential for
transistor designers