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: .. , - .-. , .
.. , . .-. , .
.. : ; . . - . .. .
, 2008. 30 .
,
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22.311

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.. 2008 .

1. .
G .
G, (x, y, z)

, (q1, q2, q3)
Q ,

(q1, q2, q3) ,
(q1, q2, q3)
Q G.
,
(q1, q2, q3). (x, y, z)
q1, q2, q3

x = x(q1, q2, q3),


y = y(q1, q2, q3),
z = z (q1, q2, q3).

(1.1)

G
G
G G
r = i x + j y + k z,

(1.2)

(1.1)
G G
r = r (q1, q2, q3).
, (1.3)
:

(1.3)
,

x
q1
( x, y, z )
x
=
( q1 , q 2 , q 3 ) q 2
x
q3

y
q1
y
q2
y
q3

z
q1
z
0.
q2
z
q3

(1.4)


qi = qi (x, y, z), (i = 1, 2, 3).
(q1 , q2 , q3 )
, (1.1) (1.3)
.
(1.3) -
, , q2 q3 , q1
, ,
q1-.
q2 q3-.
,
. ,

,
.
.
q2 q3 , .. q2 = q20 q3 = q30 .

G G
r = r (q1 , q20 , q30 )

(1.5)
G
r

q1,
q1

G
r1 q1- (. 2).
,

G
G
r
rj =
,
q j ( j = 1, 2, 3).
G
, rj

G x y z
,
,
.
rj =
q q q
j
j
j

(1.6)

(1.7)

.2.

G G G
, r1, r2 , r3 , ..

(rGi , rGj ) = 0,

i j

(1.8)

x x y y z z
+
+
= 0.
q i q j q i q j qi q j

(1.9)

G
Hi ri
x
G
H i = ri =
qi

y
+
qi

z
+
qi

(1.10)

Hi .

G
G
ri
G
1 r
=
ei =
, (i = 1, 2, 3).
H i H i qi

(1.11)


, .
,
dl2
dl2 = dx2+ dy2+ dz2.

(1.12)

(1.1)
dx =

x
x
x
dq 1 +
dq 2 +
dq 3 ,
q3
q1
q2

dy =

y
y
y
dq 1 +
dq 2 +
dq 3 ,
q1
q2
q3

dz =

z
z
z
dq 1 +
dq 2 +
dq 3 .
q1
q2
q3

(1.13)

(1.12)
(1.9), ,
dl 2 = H12 dq12 + H2 2 dq2 2 + H32 dq32 .

(1.14)

,

dli = Hi dqi .

(1.15)

, d ij , i- j- ,
dV
d ij = Hi H j dqi dq j ,
dV = H1 H2 H3dq1dq2 dq3 .

(1.16)
(1.17)

2.
G
(M).
, G
G
P ,
G
P = grad .

(2.1)


G , P
:
Px =

, Py =
, Pz =
.
x
y
z

(2.2)


G
, P .
,

(grad , eGi ) ,

(i = 1, 2, 3) .

(2.3)

G
ei
,

G
(1.11). P

G
1
(grad , rGi ) =
Pi = ( grad , ei ) =
Hi
=

1 x
1
y
z
.
+
+

=
y qi
z qi
H i x qi
H i qi

(2.4)

,
3

grad =
i =1

1 G
ei .
i qi

(2.5)

, ,
,
, , ,
G
Hi ei .
3.

,
, V,
M0:
G
G G

1
(
.
divP (M 0 ) =
P
, n )d =
V
V

(3.1)

G
P

M0.
V
.3.

,
(.3). V
(1.7)
V = H1 H2 H3q1q2 q3 .

(3.2)

, G
q1 . n1 ,
G
G
n2 . P
,

231 = Pn1 (q1 + q1 )H2 (q1 + q1 )H3 (q1 + q1 )q2 q3 ,

(3.3)


2
23
= Pn2 (q1 ) H2 (q1 ) H3 (q1 ) q2 q3 .

(3.4)

23

1
2
23 = 23
+ 23
= Pn1 H2 H3 q

1 + q1

+ Pn2 H2 H3 q q2 q3 .
1

Pn2 (q1 ) = Pn1 (q1 ),

23

23 = Pn1 H 2 H 3 q

1 + q1

(3.5)

Pn1 H 2 H 3 q q2 q3 .
1

(3.6)


df d 2 f d 3 f
f =
+
+
+...
1!
2!
3!

(3.7)

,
23 =

( P1 H2 H3 ) q1q2 q3 ,
q1

(3.8)

P1 = Pn1 . ,
13 =

12 =

( P2 H1 H3 ) q1q2 q3 ,
q2

( P3 H1 H2 ) q1q2 q3 .
q3

(3.9)

(3.10)



= 23 + 13 + 12 =

= ( P1 H2 H3 ) +
( P2 H1 H3 ) +
( P3 H1 H2 ) q1q2 q3 .
q2
q3
q1

10

V,
, (3.1)

G
divP =

1
H1 H 2 H 3

H1 H 2 H 3

(
).
P

H
q
i =1
i
i
3

(3.11)

4.

, ,
,
, L,
G
n

G
1
rot n P ( M 0 ) =

G G
P
L dl = .

(4.1)

,
L qi
qj, ij = H i H j qi q j . L,
,
G G
= dl = Pl l.
L

(4.2)

11

G,
,
0
(. 13).
q1-.
(4.1)
.4.

G ABCD
rot q1 P =
.
23

(4.3)

23 (1.16)
23 = H2 H3q2 q3 .

