Corrective Maintenance
5
INTRODUCTION
Although every effort is made to make engineering systems as reliable as possible
through design, preventive maintenance, and so on, from time to time they do fail.
Consequently, they are repaired to their operational state. Thus, repair or corrective
maintenance is an important component of maintenance activity. Corrective mainte
nance may be defined as the remedial action carried out due to failure or deficiencies
discovered during preventive maintenance, to repair an equipment/item to its opera
1–3
tional state.
Usually, corrective maintenance is an unscheduled maintenance action, basically
composed of unpredictable maintenance needs that cannot be preplanned or pro
grammed on the basis of occurrence at a particular time. The action requires urgent
attention that must be added, integrated with, or substituted for previously scheduled
work items. This incorporates compliance with “prompt action” field changes, rec
tification of deficiencies found during equipment/item operation, and performance of
repair actions due to incidents or accidents.
A substantial part of overall maintenance effort is devoted to corrective main
tenance, and over the years many individuals have contributed to the area of cor
rective maintenance. This chapter presents some important aspects of corrective
maintenance.
Corrective
maintenance
types
Servicing Rebuild
• Preparation time
• Fault location time
• Spare item obtainment time
• Fault correction time
• Adjustment and calibration time
• Checkout time
∑ λ j T cm j
T mcm = 
 (5.1)
∑λ j
where
Tmcm = mean corrective maintenance time,
Tcm j = corrective maintenance time of the jth equipment/system element,
λj = failure rate of the jth equipment/system element.
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distributed corrective maintenance times is given by
∑ λ j log Tcm j
T med = antilog 
 (5.2)
∑λ j
where
Tmed = median active corrective maintenance time.
where
Tcmax = maximum active corrective maintenance time,
Τmn = mean of the logarithms of Tcm j,
σcm = standard deviation of the logarithms of the sample corrective maintenance
times,
z = standard deviation value corresponding to the percentile value specified
for Tcmax.
j=1 j=1
σ cm =  (5.4)
M–1
where
M = total number of corrective maintenance times.
CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE
MATHEMATICAL MODELS
Over the years a vast amount of literature has been published that directly or indirectly
concerns corrective maintenance. This section presents a number of mathematical
models taken from the published literature. These models take into consideration the
item failure and corrective maintenance rates, and can be used to predict item/system
probability of being in failed state (i.e., undergoing repair), availability, mean time
to failure, and so on.
MODEL I
This mathematical model represents a system that can either be in up (operating) or
8
down (failed) state. Corrective maintenance is performed on the failed system to put
it back into its operating state. The system state space diagram is shown in Fig. 5.3.
Equations for the model are subject to the following assumptions:
The following symbols are used to develop equations for the model:
Using the Markov approach presented in Chapter 12, we write the following two
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equations for the Fig. 5.3 diagram:
dP 0 ( t )
 + λP 0 ( t ) = µ C P 1 ( t ) (5.5)
dt
dP 1 ( t )
 + µ C P 1 ( t ) = λP 0 ( t ) (5.6)
dt
µC λ − ( λ + µ C )t
P 0 ( t ) =  + e (5.7)
λ + µC λ + µC
µ λ − ( λ + µ C )t
P 1 ( t ) =  – e (5.8)
λ + µC λ + µC
where
AS = system steady state availability.
Since λ = 1 MTTF and µC = 1 Tmcm, Eq. (5.10) becomes
MTTF
A S =  (5.11)
T mcm + MTTF
where
MTTF = mean time to failure.
Example 5.1
Assume the MTTF of a piece of equipment is 3000 h and its mean corrective
maintenance time is 5 h. Calculate the equipment steadystate availability, if the
equipment failure and corrective maintenance times are exponentially distributed.
Substituting the given values into Eq. (5.11) yields
3000
A S =  = 0.9983
5 + 3000
There is 99.83% chance that the equipment will be available for service.
MODEL II
This mathematical model represents a system that can either be operating normally
or failed in two mutually exclusive failure modes (i.e., failure modes I and II). A
typical example of this type of system or device is a fluid flow valve (i.e., open and
close failure modes). Corrective maintenance is performed from either failure mode
9–10
of the system to put it back into its operational state.
