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-

,

140400

-

2007
1

536.24 : 621.184 (075.8)


31.373
342
:
, ,
. . ( ).
, ..
. : . /
.., . ., .., .. .: -
. -, 2007. . 93.
.
. , ,
.
.
,

140400 ,
550500 .

. 3. . 29. .: 8 .

-
- .

ISBN

-
, 2007



. ,
140400
550500 .

, .. 1976 .
,
. .
.
, , , ,
.
,
,
.
, ,
.

, ,
, ..
, ,
. .
.
3

1. -

.

:

q =

dT
= gradT ,
dn

(1.1)

q ( , ), [/(2 ) /2]; ,

. (), (2) (/) :

.
=
=
=
2
dT / dn

[] =

(1.1)
. ,
.
, . , , .

,
.

:
4

j = D

dC
= D gradC ,
dn

(1.2)
2

j [/( )]; 3

(/ ); D
, :

[ j]

2 .
/
=
=
[D] =
dC 2 3
dn
(1.2) .
, ,

.
D ,

.

( ), ,

. , .

:

j=D

dC
+ C ,
dn

.

, :

j1 =

C1 +C2 dC1 .
D
C2
dn

(1.3)

1 , 2
, . C1<<C2
( ) .
, :

j1 =

D p dp1 ,
RT p p1 dn
.

,

,
:

j1 =

D [ ln (1 ps / p )]
,
RT
h

(1.4)

ps ; h
(. 1.1).

R = 8,2105 (3)/() 2/, , , ,


[ j1 ] = /(2).




- .
6

, . :

d
.
dn

(1.5)

[] = /2.

,

[]

H/ 2
=
= 2 =
= .
[] =
[d / dn] /( ) ()
:

=
1
= 1 .
2
()

CGS

1 (1): 1 = 1
1
= 1 = 10.
()
2
1

[] = /2 = /(22) = //(2 )
, , ,
. , ,
.
- d/dn - (1.5),
,
.

1.
,
( ) 7

- .
,
= 100 / ,

R01 = 13 , F = 610 4 .
: R02 = 3 ,
h = 10 .
.
:
F
F
610 4
2
2
= =
= 3,18 10 / .
=

4
S 2 R02 h 6,28 3 10 10
:

= 2 R 02 n =

6,28 3 10 10

10

= 0,314 /.
60
, :

d
0,314
0
=
=
= 3,14 1/.
dn R01 R02
0,1
:

d 3,18 10 2
=
= 0,01 / 2 = 0,1.
= /
dn
3,14
2. -

R01= 10
= 2 , = 410 6 .
,
I = 100 . = 1 /.
.

:

q=

T
.


, , S :

I 2R
I 2R
=
q=
,
S 2R0l
l . ,
R
S:

R = l / S = l / R02 .

I 2l
I 2
q=
= 2 3,
2
2R0l R0 2 R0

T
I 2

=
.
2 2 R03

I 2 104 4 106 2 103


= 4 .
T =
=
2 3 1
22R3

2
10
10
0

( )

3.
. ( )
( ) R0 = 10 = 0,1 ,
1= 5 2 = 1 .
1 = 527 ,
D = 3107 2/.
, , 2 = 27 . .
.

9

: J = jS, j ,
:

j=D

dC .
dn

: C1 = p1/RT1; C2 = p2/RT1.
:
4
4
dC C2 C1 p2 p1
=
=
=
=
=
5
3
7

dn
RT1
8,2 10 800 0,1 10
65,6 10
5

= 6,1 10 / ;
:
j = 3 10 7 6,1 105 = 0,183 / 2 ;

J = jS = jR02 = 0,183 0,12 = 5,746 10 3 /.


,

J = 5,7461033600 = 20,686 /.
() :

RT 2
= 20,686 0,082 300 / 1 = 508,8 / .
Q=J
p
, Q = 8,48 /.
4. , (. . 1.1),
.
J = 0,1 /. : S1 = 1 2, S2 = l 2,

h = 10 . 20 ,
ps = 200 .
., SiCl4 D = 310 5 2/.
.
, , :

10

x=

j (SiCl 4 )

j (SiCl 4 )+ j(H 2 )

100 . %,

j 3/(2).
j(2) = J/S2.
(1.4) :

j (SiCl 4 ) =

D [ln(1 ps / p )] .
RT
h


/(2). , pV = nRT
RT/p. :

j (SiCl 4 ) =

D[ ln(1 ps / p )]
.
h

j (H 2 ) =
j (SiCl 4 ) =

0,1
1

3 10

( )

= 0,1/ 2 = 0,0167 / 2 ;

[ ln (1 200 / 760 )]

= 0,92 10

( )

/ 2 .
3

10
:

x=

0,92 10

100
= 0,547 . % .
4
0,0167 + 0,92 10

1.1.
, .

F = 6,2810 4 .
,
= 1000
/?
: h1 = 10 , R01 = 10 .
11

h2 = 10

R02 = 8 . 210 4 .
1.2.
. , , , , . ,
,
(. 1.2).
0.
,

0 = 30 , -

= 100 /().
.
1.3.
( R0= 1 , = 210 4 )
, ,
= 1 , = 0,02 /().

, = 1200
I = 100 .
1.4. 100 ( T0 = 20 )
: R0= 3 , h = 10 ,
= 5 .
t, ,

12

T = 100 C.
: T = 2700 , Q = 140 /,
= 0,13 /(K).
= 1,2 /().
1.5. , ,
, , (. 1.3). = 29,5 .

,

5 12 .
= 1,26 /(),
V = 10 ,

= 800 /3. = 0,1 /(). .


1.6. l = 300 R0 = 10 .
,
, ,
, 1,5
1 /.
= 100 /(). ,H2O = 4,2 /().
1.7. -
T = 327 6 1 .
, S = 0,2 , 0,002 /.
D = 10 9 2/.
1.8.
= 1 = 627
13

= 1 10
( 0 ) 2 . D
.
1.9. (MgO)
0 = 1 /.


( H2SO4

D = 210 9 2/).

5 , ,
. 1.4. = 2 .

= 3600 /3, = 40 /.
.
: = m/2S.
1.10. ,
, , 400 . :

B + 3/2 J2 = BJ3,
.
,
, = 200 . .,
D = 1,3105 2/.
2R0 = 3 ,

l = 10 .
127 / 11 /.
.
14

1.11. J ( /)

2 . % . . : S1 = 2 2,
h = 25 (. . 1.1). = 20 ,
ps =
= 440 . .,
D = 0,35 2/.
.
.
2.

. ,
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
,
t , , z :

x = x ( x, y, z, t );
y = y ( x, y, z, t );

(2.1)

z = z ( x, y , z , t ) .
.
(2.1)
,
t, , , , z, :

d x x
=
+ ( ) x ,
dt
t
z.
15


.
,
.
:

dx
dy
dz
=
=
.
x ( x, y , z , t ) y ( x, y , z , t ) z ( x, y , z , t )

(2.2)


.
S
:

Q = n dS = ndS = const .
s
s

:

1 d

lim

V 0 V

dt

(V ) =

x
x

y
y

z
z

= div

(2.3)

,
( = rot = 0 ), .
,
:

= grad

x =
, y =
, z =
.
x

(2.4)

( rot 0 )
,

dx
dy
dz
=
=
.
rot x rot y rot z

(2.5)

16

z y
rot x =
;

z
y
y x
rot z =
;

x
y
y x
rot z =
.

x
y

(2.6)

, ,
, . , , , .