(4.4)

ABCD . ,
ABCD = Pdl
= P2 dl2 + P3dl3 + P2 dl2 + P3dl3 .
l
ABCD

AB

BC

CD

(4.5)

DA

G
li = Hi qi , P q1 = const ,
:
AB = P2 dl2 = P2 (q3 ) H2 (q3 )q2 ,
AB

BC = P3dl3 = P3 (q2 + q2 ) H3 (q2 + q2 )q3 ,


BC

CD = P2 dl2 = P2 (q3 + q3 ) H2 (q3 + q3 )q2 ,


CD

DA = P3dl3 = P3 (q2 ) H3 (q2 )q3 .


DA

12

(4.5)
,
( P H ) ( P2 H2 )
ABCD = 3 3
q2 q3 .
q
q

2
3

(4.6)

ABCD 23 (4.3),

G
rot q1 P =

1 ( P3 H 3 ) ( P2 H 2 )

.
H 2 H 3 q2
q3

(4.7)

,
G
rot q2 P =

1 ( P1H 1 ) ( P3 H 3 )

,
H 3 H 1 q3
q1

(4.8)

G
rot q3 P =

1 ( P2 H 2 ) ( P1H 1 )

.
H 1H 2 q1
q2

(4.9)



G
rotP =

1
H2H3

( P3 H 3 ) ( P2 H 2 ) G

e1 +

q
q
2
3

1 ( P1 H 1 ) ( P3 H 3 ) G
1

e2 +
q1
H 3 H 1 q3
H1H 2

(4.10)

( P2 H 2 ) ( P1 H 1 ) G

q
e3 .

q
1
2

13

5.

= div grad.

(5.1)

(3.11)
Pi =

1
,
H i qi

(5.2)

H 1 H 2 H 3

H 2 q .
i
i

(5.3)

1
=
H1H 2 H 3

i =1 q i
3

,

1
=
H1H 2 H 3

14

i =1 q i
3

H1H 2 H 3

H 2 q .
i
i

(5.4)

6. .
, ,


:
x = r cos ,

y = r sin

z = z , r = x 2 + y 2 , tg = y

(0 r , 0 2 , z ).

(6.1)

(1.10), (1.14), (1.16) (1.17)


H r = 1, H = r , H z = 1,
dl 2 = dr 2 + r 2 d 2 + dz 2 ,
d r = rddz , d = drdz , d z = rdrd , dV = rdrddz

(1.11)

G
G
G
er = i cos + j sin ,
G
G
G
e = i sin + j cos ,
G
G
ez = k .

(6.3)


G G
G
i = er cos e sin ,
G G
G
j = er sin + e cos ,
G G
k = ez .

(6.4)

15

(2.5), (3.11), (4.7-4.9) (5.3),


, ,
:
grad r =

,
r

grad =

1
,
r

grad z =

,
z

G 1 (rPr ) 1 P Pz
divP =
,
+
+
r r
r
z
G 1 Pz P
G P P
G 1 (r P ) Pr
rot r P =
, rot P = r z , rot z P =

,
r
r r
z
r

z

r
1
1 2 2

2
.
=
+ 2
+
r
r 2 z 2
r

7. .
, ,


:
x = r sin cos , y = r sin sin , z = r cos
(0 r , 0 , 0 2 ).

(7.1)

(1.10), (1.14), (1.16) (1.17)


H r = 1,

H = r ,

H = r sin ,

d l 2 = dr 2 + r 2 d 2 + r 2 sin 2 d 2 ,
d r = r 2 sin d d , d = r sin dr d , d = r dr d
dV = r 2 sin dr d d .

16

(7.2)


G
G
G G
er = i sin cos + j sin sin + k cos ,
G
G
G
G
e = i cos cos + j cos sin k sin ,
G
G
G
e = i sin + j cos .

(7.3)


grad r =

1
1
, grad =
, grad =
.
r
r
r sin

(7.4)

G 1 r 2 Pr
1 (P sin )
1 P
divP = 2
+
+
.
r sin
r sin
r

(7.5)


1 (P sin ) P

r sin
G 1 1 Pr (rP )

rot P =
,
r
r sin
G 1 (rP ) Pr

.
rot P =

r r
G
rot r P =

(7.6)

17

2
r
r
1
2 = 2
r
r

sin

+ 1

sin

1 2
= .
sin 2 2

(7.7)

8.

.
, , -


G G G
G
r ( t ) = ix + jy + kz =
G
G
G
= i r sin cos + j r sin sin + k r cos .
G

( t ) :

G
G
G
G G
( t ) = r = i r sin cos + i r cos cos i r sin sin +
G
G
G
+ j r sin sin + j r cos sin + i r sin cos +
G
G
G
G
G
 r + re + r sin e .
+ k rcos k  r sin = re

(7.9)

(7.10)

,
,
:

18

G
G
G
G
G
G


er = i cos cos + j cos sin k sin + sin ( i sin + j cos ) =
G
G
= e +  sin e ,

G
G
G
G
G
G
e =  i sin cos + j sin sin + k cos +  cos ( i sin + j cos ) =
G
G
= er +  cos e ,

G
G
G
G
G
e =  ( i cos + j sin ) =  sin er  cos e .
G
G
G G
sin er = i sin 2 cos + j sin 2 sin + k cos sin
G
G
i
j sin
+
=

+
cos
G
G
G G
2
2
cos e = i cos cos + j cos sin k cos sin

. , ,
.

19

G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
 r + re + re + re + r sin e + r sin e
a = 
rer + re
G
G
  cos e + r sin e .
+ r

,

ar = 
r r  2 +  2 sin 2 ,
1 d 2
a = 2r + r r 2 sin cos =
r r 2 sin cos ,
r dt
(7.11)
1 d 2
  cos + r sin =
a = 2r sin + 2r
r  sin 2 ) .
(
r sin dt

( )

20

21

22

23

24

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