The system transition diagram is shown in Fig. 5.4. The following assumptions
are associated with this model:
For Model I, we write the following equations for the Fig. 5.4 diagram:
dP 0 ( t )
 + ( λ 1 + λ 2 )P 0 ( t ) = µ C1 P 1 ( t ) + µ C2 P 2 ( t ) (5.12)
dt
dP 1 ( t )
 + µ C1 P 1 ( t ) = λ 1 P 0 ( t ) (5.13)
dt
dP 2 ( t )
 + µ C2 P 2 ( t ) = λ 2 P 0 ( t )
 (5.14)
dt
µ C1 µ C2 ( m 1 + µ C1 ) ( m 1 + µ C2 ) m1 t ( m 2 + µ C1 ) ( m 2 + µ C2 ) m2 t
P 0 ( t ) = 
 + 
 e –  e
m1 m2 m1 ( m1 – m2 ) m2 ( m1 – m2 )
(5.15)
λ 1 µ C2 λ 1 m 1 + λ 1 µ C2 m1 t ( µ C1 + m 2 )λ 1 m2 t
P 1 ( t ) = 
 + 
 e –  e (5.16)
m1 m2 m1 ( m1 – m2 ) m2 ( m1 – m2 )
λ 2 µ C1 λ 2 m 1 + λ 2 µ C1 m1 t ( µ C1 + m 2 )λ 2 m2 t
P 2 ( t ) = 
 + 
 e –  e (5.17)
m1 m2 m1 ( m1 – m2 ) m2 ( m1 – m2 )
where
2 1/2
– A ± ( A – 4B )
m 1 , m 2 =  (5.18)
2
m 1 + m 2 = – ( µ C1 + µ C2 + λ 1 + λ 2 ) (5.22)
As time t becomes very large, from Eqs. (5.15) and (5.23), we get the following expres
sion for the system steady state availability:
µ C1 µ C2 µ C1 µ C2
A S = 
 = 
 (5.24)
m1 m2 µ C1 µ C2 + λ 1 µ C2 + λ 2 µ C1
Example 5.2
An engineering system can fail in two mutually exclusive failure modes. Failure
modes I and II constant failure rates are λ1 = 0.002 failures per hour and λ2 = 0.005
failures per hour, respectively. The constant corrective maintenance rates from failure
modes I and II are µC1 = 0.006 repairs per hour and µC2 = 0.009 repairs per hour,
respectively. Calculate the system steady state availability.
Inserting the specified values into Eq. (5.24) yields
0.006 × 0.009
A S = 
( 0.006 × 0.009 ) + ( 0.002 × 0.009 ) + ( 0.005 × 0.006 )
= 0.5294
Thus, the system steady state availability is 0.5294. There is approximately a 53%
chance that the system will be available for service when needed.
λ2
λ1 λ3
0 µC 1 1 µC 3 2
µC 2
MODEL III
This mathematical model represents a system that can either be operating normally,
operating in degradation mode, or failed completely. An example of this type of system
could be a power generator, i.e., producing electricity at full capacity, derated capacity,
or not at all. Corrective maintenance is initiated from degradation and completely
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failed modes of the system to repair failed parts. The system state space diagram is
shown in Fig. 5.5. The model is subject to the following assumptions:
For Models I and II, we write the following equations for the Fig. 5.5 diagram:
dP 0 ( t )
 + ( λ 1 + λ 2 )P 0 ( t ) = µ C1 P 1 ( t ) + µ C2 P 2 ( t ) (5.25)
dt
dP 1 ( t )
 + ( µ C1 + λ 3 )P 1 ( t ) = µ C3 P 2 ( t ) + λ 1 P 0 ( t ) (5.26)
dt
dP 2 ( t )
 + ( µ C2 + µ C3 )P 2 ( t ) = λ 3 P 1 ( t ) + λ 2 P 0 ( t ) (5.27)
dt
At time t = 0, P0 (0) = 1 and P1 (0) = P2 (0) = 0. By solving Eqs. (5.25)–(5.27), we get
( µ C1 µ C2 + λ 3 µ C2 + µ C1 µ C3 )
P 0 ( t ) = 

K 1K 2
2
µ C1 K 1 + µ C2 K 2 + µ C3 K 1 + K 1 λ 3 + K 1 + µ C1 µ C2 + λ 3 µ C2 + µ C1 µ C3 K 1 t
+ 
 e
Y
µ C1 µ C2 + λ 3 µ C2 + µ C1 µ C3
+ 1 – 

K 1K 2
µ C1 K 1 + µ C2 K 1 + µ C3 K 1 + K 1 λ 3 + K 2 + µ C1 µ C2 + λ 3 µ C2 + µ C1 µ C3 K 2 t
2
 e
– 
Y
(5.28)
where
Y = K1(K1 − K2 ).