.
:

i = rot ndS .
S


, :

= dr = x dx + y dy + z dz = rot ndS . (2.7)


L

1. :

x = y = z = at2,
a = 0,03 /2.
10
.
.
:

x =

x
= (0,03t 2 ) = 0,06t ; y = 0,06t z = 0,06t.
t t
17

= x2 + y2 + z2 =

(0,06t )2 + (0,06t )2 + (0,06t )2

= 0,0104 t .

, t =10 : = 0,104 /c.


2. C :

x =

Q
x
;

4 ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3 / 2

y =

Q
y
2 2 2 3/ 2 ;
4 ( x + y + z )

z =

Q
z
.

4 ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3 / 2

.
. Q .
.
(2.2)
, :

dy dx dz dx
= ;
= .
y
x z
x
, :

ln y = ln x + ln C1; ln z = ln x + ln C2,
y = C1x z = C2x.


, z, ,

.
. , (. 2.1).
,
18

. Q
.
. Q ,

.
Q = 4r .
3.
:
2

x = 22 + ; y = 2y2+z; z = 2z2+x.
= 2; = 3; z = 5 ().
.

(2.3) :

1 d

V ) = x + y + z =
(
V 0 V dt
x
y
z
lim

2 x + y ) + (2 y + z ) + (2 z + x ) = 4 x + 4 y + 4 z .
(
x
y
z

div A = 4 2 + 4 3 + 4 5 = 40 c 1 .
4. ,
,
:

x = 2 xy ; y = 2 yz ; z = 2 zx .
.
() :

rot x =

z y

= 0;
y
z

19

x z

= 0;
z
x
y x
rot z =

= 0.
x
y
rot x = 2 y , rot y = 2 z , rot z = 2 x , . .
rot y =

. , .
5. ,

= 2x 3 y ?
.

(2.4). :

x =

= (2 x 3) = 2 ; y =
= 3 ; z =
= 0.
x x
y
z

= x2 + 2y + z2 = 4 + 9 = 3,62 /.
6.
:

x = y + 2 ; y = z + 2x ; z = x + 2 y .
, .
.
, (2.6)
:

z y

= 2 1 = 1;
y
z

rot y = x z = 2 1 = 1 ;
z
x
y x

rot z =
= 2 1 = 1.
x
y

rot x =

20

[ (2.5)]
: dx = dy ; dz = dy .
:

x = y + C1 ; z = y + C2 .
7. ,
R = 0,3 ,
2,0 /.
.
(2.7)
, .

i = rot ndS = dr = cos dr dl = 2 cos 0 dl =


s

2 R

= 2dl = 4 R = 4 0,3 = 3,77 2/.


0

2.1. 20
,
:

x = 3 + 0,2t 3 ; y = 1,5 + 0,04 t 3 ;

z = 3,0 .

2.2. ,
: x = a cos t ; y = b sin t .
2.3.
:

x =

y
2

2 x + y

; y =

x
2

2 x + y

; z = 0.


.
. .
2.4. :

21

x =

Qx
2

2 x + y

; y =

Qy

2 x + y

; z = 0.


: x = 1; = 5 ().
. Q .
2.5.
,

: = 3 xy.
2.6.
: x =

2x

; y =

2y

.
2.7. :

x = x + 2; y = y + 3; z = z + 1.
.
2.8. :

x = 2; y = 2; z = z2.
.
2.9.
, : = 1; = 3 z = 4.
2.10. :

x = ax; y = by; z = 0.
.
2.11. :

x = a; y = b; z = c.
.
2.12.
:

x = 22 + 1; y =4 2 + 2; z = 6z2 + 3.

: = 3; = 2 z = 1.
22

2.13. :

x = x2 + y 2 ; y = y 2 + z 2; z = x2 + z 2.
.
2.14. ,
2

: = 2 + 4 .
2.15. = 5 = 8,
2

: = 4( ).
.
2.16. 2.6
.
2.17. :

x = C y 2 + z 2 ; y = z = 0.
.
2.18. :

x =

Cy
2

x +y

;y =
2

Cx
2

x +y

; z = 0.

, ?
2

2.19. : = + .
.
2.20. :

x = Cy; y = 0.

R.

3.

.
,
,
:

a)

2
2

+ gz +

p
= const ,

(3.1)
23

2
2

, a gz p/

, ;
)

2
2g

2
2g

+z+

p
= const ,

(3.2)

, z p/ []

, ( ) , . (3.2) , . . ,
;
)

2
+ z + p = const .
2

(3.3)

(3.3) :
, , .

( ),
:

Q = S11 = S 2 2 = ... = S n n = const ,

(3.4)

1, 2,, n

S1, S2, ..., Sn.


, ,

.
:

= 2 gH .

(3.5)

. .

24

Q = S 2 gH ,

(3.6)

S .

()

= 2 gH .

(3.7)

, :

1
,
1+

(3.8)

,
.
, ,
:

Sc d c2
=
=
,
S 0 d 02

(3.9)

Sc,, dc , a S0, d0
.
:

Q = * S 0 2 gH ,

(3.10)

, :

* = .

(3.11)

,
,
.
*

1. , . 3.1,
Q = 2,5 /, ( = 1 ). c .
25

.
(3.2) 2 2 3 3:

p
p2 32
22
+ z2 +
=
+ z3 + 3 .
2g
2g

, 3 = p = 1 ( -

), z2 = 0 ( )
2 = 3, (3.4), S2 = S3, :

p2 p
= z3 .

p2 = p + z3 = 9,81 10 4 + 0,3 9,81 103 = 10,1 10 4

H
2

= 1,03 .

(3.2) 1 1 3 3:

p
p1 32
+ z1 +
=
+ z3 + 3 .
2g
2g

12

, z1 = z3, p3 = p,

1 3

Q (3.4):

1 =

Q
Q
,3 = .
S1
S3

p1 p

26

32 12
2g

Q 2 S12
=
1 ;

2 gS12 S32

4
2 2
Q 4 d1
p1 =
p +

2 4
2 g d1 d 3

2,5 2 10 6 4 2 0,05
4
3

1 =

= 9,8110 + 9,8110

2
4
0
,
1

2 9,81 0,05

2
Q
p +
2
2 gS1

S2
1
2
S
3

1 =

1 =

= 8,83 10 4 H/ 2 = 0, 9 .
2. ( = 850 /3), -

, (. 3.2), d1 = 15 , d2 = 10 h = 15 .
.
.
(3.2) 1 1 2 2:

p
12
p1 22
+ z1 +
=
+ z2 + 2 ,
2g
2g

z1 = z2, 1 =

Q
Q
; 2 =
(. 1).
S1
S2

p1 p2 22 12
Q 2 S12
=
=
1 .
2 2

2g
2 gS1 S 2

1 1 2 2

27

h1 + p1 = h2 + h + p2 .

p1 p2
:



p1 p2
= (h2 h1 ) +
h = h
1 .

Q :

1
2 gh
2


= d1
2
4
S1
1
S2

Q = S1

= 0,0177


1
2 gh


=
4
d1
1
d2

13600
1
850

= 0,0183 3 / = 18,3 /.

2 9,81 0,015
4

1,5 1

3.
(d = 10 ).
, Q = 0,48 /.
.
.
(3.6)

Q = S0 2 gH .