λ 1 µ C2 + λ 1 µ C3 + λ 2 µ C3 K 1 λ 1 + λ 1 µ C2 + λ 1 µ C3 + λ 2 µ C3 K 1 t
P 1 ( t ) = 
 + 
 e
K 1K 2 Y
λ 1 µ C2 + λ 1 µ C3 + λ 2 µ C3 K 1 λ 1 + λ 1 µ C2 + λ 1 µ C3 + λ 2 µ C3 K 2 t (5.29)
 +  e
– 
K 1K 2 Y
λ 1 λ 3 + µ C1 λ 2 + λ 2 λ 3 K 1 λ 2 + λ 1 λ 3 + λ 2 µ C1 + λ 2 λ 3 K 1 t
P 2 ( t ) = 
 + 
 e
K 1K 2 Y
λ 1 λ 3 + µ C1 λ 2 + λ 2 λ 3 λ 2 K 1 + λ 1 λ 3 + µ C1 λ 2 + λ 2 λ 3 K 2 t
 +  e
–  (5.30)
K 1K 2 Y
where
2 1/2
– D ± ( D – 4F )
K 1 ,K 2 =  (5.31)
2
D = µ C1 + µ C2 + µ C3 + λ 1 + λ 2 + λ 3 (5.32)
F = K 1 K 2 = µ C1 µ C2 + λ 3 µ C2 + µ C1 µ C3 + µ C2 λ 1 + λ 1 µ C3
+ λ 1 λ 3 + µ C1 λ 2 + λ 2 µ C3 + λ 2 λ 3 (5.33)
A Sf/p ( t ) = P 0 ( t ) + P 1 ( t ) (5.34)
where
A Sf/p = system full/partial steadystate availability.
µ C1 µ C2 + λ 3 µ C2 + µ C1 µ C3
A Sf = P 0 = 
 (5.36)
K 1K 2
Example 5.3
Assume that in Eq. (5.36), we have λ1 = 0.002 failures per hour, λ2 = 0.003 failures
per hour, λ3 = 0.001 failures per hour, µC1 = 0.006 repairs per hour, µC2 = 0.004
repairs per hour, and µC3 = 0.008 repairs per hour. Calculate the value of the system
full steadystate availability.
Inserting the specified data values into Eq. (5.33) yields
Using the above calculated value and the given data in Eq. (5.36) we get ASf = 0.5170.
There is approximately 52% chance that the system will be available for full service.
MODEL IV
This mathematical model represents a two identicalunit redundant (parallel) system.
At least one unit must operate normally for system success. Corrective maintenance
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to put it back into its operating state begins as soon as any one of the units fails.
The system state space diagram is shown in Fig. 5.6.
The following assumptions are associated with the model:
µCm
Both units One unit failed, Both units failed
operating other operating (system failed)
normally normally λ
(system up) (system up)
2λ
0 1 2
i = the ith system state, i = 0 (both units operating normally), i = 1 (one unit
failed, other operating), i = 2 (both units failed),
Pi (t) = probability that the system is in state i at time t, for i = 0, 1, 2,
λ = unit failure rate,
µCm = unit corrective maintenance rate.
For Models I, II, and III we write the following equations for the Fig. 5.6 transition
diagram:
dP 0 ( t )
 + 2λP 0 ( t ) = µ Cm P 1 ( t ) (5.37)
dt
dP 1 ( t )
 + ( µ Cm + λ )P 1 ( t ) = 2λP 0 ( t ) (5.38)
dt
dP 2 ( t )
 = λP 1 ( t ) (5.39)
dt
λ+µ+C C t λ+µ+C C t
P 0 ( t ) = 1 e 1 – 1 e 2 (5.40)
C1 – C2 C1 – C2
2λ C t 2λ C t
P 1 ( t ) =  e 1 –  e 2 (5.41)
C1 – C2 C1 – C2
C2 C t C1 C t
P 2 ( t ) = 1 + 
 e 1 – 
 e 2 (5.42)
C1 – C2 C1 – C2
where
2 2 1/2
[ – ( 3λ + µ ) ± ( 3λ + µ ) – 8λ ]
C 1 , C 2 =  (5.43)
2
2
C 1 C 2 = 2λ (5.44)
C 1 + C 2 = – ( 3λ + µ ) (5.45)
RS ( t ) = P0 ( t ) + P1 ( t ) (5.46)
where
RS (t) = redundant system reliability at time t.
∞
3λ + µ Cm
MTTF S = ∫ RS ( t ) dt = 
2λ
2
 (5.47)
0
MTTF
MTTF S = u ( 3MCMT + MTTF u ) (5.48)
2MCMT
where
MTTFu = unit mean time to failure,
MCMT = unit mean corrective maintenance time.
Example 5.4
150
MTTF S =  ( 3 × 5 + 150 ) = 2475 h
2×5
Setting µCm = 0 and substituting the given value into Eq. (5.47) yields
3
MTTF S =  = 225 h
2λ
K +1
m!λ
λ ( m−K )/m = K (5.49)
( m – K – 1 )!µ
where
λ(m−K)/m = system approximate effective failure rate. In this system at least (m − K)
units must work normally for the system success,
λ = unit failure rate,
µ = unit corrective maintenance rate.
Example 5.5
A system is composed of three independent and identical units in parallel and at least
two units must operate normally for the system success. The unit failure rate is 0.0001
failures per hour. It takes an average of 2 h to repair (exponential distribution) a
failed unit to an active state. Calculate the system approximate effective failure rate
if the failed system is never repaired.
2 2
3!λ 6λ
λ ( 3−1 )/3 =  = 
1!µ µ
2
6 ( 0.0001 )
= 
0.5
–7
= 1.2 × 10 failures per hour
−7
The system effective failure rate is 1.2 × 10 failures per hour.
λ1 λ2 [ ( µ1 + µ2 ) + ( λ1 + λ2 ) ]
λ se =  (5.50)
µ1 µ2 + ( µ1 + µ2 ) ( λ1 + λ2 )
where
λse = two unit parallel system effective failure rate,
λi = unit i failure rate, for i = 1, 2,
µi = unit i corrective maintenance rate, for i = 1, 2.
Example 5.6
PROBLEMS
1. Define corrective maintenance.
2. Describe the following types of corrective maintenance:
• Overhaul
• Rebuild
• Servicing
3. Discuss sequential steps associated with corrective maintenance.
4. Define main components of active repair time.
5. Discuss at least four strategies for reducing the systemlevel corrective
maintenance time.
6. Define median corrective maintenance time.
7. Assume that exponential mean time to failure and mean corrective main
tenance time of a system are 2500 h and 4 h, respectively. Calculate the
system steadystate availability.
8. A system can fail in two mutually exclusive failure modes. Failure mode I
constant failure and corrective maintenance rates are 0.005 failures per
hour and 0.02 repairs per hour, respectively. Similarly, failure mode II
constant failure and corrective maintenance rates are 0.001 failures per
hour and 0.03 repairs per hour, respectively. Calculate the system steady
state availability.
9. A system is composed of two independent and identical units in parallel.
Although a failed unit is repaired immediately, the failed system is never
repaired. The unit times to failure and corrective maintenance times are
exponentially distributed. Thus, the unit mean time to failure and mean
corrective maintenance time are 200 h and 2 h, respectively. Calculate the
system mean time to failure.
10. Assume that a system is composed of two independent and identical units
in parallel and at least one unit must operate normally for system success.
The unit failure and repair rates are 0.002 failures per hour and 0.01 repairs
per hour, respectively. The failed system is never repaired. Calculate the
value of the system approximate effective failure rate.
REFERENCES
1. AMCP 706132, Engineering Design Handbook: Maintenance Engineering Tech
niques, Department of Defense, Washington, D.C., 1975.
2. Omdahl, T.P., Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) Dictionary, ASQC
Quality Press, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1988.
3. McKenna, T. and Oliverson, R., Glossary of Reliability and Maintenance Terms, Gulf
Publishing Company, Houston, Texas, 1997.
4. MICOM 7508, Maintenance of Supplies and Equipment, Department of Defense,
Washington, D.C., March 1972.
5. NAVORD OD 39223, Maintainability Engineering Handbook, Department of Defense,
Washington, D.C., June 1969.
6. Blanchard, B.S., Verma, D., and Peterson, E.L., Maintainability, John Wiley & Sons,
New York, 1995.
7. AMCP766133, Engineering Design Handbook: Maintainability Engineering The
ory and Practice, Department of Defense, Washington, D.C., 1976.
8. Dhillon, B.S., Design Reliability: Fundamentals and Application, CRC Press, Boca
Raton, Florida, 1999.
9. Dhillon, B.S. and Singh, C., Engineering Reliability: New Techniques and Applica
tions, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981.
10. Dhillon, B.S., Reliability Engineering in Systems Design and Operation, Van Nostrand
Reinhold Co., New York, 1983.
11. Shooman, M.L., Probabilistic Reliability: An Engineering Approach, McGrawHill,
New York, 1968.
12. RADC Reliability Engineer’s Toolkit, prepared by the Systems Reliability and Engi
neering Division, Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss Air Force Base, Rome,
New York, July 1988.
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