H=

Q2
S02

2g

42 Q 2
2 4

d 2g

4 0,48
2

3,14 0,1 2 98,1

= 19,2 = 1,92 .

4. = 1,70
(d0 = 12 )
dc = 9,6 .
V = 10 t = 25 . *

, , .
28

.
*

(3.10) :
3
Q
V
10 10
=
=
= 0,615 .
=
S 0 2 gH td 02 2 gH 25 3,14 1,2 2 2 981 170

d 02
d c2
S c =
S0 =
, (3.9):
4
4
Sc d c2 9,6 2
=
=
=
= 0,64 .
S0 d 02 12 2
(3.8) (3.11)

0,615
= =
= 0,97
0,64

1
1
= 2 1 =
1 = 0,065 .
2

0,97

3.1. d1 = 10 d2 = 5 (. 3.3).
1 1 2 2 .

z1 = 0,8 z2 = 0,5 .
, .
3.2. h
,
(. 3.4), Q = 2,7 /; d1 = 5 ,

d2 = 2,5 , 1 = 0,08 .
.
3.3. (d = 150 )
,
h = 20 (. 3.5). = max ,
29

, = 0,84, ,
. .

3.4. d1 = 0,1
d2 = 0,05 (. 3.6).
, .
, ,
h = 1,0 .

3.5. ,
Q :
0 0, 1 1, 2 2 3 3, (. 3.7),

z0 = 4 , z1 = 2 , z2 = 0,5 , S0 = 1 2, S1 = 0,015 2, S2 = 0,04 2,


S3 = 0,02 2.
30

3.6.
(. 3.8) , H = 5 , d1 = 15 ,

d2 = 20 d3 = 10 . .

3.7. , , , 2,0 /,
d = 20 , 1 .
*

= 0,65. = 0,93 / .
3.8. ( Q) d = 2,26 , ,
H = 8 (. 3.9).

* = 0,61, .
3.9. , 1 2,
d = 0,l , 1
(. 3.10), , h1 = 2 ,

h2 = 1,5 , * = 0,61.

31

3.10. , ,

d2 = 0,2 ,
d1 = 0,1
(. 3.11). Q h1, h2 ,

H = 2 , * = 0,61.
3.11. ,
(d = 10 ), 3 ,
0,36 . .
.
* = 0,64.
3.12. (d = 10 )
H = 2 . ,
Q = 0,294 /.
= 0,065.
3.13.
d = 15 = 1
. ,
3

Q = 486 /, dc = 12 .
32

3.14.

H = 1,5 d = 12 .
, , 20 , , H = 1,0 d = 10 93 . = 0,065.
3.15. (Q = 0,25 /),
d1 = 10
, d2 = 15
(. 3.12). * = 0,62 .
: ) H1 H2 ; ) d2 2 , H1.


(. 3.13) . , :

dV = S 2 2 dt .
,
:

dV = S1dh .
, :

33

S 2 2 dt = S1dh .

:
.
:

dt =
: 2 =

2 gh ,

dt =

S1
dh .
S 2 2
S1 dh
.
S2 2 g h

S1 = f (h ) .

(S1 = onst ) . t,
1 2. :
t2

H2

H1

S1
=

dt

S2 2 g
t

t = t2 t1 =

t =

2 S1
S2 2 g

dh
.
h

H2
S1
2 h
,
H1
S2 2 g

H1 H 2 .

( 2 = 0) :

t=

2 S1
S2 2 g

H1 .

,
S1 h.

34

5.

d1 = 2 L = 20 (. 3.14)
d2 = 10 .
.
.
, S1,

, S1 = f (h ) .

,

,

x = 2 r 2 (h r )2 = 2 h(2r h ) .
,

S1 = Lx = 2 L h(2r h ) .


:
t

2L

S2 2 g

2r

dt =

h(2r h )
dh .
h

:
0
h(2r h )
dh = 2r hdh .
h
2r

I=

2r

:
0

I = 2r hd (2r h ) .
2r

I =

2
3

(2r h )3 / 2

0
2r

2
3

(2r )3 / 2 = 2 d13 / 2 .
3

35

t=

2L

d 22 / 4

3/ 2

2 3/ 2
16 Ld1
d1 =
.
2
3
2g
3d 2 2 g

, :

t=

16 20 2 2
3 0,01 20

= 2130c 0,6 .

3.16. R01 = 5
= 25 . t,
3

628

R02 = 5 . .
3.17. t,
2
R01 = 10 S2 = 31,4
. ,
.
3.18. t,
( R01 = 10 ,

= 20 ) R02 = 10 .
.
3.19.
, ,
. .

4.

:
.

,
,
36

.
, Re = d/
Re. Re
2300.

p 2
R0 R 2 .
4l

( ) l,

R0 .

:
2
l
,
p =
d 2

(4.1)

, .
.

64

= 64
.
Re
c d

Q=

p 4
R0 .
8l

Q pR02
= =
.
S
8l

y
= 5,75 lg + 5,5 .

(4.2)

37

( )

.
(4.2) ( ):

1
= 2 lg Re 0,8 .

(4.3)

(4.2) (4.3) Re.



:
1/ 7

y
= 8,57

0,3164
Re 0,25

(4.4)
5

Re 110 .
(4.3) (4.4)
, . . , .
:

1
2

(4.5)

2 lg + 1,74

Re > 560(d/).
, .

:

38

= 0,11
d

0,25

(4.6)

, (4.5).

1. 4 ,
d = 5 ,

= 1 /. -6

= 1,5710 /.
.
:

Re

d
1 0,05
=
=
= 3180 .
6

1,57 10

Re > Re ( 2300), .
2. , 2

= 0,059 / = 920 /
l = 15 d = 100 ,
Q = 25 /.
.

Re

3
Q d Q d
25 10 0,1 4
=
=
=
=
= 1472 .
2

S
S
0,059 3,14 10 3600

Re < Re (2300), . :

64

Re

64
1472

= 0,0434 .

(4.1)

39

2
l
l
Q2
l Q2
p =
= 2 2 =
=
2
d 2
d 2 S
d 2S
2

25 103
16
2

= 268H/ .
= 0,0434
3
2
4
0,1 0,92 10 3600 2 3,14 10
15

4.1. 10 ,
= 58710

/ , -

Q = 2 /. = 950 / .
4.2. ,
d = 80 , ( = 110 6 2/)
?
4.3. ,
( = 0,610

/)

( = l,l10 6 2/) d = 100 ?


4.4. d = 110 ,
, ,
2

Q = 5 /. = 0,064 / .
4.5. , d = 100
( = 1,5710

/)?
4.6.
, ,
(. 4.1).
( =
= 110

/), d

= 5 , l = 600 .
40

h = 250 . .
.
4.7. l = 500 d = 100

= 0,410

= 0,4 /.

/, = 1000 / .

,
.
4.8. ( d = 200

l = 24 000 ) , = 850 /3
4 2
= 1,310 /.
Q, 5
2
= 9,510 / .
. (4.4).

4.9. d = 300
, 2,6 / 0,016.

= 1,310 6 2/. , .
. (4.6).
4.10. 3

= 900 / = 1,510

/.
3

, = 880 /
2

= 1 / . ,
, ?

41

5.


:

T=

T2 T1
x + T1

, , (. 5.1).
, ,
:

T1 T2
,
/
1 2 = T
q=

, /
S = 1,0 2.
/ :

[ T1 T2 ]
2
= [ q ] = / / ,
. . /
,

,
, 1,0 /2. q,
, ,
:

q=

T1 Tn +1
,
n
i
i =1
i

(5.1)

i- :

Ti Ti +1 = q
42

i
.
i

(5.2)

,
(. 5.2),

1
2.

q, ,
,

q=

T,1 T,2
1 n i 1
+
+
1 i =1 i 2

, (5.3)

1/1 1/2 .

1
1 n i 1
+
+
1 i =1 i 2

, (19) :

q = (T,1 T,2 ) ,
[BT/(M2K)].

:

T1 T1 =

1
q,
1

T2 T2 =

1
q.
2

(5.4)

43


(. 5.3),
, :

= 1 +

T1 T2
R
ln
.
ln( R01 / R02 ) R01

q ,
.
.
Q*
, :

Q* = q1S1 = q2S2.

:

Q* =

T1 T2

1
ln( R02 / R01 )
2 L



, ,
()
q:

Q*
T1 T2
,
q =
=
1
L
ln( R02 / R01 )
2

1
ln( R02 / R01 ) .
2
:

44

q =

i =1

T1 Tn +1
1
ln( R0,i +1 / R0,i )
2 i

(5.5)

q, , :

q =

T1 2
, (5.6)
n
R0, i + 1
1
1
1
ln
+
+
2R011 i =1 2 i
R0, i
2R02 2

1
1

.
2 R011
2R02 2

K =

1
n

R0, i + 1

1
1
1
+
+
ln
2R011 i =1 2 i
R0, i
2R02 2

(5.6) :

q = (T,1 ,2 ) ,
[/()].
:

q ;
2 R011

1
q .
=
2R021

T1 T1 =
T2 T2

(5.7)

1. . -

: 1 = 400 , 1 = 1,4 /(),


: 2 = 200 , 2 = 0,58 /(). 45

1 = 900 3 = 90 .
q 2 .
.
q
(5.1) n = 2,0:

q=

T1 T3
900 90
2
=
= 1292 / .
1 2 400 10 3 200 10 3
+
+
1 2
1,2
0,5


(2) (5.2) i = 2,0:

T1 T2 =

1
q.
1

3
1
400.10

T2 = T1 q = 900
1292 = 530 .
1
1,2

2. Q [] [ = 0,8 /()] l = 5 , h = 4 =
= 510 , T1 = 18 ,
1 =
7,5 /(2), 2 = 30 ,
2 = 20 /(2).
1 2.
.
(5.3) = 1,
:

q=

46

T1 T2
18 ( 30 )
2
=
= 58,5 / .
1 1
3
1
510 10
1
+ +
+
1 2 7,5 +
0,8
20

, :

Q = qS = 58,554 = 1170 .

(5.4). ,

T1 = T1

T2 = T2

1
1

q = 18
58,5 = 10,4
7,5
1

1
1
q = 30 58,5 = 27,1 .
20
2

3. q (d1/d2 = 20/30 )
, =
= 17,4 /(),

1 = 600 , 2 = 450 .
.

(5.5) = 1:

q =

T1 T2

1
ln( R02 / R01 )
2

600 450

=
1

ln

15 10

= 40750 /.

2
10 10
4. 1
2 3,14 17,4

' d1/d2 = 300/330 , ,


1 = 90 .
2 = 15 . = 50 /(),
1 = 1000 /(2)
2= 12 /2.
.
.
1,0
(5.6) n = 1:

47

T1 2
q =
=
R02
1
1
1
ln
+
+
2R011 2 R01 2R02 2
90 ( 15 )

=
1
2 3,14 15 10

10

1
2 3,14 50

ln

16,5 10
1
+
2
2
12
15 10
2 3,14 16,5 10

= 652 /.
1 2
(5.7) (5.5) .
(5.7) ,

T1 = T1

1
1

q = 90
652 = 89,8 ,
2
3
2 R011
2 15 10
10

(5.5) :

T2 = T1

1
q ln( R02 / R01 ) = 89,8
2

2
16,5 10
o

ln
652 = 89,6 .

2
2 50
15 10
1

5.1.

= 390 ,
1 = 300 2 = 60 .

q = 178 /2.
5.2.

= 14
q = 25000 /2. = 50 /().
.
5.3.
= 300 ,
48

1 = 15 2 = 15 .
= 1,0 /().
5.4. q , [ = 250 , = 1,28 /()]. 1 = 1000 , 2 =
= 200 .
5.5. Q [] = 250 3 X 5 2,

T1 = 10 2 = 20 ,
= 1,16 BT/ ().
5.6. q

,
,

: ) = 40 /(); -

= 1,1 /(); ) = 0,11 /().


= 50 .
1 = 100 2 = 90 .
5.7. . 1 = 350 ,
2 = 250 . 1
2,

3 = 90 , 1 2 1 .

: = 1,4 /() = 0,58 /().
5.8. .
2 = 50 2 = 0,14 /(), 3 =
= 250 3 = 0,7 /().

,
49

, .
5.9. q
[1 =20 , 1 = 58 /()], [2 = 2 ,

2 = 1,16 /()].
250 , 100 .
.
5.10. 1 2
,
: 1 = 1000 ,
T2 = 200 ,
1 = 100 /(2) 2 =
= 5000 /(2).

= 50 /(K) = 12 .
5.11. 10 ,
x
= 1 [ = 0,08 /()],
= 2 [ = 0,8 /()]. 1 2
1, 2, 3 4.
10 q ( %).
5.12. q [/2] 510

= 0,8 /(),
50 = 0,08 /(). 1= 18 ,
1=7,5 /(2),
, 2 = 30 , 2= 20 /(2).
1 , 2 3 .
50

5.13.
d1/d2 = 32/42

= 14 /(). 2 = 580
1 = 450 .
q [BT/M].
5.14. [d2/d3 = 800/1300 , 2 =
= 1,10 / ()]
1 = 0,5 /().
1
3 ,

q = 2000 /, 1= 421 2 = 200 .


5.15. [d1 = 100 , d2 = 110 , 1 =
58 /(), 1 = 250 ]
[ = 50 , 2 = 0,07 /(), 3 = 0,14/()].
q [/] 3
. ,
. 4
50 .
5.16. . d = 245 .
: 1 = 100 , 2 = 20 , 3 = 30 , 1 = 0,03 /(),

2 = 0,06 /() 3 = 0,12 /().


250 ,
65 .
5.17. 1 140 , 2 = 20 3 = 40 . 1 = 55 /(),

2 = 0,037 /() 3 = 0,14 /().


51

T1 = 300 , T4 = 55 . 1 = 5 .
,
.
5.18. d1/ d2 = 44/51 ,
, 2 = 80 .
1 = 50 /(),
2 = 1,28 /().
T1 = 120 ,
T2 = 20 .
1 = 100 /(2) 2 =
= 10 /(2).
1 , .
5.19. 0,8
, , T1 = 280 T2 = 210 ,
1 = 81,5 /(2)

2 = 232,6 /(2). =
= 203,5 /(). ,
.
5.20. 1,0

d1/ d2 = 150/165 , 1 = 60 ,
T2 = 15
T1 = 90 . 1 =
= 50 /(), 2 = 0,15 /(), 2 = 8 /(2),
1= 1000 /(2).
.

52

6.

,
.
, , , ,
.
.

, , :

Eu = (Sh, Re, Fr),


(6.1)
2
e Eu = p/ () ; Sh = t/l ()
2
; Re = l/ () ; Fr = /gl
() .

, l
.
()
.

.

, , .
(6.1) :

Eu = (Re, Fr).

(6.2)
53


Re Fr, :

Re =

Fr =

l l
=

gl

2
gl

(6.3)

, , c
, .
, (6.3):

l l l lv
=
=
=
l l l l

3/ 2

, , .

, (6.3), ,
.

,
, ( ). :

Eu = f (Re).

(6.4)
,
,
. (6.4), , :

Eu =

= const .

Re,
54

, .

,
,
:

x y z

l l

= f , , , Bi, Fo, 1 , 2 ,..., n .


l0 l0
l0
l0 l0 l0

(6.5)

Bi = l0/ ,

( , );

Fo = at/l02 ,

; l1/l0, ,
, ,

/l0,... .
(6.5)

T T
T0 T

0 , .
(6.5)
:

= f , Bi, Fo .
l0

1. d =
= 200 , = 327 =
= 1 ( = 5,206 10

/, = 0,5685 / ) ,
55

, 1/4 ,
= 20

= 1,0 ( = 1,51110 5 2/, =

= 1,2045 / ).
:
) ,
=
= 10 /.
) ,
= 1,20 . .
.
, ,

:

Re =

d d
,
=

,
5
d
0,2 1,511 10
=
= 10
= 11,6 / .
5
d
0,05 5,206 10
:

Eu =

,
2

0,5685 10

p = = 1,2
= 0,42 . .

1,2045 11,6

2.
(d = 2R0 = 400 ) t = 2
.
= 38 /(), a = 9,110

/. 2

= 110 /( ).
56

, =

= 14,5 /(), = 4,810-6 2/.


2
= 150 /( ).
d t,
.
.
:

Bi =

R0 110 0,2
=
= 0,578 ;
38

Fo =

at
2
R0

9,1 10

2 3600

0,2

= 1,64 .

Bi = Bi :

d = 2 R0 = 2

14,5

Bi = 2
0,578 = 0,112 = 112 .
150

Fo = Fo :
2
R02
0,056
Fo =
1,64 = 1070 c .
t =
6
a
4,8 10

3. d
,
2 t = 10 .

, ,
0 = 0 = 20 ,
, = 1000 , , = 200 .
.
, t, Fo = Fo:

d = 2 R0

6
4,8 10 10 60
a t
=2
=2
= 0,084 .
1,64
Fo
57

Bi = Bi
:

14,5
Bi =
0,578 = 200/ 2 .
0,042
R0


: = ,

T T

T0 T

T =
=

T T
T0 T

T T0
T T0

(T T ) + T =

1000 20
(T 200) + 1000 = 5,44T 88 .
200 20

6.1. d1 = 300

1 = 4 / = 20 p = 1 , (1 = 1,51110 5 2/).
, 2

= 20 (2 = 1,010 6 2/) d2 = 100 , .


6.2. d = 400 ,
, 1/4 . 20 .
3

, Q 39,4 /
.

Q.
T = 20 , = 1,0
3

( = 0,72 / , = 1,0910

/ ).

20 = 1,010

/.

. u = const.
58

6.3. ,

h Q = 5000 3/,
3
Q = 100 / h = 136,0 . .
. Q Q
.
6.4. , 1/5
. ,
,

= 5 /, = 100 .
3

= 0,972 / ,

= 23,1310 6 2/.
= 20 ( =
3

= 998,2 / , = 1,00610

/).

p = 200 . .

, p.
6.5. l = 0,5 ,
0 = 20 ,
, = 800 .

, . 0 = 20 .

= 300 .
, .
:

= 65,8 /(), a = 2110-6 2/, = 120 /(2K).

59

= 15,1 /(), a = 6,3610-6 2/, = 100 /(2K).


(
l) t, , , t = 1
. .
6.6. ,
l ,
t = 5
.
6.7. d = 2R0 = 0,2 , 0 = 900 , ,

= 100 .

, 0 = 100 , = 20 .
, .
:

= 57,0 /(), a = 1510-6 2/, = 600 /(2K).


:

= 1,275 /(), a = 510-7 2/, = 10 /(2K).


d, t,

t = 3 ,
.

60

7.



. , ( ,
), :

T = 2T
t

(7.1)

t = 0, =

(T T ) = (

T
) ,

T T ,
, (

T
)

, . :

_
Sin( i ) Cos( i x )
=2
exp( i2 F o ) ,
i = 1 + Sin( ) Cos( )
i
i
i
_

T T
To T

(7.2)

_
; x = / -

,
; Fo =

at

, i -

ctg =
Bi =

.
Bi

(7.3)

61

(7.2) (7.3) ,
: , Bi, Fo:

_
= f ( x , Bi, Fo) .

(7.4)

, (7.2) (7.4), (
_

: = 0, : = / = 1).
, .
:

Sin( i )
exp( i2 F o )
= 1 i + Sin( i ) Cos( i )

= 2
_

(7.5)

= f1 ( Bi, Fo) ,

Sin( i ) Cos( i )
exp( i2 F o )
= 1 i + Sin( i ) Cos( i )

= 2
_

= f 2 ( Bi, Fo) .

(7.6)

( Bi, Fo) ( Bi, Fo) ,


(7.5) (7.6) . 7.1 7.2 .
:

Qt
Q

=2

Sin 2 ( i )

i = 1 2

+ Sin( i )Cos( i )

[1 exp( i2 F o ) ] , (7.7)

Q ( ,
t

)
t, a Qo
, :
62

Q = 2pS(o ).
, S , .
(7.7)
:

Qt
Q

= f ( Bi, F o ) .

, . 7.3.

.7.1.

(Bi << 1)
.
, (7.6) (7.5)
, Bi 0 , :
63


= cos 1 .

Bi 0 1 0, cos 1 1. ,
_


c . ,
_

0 < Bi 0,1 :
_

= exp( BiFo).

(7.8)

. 7.2.

=2

_
J 1 ( i ) J o ( i R )

i =1 J 2 ( )
i
i o

J 12 ( i )

exp( i2 F o )

(7.9)

J0 , J1 -

_
; R = R / R
o
64

, (RO).

. 7.3.

i J1() = Bi J ( ),
.

Ro
.
2

Ro
_
_
( R = 0) ( R = 1)

: Fo =

at

, Bi =

(7.9) :

= 2

J 1 ( i )

J o2 ( i ) + J 12 ( i )

exp( i2 F o ) ;

J 1 ( i ) J o ( i )

exp( i2 F o ) .

i =1

= 2

i =1

J o2 ( i ) + J 12 ( i )


l t :

J 12 ( i )
=4 2 2
[1 exp( i2 F o ) ] ,
2
Q
i = 1 i J o ( i ) + J 1 ( i )
0
Qt

65

Qo = CpRo l (To T)
.

= f1 ( Bi, Fo) , = f 2 ( Bi, Fo)

Qt
Q

= f ( Bi, Fo )

pc. 7.4, 7.5 7.6, .

. 7.4. ( )

-
, , , (7.1) :

( x, y , t ) = ( x, t ) ( y , t ) .

66

(7.10)

. 7.5.

. 7.6. ( )


, ,
:
67

( x, y , z , t ) = ( x, t ) ( y , t ) ( z , t ) .

(7.10 )

, . . , , :

( R , x , t ) = ( R , t ) ( x , t ).

(7.10 )

T ( x, t )
2T ( x, t )
=a
t
x 2
x=0 = T = const :
_

(7.11)
= erf (
),
2 t
_ T T
2 z

)=
=
; erf (
.
exp( z )dz z =
T T
2 t
0
2 t
; ,
, a erf (

) .
2 t

z . 7.1.

:

q =
b =

b
(T 0 ) ,
t

C p [/(2 1/2)].

t c:

Qt =

68

b(T T0 ) t .

(7.12)

7.1

z

erf (z)

erf(z)

erf (z)

erf (z)

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15

0.000 000
0.011283
0.022 565
0.033 841
0.045 111
0.056 372
0.067 622
0.078 858
0.090 078
0.101 281
0.112 463
0.123 623
0.134 738
0.145 867
0.156 947
0.167 996

0.60
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.64
0.65
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.70
0.71
0.72
0.73
0.74
0.75

0.603 856
0.611681
0.619 411
0.627 046
0.634 586
0.642 029
0.649 377
0.656 628
0.663 782
0.670 840
0.677 801
0.684 666
0.691 433
0.698 104
0.704 678
0.711 156

1.20
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
1.27
1.28
1.29
1.30
1.31
1.32
1.33
1.34
1.35

0.910 314
0.912 956
0.915 534
0.918 050
0.920 505
0.922 900
0.925 236
0.927 514
0.929 734
0.931 899
0.934 008
0.936 063
0.938 065
0.940 015
0.941914
0.943 762

1.80
1.81
1.82
1.83
1.84
1.85
1,86
1.87
1.88
1.89
1.90
1.91
1.92
1.93
1.94
1.95

0.989 091
0.989 525
0.989 943
0.990 347
0.990 736
0.991 111
0.991 472
0.991 821
0.992 156
0.992 479
0.992 790
0.993 090
0.993 378
0.993 656
0.993 923
0.994179

0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
0.30
0.31
0.32
0.33
0.34
0.35
0,36
0.37
0.38
0.39
0.40

0.179 012
0.189 992
0.200 936
0.211840
0.222 703
0.233 522
0.244 296
0.255 023
0.265 700
0.276 326
0.256 900
0.297 418
0.307 880
0.318 283
0.328 627
0.338 908
0.349 126
0.359 279
0.369 365
0.379 382
0.389 330
0.399 206
0.409 009
0.418 739
0.428 392

0.76
0.77
0.78
0.79
0.80
0.81
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.85
0.86
0.87
0.88
0.89
0.90
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1.00

0.717 537
0.723 822
0.730 010
0.736 103
0.742 101
0.748 003
0.753 811
0.759 524
0.765 143
0.770 668
0.776 100
0.781 440
0.786 687
0.791 843
0.796 908
0.801 883
0.806768
0.811564
0.816 271
0.820 891
0.825 424
0.829 870
0.834 232
0.838 508
0.842 701

1.36
1.37
1.38
1.39
1.40
1.41
1.42
1.43
1.44
1.45
1.46
1.47
1.48
1.49
1.50
1.51
1.52
1.53
1.54
1.55
1.56
1.57
1.58
1.59
1.60

0.945 561
0.947 312
0.949 016
0.950 673
0.952 285
0.953 852
0.955 376
0.956 857
0.958 297
0.959 695
0.961 054
0.962 373
0.963 654
0.961 898
0.966 105
0.967 277
0.968 413
0.969 516
0.970 586
0.971 623
0.972 628
0.973 603
0.974 547
0.975462
0.976 348

1.96
1.97
1.98
1.99
2.00
2.01
2.02
2.03
2.04
2.05
2.06
2.07
2.08
2.09
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18
2.19
2.20

0.994 426
0.994 664
0.994 892
0.995111
0.995 322
0.995 525
0.995 719
0.995 906
0.996 086
0.996 258
0.996 423
0.996 582
0.996 734
0.996 880
0.997 021
0.997 155
0.997 284
0.997 407
0.997 525
0.997 639
0.997 747
0.997 851
0.997 951
0.998 046
0.998 137
69

erf (z)

erf(z)

. 7.1
erf (z) z
erf (z)

0.41
0.42
0.43
0.44
0.45
.46
0.47
0.48
0.49
0.50
0.51
0.52
0.53
0.54
0.55
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.59

0.437 969
0.447 468
0.456 887
0.466 225
0.475 482
0.484 655
0.493 745
0.502 750
0.511668
0.520 500
0.529 244
0.537 899
0.546 464
0.554 939
0.563 323
0.571 616
0.579 816
0.587 923
0.595 936

1.01
1.02
1.03
1.04
1.05
1.06
1.07
1.08
1.09
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19

0.846 810
0.850 838
0.854 784
0.858 650
0.862 436
0.866 144
0.869773
0,873 326
0.876 803
0.880 205
0.883 533
0.886 788
0.889 971
0.893 082.
0.896 124
0.899 096
0.902 000
0.904 837
0.907 608

1.61
1.62
1.63
1.64
'.65
1.66
1.67
1.68
1.69
1.70
1.71
1.72
1.73
1.74
1.75
1.76
1.77
1.78
1.79

0,977
0.978
0.978
0.979
0.980
0.981
0.981
0.982
0.983
0.983
0.984
0.985
0.985
0.986
0.986
0.987
0.987
0.988
0.988

207
038
843
622
376
105
810
493
153
790
407
003
578
135
672
190
691
174
641

2.21
2.22
2.23
2.24
2.25
2.26
2.27
2.28
2.29
2.30
2.31
2.32
2.3 5
2.34
2.35
2.36
2.37
2.38
2.39

0.998 224
0.998 308
0.998 388
0.998 464
0,998 537
0.998 607
0.998 674
0.998 738
0.998 799
0.998 857
0.998 912
0.998 966
0.999 016
0.999 065
0.999111
0.999 155
0.999 197
0.999 237
0.999 275

ln Fo , :

ln = A B Fo .

(7.13)

a
ln

=
= m = 12 ,
t
t
l2
0

l0 .
Bi ,
1

1, max

, m

: m m.
, ( ):
70

m = 12, max

a
2

l0

.
k

(7.14)

k = (l0 / 1, max ) , .
k .
, (

1, max

; l0 = ):

) = 4( ) 2 ;
/2

(
= 2,405 ; l0 = R0):
1, max

k = (

k = ( R0 / 2,405) 2 = 0,173R02 ;
:

k = (R0 / ) 2 ;

l:

k =1 /[(2,405 / R0 ) 2 + ( / l ) 2 ] ;
l1, l2, l3:

k =1 /[( / l1 ) 2 + ( / l2 ) 2 + ( / l3 ) 2 ] .

. :

t =

ln

T1 T
T2 T

t = t2 t1 , -
1 2 .
, k
, m.

71


. ,


[. (7.11) ]:

_ C

=
= erf ( z ) = erf (
).
C0 C
2 Dt

(7.15)

[/(2)]
:

j x = 0 = ( C 0 )

D
.
t

,
t , (/2): J = 2( C 0 )

Dt
.


; 0
.

1. (25 % Cr, 20 % Ni),


2 = 40 , = 20 , = 1200 .

t = 15 .

6
= 12,7 /(), = 3,6010 2/.
=150 /(2).

.
:
72

Fo =

at

3,6 10

15 60

(2 10 )

2 2

= 8,1 ;

150 2 10 2
=
= 0,236 .
Bi =
_ 12,7
_
( Bi, Fo) ( Bi, Fo) , .

7.1 7.2, :

= 0,176 =

= 0,158 ,
0
0
= + ( ) = 1200 + 0,176(20 1200) = 850

= + ( ) = 1200 + 0,158(20 1200) = 886 .


2. 2R0 = 400 ,
= 800 ,
= 20 .
t,
= 300 .
, = 45,5 /(), = 502 /() = 7800 /3.

= 150 /(2).
.
,
:

45,5
6 2
=
=
= 11,6 10 / ;
502 7800

300 20

= 0,359 ;

0 800 20
R 150 0,2
Bi = 0 =
= 0,658 .

45,5

. 7.4 ,

Fo =

at
R02

= 0,8 .
73

R02
0,2 2 0,8
t=
Fo =
= 2760c = 46 .
a
11,610 6

3. , 2, , t = 46
.
Qt,
l = 1 .
.
_ , . 7.6, = f ( Bi, Fo ) , ,

1
Bi = 0,658 Fo = 0,8 :

= 0,46.

, = 0 + = 0,46(800 20 ) + 20 = 379 C.
Qt
Qt/Qo = f (Bi, Fo), . 7.5.

Qt/Qo 0,6.
Qo, 1
,
:

Qo = R02Cp T0 T = 3,14 0,2 2 7800 502(800 20 ) =


6

= 396 10 / = 396 10 /.
3

, Qt 0,6Qo = 0,6 396 10 = 238 10 / .


4. 2 = 20 ,
= 500 , , =
= 20 .
t,
, 1 %
.

: = 203 /(); = 8,3210 5 2/.

74

= 60 /(2).
.
:
60 0,01
3
Bi =
=
= 2,96 10 << 0,1.

203
Bi << 0,l ,
(7.8):

at
.
2

= exp( Bi Fo ) = exp Bi

t=

0,01 2,303 lg

20,2 2

ln
500 20 = 3190 = 53,2 .
=
5

3
a Bi
8,32 10 2,96 10

5. (18% , 8% Ni) 300 500 800 , = 20 , = 1200 .


t = 2
.

: = 16,0 /(); = 4,5710 6 2/.
= 160 /(2).
.

(7.10 ):
( x, y, z , t ) = ( x, t ) ( y, t ) ( z, t ),
,
:

= f1 (Bi x , Fo x );

y = f 2 (Bi y , Fo y );
z = f 3 (Bi z , Fo z ),

, . 7.2.

, , :

75

x 160 0,15
at 4,57 10 6 2 3600
Bi x =
= 1,5 Fo =
=
= 1,46 ,
2
x 2 =
16

0,15
x
= 0,28;
y 160 0,25
at 4,57 10 6 2 3600
=
=
= 0,527,
= 2,5 Fo y =
Bi y =
2
2
16

0,25
y

y = 0,6;
z 160 0,4
at 4,57 10 6 2 3600
=
=
= 0,206 ,
Bi z =
= 4,0 Fo z =
2

16
0,4
2z
z = 0,9.

(7.10 ),

= 0,28 0,6 0,9 = 0,151.

= 0 = 1200 0,151(1200 20 ) = 1022 o C.


6. , = 20


. ,
, = 1500 .
, ,
, = 10 t = 20 .
, : = 46,3 /(); = 478 /() = 7800 /3.
.
(7.11), :


x
= erf
.
0
2
at

46,3
6 2
=
= 12,4 10 /.
=
478 7800

76

z=

0,01
x
=
= 0,315.
2 at 2 12,4 10 6 20

,
, 0,344. ,


= 0,344.
0

= 0,344( 0 ) = 1500 0,344(1500 20 ) = 992 .


7. Qt
1 2 t = 20 .

.
:

b = C p = 46,3 478 7800 = 13,2 103 / 2 1 / 2 . .


(7.12),

3
2 13,2 10 (1500 20 ) 20
2
6
2
Qt =
b(T T0 ) t =
= 98,5 10 / .
3,14

8. 10 ,
1 = 200 , = 120 .
t, 2 =130 ,
. = 310 7 2/.
.
:
2

R 10
k = 0 = = 10 2 = 10 3 2 .

:

a 3 10 7
4
m=
=
= 3 10 1 / c.
3
k
10

t=

ln

T1 T

T2 T

1
3 10

ln
4

300 120
130 120

= 6940 c = 1,93 .

9. - 1600
3 % .
77

1
0,3 % . -
310 10 2/.
.

, (7.15), , :

C C

),
= erf (
C
2 Dt

erf (
) = 1
= 1 0,1 = 0,9 .
C
2 Dt

, 0,9
1,17 , ,

= 1,17.
2 Dt

, :

t=

x2
2

1,17 4 D

(10
2

3 2

1,17 4 3 10

10

= 608 c 10 .

7.1. 2 = 80 ,
= 20 , = 1000 .
t, , = 800 .

.
,
: = 40 /( ); = 445 /(); = 7800 /3.
= 120 /(2).
7.2. Qt, 1 2 , 7.1,
.
7.3. 7.1
t = 20
.
7.4. 2 = 200 , = 20 , = 1000 .
78


t = 1,5 .

: = 45,7 /( ); = 10,310 6 2/.
= 160 /(2).
7.5. 7.4,
t,
= 980 .

.
7.6. 2R0 = 300 ,
= 1000 ,
= 20 .
t = 0,5,
1, 2 3 .
,
= 48,5 /( ); = 511 /(); = 7860 /3.

= 150 /(2).
7.7. 7.6 , 1
.
7.8. 2R0 = 360 ,
= 20 , = 800 .

t = 1 .

: = 40 /( ); = 9,4 10 6 2/. = 120 /(2).
7.9. 7.8 t, = 780 .
.
7.10. t,
2 = 40 600 .
= 20 = 750 .

: = 395 /(); = 1,16410 4 2/.
79

= 60 /(2).
. Bi << 0,l,
: = exp ( BiFo).
7.11.
80 x 160 =1200 .
0 = 20 0. Tx = 0, y = 0

Tx = , y = 0 Tx = 0, y =

t = 25

.

: = 53,3 /(); =14,7 10 6 2/. = 160 /(2).
7.12. ,
Tx = , y = .
x

7.13. 160 x 240 x 800 ,


= 850 , , = 60 .
Tx = 0, y = 0, z = 0 30
.

: = 57 /(); = 15 10 6 2/. = 600 /(2).
7.14. ,
7.13, Tx = , y = 0, z = 0 ;
x

Tx = 0, y =

, z =0

Tx = 0, y = 0, z =

7.15. (95 % u, 5 % 1) 2R0 = 200 2 = 400 ,


= 20 ,
= 800 .
Tx = 0, R = 0 Tx =, R =0
t = 30 .

80


: = 82,5 /(); =23,3 10 6 2/. = 116 /(2).
7.16. 400 x
600 x 800 , = 1000 ,
, = 20 .
t = 1
.

: =144,5 /(); =11010 6 2/.
= 130 /(2).
7.17. ,
7.16, Tx = , y = 0, z = 0 ; Tx = 0, y = , z = 0
x

Tx = 0, y = 0, z =

7.18. , = 700 , = 20 .
,
= 200 t = 1
.
,
: = 48,5 /( ); = 511 /();
= 7860 /3.
7.19. ,
7.18, Qt, 1 2
, .
7.20. 7.18 ,
= 200 50 .
7.21. ,
= 20 , = 800 .
= 10
1 .
= 2,54 10 7 2/.
7.22. 7.21,
, t = 10
1 %
.
81

7.23.
Ro = 9,62
= 20 . o = 200 . :
= 0,26 /(), = 0,838 /(),
= 1300 /3.
7.24.
= 20 = 150 ,
.
t =145 .
: Ro = 4,81 , h = 31,4 . : = 60 /(),
= 0,419 /(), = 5320 /3.
7.25.
( Ro = 2,405 , h = 12,56 )
= 25 = 0 .
t
0,5. : =
= 0,12 /(), = 0,85 /(), = 1500 /3.
7.26.
m = 210 4 1/.
,
: =
= 0,25 /, = 0,84 /(), = 950 /3.
7.27. 2 = 2 = 0 .
,
12,8 400 300 .
.
= 1 /(), = 2700 /3.
7.28. Ro = 10 ,
, , , = 10 /(2).
Bi > 50, ,
. 420 15 /().
7.29. 1800 3,1410 11 2/.
82

, 1 2
, , 10 /3.
7.30. 1021 /3. 1300 .
, = 10
1018 /3.
7.31.
1100 .
= 4 ,
D = 710 17 2/,
, 1018 /3.
7.32. 1021 /3.
, 1 2 31,4 ,
1250 , D = 11014 2/.
1020 /3.
8.

( ) ().
, ,
( ).

() ()
:

q = (T T) ,

(8.1)
2

(), /( ); (c)

() ()
().
83

,
(8.1), .

,
, , (.
. 7).
, ,

(Nu):

Nu =

= f ( Re , Pr ) ,

(8.2)

; Re =

Pr =

; , , -

,
().
. , (
),
, :

Nu =
Gr =

g l 3

n
B Re

Pr
Prm Gr0,1
Pr

0, 25

, (8.3)

; -

( : =
84

1
);

.
0,1

Gr

.
. 8.1 , m .

8.1

, n m

()



(10 <R< 103)
(103 <R< 109)



0,66

0,5

0,33

0,037

0,8

0,43

0,15
0,021
0,5
0,25
0,23

0,33
0,8
0,5
0,6
0,65

0,43
0,43
0,38
0,38
0,33

0,41

0,6

0,33

(
)
:
Pr
Nu = A Gr Pr m
Pr

0,25

(8.4)

. 8.2

85

8.2

Grr

:
:

0,5

0,25

103<Grr<108

0,76
0,15

0,25
0,33

103< Grr<109
Grr >109

, Pr Pr , (8.3) (8.4)

Pr

Pr

0, 25

1,0.

1. l = 2 b = 1,0 ,
c = 50 ,
, = 3 /
= 10 . :

= 14,1610 6 2/; = 2,5110 2 /() a = 20,010 6 2/.



Q, 1 .
.
, :
14,16 10 6
Pr = =
= 0,708;
a 20,0 10 6

Re =

86

3 2
l
5
5
=
= 4,23 10 < Re = 510 .
14,16 10 6

Gr =

g l 3

9,8 1 / 283 40 2
5
=
= 7,83 10
6
14,16 10

,
.
(8.3):
2
1 / 2 0,43 0,1
2,51 10
= 0,66 Re Pr Gr = 0,66

l
2

4,23 105

)1/ 2 0,7080,43 (7,83 105 )0,1 = 70,06 / 2 .

, , 1 :

Q = (T T )2lb = 70,06 (50 10 ) 4 = 11,2 .

2. 3
10 . 20 .
.
.
.
Gr r:

Gr =

g l 3

9,81 10 3

293 15,06 10

6 2

10

= 3,98 10 ;

Pr = 0,701; Grr = 2,791010 .


. 8.2, .
:

Nu , = 0,15(Gr Pr )0,33 = 0,15 2,79 1010

0,33

= 423;

Nu 423 0,02593
=
= 3,66 / 2 .
3
h

3. 25 ,
. Tc = 104 ,
87

T = 22 .
, 1,5 .
.
:

Nu = 0,5(Gr Pr )0,25 .
, ,
:

Nu = 0,47Gr0,25 .
:

Gr =

g h 3

9,81 82 0,025

295 15,15 10

Gr0,25 = 1,86 105

)0,25 = 20,7 ;

6 2

= 1,86 10 ;

Nu = 0,47Gr0,25 = 0,47 20,7 = 9,74 ;


=

Nu
d

9,74 0,0261

= 10,17 / .

0,025
:

S=

1500
Q
2
=
= 1,8 .
10,17 82

1 :

s = 3,14 0,025 1 = 0,0785 2 .


:

L=

1,8
S
=
= 22,9 .
s 0,0785

4.
17 , c = 30 ,
= 60 . = 0,5 /.
88

.
:

Re =

l 0,5 0,017
=
= 17800 >> Re 2300.
0,478 10 6

,
:

Pr
Nu = 0,021 Re 0,8 Pr0, 43
Pr

= 60 : Pr = 2,98 = 65,9 10
Pr = 5,42.

Nu = 0,021 17800
=

Nu
d

0,8

(2,98)

0, 43

72,6 0,659
0,017

0, 25

/ , c = 30 :

2,98

5,42

0, 25

= 72,6 .
2

= 2810 / .

8.1. l = 1,5 b = 0,8 ,


= 4 /, T= 20 . = 60 .
Q .
20 :

= 15,06106 2/, = 2,5910 2 /(), a = 21,410 6 2/.


8.2. 8.1 ,
,
?
8.3. Q,
, , 8.1,
,

89

?
8.4. l = 1,2 = 2 /. = 10 .

= 50 . :
= 14,1610 6 2/; = 2,5110 2 /; a = 20,010 6 2/.
.
8.5. ,
2,5 10 ?
. ,
.
8.6. l = 2 b = 0,8
= 2 /. = 80 , T = 20 . :

T,

106, 2/

102, /()

a108, 2/

20
1,006
59,9
14,3
80
0,365
67,4
16,6

, Q, .
8.7. 76
4 , =
= 20 . c = 60 .
.
8.8.
100 25

c1 = 115 , = 15 .
,
c2 = 80 , ?
90

8.9. d = 70
, = 100 = 50 .
, = 4,5 /. = 0,0321 /(); = 23,1310 /. Pr = 0,71.
-6

8.10. d1 = 50 = 0,8 / = 50 .
c = 65 . Pr = 3,28.
1 .
8.11. , 25 ,

= 20 = 5 /.
8.12. 10 = 0,75 /. = 80 .
c = 50 .
.

91


1. : / .. , ..
, .. , .. . .: - , 1976. 87 .
2. .., .., .. . .: - , 1997. 135 .
3.
/ .. , .. , .. .; . ..
.. . .: . ., 1986.
4. .., .. . .:
, 1980.
5. / .. , .. .;
. .. . : ., 1975. 298 .
6. / .. ,
.. , .. , .. . .: . ., 1972.
304 .
7. .., ..
. .: , 1972.
8. / .. , ..
, .. .; . .. ..
. .: , 1972. 472 .

92


..3
1. - ....4
2. ..................15
3. ...23
4. 36
5. 42
6. ...53
7. ...61
8. 83
.92

93

. .
. .
-

. .

. 2007 .
020593 07.08.97

005 - 93, . 2; 95 3005
_____________________________________________________________________

.
60x84/16.
. . .
. .-. .
.
. 133
.
_____________________________________________________________________
- .
,
- .
:
195251, -, ., . 29.

94

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